Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Serranidae: [ 1186 ] records


abdominalis, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:430 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique at 15°S, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32501 (skeleton). Also described as new in Peters 1855:237 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aberrans, Hypoplectrus Poey [F.] 1868:291 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •See Aguilar-Perera & González-Salas 2010:377 [ref. 30878]. •Valid as Hypoplectrus aberrans Poey 1868 -- (Cervigón 1992:435 [ref. 23827], Domeier 1994:104 [ref. 21359], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1365 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Lobel 2011:11 [ref. 31606], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860], Victor 2012:15 [ref. 32153], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus aberrans Poey 1868. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aberrans, Perca Poey [F.] 1860:125, Pl. 12 (figs. 2-3) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Published July 1860. •Valid as Liopropoma aberrans (Poey 1860) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:2 [ref. 6429], Cervigón 1992:434 [ref. 23827], Heemstra et al. 2003:1326 [ref. 27060], Wirtz & Schliewen 2012:151 [ref. 32169], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Baldwin & Johnson 2014:7 [ref. 33312], Baldwin & Robertson 2014:75 [ref. 33311]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma aberrans (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

acanthistius, Bodianus Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:552 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Near Cape Lobos on eastern shore of Gulf of California, Mexico, 29°54'30"N, 113°01'W, Albatross station 3017, depth 58 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM. •Valid as Cephalopholis acanthistius (Gilbert 1892) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1993:84 [ref. 21807]). •Valid as Epinephelus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892) -- (Lea & Fukuhara 1991 [ref. 21795], Heemstra & Randall 1993:102 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1590 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:283 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:353 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:83 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807]). •Valid as Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:263 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus acanthistius (Gilbert 1892). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) to central Peru. Habitat: marine.

acanthophorus, Serranus Bocourt [F.] 1868:223 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 10; ref. 14069] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4935. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Steindachner 1868). Current status: Synonym of Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Steindachner 1868). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

accensum, Plectropoma Poey [F.] 1852:72, 75 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Published Apr. 1852. •Synonym of Hypoplectrus guttavarius (Poey 1852) -- (Domeier 1994:105 [ref. 21359]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoplectrus guttavarius (Poey 1852). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

accraensis, Neanthias Norman [J. R.] 1931:354, Fig. 2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 7 (no. 40); ref. 3220] Accra, Ghana, western Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1930.8.26.28. •Valid as Serranus accraensis (Norman 1931) -- (Smith 1990:703 [ref. 18227], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Wirtz & Iwamoto 2016:192 [ref. 34418], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2406 [ref. 34618], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:4 [ref. 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus accraensis (Norman 1931). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

aculeatum, Plectropoma Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:523 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] "Banc des Aiguilles" [not Agulhas Bank, southern Africa]; actual is almost certainly Brazil. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7675. Type catalog and locality information: Bauchot et al. 1984:20 [ref. 19232]. See Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720] for recent remarks on the type locality. •Synonym of Acanthistius brasilianus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthistius brasilianus (Cuvier 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

acutirostris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:286 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7329 (1), MNHN [Bauchot's holotype] not found. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232] as holotype and paratype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:787 [ref. 13676], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:33 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1353 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:165 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:291 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, western Gulf of Mexico, Cuba to Leeward Islands, southern Caribbean; population off southern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

addisi, Naurua Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:348, Fig. 4 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 89) (art. 42); ref. 4097] Aldabra Island, western Indian Ocean, 9°30'S, 46°15'E. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 161. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (3, not researched) •Valid as Luzonichthys addisi (Smith 1955) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:513 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Luzonichthys waitei (Fowler 1931) -- (Randall & McCosker 1992:14 [ref. 20204]). Current status: Synonym of Luzonichthys waitei (Fowler 1931). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

adriaticus, Holocentrus Nardo [G. D.] 1827:31, 38 (no. 107) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 480 and 486 [ref. 19740]. Perhaps not intended as a new name but a new combination for Labrus adriaticus of authors. •Synonym of Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:356 [ref. 7192], Smith 1990:705 [ref. 18227], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:13 [ref. 36189]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

adriaticus, Labrus Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1297 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Based on Labrus no. 11 of Brünnich 1768:98 [ref. 17290]. •Synonym of Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

adscensionis, Trachinus Osbeck [P.] 1765:388 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] Ascension Island, southeastern Atlantic. No types known. Spelled ascensionis by Bonnaterre 1788:46 [ref. 4940]. See also Trachinus osbeck Lacepède 1800, an unnecessary replacement name. •Valid as Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:635 [ref. 9166], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Bullock & Smith 1991:82 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:329 [ref. 24472], Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:427 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:18 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:206 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Thomson et al. 2000:87 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Heemstra et al. 2003:1339 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:142 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:71 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2387 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37097], Brown et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean and south to Brazil; southrn central Atlantic: Saint Helena and Ascension islands; eastern Atlantic: islands in Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

aegyptiaca, Perca Hasselquist [F.] 1762:401 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] [Damiatae] Domyät, Egypt, Mediterranean Sea. Not available, published in a rejected work (ICZN, Opinion 57). Based on Hasselquist 1757:356 [ref. 30181] (also a rejected work in ICZN Opinion 57). Serranidae.

aeneus, Serranus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 21 (figs. 3-4) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7326. Paratypes: MNHN 0000-6227 (1), B.3116 [ex MNHN 0000-7326] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. Species name misspelled oeneus by Gruvel & Bouyat 1906:152, Pl. 11, fig. 29 [ref. 30367]. •Valid as Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Tortonese 1973:358 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:783 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:697 [ref. 18227], Smith 1990:697 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:20 [ref. 19323], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590], Heemstra & Randall 1993:104 [ref. 21042], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Glamuzina et al. 2000:306 [ref. 25058], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:35 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:41 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:73 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation, Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516] needs confirmation, Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2388 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Martins & Carneiro 2018:123 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Morocco south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and islands of the Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

aequidens, Serranus Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:61 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, 24°30'15"N, 110°29'W, Albatross station 2996, depth 112 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 44277. •Valid as Serranus aequidens Gilbert 1890 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1993:83 [ref. 21807], Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:74 [ref. 25640], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:165 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:812 [ref. 33030], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Kells et al. 2016:350 [ref. 35888], Robertson et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35676], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus aequidens Gilbert 1890. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) and Gulf of California south to Panama, including Cocos and Galápagos islands. Habitat: marine.

afer, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:12, Pl. 327 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Guinea, West Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMB 143. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 10 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Treated as Plectropoma afrum by Günther 1868:411 [ref. 1994]. See Craig et al. 2006:327 [ref. 29772] for locality information. •Valid as Epinephelus afer Bloch 1793 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:131 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:321 [ref. 24472]). •Valid as Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Cervigón 1992:425 [ref. 23827], Grace et al. 1994:11 [ref. 25512], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:314 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:203 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1329 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:128 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2006:328 [ref. 29772], Wirtz et al. 2007:8, 29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:4 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2378 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Florida south to Uruguay; Eastern Atlantic: ?Guinea and Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

affine, Plectropoma Poey [F.] 1861:427 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Hypoplectrus chlorurus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Domeier 1994:105 [ref. 21359]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoplectrus chlorurus (Cuvier 1828). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Caprodon Tanaka [S.] 1924:611, Pl. 148 (fig. 408) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 33; ref. 14916] Tokyo market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 11755. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:11 [ref. 36146]. •Status uncertain, in Caprodon -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:23 [ref. 31956]). •Valid as Caprodon affinis -- (Anderson 2018:11 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Caprodon affinis Tanaka 1924. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Franzia Tanaka [S.] 1915:566 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 27 (no. 325); ref. 4324] Nagasaki fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 6579. •Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

africana, Chelidoperca Cadenat [J.] 1960:1395 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 18228] Coast of Benin [Dahomey] - Nigeria, depth 50 fathoms. Syntypes: IFAN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:40 [ref. 19232]. Based on literature sources and specimens. •Valid as Serranus africanus (Cadenat 1960) -- (Smith 1990:704 [ref. 18227], Wirtz & Iwamoto 2016:192 [ref. 34418], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2407 [ref. 34618], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[2] [ref. 35700]). •Valid as Chelidoperca africana Cadenat 1960 -- (Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:30 [ref. 36189]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca africana Cadenat 1960. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola. Habitat: marine.

africanum, Chorististium Smith [J. L. B.] 1954:866, Fig 1; Pl. 27 (fig. B) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 7 (no. 83) (art. 106); ref. 4094] Tekomaji Island, Mozambique, 10°50'S, 40°40'E. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 155. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 842-844 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Liopropoma africanum (Smith 1954) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:28 [ref. 6429], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251] as africana, Randall & Kunzmann 1998:480 [ref. 23919], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:91 [ref. 30492], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma africanum (Smith 1954). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa and Madagascar east to Andaman Sea and Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

agassizii, Cratinus Steindachner [F.] 1878:395 [19] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 78 (1. Abth.); ref. 4226] Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: (several) ?MCZ 9801 (3), 9803 (1), 25738 (1); NMW 39649 (1), 42523 (1), 42526 (1). On p. 19 of separate. •Valid as Cratinus agassizii Steindachner 1878 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:107 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:314 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:356 [ref. 24555], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Cratinus agassizii Steindachner 1878. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aguaji, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1867:229 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

ahiahiata, Plectranthias Shepherd [B.], Phelps [T.], Pinheiro [H. T.], Pérez-Matus [A.] & Rocha [L. A.] 2018:107, Figs. 1-3 [ZooKeys No. 762; ref. 35955] Hanga Piko, Rapa Nui, Chile, 27°9'12"S, 109°26'52"W, depth 83 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 244172. •Valid as Plectranthias ahiahiata Shepherd, Phelps, Pinheiro, Pérez-Matus & Rocha 2018. Current status: Valid as Plectranthias ahiahiata Shepherd, Phelps, Pinheiro, Pérez-Matus & Rocha 2018. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile. Habitat: marine.

aitha, Cephalopholis Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:29, Pl. 1c, Fig. 5 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Tripod Reef, lagoon off Nagada Harbor, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, depth 30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 32655. Paratypes: AMS I.28525-001 (1); BMNH 1989.2.3.1 (1); BPBM 32223 (1), 32229 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 29158 [ex USNM 236462] (1); USNM 236456 (1), 274684 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis aitha Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:33 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Craig et al. 2011:12 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:260 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33932], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:111 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis aitha Randall & Heemstra 1991. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

akaara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan, Lectotype: RMNH D85 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D82 (1), D83 (1), D84 (1); ZMB 5218 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Originally as aka-ara. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:26 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:35 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2485 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:79 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Shimizu 2001:28 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Craig et al. 2011:75 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

alatus, Serranus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:264, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Hall Sound, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16323-001 [ex MAMU F482]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

albimaculatus, Epinephelus Seale [A.] 1910:509, Pl. 8 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Butuan Bay, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 1908 (apparently destroyed). Originally misspelled as albimuculatus in text, correct spelling in figure caption and plate. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

albimarginata, Variola Baissac [J. de B.] 1953:214 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Mauritius v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 12639] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NHMI [Mus. Port Louis, Mauritius Inst.] (lost). Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:209 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Variola albimarginata Baissac 1953 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:126 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:536 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:501 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:62 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:119 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:303 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:247 [ref. 27969], Randall et al. 1997:119 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:208 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2538 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:709 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:709 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830] as albomarginata, dated 1952, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:56 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624] as albomarginata, Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:167 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:120 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1024 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:49 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2010:101 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:352 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:285 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:65 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:126 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Variola albimarginata Baissac 1953. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

albofasciatus, Anthias Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1930:309 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 10; ref. 1477] China Sea southeast of Hong Kong, Albatross station D.5308, 21°54'N, 115°42'E, depth 62 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 89988. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:35 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias albofasciatus (Fowler & Bean 1930) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Anderson 2018:35 [ref. 36146]). •Synonym of Tosana niwae Smith & Pope 1906 -- (Gill et al. 2019:573 [ref. 36768]). Current status: Synonym of Tosana niwae Smith & Pope 1906. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

albofuscus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:340, 384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] East Indies. No types known. Originally albo-fuscus, correction mandatory. New name for Holocentrus maculatus Bloch. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

alboguttatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:366 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-6406. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] and Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] as caeruleopunctatus). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

albomaculatus, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:3, Pl. 2 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1917.7.25.6 (left half skin attached to wood). Originally albo-maculatus, correction mandatory. •Valid as Paralabrax albomaculatus (Jenyns 1840) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:113 [ref. 22193], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:326 [ref. 24023], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:164 [ref. 25813], Pondella et al. 2003:182 [ref. 29770], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax albomaculatus (Jenyns 1840). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

albomarginatus, Cephalopholis Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1930:235, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 10; ref. 1477] Danawan Island, vicinity of Sibuko Bay, Borneo [Sabah, Malaysia, ca. 4°18'28 N, 118°51'56 E]. Holotype: USNM 89985. Paratypes: USNM 99780 (2), 149319 (1), 183851-58 (1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1), 183860 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis albomarginatus Fowler & Bean 1930 -- (Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Gracila albomarginata (Fowler & Bean 1930) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:534 [ref. 5667], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:13 [ref. 9299], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442] as albomarginatus, Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:59 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:116 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:286 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:254 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:102 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:116 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:201 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2530 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:710 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:190 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:710 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:164 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:348 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:260 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:281 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35490] as Gracilla, Fricke et al. 2019:120 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Gracila albomarginata (Fowler & Bean 1930). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Aldabra, Mozambique Channel and western Mascarenes east to northern Line and Tuamotu islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

albomarginatus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:65, Pl. 4 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.2.6.2 (1), 1903.2.6.3 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus albomarginatus Boulenger 1903 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:522 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:94 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:108 [ref. 21042], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:78 [ref. 31786]). •Valid as Mycteroperca albomarginata (Boulenger 1903) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as albomarginatus). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus albomarginatus Boulenger 1903. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique and Kwa-Zulu-Natal and Cape Provinces, South Africa. Habitat: marine.

albopunctulatus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:234, Pl. 9 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 2nd edition v. 1; ref. 537] Nuka Hiva, Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1978.2.1.1. •Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:174 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:169 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2504 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

alcocki, Plectranthias Bineesh [K. K.], Gopalakrishnan [A.] & Jena [J. K.] in Bineesh, Akhilesh, Gopalakrishnan & Jena 2014:492, Figs. 2-4 [Zootaxa 3785 (no. 3); ref. 33319] Off Kollam, Kerala coast, India, southeastern Arabian Sea, depth 180-320 meters. Holotype: CMFRIGB 31.139.30.10. Paratypes: CMFRIGB 31.139.20.10.1 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias alcocki Bineesh, Gopalakrishnan & Jena 2014 -- (Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Gill & Psomadakis 2018:531 [ref. 36054], Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias alcocki Bineesh, Gopalakrishnan & Jena 2014. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Kerala (India). Habitat: marine.

aldabrensis, Dermatolepis Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:311, Pl. 3 (fig. B) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 88) (art. 38); ref. 4096] Aldabra Island, western Indian Ocean, depth 5-10 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 429 (head, skin, fins). Paratypes: (3) not researched. •Synonym of Dermatolepis striolatus (Playfair 1867) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:520 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:76 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:68 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

alexandrinus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:281 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7325. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:784 [ref. 13676], Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

algeriensis, Aylopon Guichenot [A.] 1868:84 [5] [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 10; ref. 1936] Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4318 (4). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:10 [ref. 19232]. On p. 5 of separate. •Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:69 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

aliceae, Serranus Carvalho Filho [A.] & Ferreira [C. E. L.] 2013:810, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 33030] Rio de Janeiro, Arraial do Cabo, Ilha de Cabo Frio, Saco dos Ingleses, 23°00’25"S, 42°00’19"W, Brazil, depth 30 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 38911. Paratypes: CIUFES 2368 (1), 2370 (2); MNRJ 38912 (1), 38913 (2); MZUSP 109159 (2); ZUEC 6354 (1), 6355 (1), 6356 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Serranus aliceae Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013 -- (Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus aliceae Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Brazil (between 8°N and 28°S). Habitat: marine.

alleni, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:113, Fig. 2 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Off southwestern Western Australia, 29°09'S, 113°55'E, depth 103 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25625-001. Paratypes: AMS I.20125-001 (1); ANSP 136750 (1); BMNH 1978.2.27 (3); BPBM 21093-96 (2, 2, 7, 1); CAS 40799 (1); MNHN 1978-0082 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 933 (1); USNM 218368 (3); WAM P.23309-001 (1), P.23322-001 (1), P.23323-001 (1), P.23325-001 to P.23330-001 (10), 23334-001 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:18 [ref. 19232], Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621], Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias alleni Randall 1980 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:506 [ref. 12442], Randall 1996:117 [ref. 23194], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:989 [ref. 29078], Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias alleni Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: southern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

allfreei, Aporops Smith [J. L. B.] 1953:553, Fig. 2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 6 (no. 67) (art. 50); ref. 4086] Kisiti Island, Kenya, 4°43'S, 39°23'E, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 128. Paratypes: (1) not researched. •Valid as Aporops allfreei Smith 1953 -- (Smith 1986:541 [ref. 5712], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251]). •Synonym of Aporops bilinearis Schultz 1943 -- (Randall & Baldwin 1997:10 [ref. 22812]). Current status: Synonym of Aporops bilinearis Schultz 1943. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

alternatus, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:9 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

altipinnatus, Plectranthias Katayama [M.] & Masuda [H.] 1980:185, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 8708] Izu Peninsula, Japan, depth 40 meters. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 54242. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias altipinnatus Katayama & Masuda 1980 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:134 [ref. 6441], Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441], Randall 1996:120 [ref. 23194], Nakabo 2000:695 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:695 [ref. 26001], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias altipinnatus Katayama & Masuda 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

altipinnis, Rabaulichthys Allen [G. R.] 1984:48, Fig. 1 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 6242] Off Nordup Village, about 4 kilometers east of Rabaul, New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago, about 4°11'S, 152°12'E, depth 35 meters. Holotype: WAM P.28179-001. Paratypes: KFRS F.5365.01 (2), WAM P.28180-001 (3). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:20 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:21 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:49 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Rabaulichthys altipinnis Allen 1984 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Masuda & Randall 2001:77 [ref. 25247], Randall & Walsh 2010:205 [ref. 31598], Allen & Erdmann 2012:303 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:49 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Rabaulichthys altipinnis Allen 1984. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: West Papua (Indonesia), Papua New Guinea and Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

altivelioides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:38 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. •Synonym of Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:125 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:132 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

altivelis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:324, Pl. 35 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia, and unknown locality. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7174 (1, dry) no locality, RMNH (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. •Valid as Epinephelus altivelis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Cromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes 1828) [genus both as Chromileptes and Cromileptes in current literature] -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:519 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442] with genus as Chromileptes, Lee 1990:32 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:105 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:73 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:63 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:129 [ref. 23929] with genus as Chromileptes, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:232 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:52 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:354 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:105 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2484 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086] with genus as Chromileptes, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:180 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:78 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001] with genus as Chromileptes, Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:51 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:153 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:345 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1007 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242] with genus as Cromileptes, Craig et al. 2011:62 [ref. 31786] with genus as Cromileptes, Allen & Erdmann 2012:267 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673] as Cromileptes a.). Current status: Valid as Chromileptes altivelis (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Andaman Sea east to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Hawaiian records probably are based on released aquarium fish. Habitat: marine.

altus, Anthias Smith [J. L. B.] 1961:363, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 21; ref. 18464] Off Lamu, Kenya, depth 43 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 170. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 957 (1). •Valid as Anthias altus Smith 1961 -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Synonym of Pseudanthias cooperi (Regan 1902) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:138 [ref. 32094]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias cooperi (Regan 1902). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

amarui, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Fowler 1949:84 [ref. 1462]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

amblycephalus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1857:32 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5159. •Valid as Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:222 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:170 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:36 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:95 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:109 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:232 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:44 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2486 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2007:49 [ref. 29493], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:86 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:80 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Tucker et al. 2016:661 [ref. 34684], Motomura et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker 1857). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Andaman Sea east to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1852:258 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5466. •Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:284 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:250 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2529 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

amoenus, Rosanthias Tanaka [S.] 1917:198 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 345); ref. 4330] Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8468 (lost). Species originally spelled amaenus due to a typesetting error when first published in Japanese in above reference, spelling corrected to amoenus when later illustrated and described in more detail in English and Japanese in Tanaka 1918:503, Pl. 136 (fig. 379) [ref. 6073]. •Synonym of Pseudanthias elongatus (Franz 1910) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias elongatus (Franz 1910). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

analis, Selenanthias Tanaka [S.] 1918:516, Pl. 138 (fig. 385) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 29; ref. 4331] Tokyo fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8458. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:51 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Selenanthias analis Tanaka 1918 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:133 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:465, 666 [ref. 8056], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:507 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:21 [ref. 19830], Randall 1995:47 [ref. 22074], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2471 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:696 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:696 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:431 [ref. 28370], Allen et al. 2006:996 [ref. 29078], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Anderson 2018:51 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2019:126 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Selenanthias analis Tanaka 1918. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Philippines north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

analis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:307 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] New Ireland Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7269. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis analis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:26 [ref. 19830]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

analogus, Epinephelus Gill [T. N.] 1863:163 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America. Holotype (unique): USNM 4944. Type catalog: Smith 2018:74 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:197 [ref. 9277], Heemstra & Randall 1993:110 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1591 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:317 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:359 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Thomson et al. 2000:87 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:82 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Knuden & Clements 2016:261 [ref. 34458], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including offshore islands and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:66, Pl. 5 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1903.2.6.4. •Valid as Epinephelus andersoni Boulenger 1903 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:522 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:96 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:111 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:83 [ref. 31786], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805]). •Valid as Mycteroperca andersoni (Boulenger 1903) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus andersoni Boulenger 1903. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic off South Africa; western Indian Ocean from South Africa to Mozambique and Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angularis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:353 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7280 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus angularis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

angustifrons, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1864:230, Pl. 7 (figs. 2-3) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 14; ref. 13938] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

annepatrice, Tosanoides Pyle [R. L.], Greene [B. D.], Copus [J. M.] & Randall [J. E.] 2018:141, Figs. 1-5 [ZooKeys No. 786; ref. 36180] Ngaruangl Atoll, Kayangel State, Republic of Palau, 8.14733°N, 134.61763°E, depth 115 meters. Holotype: BPBM 40848. Paratypes: BPBM, CAS, USNM. In Table I with incorrect holotype number. •Valid as Tosanoides annepatrice Pyle, Greene, Copus & Randall 2018 -- (Allen & Walsh 2019:33 [ref. 36524]). Current status: Valid as Tosanoides annepatrice Pyle, Greene, Copus & Randall 2018. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Ngaruangl Atoll, Micronesia, tropical western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Centropristis Günther [A.] 1880:6, Pl. 1 (fig. C) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Off Pernambuco, Brazil, Challenger station 122, depth 30 or 350 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.181. •Valid as Serranus annularis (Günther 1880) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:138 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:64 [ref. 36591], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:219 [ref. 25013], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:183 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:809 [ref. 33030], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus annularis (Günther 1880). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Georgia (U.S.A.) south to Brazil, including Bermuda and northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

annularis, Mesoprion Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 10) published in 1827. Described in the same year as Mesopiron annularis Cuvier 1828 in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828 [ref. 997]. •Synonym of Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum 1792) -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum 1792). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

annulatum, Plectropoma Günther [A.] 1859:158 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.174. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:15 [ref. 36146]. Also listed was Plate XI. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Ellerkeldia annulata (Günther 1859) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:504 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Hypoplectrodes annulatus (Günther 1859) -- (Kuiter 1993:135 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:536 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:112 [ref. 25488], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Allen et al. 2006:985 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:543 [ref. 30641], Anderson 2018:15 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrodes annulatus (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Habitat: marine.

anthiam, Labrum Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein (ex Banks) 1844:155 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] No types known. Name only, apparently intended for Labrus anthias Linnaeus (see index on p. 420) and not an independent species description. Name in a list of species observed by J. Banks in Otahaitee [Tahiti] during the previous expedition. Not available. •Uncertain in genus Pseudanthias Bleeker 1871. Serranidae: Anthiadinae.

anthias, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:282 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Southern Europe [Mediterranean Sea]. No types known. Based on multiple sources, including the "Labrus totus rubescens ..." of Artedi 1738:54 [ref. 30349], which is based on multiple pre-Linnaean sources from Greece, Italy and France (Mediterranean Sea), and on the "Anthea quartus Rondeletii" of Catesby 1743:25, Pl. 25 [ref. 774] from the Bahamas; currently restricted to the eastern Atlantic species. Misspelled antias by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:6 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:180 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:356 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:781 [ref. 13676], Maugé 1990:707 [ref. 17126], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:155 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:80 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:79 [ref. 24952], Uiblein et al. 1999:65 [ref. 24045], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:371 [ref. 24574], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:35 [ref. 37112], Anderson 2006:415 [ref. 28870], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:41 [ref. 36649], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:69 [ref. 31956], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2380 [ref. 34618], Anderson et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:7 [ref. 36146], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37097], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Namibia, including Madeira, Azores, Cape Verde Islands, São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

anthioides, Plectropoma Günther [A.] 1872:655 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1871.7.20.49. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias anthioides (Günther 1872) -- (Randall 1980:116 [ref. 6717], Randall 1996:118 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias anthioides (Günther 1872). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Sulawesi (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

aphrodite, Tosanoides Pinheiro [H. T.], Rocha [C.] & Rocha [L. A.] 2018:108, Figs. 1-4 [ZooKeys No. 786; ref. 36158] Saint Paul Rocks, Brazil, 00°56'N, 029°22'W, depth 120 meters. Holotype: CIUFES 3444. Paratypes: BPBM, CAS, MZUSP, USNM, ZUEC. •Valid as Tosanoides aphrodite Pinheiro, Rocha & Rocha 2018 -- (Allen & Walsh 2019:33 [ref. 36524]). Current status: Valid as Tosanoides aphrodite Pinheiro, Rocha & Rocha 2018. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Saint Paul Rocks, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

apiarius, Prospinus Poey [F.] 1962:55, Pl. 47 (fig. P) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 26395] Posthumous publication. •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Poey 2000:903 [ref. 26366]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

apiarius, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:143 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 9998 (1), 10068 (1, missing), 10158 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:189-190 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

apiomycter, Anatolanthias Anderson [W. D., Jr.], Parin [N. V.] & Randall [J. E.] 1990:924, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 103 (no. 4); ref. 15469] Southeastern Pacific, Nazca Ridge, 25°41.7'S, 85°23.7'W, depth 160-168 meters. Holotype: USNM 309202. Paratypes: ZIN 49471 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:7 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anatolanthias apiomycter Anderson, Parin & Randall 1990 -- (Pequeño 1997:83 [ref. 23536], Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:176 [ref. 23775], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:379 [ref. 24574], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:120 [ref. 31956], Anderson 2018:7 [ref. 36146], Shepherd et al. 2019:25 [ref. 36755]). Current status: Valid as Anatolanthias apiomycter Anderson, Parin & Randall 1990. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Nazca Ridge. Habitat: marine.

aplodactylus, Anthias Bleeker [P.] 1858:3 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 3 (art. 14); ref. 13958] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands (Maluku), Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5457. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:12 [ref. 36146]. The spelling haplodactylus is an unjustified emendation of Dactylanthias aplodactylus Bleeker 1871 by Boulenger 1893. •Valid as Dactylanthias aplodactylus (Bleeker 1858) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815] as haplodactylus, Randall 2007:83 [ref. 28979], Anderson 2018:12 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Dactylanthias aplodactylus (Bleeker 1858). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

apua, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:50, Pl. 229 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Brazil. No types known. On p. 37 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

ara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Unjustified emendation of Serranus ura Valenciennes 1828. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:275 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:244 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

aragai, Liopropoma Randall [J. E.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1988:20, Pl. 4D [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 16; ref. 6429] Off Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, about 100 meters. Holotype (unique): SMBL 73181 [not seen at FAKU]. •Valid as Liopropoma aragai Randall & Taylor 1988 -- (Lee 1990:65 [ref. 19830], Nakabo 2000:729 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:729 [ref. 26001], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma aragai Randall & Taylor 1988. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

arara, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0885 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232], with MNHN 885 as holotype. Based in part on the 'Bonací arará' of Parra 1787:30, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

arara, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:132 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus arara Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

arcuarium, Diplectrum Ginsburg [I.] 1948:268 [Copeia 1948 (no. 4); ref. 13054] Off Breton Sound, Louisiana, U.S.A., 29°29'30"N, 88°41'W, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 144213. Paratypes: (37) CAS-SU 50185 (1); USNM 118535 (18, now 11), 118536 (1), 129817 (1), 144213-16 (1, 1, 9, 1), 155173-77 (1, 1, 2, 2, 2). Appeared as "Diplectrum arcuarium, new subspecies," but the author states, "...Therefore, for nomenclatural purposes, the Gulf population is tentatively treated as though it were a full species." •Synonym of Diplectrum bivittatum (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Bortone 1977:22 [ref. 7064], Bullock & Smith 1991:46 [ref. 36591]). Current status: Synonym of Diplectrum bivittatum (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

ardens, Franzia Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:251, Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 57509 [ex CM 6451]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:92 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:36 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

arenatus, Rypticus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:65, Pl. 46 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:44 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Rypticus bistrispinus (Mitchill 1818) -- (Courtenay 1967:263 [ref. 7882]). Current status: Synonym of Rypticus bistrispinus (Mitchill 1818). Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

areolata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xi, 42 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Possible holotype: ZMUC P43570 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588] not definitely referred ZMUC P43570 as holotype due to confusion of some labels in Forsskål's collection. As Perca summana var. areolata on p. xi, and as "[PERCA summana] (c) Perca areolata" on p. 42. Possible type figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965: Pl. 10 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:208 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:175 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:36 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:105 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:306 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:233 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:105 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2487 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:80 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:51 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:86 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:85 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:267 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Motomura et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

areolatum, Plectropoma Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:index p. 2, footnote [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 3013. Non-types: SMF 4503 (1). Lectotype (SMF 3013) designated by Randall & Hoese 1986:9 [ref. 6009] but evidently Rüppell had only one specimen and that is the holotype (pers. comm. Uwe Zajonz, SMF). •Valid as Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:534 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:9 [ref. 6009], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:116 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:291 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:289 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:116 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2531 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:708 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:708 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1021 [ref. 28999], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:92 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:331 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:282 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:63 [ref. 33932], Golani & Fricke 2018:65 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus areolatus (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Socotra east to Phoenix Islands and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

argentinus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:73, Pl. 235 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): ZMB 127. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 55 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

argus, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1792:111, Pl. 317 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Not available, on Official Index (Opinion 1439). On p. 95 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]; unknown locality. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

argus, Cephalopholis Schneider [J. G.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:311, Pl. 61 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] In India orientali [Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 220. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:134 [ref. 24282] with a holotype. Fricke 1999:175 [ref. 24106] indicates possible syntypes; if so then a lectotype was established by Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757]. Author given as 'Schn.' for Schneider on p. 312. On the Official List (Opinion 1439). •Valid as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 (authorship often given as Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:160 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:516 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:26 [ref. 19830], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:100 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:226 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:41 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:175 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2476 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:710 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:177 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:76 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:710 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:47 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:162 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:148 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Randall 2007:196 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:83 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:95 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:14 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:260 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:317 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:144 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:111 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands and Pitcairn Group and French Polynesia, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island; introduced to Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

argus, Holocentrus Spinola [M.] 1807:372 [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10; ref. 18741] Gulf of Genoa, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:356 [ref. 7192], Smith 1990:706 [ref. 18227], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:27 [ref. 36189]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

armatus, Serranus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:7 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Swan River, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. Originally as Serranus? armatus. •Valid as Epinephelides armatus (Castelnau 1875) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:505 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:533 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:985 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:540 [ref. 30641], Anderson 2018:13 [ref. 36146], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelides armatus (Castelnau 1875). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

armatus, Serranus Osório [B.] 1893:174 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa (Ser. 2) v. 3 (no. 11); ref. 20571] São Tomé Island, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: MB (lost in fire in 1978). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus armatus Castelnau 1875. •Questionably a synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Craig et al. 2006:329 [ref. 29772], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2378 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

asperilinguis, Anthias Günther [A.] 1859:89 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] South America. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1974.10.4.1. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:7 [ref. 36146]. Also listed was Plate VIII, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Anthias asperilinguis Günther 1859 -- (Anderson & Heemstra 1980:79 [ref. 5434], Katayama & Amaoka 1986:216 [ref. 6680], Cervigón 1991:374 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:424 [ref. 23827], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:372 [ref. 24574], Heemstra et al. 2003:1330 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:73 [ref. 31956], Anderson et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:7 [ref. 36146], Pinheiro et al. 2018:113 [ref. 36158]). Current status: Valid as Anthias asperilinguis Günther 1859. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Deep reefs of the western Atlantic: Venezuela, the Guianas, northeastern Brazil, St. Paul's Rocks and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

aspersus, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:6 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Porto Praya, St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.36. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1771) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

assabensis, Serranus Giglioli [E. H.] 1889:68 [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 6; ref. 14492] Assab, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

astigmum, Pseudogramma Randall [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 1997:14, Pl. 1 (fig. B) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 26; ref. 22812] Cave in reef at drop-off, western side of Keroy (Rigili) Islet, Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, depth 10-12 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18387. Paratypes: AMS I.37618-001 (2); BMNH 1996.6.27.2 (1); BPBM 9506 (1), 24128 (1), 32466 (1); CAS 33131 (1); ROM 56691 (3), 56692-94 (1, 1, 2); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 35159 (1), 35170 (1), 46036 (1); USNM 223566 (1), 242123 (1), 259005-06 (1, 1), 259063-64 (1, 1), 342818 (1). Pseudogramma is feminine, so name should be astigma. •Valid as Pseudogramma astigmum Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Randall & Kunzmann 1998:480 [ref. 23919], Myers 1999:118 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:161 [ref. 25813], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:170 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1028 [ref. 28999], Allen & Erdmann 2012:309 [ref. 31980]). •Valid as Pseudogramma astigma Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Prokofiev 2019:425 [ref. 36810]). Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma astigma Randall & Baldwin 1997. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comoro Islands, Papua New Guinea to Marshall Islands and American Samoa. Habitat: marine.

atara, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

atlahua, Hypoplectrus Tavera [J. J.] & Acero P. [A.] 2013:30, Fig. 1 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 32434] Bajo de Tuxpan 21°8' N, 97°16'W, Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: CICIMAR-CI 8371. Paratypes: CICIMAR-CI 8372. •Valid as Hypoplectrus atlahua Tavera & Acero P. 2013. Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus atlahua Tavera & Acero P. 2013. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Pikea mexicanus Schultz [L. P.] 1958:326 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 108 (no. 3405); ref. 10155] Off French Guiana, 7°18'N, 53°32'W, Oregon station 2021, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 185005. Paratypes: FMNH 64545 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 185006-08 (9, 5, 1), 185080 (1), 185081 (orig. 9, now 8), 185082 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Bathyanthias atlanticus (Schultz 1958) -- (see Randall & Taylor 1988:4 [ref. 6429]). Current status: Valid as Bathyanthias atlanticus (Schultz 1958). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: French Guiana. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:52, 156, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:86 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. New name for Perca maculata Bloch 1792. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

atomaria, Perca Günther [A.] 1859:120 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Not available, name on specimen from West Indies mentioned in passing under Serranus ouatalibi. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

atraria, Perca Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:485 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Holotype: Linn. Soc. Lond. 91 (right half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:48 [ref. 20705]. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:202 [ref. 1841]. Based on 'Blackfish' in manuscript description and 1 specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

atrarius, Lutjanus Suckow [G. A.] 1799:547 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] New combination for Perca atraria Linnaeus 1766; not an original description. •In the synonymy of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae.

atricauda, Serranus Günther [A.] 1874:230 [1] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 13 (no. 75) (art. 32); ref. 18200] [Mogador] Essaouira, Morocco, eastern Atlantic. Lectotype: BMNH 1874.1.30.7. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1840.12.9.41 (right half skin), 1840.12.9.45 (right half skin), 1840.12.9.51 (left half skin), 1860.7.14.18-20 (3), 1860.7.14.22-24 (3), 1860.7.14.32 (1); SMF 1769 (1); ZMB 8710 (1). On p. 1 of separate. Lectotype not researched, not designated here. •Valid as Serranus atricauda Günther 1874 -- (Tortonese 1973:355 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:789 [ref. 13676], Smith 1990:704 [ref. 18227], Santos et al. 1997:81 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:80 [ref. 24952], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:165 [ref. 25813], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2408 [ref. 34618], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:6 [ref. 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus atricauda Günther 1874. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Spain to Guinea Bissau, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

atrimanus, Parasphyraenops Bean [T. H.] 1912:124 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 25; ref. 232] Argus Bank, Bermuda, depth 43 fathoms (stomach content). Holotype: USNM 74085. Paratypes: ?Mus. of Bermuda Nat. Hist. Soc. (1). •Valid as Parasphyraenops atrimanus Bean 1912 -- (Johnson & Smith-Vaniz 1987:49 [ref. 9235], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:216 [ref. 25013], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:172 [ref. 32953]). Current status: Valid as Parasphyraenops atrimanus Bean 1912. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

atrobranchus, Centropristes Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:45 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6980. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:12 [ref. 19232]. Original genus should have been Centropristis. •Valid as Serranus atrobranchus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:140 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:65 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:359 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:109 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:436 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:267 [ref. 24550], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:165 [ref. 25813], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:184 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:809 [ref. 33030], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus atrobranchus (Cuvier 1829). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and northern Gulf of Mexico south to Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

aurantia, Lepidoperca Roberts [C. D.] 1989:580, Fig. 8 [Journal of Natural History v. 23 (no. 3); ref. 12486] Off northwest coast of South Island, 40°48.8'S, 171°24.6'E, New Zealand, depth 267-273 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.14799. Paratypes: AMS I.23991-001 (2); BMNH 1984.24.4.? (1); NMNZ P.14800 (8), P.14801 (1, skeleton), P.10459 (1); WAM P.28301-001 (2). Plus additional non-type material: AIM 2511 (1); NMNZ (13 lots, 22). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:10 [ref. 18942], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Lepidoperca aurantia Roberts 1989 -- (Aizawa & Matsuura in Amaoka et al. 1990:254 [ref. 16024], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1193 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Lepidoperca aurantia Roberts 1989. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Zealand to Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

aurantius, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:305 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0765. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:164 [ref. 19754] as aurantius, Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as aurantius, Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:226 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476] as aurantius, Fricke 1999:176 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:47 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Randall & Justine 2008:157 [ref. 29942], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:17 [ref. 31786], Craig et al. 2011:17 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:261 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Socotra east to Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

auratus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:75, Pl. 236 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Martinique Island, West Indies [not East India]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 231. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 57 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

aureorubens, Pronotogrammus Longley [W. H.] 1935:88 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 34; ref. 13714] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 101320. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:9 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pronotogrammus aureorubens Longley 1935 -- (Baldwin 1990:924 [ref. 21029]). •Valid as Hemanthias aureorubens (Longley 1935) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:145 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:17 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:372 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:107 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:424 [ref. 23827], Heemstra et al. 2003:1350 [ref. 27060], Moore et al. 2003:225 [ref. 27076], Roa-Varón et al. 2003:15 [ref. 27814], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:153 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Baldwinella aureorubens (Longley 1935) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:110 [ref. 31956], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Anderson 2018:9 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Baldwinella aureorubens (Longley 1935). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) southward, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea south to Venezuela and French Guiana. Habitat: marine.

auriga, Dules Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:112, Pl. 51 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-3003 (2), SMF 1082 [ex MNHN] (1). •Valid as Serranus auriga (Cuvier 1829) -- (Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800]). •Valid as Dules auriga Cuvier 1829 -- (Inada in Nakamura et al. 1986:198 [ref. 14235], Andreata & Séret 1996:585 [ref. 16204], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:809 [ref. 33030], Fabiano et al. 2014:8 [ref. 33530], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565] with author as (Cuvier 1829), Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Dules auriga Cuvier 1829. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

auroguttatus, Paralabrax Walford [L. A.] 1936:1 [Occasional Papers of the Santa Barbara Museum v. 4; ref. 13272] Guaymas, western coast of Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 100981. •Valid as Paralabrax auroguttatus Walford 1936 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:200 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:113 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1604 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:76 [ref. 25640], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:164 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Pondella et al. 2003:181 [ref. 29770], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax auroguttatus Walford 1936. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aurora, Pikea Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:178 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50675. Paratypes: FMNH 4248 (1); CAS-SU 6074 (4), 7484 (1); USFC 2734 [? = USNM 126553] (1); USNM 126553 [ex USBF 1044] (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Liopropoma aurora (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:16 [ref. 6429], Mundy 2005:348 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:199 [ref. 30952], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma aurora (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

aurulentus, Anthias (Mirolabrichthys) Randall [J. E.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1982:67, Fig. 9 [Journal of Aquariculture v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 8559] Off wreck of 'V. Lindenbank', outer ocean reef 1.5 miles northwest of English Harbor, Tabuaeran [= Fanning Island], Line Islands, central Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 26546. Paratypes: AMS I.22467-001 (1), BMNH 1980.5.20.1 (1), BPBM 26547 (1), CAS 48098 (1), USNM 227296 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:36 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias aurulentus (Randall & McCosker 1982) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Mundy et al. 2010:61 [ref. 31155], Anderson 2018:36 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias aurulentus (Randall & McCosker 1982). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Line Islands. Habitat: marine.

australis, Pseudogramma Randall [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 1997:19 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 26; ref. 22812] Easter Island, offshore from Ahu Akapu, rocky substratum, 21.5 m depth. Holotype: BPBM 6623 [not BPBM 13531]. Paratypes: AMS I.37619-001 (1), BMNH 1996.6.27.1 (1); BPBM 13531 (1), 13974 (2), 16444 (1), 16893 (1), 37393 (4); CAS 13531 (1), 87907 (1); SAIAB 41659 (1); USNM 327795 (3), 303170 (2). The authors listed BPBM 6623 as holotype of the species australis, and then (p. 23) treated that specimen as the type of P. australis pasquensis rather than the nominate subspecies P. australis australis; they selected another specimen (BPBM 13531) as the type of P. australis australis. According to ICZN Art. 61.2.1, the fixation for the taxon at higher rank takes precedence [i.e. BPBM 6623]. P. australis was restricted by Randall et al. 2002 [ref. 26441] to Easter Island populations; some paratypes now belong to P. xantha. •Valid as Pseudogramma australis australis Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815]). •Valid as Pseudogramma australis Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Prokofiev 2019:425 [ref. 36810]). Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma australis Randall & Baldwin 1997. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

australis, Serranus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:7 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:234 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:216 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

australis, Stigmatonotus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:838 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] Dirk Hartog Island, Western Australia, depth 3 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9811. •Status uncertain -- (Anderson 2018:52 [ref. 36146]). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

awoara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D78 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: ?BMNH (1); RMNH D77 (1, dry), D80 (1, dry), D110a-b (2); possible paralectotypes (dry): RMNH D18 (1, dry), D79 (1, dry), D81 (1, dry); ZMB 5217 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Original as awo-ara, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:26 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus awoara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:37 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:101 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:114 [ref. 21042], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2488 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:80 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Craig et al. 2011:87 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus awoara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Japan Habitat: marine.

axelrodi, Pseudogramma Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 1995:73, Fig. 1 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 44 (no. 1); ref. 21665] Clipperton Island, about 10°18'N, 109°13'W, depth 15-30 meters. Holotype: WAM P.30995-001. Paratypes: USNM 337446 (10), WAM P.30995-002 (5). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:22 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Pseudogramma axelrodi Allen & Robertson 1995 -- (Randall & Baldwin 1997:23 [ref. 22812], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:161 [ref. 25813], Prokofiev 2019:427 [ref. 36810]). Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma axelrodi Allen & Robertson 1995. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific (Clipperton Island). Habitat: marine.

ayresi, Centropristes Steindachner [F.] 1868:965 [1], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 57; ref. 14081] Santos, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) CAS 79615 [ex IU 7711, ex MCZ 761] (1), MCZ 31072 (1). Species listed as name only in earlier abstract [ref. 20463]. On p. 1 of separate. Original genus should have been Centropristis. •Synonym of Diplectrum radiale (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bortone 1977:26 [ref. 7064]). Current status: Synonym of Diplectrum radiale (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

azumanus, Pseudanthias Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1910:470 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 37 (no. 1714); ref. 2494] Tokyo Bay, Japan. Syntypes: NMW 42378-79 (1, 3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291]. Replacement name for Anthias japonicus Döderlein 1883, preoccupied by Anthias japonicus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall 1980:104 [ref. 6717], Shen & Lin 1984:19 [ref. 13822], Lee 1990:16 [ref. 19830]). •Synonym of Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903), but a valid subspecies azumanus (Jordan & Richardson 1910) -- (Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:219, 373 [ref. 8256], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:134 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:465, 666 [ref. 8056], Nakabo 2000:696 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:696 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:431 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33330], Okamoto & Motomura 2017:51 [ref. 35248]). Current status: Synonym of Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Japan (if valid as a subspecies of kelloggi). Habitat: marine.

baccheti, Dactylanthias Randall [J. E.] 2007:84, Figs. 2-3 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2) (for 2006); ref. 28979] Takaroa Atoll, 14°30'S, 144°58'W, Tuamotu Archipelago, depth 200-250 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 40412. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:12 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Dactylanthias baccheti Randall 2007 -- (Anderson 2018:12 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Dactylanthias baccheti Randall 2007. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Tuamotu Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

balah, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:338 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of argus as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:493 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Parenti 2003:493 [ref. 27322]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

baldwini, Prionodes Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1899:353 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 25 (for 1899) Appendix 7; ref. 1283] Off Culebra Island, 5.25 miles southwest of Culebritas light-house, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6093, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 49361. Paratypes: (34) FMNH 3233 (3), 3260 (2); CAS-SU 8612 (2); USNM 50159-60 (3, 15), 125564 [ex USBF 874] (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:69 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Serranus baldwini (Evermann & Marsh 1899) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:138 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:360 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:436 [ref. 23827], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:158 [ref. 27754], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192] dated 1900, Smith et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:185 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:809 [ref. 33030], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:43 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus baldwini (Evermann & Marsh 1899). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Florida (U.S.A.) south to Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

barazeri, Chelidoperca Lee [S.-H.], Lee [M.-Y.], Matsunuma [M.] & Chen [W.-J.] 2019:18, Fig. 7 [Frontiers in Marine Science v. 6: 465; ref. 36888] Gazelle Channel, New Ireland, Bismarck Sea, 2°54′S, 151°07′E, depth 150 - 160 meters. Holotype: NTUM 15639. Paratype: NTUM 15635 (1). •Valid as Chelidoperca barazeri Lee, Lee, Matsunuma & Chen 2019. Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca barazeri Lee, Lee, Matsunuma & Chen 2019. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: New Ireland, Bismarck Sea, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

barroi, Plectranthias Fourmanoir [P.] 1982:60, Fig. 2 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 8483] Chesterfield Islands, Coral Sea, 19°40'S, 158°31'E, depth 300 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1979-0431. Paratypes: MNHN 1979-0432 (3), 1981-1441 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:19 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:52 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias barroi Fourmanoir 1982 -- (Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441]). •Valid as Selenanthias barroi (Fourmanoir 1982) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2471 [ref. 24815], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Anderson 2018:51 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Selenanthias barroi (Fourmanoir 1982). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

bartlettorum, Anthias (Mirolabrichthys) Randall [J. E.] & Lubbock [R.] 1981:20, Figs. 15-16 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 333; ref. 6912] Outer reef off Enubuj Islet at southern end of atoll, Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 8-10 meters. Holotype: BPBM 17981. Paratypes: AMS I.19218-001 (1); BMNH 1976.9.30.1 (1); BPBM 19969 (2), 20449 (1); CAS 37889 (1); LACM 35906-1 (1); MNHN 1976-0125 (1); USNM 216495 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:9 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:36 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias bartlettorum (Randall & Lubbock 1981) -- (Myers 1999:107 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:139 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2012:289 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:36 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias bartlettorum (Randall & Lubbock 1981). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Papua New Guinea, Palau, east to Phoenix Islands and Line Islands. Habitat: marine.

bataviensis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:38 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:220 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bauchotae, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:118, Fig. 4 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Banc de l'Etoile, 25°54'S, 44°36'E, south of Madagascar, depth 140-180 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1978-0084. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:19 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias bauchotae Randall 1980 -- (Katayama & Yamamoto 1986:389 [ref. 6716], Randall 1996:118 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 2009:6 [ref. 30535], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805], Anderson 2018:25 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias bauchotae Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar, Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

bennetti, Plectranthias Allen [G. R.] & Walsh [F.] 2015:85, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 16; ref. 33954] Northwestern section of western part of Holmes Reefs, 16°24.327'S, 147°49.442'E, Coral Sea, Australia, depth 63 meters. Holotype (unique): QM I.39334. Non-types: One specimen sold to Japanese marine aquarium trade. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias bennetti Allen & Walsh 2015 -- (Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias bennetti Allen & Walsh 2015. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Coral Sea (Australia). Habitat: marine.

bennetti, Tosanoides Allen [G. R.] & Walsh [F.] 2019:27, Figs. 1-4A [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 36524] Northwestern section of western part of Holmes Reefs, Coral Sea, Australia, 16°31.3'S, 147°49.0'E, depth 150 meters. Holotype: QM I.40881. Paratypes: AMS, QM, WAM. •Valid as Tosanoides bennetti Allen & Walsh 2019. Current status: Valid as Tosanoides bennetti Allen & Walsh 2019. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Coral Sea, Australia. Habitat: marine.

bermudensis, Rhegma Kanazawa [R. H.] 1952:82, Fig. 11 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 34 (no. 7); ref. 12780] South side beaches, Bermuda [washed ashore]. Holotype: FMNH 48924. Paratypes: FMNH 49128 (1), 105535 [ex FMNH 48924] (3); USNM 157365 [ex FMNH 48924] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Pseudogramma bermudensis (Kanazawa 1952) -- (Cervigón 1991:380 [ref. 24472]). •Synonym of Pseudogramma gregoryi (Breder 1927) -- (Randall & Baldwin 1997:28 [ref. 22812], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:217 [ref. 25013], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Wirtz et al. 2007:10 [ref. 30263], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2402 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudogramma gregoryi (Breder 1927). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

beta, Serranus Hildebrand [S. F.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1940:239, Fig. 9 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth 30 or more fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 108878. •Valid as Schultzea beta (Hildebrand 1940) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:142 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991: 59 [ref. 36591], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:181 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:43 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Schultzea beta (Hildebrand 1940). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Anthias (Mirolabrichthys) Randall [J. E.] 1979:4, Figs. 1-3 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 302; ref. 12314] Waianae coast off Pokai Bay, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 33.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 10146. Paratypes: AMS I.18721-001 (1), I.19218-001 (1); ANSP 134235 (1); BMNH 1976.3.15.1 (1); BPBM 10141-42 (1, 4), 10145 (1), 10173 (4), 13344 (3), 15498 (1), 15877 (4), 17959 (1), 18833 (1), 19916 (1), 19924 (2), 19930 (1); CAS 35678 (1); LACM 35579-1 (1); MNHN 1974-48 (1), 1975-1139 (1); USNM 215284 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:9 [ref. 19232], Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621], Anderson 2018:36 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Mirolabrichthys bicolor (Randall 1979) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:138 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Pseudanthias bicolor (Randall 1979) -- (Randall et al. 1990:91 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:92 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:116 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:91 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:107 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:206 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:705 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:197 [ref. 25191], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Nakabo 2002:705 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:139 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:343 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:992 [ref. 29078], Randall 2007:194 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:100 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:290 [ref. 31980], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:124, 127 [ref. 32094], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Pinault et al. 2015:255 [ref. 33652], Anderson 2018:36 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias bicolor (Randall 1979). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mascarenes and Maldives east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:568 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. Apparently based on Holocentrus maculatus Bloch but Bloch citation not given. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Pseudoserranus Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:384, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Apparently no type material. Also in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:7, Pisces Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [ref. 14246]. •Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757], Golani & Fricke 2018:66 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

bicolor, Rypticus Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7846 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:22 [ref. 19232]. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:307 [ref. 4504] with genus as Smecticus. •Valid as Rypticus bicolor Valenciennes 1846 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:118 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:329 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:273 [ref. 24555], Guimarães 1999:357 [ref. 24429], Thomson et al. 2000:99 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:461 [ref. 34668] doubtful from Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico)). Current status: Valid as Rypticus bicolor Valenciennes 1846. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bifasciatum, Diploprion Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:137, Pl. 21 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes (Kuhl & van Hasselt specimens): MNHN 0000-7296 (1), ?ZMB 6377 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14 [ref. 19232]. Based on manuscript description by Kuhl & van Hasselt, and on underlying specimens which may be treated as syntypes. •Valid as Diploprion bifasciatum Cuvier 1828 -- (Randall et al. 1971:172 [ref. 30341], Kyushin et al. 1982:143 [ref. 19754] as bifasciatus, Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:139 [ref. 6441] as bifasciatus, Allen & Swainston 1988:60 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:517 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:122 [ref. 15987], Baldwin et al. 1991:68 [ref. 19140], Kuiter 1993:141 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:248 [ref. 27969], Baldwin & Smith 1998:334 [ref. 23622], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:94 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:122 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:122 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:118 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:731 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:726 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:194 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:90 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368] as bifasciatus, Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:726 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:51 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:168 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1001 [ref. 29000], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:86 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:304 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988] with author as Kuhl & van Hasselt, Yoshida et al. 2013:98 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35490], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36460], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Diploprion bifasciatum Cuvier 1828. Serranidae: Diploprioninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives, India and Sri Lanka east to Vanuatu, north to southern Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), southern Queensland (Australia), Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

bilaticlavia, Plectranthias Paulin [C. D.] & Roberts [C. D.] 1987:13, Fig. 1 [National Museum of New Zealand Records v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 9090] Off Bells Flat, Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands. Holotype: NMNZ P.14024. Paratypes: NMNZ P.20264 (1), NZOI P697 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:10 [ref. 18942], Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias bilaticlavia Paulin & Roberts 1987 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:175 [ref. 24556], Anderson & Randall 1991:340 [ref. 18968], Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441], Randall 1996:118 [ref. 23194], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Roberts 2015:1197 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias bilaticlavia Paulin & Roberts 1987. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Kermadec Islands (New Zealand). Habitat: marine.

bilinearis, Aporops Schultz [L. P.] 1943:112, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Reef at Hull Island, Phoenix Islands [Kiribati Islands], western Pacific Ocean. Holotype: USNM 115336. Paratypes: MCZ 37301 [ex USNM 115340] (1); USNM 115335 (1), 115337-39 (1, 1, 3), 115340 (orig. 8, now 7). •Valid as Aporops bilinearis Schultz 1943 -- (Hayashi in Masuda et al. 1984:140 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:523 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:123 [ref. 15987], Randall & Baldwin 1997:10 [ref. 22812], Randall et al. 1997:123 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:118 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:731 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:31 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:731 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:170 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:349 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1027 [ref. 28999], Randall 2007:198 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:309 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:144 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Aporops bilinearis Schultz 1943. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: South and East Africa, Comoros and Madagascar east to Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

bilobatus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:406, Fig. 4 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] Rosemary Island, 20°28'S, 116°36'E, Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, depth 4 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25119-008. Paratypes: BPBM 31041 (1); WAM P.14924-001 (1), P.14948-001 (1), P.24358-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Randall & Heemstra 1991:103 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:115 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2542 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:90 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:268 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen 1987. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Western Australia to eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

bimaculatus, Anthias Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:339, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 89) (art. 42); ref. 4097] Bay of Bocage, 14°10'S, 40°50'E, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB 47. Paratypes: (3) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 958-959 (2, 2). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:36 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias bimaculatus Smith 1955 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:511 [ref. 5667]). •Valid as Pseudanthias bimaculatus (Smith 1955) -- (Randall & Hutomo 1988 [ref. 6679], Allen 1997:92 [ref. 23977], Fricke 1999:206 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Ida & Sakaue 2001:267 [ref. 25544], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:290 [ref. 31980], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:127, 130 [ref. 32094], Anderson 2018:36 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2018:157 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias bimaculatus (Smith 1955). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Aldabra, Madagascar, Réunion (Mascarenes), Maldives, Indonesia, New Caledonia; probably more widespread. Habitat: marine.

bimarginatus, Pseudanthias Randall [J. E.] 2011:80, Pl. 1A-C [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 13; ref. 31328] North Malé Atoll, lagoon, east side of Furana Island, Maldives, depth 48 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34697. Paratypes: BPBM 41006 (1), SAIAB 86490 (2), USNM 398058 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias bimarginatus Randall 2011 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:291 [ref. 31980], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:126, 132 [ref. 32094], Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias bimarginatus Randall 2011. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Maldives east to Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

bistrispineus, Rhypticus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:350 (also 347) [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 2nd edition v. 1; ref. 537] Unjustified emendation of Bodianus bistrispinus Mitchill 1818. •Synonym of Rypticus bistrispinus (Mitchill 1818). Current status: Synonym of Rypticus bistrispinus (Mitchill 1818). Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

bistrispinus, Bodianus Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:247 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 4) (art. 1); ref. 17774] Straits of Bahamas, Atlantic. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Originally as bis-trispinus, correction mandatory. •Valid as Rypticus bistrispinus (Mitchill 1818) -- (Courtenay 1967:263 [ref. 7882], Robins & Ray 1986:146 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:156 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:377 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:110 [ref. 23239], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221] as bitrispinus, Guimarães 1999:344 [ref. 24429], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:218 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192] as bistrispinnus, Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:176 [ref. 28815], Baldwin & Weigt 2012:34 [ref. 31864], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:172 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:42 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Rypticus bistrispinus (Mitchill 1818). Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bitaeniatus, Anthias Kotthaus [A.] 1973:19, Fig. 289 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 16; ref. 7572] East of Mumbai, Arabian Sea, 18°61'N, 70°39'E to 18°54'N, 70°41.3'E, depth 86-93 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 5126 [ex IOES 164]. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:416 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Pseudanthias townsendi (Boulenger 1897) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). • Probably a synonym of Paeudanthias conspicuus (Heemstra 1973) -- (Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:137 [ref. 32094]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias conspicuus (Heemstra 1973). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

bivittatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:241 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies; Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6988 (1) Martinique, 0000-5889 (1) Havana. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Diplectrum bivittatum (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Bortone 1977:22 [ref. 7064], Robins & Ray 1986:141 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:46 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:317 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:104 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:434 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:268 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813], Heemstra et al. 2003:1326 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:140 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum bivittatum (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Serranus Vaillant [L. L.] in Vaillant & Bocourt 1878:47, 69 [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7401. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. Based on Serranus variolosus of Bleeker 1849:35 [ref. 318] (not of Valenciennes). •Valid as Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:204 [ref. 19756], Lee 1990:38 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:105 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:233 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476] dated 1877, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2489 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:81 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] dated to 1849, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:93 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:268 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988] dated 1877, Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:101 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to Northern Territory (Australia). Habitat: marine.

boelang, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] East Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7672 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042] with question). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

boenak, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:43, Pl. 226 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan [erroneous, is Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 5220 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB (1, stuffed, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:133 [ref. 24282]. Spelled boenack on Plate and boenak in text; first reviser apparently by Bloch; see Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:ix [ref. 21953]. On p. 31 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381] as Bodianus boenac. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:133 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:27 [ref. 19830], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:227 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830]). •Valid as Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Larson & Williams 1997:354 [ref. 23967], Machida et al. 1997:47 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:101 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:176 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:729 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:178 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:77 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:163 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:83 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:18 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:261 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:97 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36460], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Shanghai (China) and Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

bonaci, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:129 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10000 (2), 10032-34 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:127 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:343 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:34 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:262 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1354 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:166 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:294 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Brazil, including offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

boninius, Cephalopholis Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:248, Pl. 29 (fig. 1 [not 7]) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Bonin Islands, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 57099 [ex CM 6038]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

bontoides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:405 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5502. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 30548 [ex 5502] (6), BMNH 1880.4.21.7 (1) [Bleeker coll.]. Original as bontoïdes. •Valid as Epinephelus bontoides (Bleeker 1855) -- (Lee 1990:38 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:107 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:118 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2542 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:183 [ref. 27511], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:95 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bontoides (Bleeker 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to the Philippines. Habitat: marine.

bontoo, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:334 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Vizagapatam and Madras, India. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. Based on Russell 1803:22, Pl. 128. •Synonym of Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:152 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:152 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

borbonicus, Serranus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:312, Pl. 57 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7407. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

borbonius, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:263 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (?): MNHN 0000-0983. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:21 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Holanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:135 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:513 [ref. 5667], Shen et al. 1986:67 [ref. 13818], Lee 1990:10 [ref. 19830], Fricke 1999:201 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815], Kon et al. 2000:75 [ref. 24483], Nakabo 2000:699 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:699 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:54 [ref. 27510]). •Valid as Odontanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:9 [ref. 28602], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Fricke et al. 2018:155 [ref. 35805], Anderson 2018:21 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Odontanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Guam and New Guinea, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: marine.

bornoi, Rypticus Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1928:132, Fig. [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 15836] Lamentin Reef, Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, West Indies. Holotype: USNM 170572 [ex NYZS 7206]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648]. •Valid as Rypticus bornoi Beebe & Tee-Van 1928 -- (Courtenay 1967:268 [ref. 7882], Guimarães 1999:348 [ref. 24429], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Baldwin & Weigt 2012:34 [ref. 31864]). Current status: Valid as Rypticus bornoi Beebe & Tee-Van 1928. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

boulengeri, Anthias Heemstra [P. C.] 1973:206, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1973 (no. 2); ref. 55] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: BMNH 1889.4.15.15. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.4.15.16 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:50 [ref. 36146]. Replacement name for Anthias formosus Boulenger 1889, preoccupied by Anthias formosus Bloch 1792. •Valid as Sacura boulengeri (Heemstra 1973) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1979:3 [ref. 6938], Randall 1995:124 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:202 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35530], Anderson 2018:50 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Sacura boulengeri (Heemstra 1973). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Oman and Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

boulengeri, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:445, Pl. 38 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Astillero at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 1621. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.13 (1); CAS-SU 2924 (1), 11621 (1); ZMB 14090 [from Jordan] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 187, p. 3273 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1603 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca xenarcha Jordan 1888. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bovinum, Plectropoma Poey [F.] 1852:69, 75 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 9795 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:195 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Hypoplectrus indigo (Poey 1851) -- (Domeier 1994:105 [ref. 21359]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoplectrus indigo (Poey 1851). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

bowersi, Mycteroperca Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:158, Fig. 45 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Holotype (unique): USNM 49530. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

brachyrhinus, Rypticus Courtenay [W. R., Jr.] 1967:278, Figs. 3B, 15, [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 119 (no. 6); ref. 7882] Mindi Cut, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype: USNM 80234. Paratypes: ?MCZ 36030 [ex USNM 120167] (1); UF 212571 [ex UMML 12571] (4); USNM 43278 (1), 44468 (1), 44716 (1), 106625 (6). Based on Rypticus saponaceus of Meek & Hildebrand 1925:480 [ref. 13609] and on specimens. Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060] serve as first revisers selecting randalli over bracchyrhinus. •Synonym of Rypticus randalli Courtenay 1967 -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060]). Current status: Synonym of Rypticus randalli Courtenay 1967. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

brachysoma, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:466 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13372. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

brasilianum, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:397 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] 15°S, 35°E [incorrect], east of Ilheus, Bahia State, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4540 (1), 0000-6407 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:20 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Acanthistius brasilianus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:94 [ref. 25942], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Irigoyen et al. 2008:53 [ref. 29703], Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:13 [ref. 31956], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Acanthistius brasilianus (Cuvier 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: southern Brazil to Argentina. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Centropristis Brisout de Barneville [C. N. F.] 1847:131 [Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne (Paris) v. 10; ref. 643] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-7612. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:114 [ref. 12478]. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

brederi, Rhegma Hildebrand [S. F.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1940:244, Fig. 11 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] Western Indian Ocean. Incorrect: Exact locality unknown, evidently from a bird rookery, Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 108865. •Synonym of Pseudogramma polyacanthum (Bleeker 1856) -- (Randall & Baldwin 1997:39 [ref. 22812]). •Synonym of Pseudogramma polyacantha (Bleeker 1856). •Valid as Pseudogramma brederi (Hildebrand 1940) -- (Williams & Viviani 2016:253 [ref. 34442]). Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma brederi (Hildebrand 1940). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: West Pacific: Taiwan, Ogasawara Islands, Hawaii, Johnston Island, Marquesas Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago, Rapa, Tonga, Royalty Islands, Vanuatu; Southwest Indian Ocean: Agalega Islands, Mauritius and Reunion. Habitat: marine.

brevipes, Anthias sacer Bellotti [C.] 1879:36 [4] [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali di Milano v. 22; ref. 16779] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNM (destroyed in 1943). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:219 [ref. 21560]. On p. 4 of separate. •Questionably a synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:69 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Uncertain as Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

brochata, Lepidoperca Katayama [M.] & Fujii [E.] 1982:247, Fig. 6 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 3); ref. 8465] Southeastern Australia, 34°51.7'S, 151°07.5'E, depth 236 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 21438. Paratypes: AMS I.23359-001 (1); NSMT-P 21439-42 (1, 1, 1, 1); ZUMT 54320 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Lepidoperca brochata Katayama & Fujii 1982 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:505 [ref. 12442], Roberts 1989:586 [ref. 12486], Allen et al. 2006:987 [ref. 29078], Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Lepidoperca brochata Katayama & Fujii 1982. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

brocki, Ypsigramma Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:379, Fig. 60 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon coral head off Kieshiechi Island, Rongelap Atoll, western Pacific, depth 20 feet. Holotype: USNM 141876. Paratypes: USNM 154675 (1). •Synonym of Liopropoma susumi (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:26 [ref. 6429]). Current status: Synonym of Liopropoma susumi (Jordan & Seale 1906). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Habitat: marine.

bruneus, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:15, Pl. 328 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] "Norway" [likely China]. Lectotype: ZMB 5221 (left skin). Paralectotypes: (2, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:109 [ref. 19601]. On p. 13 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Often misspelled brunneus. •Valid as Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Lee 1990:39 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:108 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2490 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:718 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:718 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:97 [ref. 31786], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:101 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:131 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 10184 (2); ?ZMB 5221 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926] with largest in MCZ 10184 as holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

bulleri, Serranus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:288, Pl. 10 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 2nd edition v. 1; ref. 537] Las Peñas, Jalisco, Mexico. Holotype: BMNH 1892.9.5.139. •Questionably a synonym of Serranus psittacinus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1613 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Uncertain as Serranus psittacinus Valenciennes 1846. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

burdi, Pomacentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:506, 511 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Unnecessary replacement name for Perca miniata Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cabrilla, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:294 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] No locality stated (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:39 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. On the Official List as type species of Serranus Cuvier 1816. •Valid as Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:355 [ref. 7192], Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:790 [ref. 13676], Heemstra & Randall 1986:536 [ref. 5667], Smith 1990:704 [ref. 18227], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:155 [ref. 25472], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Santos et al. 1997:82 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:81 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Fricke 1999:39 [ref. 24101], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:76 [ref. 26753], Parin 2003:S3 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:37 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:85 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:353 [ref. 33547], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2409 [ref. 34618], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Freitas et al. 2018:73 [ref. 36259], Golani & Fricke 2018:66 [ref. 36273], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:8 [ref. 36189], Martins & Carneiro 2018:125 [ref. 36550], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37097], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Iglésias et al. 2019:280 [ref. 37098]). Current status: Valid as Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: English Channel south to Angola, including Madeira, Cape Verde Islands, São Tomé and Principe; Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant). South Africa north to KwaZulu-Natal is Serranus knysnaenis -- Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2409 [ref. 34618]. Habitat: marine.

caeruleoguttata, Perca miniata var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:42, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Ad Promont. Djymûm ante Jamboam] Ra’s Barīdī, NNW Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, 24°17'N 37°31'E. On p. xi appeared as variety "caeruleo-guttata" and without name on p. 42. Regarded as available by indication. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleoocellata, Perca miniata Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:41, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). No types known. Originally as caeruleo-ocellata, correction mandatory. Appeared as a variety on p. xi, tied to brief description on p. 41. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caerulescens, Asper Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1802:367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Appeared as "Asper caerulescens, pinnis omnibus ..." in the account of Holocentrus flavocaeruleus. Regarded as nonbinominal and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

caerulescens, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:559 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. Neotype: MNHN A-5747. Unneeded new name for Holocentrus flavocaeruleus Lacepède 1802, and taking the same type specimen. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caesiopercula, Anthias pulchellus Whitley [G. P.] 1951:398 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 4715] 5 1/4 miles northeast of Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia, depth 92 meters. Lectotype: AMS E.2878. Paralectotypes: AMS E.2879 (12). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]. Lectotype selected by Roberts 1989:567 [ref. 12486]. •Valid as Anthias caesiopercula Whitley 1951 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:501 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Lepidoperca caesiopercula (Whitley 1951) -- (Roberts 1989:567 [ref. 12486], Allen et al. 2006:987 [ref. 29078], Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Lepidoperca caesiopercula (Whitley 1951). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

callaensis, Paralabrax Starks [E. C.] 1906:787, Pl. 65 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1468); ref. 10101] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 53471. •Valid as Paralabrax callaensis Starks 1906 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:359 [ref. 24555], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:164 [ref. 25813], Pondella et al. 2003:182 [ref. 29770]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax callaensis Starks 1906. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

calliura, Mycteroperca Poey [F.] 1865:181 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10011 (1), ?ZMB 6361 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

calloura, Pseudanthias Ida [H.] & Sakaue [J.] 2001:263, Figs. 1-5 [Ichthyological Research v. 48 (no. 3); ref. 25544] Southwestern reef of Koror Island, Palau Islands, central Pacific, rocky drop-off at depth of 56 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 57228. Paratypes: NSMT-P 57229-30 (1, 1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias calloura Ida & Sakaue 2001 -- (Motomura et al. 2010:119 [ref. 31101], Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias calloura Ida & Sakaue 2001. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Palau. Habitat: marine.

calopteryx, Serranus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:350 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Astillero estuary at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28123 (5 or 6, now 2). •Synonym of Serranus psittacinus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1613 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus psittacinus Valenciennes 1846. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

camelopardalis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:132 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cienfuegos, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

campechanus, Schultzea Woods [L. P.] 1958:250, Fig. 40 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 39 (no. 22); ref. 4761] Off Campeche Bank, 23°39'48"N, 88°01'00"W, Yucatán, Mexico, Oregon station 592-A, depth 45 fathoms (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 174973. •Synonym of Schultzea beta (Hildebrand 1940) -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060]). Current status: Synonym of Schultzea beta (Hildebrand 1940). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Aylopon Guichenot [A.] 1868:84 [5] [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 10; ref. 1936] Canary Islands. and Madeira. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4316 (2) Madeira, 0000-4317 (1) Canary I. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:10 [ref. 19232]. On p. 5 of separate. •Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Maugé 1990:707 [ref. 17126], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:69 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

caninus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:10 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus caninus (Valenciennes 1843) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1991:22 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:122 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:35 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:41 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:99 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2389 [ref. 34618], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864]). •Valid as Mycteroperca canina (Valenciennes 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as caninus). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus caninus (Valenciennes 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola, including Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

canis, Tulelepis Smith [J. L. B.] 1954:869, Pl. 27 (fig. A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 7 (no. 83) (art. 106); ref. 4094] Pemba Island, 5°S, 39°40'E, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 145. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (1) not researched. •Synonym of Grammistops ocellatus Schultz 1953 -- (Randall 1986:538 [ref. 5706]). Current status: Synonym of Grammistops ocellatus Schultz 1953. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

capreolus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:145 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caprulensis, Labrus Nardo [G. D.] 1824:251 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) v. 7; ref. 3144] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Based on common name; Nardo 1827:31 [ref. 3146] treated this species as Holocentrus chana (evidently on chanus Lacepède). •Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

capurri, Serranus Perugia [A.] 1896:15 [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 16; ref. 14615] St. Pierre, Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MSNG 13496. Type catalog: Tortonese 1959:2 [ref. 31669] as capurrii, Tortonese 1963:335-336 [ref. 10350]. •Synonym of Serranus tigrinus (Bloch 1790) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm. 12/2011). Current status: Synonym of Serranus tigrinus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

carauna, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. New name for Gymnocephalus ruber Bloch & Schneider 1801, on Marcgrave, p. 147: Carauna. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

carberryi, Nemanthias Smith [J. L. B.] 1954:4, Fig. 2 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 7 (no. 73) (art. 1); ref. 4090] Malindi, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 153. Paratypes: (9) Some of SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 963 (19), 964 (48). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:21 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Nemanthias carberryi Smith 1954 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:514 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:160 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Anderson 2018:21 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2018:155 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Nemanthias carberryi Smith 1954. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa to Seychelles, Madagascar, Maldives and Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

cardinalis, Hypoplectrodes Allen [G. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1990:45 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 15982] Off Beacon Island, Wallabi Group, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, depth 3-4 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25314-003. Paratypes: AMS I.18476-001 (1), USNM 214701 (1), WAM P.25226-001 (1), WAM P.25311-007 (2). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:19 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:15 [ref. 36146]. Replacement name for Ellerkeldia rubra Allen 1976, secondarily preoccupied in Hypoplectrodes by Scopularia rubra de Buen 1959. •Valid as Hypoplectrodes cardinalis Allen & Randall 1990 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:537 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:112 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:986 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:544 [ref. 30641], Anderson 2018:15 [ref. 36146], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrodes cardinalis Allen & Randall 1990. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia endemic. Habitat: marine.

cardinalis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:378 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Havana, Cuba. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. New name for Johnius guttatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Based on the 'Bonací cardenal' of Parra 1787:29, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caribbaeus, Bullisichthys Rivas [L. R.] 1971:719, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1971 (no. 4); ref. 3762] Lesser Antilles, off Dominica, West Indies, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 204938. Paratypes: UF 24457 [ex USNM 204939] (1), USNM 204939 (2). •Valid as Bullisichthys caribbaeus Rivas 1971 -- (Claro et al. 2000:22 [ref. 26458], Heemstra et al. 2003:1325 [ref. 27060], Dennis et al. 2004:74 [ref. 31601]). Current status: Valid as Bullisichthys caribbaeus Rivas 1971. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

carinatus, Serranus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:265, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Cape Grenville, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: MAMU (2). Appeared as a new species in Jouan 1878:333 [ref. 18364] but not new there. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

carlsoni, Pseudanthias Randall [J. E.] & Pyle [R. L.] 2001:20, Figs. 1-4 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 49 (no. 1); ref. 25690] Yanutha Reef, southern end of No Name Pass, ocean side, 18°24'30"S, 177°56'E, Fiji, depth 37-46 meters. Holotype: BPBM 38665. Paratypes: AMS I.39906-001 (1), BMNH 2000.1.6.1 (1), BPBM 30630 (1), CAS 210368 (1), NSMT-P 58835 (1), ZRC 45768 (2), USNM 359477(2). •Valid as Pseudanthias carlsoni Randall & Pyle 2001 -- (Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:140 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2008:144 [ref. 29480]). •Synonym of Pseudanthias engelhardi (Allen & Starck 1982) -- (Motomura et al. 2010:119 [ref. 31101], Allen & Erdmann 2012:292 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias engelhardi (Allen & Starck 1982). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

carmabi, Chorististium Randall [J. E.] 1963:98, Pl. 2 (fig. B) [Studies on the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands v. 19 (no. 80); ref. 5209] 6 miles south of La Parguera, 17°52'12"N, 65°2'30"W, Puerto Rico, depth 180 feet. Holotype: USNM 179001. Paratypes: ANSP 98680 (1); RMNH 24609 (1); UPRM 1130 (1); USNM 179002 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Liopropoma carmabi (Randall 1963) -- (Cervigón 1992:434 [ref. 23827], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1326 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Wirtz & Schliewen 2012:151 [ref. 32169], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Baldwin & Johnson 2014:7 [ref. 33312], Baldwin & Robertson 2014:75 [ref. 33311], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:40 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Pinheiro et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36820]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma carmabi (Randall 1963). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

carpenteri, Meganthias Anderson [W. D., Jr.] 2006:405, Figs. 1- 2, 3A-B, 5B [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 119 (no. 3); ref. 28870] Off Nigeria, eastern Atlantic. Holotype: USNM 386079. Paratypes: USNM 386080 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:20 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Meganthias carpenteri Anderson 2006 -- (Randall & Heemstra 2008:5 [ref. 29984], Akhilesh et al. 2009:1 [ref. 31046], White 2011:21 [ref. 32494], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:92 [ref. 31956], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2397 [ref. 34618], Anderson 2018:20 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Meganthias carpenteri Anderson 2006. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: off Nigeria. Habitat: marine.

carpenteri, Rypticus Baldwin [C. C.] & Weigt [L. A.] 2012:24, Figs. 2-5 [Copeia 2012 (no. 2); ref. 31864] Netherland Antilles, Saba Bank, 17°34'54"N, 63°24'24"W, depth 27-30 meters. Holotype: USNM 387946. Paratypes: many at UF, USNM. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Rypticus carpenteri Baldwin & Weigt 2012 -- (Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:172 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:42 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Rypticus carpenteri Baldwin & Weigt 2012. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

castelnaui, Serranus Jordan [D. S.] & Eigenmann [C. H.] 1890:409 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 8 (art. 9) (for 1888); ref. 2440] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7821 (dry). Replacement name for Centropristis nebulosus Castelnau 1855, secondarily preoccupied in Serranus by Serranus nebulosus Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

castroaguirrei, Hypoplectrus Del Moral-Flores [L. F.], Tello-Musi [J. L.] & Martínez-Pérez [J. A.] 2012:2, Figs. 1-4 [Revista de Zoología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México v. 22 (for 2011); ref. 31860] Arrecife de Isla Verde, 19°12'00.0"N, 96°04'04.4"W, Veracruz Reef System, Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, depth 3 meters. Holotype: CNIP-IBUNAM 16846. Paratypes: CNIP-IBUNAM 16847 (1). •Valid as Hypoplectrus castroaguirrei Del Moral-Flores, Tello-Musi & Martínez-Pérez 2012 -- (Tavera & Acero P. 2013:33 [ref. 32434], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus castroaguirrei Del Moral-Flores, Tello-Musi & Martínez-Pérez 2012. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Mexico, Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

catalonica, Cerna Gibert [A. M.] 1913:38, 2 figs. [Fauna ictiológica de Catalunya; ref. 19362] Catalonia, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Record corrected in 2004. •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:27 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cataphracta, Lacepedia Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:43 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Melbourne fish market, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-5591 (skin). •Synonym of Caesioperca rasor (Richardson 1839) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:503 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:983 [ref. 29078]). Current status: Synonym of Caesioperca rasor (Richardson 1839). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

catus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:373 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7238. Types: ?ZMB 265 [ex MNHN] Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caudalis, Holanthias Trunov [I. A.] 1976:263 [230], Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 16 (no. 2) (art. 97); ref. 8648] Near Ascension Island, southeastern Atlantic. Holotype: AtlantNIRO 33. Paratypes: AtlantNIRO 33 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:14 [ref. 36146]. Description on p. 230 of English translation. •Valid as Holanthias caudalis Trunov 1976 -- (Maugé 1990:707 [ref. 17126], Anderson 2006:415 [ref. 28870], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:88 [ref. 31956], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2394 [ref. 34618], Anderson 2018:14 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Holanthias caudalis Trunov 1976. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

caudalis, Pseudanthias Kamohara [T.] & Katayama [M.] 1959:1, Fig. 1 [Reports of the Usa Marine Biological Station v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 11923] Kashiwajima, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: BSKU 7492. Paratypes: BSKU 8205 (1). Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:3 [ref. 19282], Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias caudalis Kamohara & Katayama 1959 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:137 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:705 [ref. 25086], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Nakabo 2002:705 [ref. 26001], Shao et al. 2008:248 [ref. 29952], Randall 2007:195 [ref. 30952], Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias caudalis Kamohara & Katayama 1959. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Honshu to Ogasawara Islands (Japan). Habitat: marine.

caudicinctus, Holanthias Heemstra [P. C.] & Randall [J. E.] 1986:513, Pl. 34 (fig. 166.11 a,b) [ ref. 5667] Off Kenya, depth 140-300 meters. Holotype: Shown in Pl. 34. Paratypes: BPBM 30637 (3); CAS 57164 (2); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 24183-85 (1, 3, 1); USNM 272104 (3), 273881 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]. Was to have appeared in Heemstra & Randall "1986" in the Ichth. Bull. Rhodes Univ., but that work apparently not published; species name dates to reference as given above. See Randall & Heemstra 2006:11 [ref. 28602]. •Valid as Holanthias caudicinctus Heemstra & Randall 1986. •Valid as Odontanthias caudicinctus (Heemstra & Randall 1986) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:10 [ref. 28602], White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Odontanthias caudicinctus (Heemstra & Randall 1986). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa north to Kenya. Habitat: marine.

cauoh, Odontanthias Carvalho-Filho [A. ], Macena [B. C. L.] & Nunes [D. M.] 2016:586, Figs. 2-3 [Zootaxa 4139 (no. 4); ref. 34589] São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, floating near the surface near rocks, Brazil, 0°55'N, 29°21'W. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 111260. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Odontanthias cauoh Carvalho-Filho, Macena & Nunes 2016 -- (Anderson et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Odontanthias cauoh Carvalho-Filho, Macena & Nunes 2016. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western central Atlantic: Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1851:217 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 330] Bulucomba, southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: NMV 46427 (1), RMNH 5492 (7). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cephalotes, Othos Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:44 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Swan River, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Othos dentex (Cuvier 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:506 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:989 [ref. 29078]). Current status: Synonym of Othos dentex (Cuvier 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

cerasina, Chelidoperca Ogino [A.], Lee [S.-H.], Chen [W.-J.] & Matsunuma [M.] 2019:2, Figs. 1a-b, 2-5, 6a-b, 9a-b, 10a-d [Ichthyological Research First Online; ref. 37056] Kelso Bank on Lord Howe Rise, Coral Sea, southwest of New Caledonia, 24°11'00"S, 159°41'00"E, depth 270-280 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2019-0021. Paratypes: MNHN, NSMT, NTUM. •Valid as Chelidoperca cerasina Ogino, Lee, Chen & Matsunuma 2019. Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca cerasina Ogino, Lee, Chen & Matsunuma 2019. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Gifford Guyot Seamount (east of Australia) and off New Caledonia, Coral Sea, southwest Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cernioides, Serranus de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:156 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 14041] Portugal. MB (not found). Figured in Capello 1867, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [ref. 14042]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [= gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cernipedis, Serranus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1913:Serranidae p. 31 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] No locality. No types known. On p. 261 when continuously paginated. •Questionably a synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Uncertain as Variola louti (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cernunnos, Pseudogramma Prokofiev [A. M.] 2019:425, Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 36810] Bay of Bengal, 6°40'04"N, 93°52'06"E, depth 52 meters. Holotype (unique): IOM 3582. •Valid as Pseudogramma cernunnos Prokofiev 2019. Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma cernunnos Prokofiev 2019. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

chabanaudi, Belonoperca Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1930:182, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 10; ref. 1477] Una Una Road, Binang Unang, Gulf of Tomini, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: USNM 89982. Paratypes: USNM 93363 (1). •Valid as Belonoperca chabanaudi Fowler & Bean 1930 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:133 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:537 [ref. 5706], Paxton et al. 1989:517 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:121 [ref. 15987], Baldwin et al. 1991:79 [ref. 19140], Kuiter 1997:122 [ref. 25488], Baldwin & Smith 1998:330 [ref. 23622], Allen 1997:96 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:121 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:211 [ref. 24106], Heem/tra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:726 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:194 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Randall et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26192], Nakabo 2002:726 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:175 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:168 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1001 [ref. 29000], Motomura et al. 2010:94 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:304 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:111 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Belonoperca chabanaudi Fowler & Bean 1930. Serranidae: Diploprioninae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Comores and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Gilbert Islands (Kiribati), Tonga and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

chabaudi, Serranus Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:3 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Zwartkops River mouth, Algoa Bay, South Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:114 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:124 [ref. 21042], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:169 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:101 [ref. 31786], Jawad et al. 2013:3 [ref. 32489]). •Valid as Hypoplectrus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa, Kenya, Seychelles, Oman and southwestern India. Habitat: marine.

chalinius, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:465 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 12768. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chanus, Labrus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:36 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Istanbul, Turkey, Marmara Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 2008:29 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

charleneae, Pseudanthias Allen [G. R.] & Erdmann [M. V.] 2008:140, Figs. 1-3 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (nos 3-4); ref. 29480] Gayebi Reef, 2°08.246'S, 135°11.729'E, Tydeman Reefs, Cenderawasih Bay, Papua Province, Indonesia, depth 56 meters. Holotype (unique): NCIP 6322. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias charleneae Allen & Erdmann 2008 -- (Motomura et al. 2010:119 [ref. 31101], Allen & Erdmann 2012:291 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias charleneae Allen & Erdmann 2008. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Bali and West Papua (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

cheirospilos, Anthias Bleeker [P.] 1857:36 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5454 (2). Spelling chirospilus in Bleeker 1872: Pl. 288 (fig. 1) [Perc Pl. 10] [ref. 4861] is an unjustified emendation. •Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

cherna, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:310 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Cherna' of Parra 1787:50, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chewa, Epinephelus Morgans [J. F. C.] 1966:267, Pl. 9 (fig. D) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 8 (no. 89) (for 1965); ref. 9045] Mafia Island, Tanzania. Holotype: EAMFRO S73. Paratypes: EAMFRO S82/1 (1), S82/2 (1), S87 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus chewa Morgans 1966 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:234 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2526 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chionaraia, Serranus Robins [C. R.] & Starck [W. A., II] 1961:270, Fig. 1c [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 113 (no. 11); ref. 3789] 2.5 miles south-southwest of Alligator Reef Light, Monroe County, Florida, U.S.A., depth 150 feet. Holotype: ANSP 93808. Paratypes: FMNH 64994 (1); UF 207803 [ex UMML 7803] (1); USNM 108389 (1), 150115 (1), 191120 [ex UMML 7044] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Serranus chionaraia Robins & Starck 1961 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:138 [ref. 23100], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:186 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:809 [ref. 33030], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:43 [ref. 33341], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus chionaraia Robins & Starck 1961. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida Keys (U.S.A.), Honduras, Puerto Rico. Habitat: marine.

chlorocephalus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:522 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Tongatapu, Tonga. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7543 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25-26 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus chlorocephalus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:116 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:125 [ref. 21042], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Craig et al. 2011:103 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus chlorocephalus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Tonga Islands. Habitat: marine.

chloropterum, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:398 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] San Domingo; Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7782 (1) and 0000-7783 (1) San Domingo, 0000-4907 (1) Martinique; ?ZMB 282 (1) San Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:20 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:203 [ref. 25013], Craig et al. 2006:329 [ref. 29772]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chlorostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:352 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Seychelles, Western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7430. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7429 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232] as holotype. Lectotype established by Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232] (see Art. 74.6 of the Code). •Valid as Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:206 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:174 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:41 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2492 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:104 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. chlorostigma). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall, Tonga and Line islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

chlorostomus, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1867:231 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chlorurum, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:406 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Caribbean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7785 (1) Martinique, 0000-7586 (1) Antilles, 0000-7787 (1) Martinique. •Valid as Hypoplectrus chlorurus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Cervigón 1992:435 [ref. 23827], Domeier 1994:104 [ref. 21359], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1365 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:157 [ref. 28815], Aguilar-Perera & González-Salas 2010:377 [ref. 30878], Lobel 2011:11 [ref. 31606], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860], Tavera & Acero P. 2013:33 [ref. 32434], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:40 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus chlorurus (Cuvier 1828). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

chrysomelanus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:53, 160 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] "Amerique equinoxiale". No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:87 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:49 [ref. 19232] as chrysomelas. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042] as chrysomelas). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chrysostictus, Anthias Günther [A.] 1872:655, Pl. 56 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1871.7.20.142-143 (2). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Holanthias chrysostictus (Günther 1872) -- (Lee 1990:10 [ref. 19830], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815], Myers & Donaldson 2003:616 [ref. 27495] dated 1871). •Valid as Odontanthias chrysostictus (Günther 1872) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:11 [ref. 28602], White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Odontanthias chrysostictus (Günther 1872). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

chrysotaenia, Cerna Döderlein [P.] 1882:171, 208 [41], Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Giornale di scienze naturali ed economiche, Società Naturali ed Economiche di Palermo v. 15; ref. 17414] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On p. 41 of separate. •Synonym of Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:27 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chungchowensis, Plectranthias Shen [S.-C.] & Lin [W.-W.] 1984:4, Fig. 1 [Taiwan Museum Special Publications Series No. 4; ref. 13822] Chungchou, Taiwan. Holotype: NTUM 03721. Paratypes: NTUM 03724 (1), 04463 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Plectranthias whiteheadi Randall 1980 -- (Lee 1990:19 [ref. 19830], Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Plectranthias whiteheadi Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

cichlops, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1853:245 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Priaman (Pariaman), Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5460. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias cichlops (Bleeker 1853) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:136 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias cichlops (Bleeker 1853). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

cidi, Mycteroperca Cervigón [F.] 1966:654, Fig. 117 [Investigación Pesquera (Chile) v. 30; ref. 9019] Isla Cubagua, Venezuela. Holotype: MOBR-EDIMAR -P--1210. Paratypes: UF 219264 [ex UMML 19264] (1), MOBR-EDIMAR-P-1211 (3). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:112 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:305 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:345 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:264 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:35 [ref. 25512], Heemstra et al. 2003:1355 [ref. 27060], Craig et al. 2011:297 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Jamaica and Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

cifuentesi, Epinephelus Lavenberg [R. J.] & Grove [J. S.] in Heemstra & Randall 1993:129, Fig. 277 [Catalog of groupers; ref. 21042] Off Punta Judas, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, depth 135 meters. Holotype: LACM 44418-1. Paratypes: AMNH 55725 (1); CAS 39423 (1); LACM 35469-25 (1); CAS-SU 37462 (1); UCR 720-5 (1), 1666-2 (1), 1819-1 (1), 1978-1 (1), 2017-1 (1). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:374 [ref. 35212]. Heemstra & Randall took the description from a manuscript by Lavenberg & Grove, and authorship apparently should be Lavenberg & Grove; Grove & Lavenberg 1997:318 [ref. 24023] credit authorship to Heemstra & Randall. •Valid as Epinephelus cifuentesi Lavenberg & Grove 1993 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1592 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:318 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:106 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). •Valid as Hyporthodus cifuentesi Lavenberg & Grove 1993 -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus cifuentesi Lavenberg & Grove 1993. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Ecuador, offshore islands and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

cinctum, Plectropoma Günther [A.] 1859:162 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Norfolk Island. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1381. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]. Also listed was Plate XIII. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Acanthistius cinctus (Günther 1859) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:489 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:174 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Hoese & Bray 2006:1031 [ref. 29000], Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1182 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Acanthistius cinctus (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia to northern New Zealand, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

cirrhitoides, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:121, Fig. 5 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Cave in reef, southwestern side of Karapoo Iti Islet at southern end of Rapa Island, French Polynesia, depth 60 feet. Holotype: BPBM 15066. Paratypes: BPBM 15067 (1), USNM 212177 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias cirrhitoides Randall 1980 -- (Randall 1996:121 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:138 [ref. 28239], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Gill et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34957], Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias cirrhitoides Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Rapa. Habitat: marine.

clarkei, Epinephelus Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:123, Pl. 1 (fig. C) [South African Journal of Science v. 54 (no. 5); ref. 12116] Off Xora River mouth, Transkei, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 6 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 26. Additional material or paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] (not researched). •Synonym of Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:114 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:124 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

clathratus, Labrax Girard [C. F.] 1854:143 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 283 (orig. 2, now 1) •Valid as Paralabrax clathratus (Girard 1854) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:200 [ref. 9277], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1605 [ref. 22830], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:164 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Pondella et al. 2003:181 [ref. 29770], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:222 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax clathratus (Girard 1854). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

clippertonensis, Epinephelus Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 1999:12, Figs. 1-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 26 (no. 1-2); ref. 24279] Clipperton Island, depth 0-20 meters. Holotype: USNM 347506. Paratypes: LACM W56-235 (35), W56-238 (44), W56-240 (68), W58-282 (2), W58-283 (54), W58-295 (64), W58-300 (17), W58-371 (2); USNM 332389 (26). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Epinephelus clippertonensis Allen & Robertson 1999 -- (Craig et al. 2006:92 [ref. 29771], Craig et al. 2006:969 [ref. 29775], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], Craig et al. 2011:103 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus clippertonensis Allen & Robertson 1999. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico), Clipperton Island and Revillagigedos Islands. Habitat: marine.

coatesi, Cephalopholis Whitley [G. P.] 1937:124, Pl. 12 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4689] Slasher's Reef, off Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.5504. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:103 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2481 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

coatsii, Caesioperca Regan [C. T.] 1913:237, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh v. 49 (pt 2, no. 2); ref. 3651] 40°20'S, 9°56'30'W, off Gough Island, southern Atlantic, depth 100 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1912.7.1.72-76 (5, now 4), NMSZ 1921.143.374 (3 lots, 13). Type catalog: Herman et al. 1990:2 [ref. 20727], Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Lepidoperca coatsii (Regan 1913) -- (Roberts 1989:586 [ref. 12486], Collette & Parin 1991:11 [ref. 19110], Anderson 2006:415 [ref. 28870], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:20 [ref. 31956], Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Lepidoperca coatsii (Regan 1913). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: South Atlantic and southern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

coccinea, Suttonia Endo [H.] & Kenmotsu [K.] 2013:12, Figs. 1-5 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) Suppl. No. 7; ref. 32578] Kuboura, Okinoshima Island, Sukumo City, Kochi Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, 32°44'44"N, 132°33'32"E, depth 16 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 110917 [ex. NSKU 103900]. •Valid as Suttonia coccinea Endo & Kenmotsu 2013. Current status: Valid as Suttonia coccinea Endo & Kenmotsu 2013. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Okinoshima Island, Japan. Habitat: marine.

coeruleopunctatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:94, Pl. 242 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Unknown locality [probably Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 232. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. Originally coeruleo-punctatus with oe in text and plate; that spelling should be used. On p. 74 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) [wrongly as caeruleopunctatus by many authors] -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:196 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:490 [ref. 25598], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:40 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:105 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:280 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969] as caeruleopunctatus, Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:105 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2491 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as caeruleopunctatus, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624] as caeruleopunctatus, Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945] as caeruleopunctatus, Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492] as caeruleopunctatus, Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256] as caeruleopunctatus, Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:109 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, northern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

coioides, Bola Hamilton [F.] 1822:82, 369 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Large Gangetic estuaries, India. No types known. Originally as "Bola?". •Valid as Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:23 [ref. 19323], Randall et al. 1990:106 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Kottelat et al. 1993:106 [ref. 23448], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:129 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:106 [ref. 25919], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2493 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as coides, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:165 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:112 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:270 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:102 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:184 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. coioides). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Fiji, north to southern Japan and Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

collettei, Liopropoma Randall [J. E.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1988:30, Pl. 3A [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 16; ref. 6429] Northwestern end of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 3-9 meters. Holotype: BPBM 14652. Paratypes: ANSP 134570 (1); BPBM 22616-17 (1, 1), 31044 (1), 31046 (1); USNM 217915 (1), 219867 (1), 219868 (publ. as 2, now 1), 220628 (1), 285948 (2), 285954 (1). •Valid as Liopropoma collettei Randall & Taylor 1988 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Mundy 2005:349 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:199 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:306 [ref. 31980], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma collettei Randall & Taylor 1988. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

colonus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no page number, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): ?MNHN A-521. Non-types: MNHN 0000-7549 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232] with a holotype and paratype; there can only be a holotype. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:300 [ref. 4504]. •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Paranthias colonus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:283 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:112 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1610 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:328 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:350 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1362 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31786] with date wrongly as 1855, Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Cambra et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36349], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). •Valid as Cephalopholis colonus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Paranthias colonus (Valenciennes 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California south to Peru, including Gulf of California; including Clipperton and Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

cometae, Epinephelus Tanaka [S.] 1927:704, Pls. 159 (fig. 445), 160 (447) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 37; ref. 14920] Tanabe and Hiro, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 7499 (1), 7509 (1), 7991 (described specimen). •Valid as Epinephelus cometae Tanaka 1927 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:198 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:178 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Lee 1990:50 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:211 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:196 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2513 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

compressus, Epinephelus Postel [E.], Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1963:364, Fig. 8 [Mémoires de l'Institut français d'Afrique Noire No. 68; ref. 5208] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: CNRO uncat. Paratypes: MNHN 1963-0127 (1), 1967-0543 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14-15 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus compressus Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:224 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Epinephelus octofasciatus Griffin 1926 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:217 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:206 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:196 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805]). •Valid as Hyporthodus compressus (Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1961) -- (Kumar et al. 2012:113 [ref. 32541]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus octofasciatus (Griffin 1926). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

compressus, Grammistes Liénard [F.] 1834:117 [Proceedings [of the General Meetings for Scientific Business] of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1); ref. 30305] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Description based on Liénard 1832:100 [ref. 30334] who only used the vernacular name Grammiste comprimé. Name not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority in favor of Aulacocephalus temminckii Bleeker 1855 is followed (Art. 23.9). •Synonym of Pogonoperca ocellata Günther 1859 -- (Fricke 1999:211 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Aulacocephalus temminckii Bleeker 1855 -- (Randall et al. 1971:174 [ref. 30341], Michel 1972:178 [ref. 30340], Monod 1976:19 [ref. 30339]). •Name should be suppressed -- (Randall et al. 1971:174 [ref. 30341]). Current status: Synonym of Aulacocephalus temminckii Bleeker 1855. Serranidae: Diploprioninae. Habitat: marine.

conceptionis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:246 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Concepción, Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1023 [or 0000-7023]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Diplectrum conceptione (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Bortone 1977:32 [ref. 7064], Pequeño 1989:59 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:361 [ref. 24555], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum conceptione (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

confertus, Serranus Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:686 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

connelli, Anthias Heemstra [P. C.] & Randall [J. E.] 1986:511, Pl. 33 (fig. 166.4 a,b) [ ref. 5667] Off Brighton Beach, south of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, wreck at 23 meters depth. Lectotype: SAIAB 10571. Paralectotypes: BPBM 24764 (3); CAS 57165 (2); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 458 (1), 10527 (1), 10572 (1); SAM 30453 (2); USNM 285752 (6). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]. Lectotype designated by Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:134 [ref. 32094]. Was to have appeared in Heemstra & Randall "1986" in the Ichth. Bull. Rhodes Univ., but that work apparently not published; species name dates to reference as given above. •Valid as Pseudanthias connelli (Heemstra & Randall 1986) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:124, 134 [ref. 32094], Anderson 2018:37 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias connelli (Heemstra & Randall 1986). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Habitat: marine.

conspersus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:139 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10161 (3). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:190 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [1ef. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

conspicuus, Anthias Heemstra [P. C.] 1973:200, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1973 (no. 2); ref. 55] Off Diu, India, Arabian Sea, 20°23'N, 70°00'E, depth 71 meters. Holotype: USNM 205864. Paratypes: FMNH 70651 (12); USNM 205862-63 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:9 [ref. 12367], Anderson 2018:38 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias conspicuus (Heemstra 1973) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690] as conspicuous, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:125, 136 [ref. 32094], Psomadakis et al. 2015:202 [ref. 34104] as cf. conspicuus, Anderson 2018:38 [ref. 36146], Eagderi et al. 2019:110 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias conspicuus (Heemstra 1973). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Somalia and Persian Gulf east to western India. Habitat: marine.

cooperi, Anthias Regan [C. T.] 1902:273 [The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes. Being the Account of the Work Carried on and of the Collections Made by an Expedition During the Years 1899 and 1900 v. 1, pt 3; ref. 14336] Haddummati Atoll, Maldives, Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1901.12.31.15. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:38 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias cooperi Regan 1902 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:511 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:501 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Pseudanthias cooperi (Regan 1902) -- (Randall et al. 1990:91 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:138 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:116 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:91 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:107 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:206 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:701 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:197 [ref. 25191], Ida & Sakaue 2001:267 [ref. 25544], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:701 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:161 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:140 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:992 [ref. 29078], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:291 [ref. 31980], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:127, 138 [ref. 32094], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Anderson 2018:38 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2018:157 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:69 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias cooperi (Regan 1902). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Line Islands, Tonga and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

corallicola, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:336 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH D154 (dry). Possible types: SMF 3054 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:106 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:125 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:132 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:130 [ref. 23929], Senou 1994:2 [ref. 24346], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:106 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2543 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:115 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:270 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to Solomon and Mariana Islands, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

coriaceus, Eleutheractis Cope [E. D.] 1871:467, Fig. 3 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13445. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Rypticus saponaceus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Courtenay 1967:249 [ref. 7882]). Current status: Synonym of Rypticus saponaceus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

coromandelicus, Serranus Day [F.] 1878:746 [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Madras, India. Holotype: ?BMNH 1889.2.1.4226 (skin). Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8272 (1, syntype); BMNH 1889.2.1.2791 (1); NMW 39248 (1); ZSI 1997 (1), 2920 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110]. Replacement name for Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1875, preoccupied by Bleeker 1874. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:81 [ref. 25480]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

coronatus, Hypoplectrodes Roberts [C. D.] in Roberts, Stewart & Struthers (eds) 2015:1189, Fig. 166.8 [ ref. 34193] Great Barrier Island (Aotea Island), Hauraki Gulf, Australia. •Was to appear in Roberts 2015 in Zootaxa (Roberts 2015:S105 [ref. 34193]). It did not appear there. Not available. Current status: Unknown. Serranidae: Anthiadinae.

coronatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:371 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0890 (1), A-7713 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26, 59 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

costae, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1878:389 [11] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 77 (1. Abth.); ref. 18774] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): NMW 39250. •Synonym of Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:26 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:118 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2390 [ref. 34618], Bañón et al. 2018:400 [ref. 36404], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864]). •Valid as Mycteroperca costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) south to Angola, including Canary and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

courtadei, Serranus Bocourt [F.] 1868:222 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 10; ref. 14069] La Union, El Salvador. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5210 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:110 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1591 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

courtenayi, Rypticus McCarthy [L. V.] 1979:396, Figs. 1b, 4, 5 [Copeia 1979 (no. 3); ref. 8806] Socorro Island, Revilla Gigedo [Revillagigedo] Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype: SIO 72-67. Paratypes: ANSP 136546 [ex SIO 58-143] (3); CAS 2002 (1); LACM 31778-13 (12), 31780-18 (12), 31781-8 (4), 31782-13 (1), 31783-16 (2), 32097-19 (11); SIO 58-142 (1), 72-66 (7), 72-67 (26); USNM 218386 [ex SIO 72-66] (7). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:112 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Rypticus courtenayi McCarthy 1979 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:118 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], Guimarães 1999:358 [ref. 24429], Thomson et al. 2000:99 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Rypticus courtenayi McCarthy 1979. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific (Revillagigedo Islands). Habitat: marine.

craigi, Epinephelus Frable [B. W.], Tucker [S. J.] & Walker [H. J., Jr.] 2018:216, Fig. [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36287] Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Epinephelus craigi Frable, Tucker & Walker 2018. Current status: Valid as Epinephelus craigi Frable, Tucker & Walker 2018. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

crapa, Lutianus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:52 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:18 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758) -- (). Current status: Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

crapao, Serranus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:494 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7332. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

craspedurus, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1910:447, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 37 (no. 1714); ref. 2494] Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype: USNM 64154. Paratypes: (5) CAS-SU 21180 (1 or 2), USNM 74585 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

creolus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:265 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Caribbean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4326 (1) Martinique, MNHN 0000-4327 (1) Santo Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:57 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

crocota, Plectropoma Cope [E. D.] 1871:466 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Lectotype: ANSP 13291. Paralectotypes: ANSP 13292 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratype. Lectotype established by Fowler 1907:262 (fig. 4) [ref. 1376]. •Synonym of Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum 1792) -- (authors). •Synonym of Hypoplectrus gummigutta (Poey 1851) -- (Domeier 1994:105 [ref. 21359]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoplectrus gummigutta (Poey 1851). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

cruentatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:244, Pl. (fig. 1) [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876 (for 27 Apr. 1876); ref. 10019] Victoria, West Africa. Syntypes: ZMB 9333 (2). Serranidae. Habitat: marine.

cruentatus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:51, 156, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Antilles and Bahamas. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:90 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:60 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus cruentatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:84 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:323 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239]). •Valid as Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:304 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:426 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:12 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:82 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1335 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:137 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, North Carolina (U.S.A.), throughout the Caribbbean Sea; possibly Brazil. Habitat: marine.

cruentus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:446 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cubanus, Epinephelus Poey [F.] 1865:202 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 18562] Cuba. Holotype (?): MCZ 10058. Poey specimens: ZMB 5222 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cubensis, Pikea Schultz [L. P.] 1958:322, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 108 (no. 3405); ref. 10155] Northeast of Caibarien, Cuba, 22°50'N, 79°08'W, depth 200-225 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 158138. Paratypes: USNM 175254 (3), 185083 (2). •Valid as Bathyanthias cubensis (Schultz 1958) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:2 [ref. 6429], Heemstra et al. 2003:1325 [ref. 27060], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:132 [ref. 28815]). Current status: Valid as Bathyanthias cubensis (Schultz 1958). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1874:46 [Poissons de Madagascar et de l'Ile la Réunion Part 4; ref. 443] Unneeded replacement name for Serranus undulosus Valenciennes 1828, not preoccupied. For date of publication (as laterst in Dec. 1974), see Kottelat 2013 [ref. 32740]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:261 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca acutirostris (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cuvierii, Serranus Smith [A.] 1832:20 [The South African Quarterly Journal No. 5, for Oct.1831; ref. 30409] Southeast coast of Australia, particularly Algoa Bay [Cape Province, South Africa]. No types known. Predates Serranus marginatus Lowe 1834; not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority according to ICZN Art. 23.9 in favor of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). But Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720] regards the species as a nomen dubium, probably in Acanthistius. •Nomen dubium in Acanthistius -- (Heemstra 2010:61 [ref. 30720] dated 1831). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

cyanopodus, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:233 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] China. Neotype: BMNH 1893.12.22.1. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 3a [ref. 11606]). Neotype was established by Randall & Whitehead 1985 [ref. 9723] -- picking the holotype of a junior synonym (punctatissimus) as neotype of cyanopodus. •Valid as Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:129 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:107 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:182 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:120 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Fowler et al. 2017:[5] 2253 [ref. 36358], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

cyanostigma, Plectropoma Bleeker [P.] 1845:525 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 2 (3); ref. 312] Original spelling cijanostigma, with Dutch ij corresponding to y in Latin. Not available, no distinguishing features; from Batavia, Java. •In the synonymy of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:16 [ref. 6009], Randall & Heemstra 1991:294 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:292 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

cyanostigma, Plectropoma Günther [A.] 1859:161 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Australian seas. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1846.10.22.1 (right half skin), 1847.6.17.3 (right half skin), 1847.6.17.22 (right half skin), 1848.10.25.7 (1, stuffed), 1848.10.25.8 (right half skin). Also listed was Plate XII, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." Apparently not preoccupied by Plectropoma cyanostigma Bleeker 1845 (not available), replaced by Plectropoma ocellatum Günther 1859. •Objective synonym of Acanthistius ocellatus (Günther 1859) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:489 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Bray 2006:1032 [ref. 29000]). •Incertae sedis in Percoidei based on placement of ocellatus -- (Smith & Craig 2007:45 [ref. 29042]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthistius ocellatus (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

cyanostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:359 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 103. •Valid as Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:41 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:40 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:227 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:101 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2477 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Satapoomin 2000:7 [ref. 25340], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:23 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra (Indonesia) east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Philippines, south to Queensland (Australia) Habitat: marine.

cyanostigmatoides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:31 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 31174 [ex RMNH 8134]. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 5478 (1), 8134 (6). •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cyclopomatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1861:353 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10180 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:191 [ref. 22926] with a holotype and paratype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cyclostomus, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:282, 293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:38 [ref. 19232]. Based on Commerson manuscript. Figured on Pl. 20 (fig. 1) in Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name only, dates to 1802. •Synonym of Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:12 [ref. 6009], Randall & Heemstra 1991:292 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:290 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:204 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cylindricus, Epinephelus Postel [E.] 1965:124, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 9244] Nouméa market, New Caledonia. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:40 [ref. 19232]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Serranus cylindricus Günther 1859 when in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cylindricus, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:151 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Madagascar. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1981.12.23.1. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805]. Also listed was Plate XI. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:186 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:179 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cyprinoides, Holanthias Katayama [M.] & Amaoka [K.] 1986:213, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 33 (no. 3); ref. 6680] Southwest of Pagalu Island [Annobón Island], Gulf of Guinea, 3°01'S, 0°46'E, depth 260-261 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 100019. Paratypes: HUMZ 100018 (1, not found in 1997), 100020 (1, not found in 1997), 100136 (1), 100137 (1, not found in 1997). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias cyprinoides (Katayama & Amaoka 1986) -- (Anderson & Baldwin 2000:372 [ref. 24574], Anderson 2006:416 [ref. 28870], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:74 [ref. 31956], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2382 [ref. 34618], Anderson et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Anthias cyprinoides (Katayama & Amaoka 1986). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: southwest of Annobón Island, Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

daba, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:44 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P.43570. Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. Appeared as Perca dentibus daba, i.e. “teeth of Perca daba”. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

daemelii, Serranus Günther [A.] 1876:391 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1876.5.1.8. Originally as Dämelii. •Valid as Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:175 [ref. 24556], Randall & Heemstra 1991:130 [ref. 19601], Paulin & Roberts 1992:140 [ref. 24625], Heemstra & Randall 1993:138 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:133 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:534 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2495 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Roberts & Gomon 2008:541 [ref. 30641], Craig et al. 2011:122 [ref. 31786], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1185 [ref. 34193], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern coast of Australia, Lord Howe and Norfolk islands, northern New Zealand, east to Kermadec islands. Habitat: marine.

danae, Flagelloserranus Kotthaus [A.] 1970:20, Fig. 15 [Dana Report No. 78; ref. 2670] West of Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles, 17°43'N, 64°56'W, depth about 35 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P43208. Paratypes: ZMUC uncat. (373). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588]. •A juvenile Liopropoma; almost certainly a synonym of a described species (W. Smith-Vaniz, 30 March 2011). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

darwinensis, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:133, Pl. 11B, Fig. 66 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] North of Bathurst Island, 10°11'S, 129°48'E, Timor Sea, depth 107 meters. Holotype (unique): NTM S.12346-001. •Valid as Epinephelus darwinensis Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:139 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2543 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999]). •Incertae sedis in Hyporthodus -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Hyporthjodus darwinensis (Randall & Heemstra 1991) -- (Craig et al. 2011:264 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus darwinensis Randall & Heemstra 1991. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Off northern Australia (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

dayi, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1875:47 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 7; ref. 4861] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1889.2.1.4226 (skin, not seen). Based on Serranus waandersi of Day 1875:12, Pl. 8 (fig. 1). See Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110] for remarks on type specimens. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1874, replaced by Serranus coromandelicus Day 1878. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dayi, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1874:105 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 14 (art. 2); ref. 5110] Cochin, India. No types known. Based on Serranus sexfasciatus of Day 1865:2 (not Valenciennes). Not Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1875. •Synonym of Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:136 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:140 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

decimalis, Grammistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:183 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

decimalis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:138 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

decorata, Perca Günther [A.] 1859:106 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Not available, name on specimen from Madeira mentioned in passing under Serranus cabrilla. Serranidae: Serraninae.

decoratus, Promicropterus Gill [T. N.] 1863:164 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): USNM 30961. Type catalog: Smith 2018:74 [ref. 36061]. •Synonym of Rypticus nigripinnis Gill 1861. Current status: Synonym of Rypticus nigripinnis Gill 1861. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

decussatus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:557 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] American Seas. Unneeded new name for Epinephelus striatus Bloch 1792. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

delissii, Serranus Bennett [E. T.] 1831:126 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 16794] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.9.13.106. •Synonym of Holanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (authors). •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus [sic flavocoeruleus] (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Odontanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:9 [ref. 28602]). Current status: Synonym of Odontanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

delsolari, Hemanthias Chirichigno F. [N.] 1974:289, 336, Fig. 558 [Informes, Especiales, Instituto del Mar del Perú. Callao No. 44; ref. 22760] Máncora and Talara, coast of Peru. •Synonym of Hemanthias signifer (Garman 1899) -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1598 [ref. 22830], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:55 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Hemanthias signifer (Garman 1899). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

dentex, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:394 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7678. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:20 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:24 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Othos dentex (Cuvier 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:506 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:134 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:545 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:102 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:989 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:548 [ref. 30641], Anderson 2018:24 [ref. 36146], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Othos dentex (Cuvier 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

dermatolepis, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:256 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 2nd edition v. 1; ref. 537] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. No types known. Replacement name for Dermatolepis punctatus Gill 1861, preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus punctatus Bloch 1790. •Valid as Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Boulenger 1895) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:65 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:107 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1581 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:315 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:350 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:270 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:80 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Dermatolepis dermatolepis (Boulenger 1895). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to northern Peru, including Clipperton and Galápagos IsIands. Habitat: marine.

dermochirus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:513 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Coromandel coast, India. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7650. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] and Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] as caeruleopunctatus). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dermopterus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:10 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D51 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH 149 (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:28 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Trisotropis dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Chen et al. 1997:44 [ref. 26476]). •Valid as Triso dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12737], Lee 1990:61 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:301 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:300 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2547 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:89 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:310, 594 [ref. 26218], Hoese et al. 2006:1023 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:101 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:350 [ref. 31786], Yoshida et al. 2013:101 [ref. 34464]). •Valid as Hyporthodus dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Triso dermopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific, anti-tropical: Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan and China; Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

dewegeri, Serranus (Paralabrax) Metzelaar [J.] 1919:52, Fig. 20 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Guanta, Venezuela. Syntypes: (2) ZMA 113104 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:90 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Serranus dewegeri Metzelaar 1919 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:308 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:139 [ref. 23100], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Paralabrax dewegeri (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Cervigón 1991:355 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:435 [ref. 23827], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:164 [ref. 25813], Heemstra et al. 2003:1361 [ref. 27060], Pondella et al. 2003:182 [ref. 29770], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:809 [ref. 33030]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax dewegeri (Metzelaar 1919). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diacanthus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:319 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coast of Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7157. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7158 (3), 1989-1018 [ex 7157] (2), A-5727 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601]. •Valid as Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1991:136 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:140 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:129 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476] dated 1829, Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:242 [ref. 24754], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:124 [ref. 31786], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern and central Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf to Sri Lanka and southeastern India. Habitat: marine.

diacopaeformis, Serranus Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:686 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

diagramma, Pseudorhegma Schultz [L. P.] 1966:193, Fig. (p. 193) [Ichthyologica, the Aquarium Journal v. 37 (no. 4); ref. 3973] Hawaii Islands, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 160672. •Synonym of Pseudogramma polyacanthum (Bleeker 1856) -- (Randall & Baldwin 1997:39 [ref. 22812]). •Synonym of Pseudogramma brederi (Hildebrand 1940) -- (Williams & Viviani 2016:253 [ref. 34442]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudogramma brederi (Hildebrand 1940). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dichropterus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Japan? [probably Indonesia]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7403 (2) Brazil; ZMB 5533 [not 365] (dry, lectotype of ongus), ?5214 (1, dry) Japan. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27, 60 [ref. 19232], Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. Based on Holocentrus ongus Bloch 1790 and authors, plus specimens; not regarded as a replacment name. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diktiophorus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1856:38 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5158 (1). Later spelled dictiophorus. •Valid as Epinephelus dictyophorus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983:407 [ref. 8284], Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dimidiatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:129 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 26953. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dimidius, Hypoplectrodes Roberts [C. D.] in Roberts, Stewart & Struthers (eds) 2015:1190, Fig. 166.9 [ ref. 34193] Mokohinau Islands, Northland, New Zealand. •Was to appear in Roberts 2015 in Zootaxa (Roberts 2015:S105 [ref. 34193]). It did not appear there. Not available. Current status: Unknown. Serranidae: Anthiadinae.

dispar, Mirolabrichthys Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1955:224 [Copeia 1955 (no. 3); ref. 11050] Gizo Island, Solomon Islands. Holotype: UW 10628 (49 mm). Paratypes: UW 10628 (5, with holotype). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:38 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Mirolabrichthys dispar Herre 1955 -- (Heemstra 1973:208 [ref. 55], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:138 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Anthias dispar (Herre 1955) -- (Allen & Starck 1982:47 [ref. 8518], Paxton et al. 1989:401 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Pseudanthias dispar (Herre 1955) -- (Randall et al. 1990:92 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:92 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:118 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:92 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:107 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:705 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Suzuki 2001:115 [ref. 26143], Nakabo 2002:705 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:141 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:992 [ref. 29078], Allen & Erdmann 2012:292 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35333], Anderson 2018:38 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2019:123 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias dispar (Herre 1955). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) east to the Line Islands, Fiji and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

dispar, Serranus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:6, Pl. 1 (figs. 2-3) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Seychelles; Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1867.3.9.22 ["var. b"] (1, stuffed). •Serranus dispar var. B. is a synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2516 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dispilurus, Centropristis Günther [A.] 1867:99 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 1) (art. 2) (for 24 Jan. 1867); ref. 1986] Trinidad Island, West Indies. Syntypes: BMNH 2013.7.2.1-2 (2). •Synonym of Serranus flaviventris (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Serranus flaviventris (Cuvier 1829). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

ditobo, Promicrops Roux [C.] & Collignon [J.] 1954:473 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 12470] Kouilou Estuary, Congo, western Africa. Syntypes: (2) MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:44 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus esonue (Ehrenbaum 1915) -- (Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708]). •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

doederleinii, Epinephelus Franz [V.] 1910:35 [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama and Dzushi, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (8) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:281 [ref. 28925]. Originally as döderleinii. •Synonym of Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:243 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:222 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2519 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dorsoluteum, Liopropoma Kon [T.], Yoshino [T.] & Sakurai [Y.] 1999:67, Figs. 1, 2A [Ichthyological Research v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 23738] Okinawa Fish Market (from Yaeyama Island), Okinawa, Japan. Holotype: URM-P 29743. Paratypes: NSMT-P 55181 (1). •Valid as Liopropoma dorsoluteum Kon, Yoshino & Sakurai 1999 -- (Nakabo 2000:728 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:728 [ref. 26001], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma dorsoluteum Kon, Yoshino & Sakurai 1999. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia (Lombok), Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

dorsomaculatus, Odontanthias Katayama [M.] & Yamamoto [E.] 1986:387, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 32 (no. 4); ref. 6716] Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean, 10°43'S, 61°19'E, depth 120 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 74194. Paratypes: HUMZ 73951 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Odontanthias dorsomaculatus Katayama & Yamamoto 1986 -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:13 [ref. 28602], White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Odontanthias dorsomaculatus Katayama & Yamamoto 1986. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank. Habitat: marine.

drachi, Diploprion Roux-Estève [R.] in Roux-Estève & Fourmanoir 1955:197 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco (Nouvelle Série) v. 30 (art. 7); ref. 5324] Abu Latt, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, 19°58.0'N, 40°07.60' E. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1952-0253. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Diploprion drachi Roux-Estève 1955 -- (Randall et al. 1971:173 [ref. 30341], Dor 1984:105 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Baldwin & Smith 1998:334 [ref. 23622], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Diploprion drachi Roux-Estève 1955. Serranidae: Diploprioninae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

drewesi, Serranus (Paracentropristis) Iwamoto [T.] in Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:11, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 65 (no. 1); ref. 36189] Santana Islet, submarine cave, São Tomé Island, São Tomé and Principe, 0°14'33.1''N, 6°45'36.1''E, 18.9 m depth. Holotype (unique): CAS 234050. Geographical coordinates of type locality incorrect in original description. •Valid as Serranus drewesi Iwamoto 2018. Current status: Valid as Serranus drewesi Iwamoto 2018. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

drummondhayi, Epinephelus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1878:173 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 1 (no. 23); ref. 18129] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A.; Bermuda. Syntypes: USNM 16795 (1), 21255 (1, missing in 1980). Originally as drummond-hayi, correction mandatory. •Valid as Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode & Bean 1878 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:87 [ref. 36591], Heemstra & Randall 1993:142 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:19 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:206 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1340 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:143 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:127 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Hyporthodus drummondhayi (Goode & Bean 1878) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus drummondhayi Goode & Bean 1878. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina, Florida, and northern Gulf of Mexico to Texas U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:142 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Probably near Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 10019. See Smith 1966:2 [ref. 29777] for remarks on type. •Based on a hybrid of Paranthias furcifer and Cephalopholis fulva -- (see Smith 1966:1 [ref. 29777] and Heemstra & Randall 1993:26 [ref. 21042]). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

duplicidentatus, Anthias Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:169 [26] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ (apparently lost). On p. 26 of separate. •Synonym of Holanthias martinicensis (Guichenot 1868) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 1980:82 [ref. 5434]). •Synonym of Pronotogrammus martinicensis (Guichenot 1868) -- (Carvalho-Filho et al. 2009:38 [ref. 30412], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:99 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Pronotogrammus martinicensis (Guichenot 1868). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

earlei, Luzonichthys Randall [J. E.] 1981:14, Fig. 4 [Freshwater and Marine Aquarium v. 4 (1981, no. 9); ref. 5549] Off Maile Point, Waianae coast, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 55 meters. Holotype: BPBM 22754. Paratypes: AMS I.22166-001 (1); BMNH 1981.3.18.3 (1); BPBM 19926 (10), 22607 (1), 22706 (1), 22755 (4); CAS 48093 [not 58093] (1); MNHN 1981-0859 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 512 (1); USNM 226552 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:18 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:19 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Luzonichthys earlei Randall 1981 -- (Randall & McCosker 1992:5 [ref. 20204], Myers 1999:106 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815], Mundy 2005:341 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:191 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:286 [ref. 31980], Copus et al. 2015:2 [ref. 33771], Anderson 2018:19 [ref. 36146], Shepherd et al. 2019:24 [ref. 36755]). Current status: Valid as Luzonichthys earlei Randall 1981. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives, Christmas Island, Marshall Islands east to Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

ecosur, Hypoplectrus Victor [B. C.] 2012:11, Fig. 10 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 5; ref. 32153] Quintana Roo, off Contoy, 20.49°N, 86.80°W, Yucatan, Mexico. Holotype: ECOCH 7180 (83 mm SL). Paratypes: ECOCH 7150 (1), 7180 (1). •Valid as Hypoplectrus ecosur Victor 2012 -- (Tavera & Acero P. 2013:33 [ref. 32434], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Victor & Marks 2018:12 [ref. 36139]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus ecosur Victor 2012. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

elaine, Plectranthias Heemstra [P. C.] & Randall [J. E.] 2009:7, Fig. 2 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin v. 10; ref. 30535] Off Qolora River, Eastern Cape Province, 32°38.2'S, 28°27.6'E, South Africa, depth 114 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 28200. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias elaine Heemstra & Randall 2009 -- (Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias elaine Heemstra & Randall 2009. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa (Eastern Cape Province to KwaZulu-Natal). Habitat: marine.

elizabethae, Odontanthias Fowler [H. W.] 1923:380 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 8 (no. 7); ref. 1398] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 3404. Paratypes: BPBM 3405 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146] •Valid as Holanthias elizabethae Fowler 1923 -- (Mundy 2005:341 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Odontanthias elizabethae Fowler 1923 -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:14 [ref. 28602], Randall 2007:192 [ref. 30952], White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:22 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Odontanthias elizabethae Fowler 1923. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Anthias Franz [V.] 1910:39, Pl. 6 (fig. 51) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (31) destroyed in WW II. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:280 [ref. 28925], Anderson 2018:38 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias elongatus Franz 1910 -- (Lee 1990:5 [ref. 19830]). •Valid as Pseudanthias elongatus (Franz 1910) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:136 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:704 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Suzuki 2001:114 [ref. 26143], Nakabo 2002:704 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:310, 594 [ref. 26218], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Anderson 2018:38 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias elongatus (Franz 1910). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:345, Pl. 25 (fig. c); Fig. 53 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Ocean reef off Giriinien Island, Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141844. Paratypes: FMNH 62611-12 (2, 1); USNM 115371 (1), 115384 (1), 139694 (2), 141836-42 (1, 2, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2), 141845-48 (1, 1, 2, 1), 141850-56 (6, 2, 1, 1, 1, 7, 2), 141930-32 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1774) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2526 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:163 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Plectranthias Wu [K.-Y.], Randall [J. E.] & Chen [J.-P.] 2011:248, Fig. 1 [Zoological Studies v. 50 (no. 2); ref. 31227] Hsing-Ta Harbor, Kaohsiung, southwestern Taiwan, 22°412.566'N, 119°54.085'E, depth 243 meters. Holotype (unique): NMMST P01301. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias elongatus Wu, Randall & Chen 2011 -- (Okamoto et al. 2012:55 [ref. 32087], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Gill et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34957], Okamoto & Motomura 2017:51 [ref. 35248], Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias elongatus Wu, Randall & Chen 2011. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: marine.

emanueli, Liopropoma Wirtz [P.] & Schliewen [U. K.] 2012:150, Figs. 1-2 [Spixiana (München) v. 35 (no. 1); ref. 32169] Dive site "Danger" near Tarrafal / Santiago Island (15°15'51.22"N, 23°45'35.41"W), below overhanging large boulder, depth 20 meters. Holotype: ZSM 41221. Paratypes: ZSM 41222 (1). •Valid as Liopropoma emanueli Wirtz & Schliewen 2012 -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma emanueli Wirtz & Schliewen 2012. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Tarrafal, Santiago Island, Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

emarginatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:10 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7437 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:265 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Mycterperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2399 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

emma, Pseudanthias Gill [A. C.] & Psomadakis [P. N.] 2018:526, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 4455 (no. 3); ref. 36054] Off Tanintharyi coast, Myanmar, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean, 11°39.96'N, 97°16.16'E, depth 105 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 203722. •Valid as Pseudanthias emma Gill & Psomadakis 2018. Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias emma Gill & Psomadakis 2018. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

emoryi, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:340, Fig. 52 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon coral head at Bikini Atoll, 11°33'13"N, 165°28'39"E, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 30-45 feet. Holotype: USNM 141929. Paratypes: FMNH 62613 [ex USNM 139695] (1); USNM 139695 (orig. 6, now 5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:147 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2499 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

engelhardi, Anthias Allen [G. R.] & Starck [W. A., II] 1982:48, Figs. 2-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 8518] Escape Reef, Great Barrier Reef, depth 58 meters. Holotype: AMS I.22632-005. Paratypes: AMS I.22629-003 (1), I.22632-011 (1); WAM P.27483-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:19 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias engelhardi Allen & Starck 1982 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:501 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Pseudanthias engelhardi (Allen & Starck 1982) -- (Randall et al. 1990:92 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:92 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:107 [ref. 23965], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Allen et al. 2006:992 [ref. 29078], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:292 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias engelhardi (Allen & Starck 1982). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia), Papua New Guinea, and Loyalty Islands (New Caledonia) to Fiji and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

eos, Pronotogrammus Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:62 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Gulf of California, Mexico, 24°30'15"N, 110°29'W, Albatross station 2996, depth 112 fathoms. Lectotype: CAS-SU 229 [now at CAS]. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 69848 [now at CAS] [ex SU 229] (1); USNM 44387 (1), 46550 (3), 125366 [ex USBF] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291], Anderson 2018:9 [ref. 36146]. Lectotype selected by Anderson & Heemstra 2012:113 [ref. 31956]. •Valid as Pronotogrammus eos Gilbert 1890 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:313 [ref. 14275], Baldwin 1990:925 [ref. 21029], Bussing & López S. 1994:96 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1611 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:338 [ref. 24023], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:379 [ref. 24574], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Palacios-Salgado & Ramírez-Valdez 2011:95 [ref. 37124], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Baldwinella eos (Gilbert 1890) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:112 [ref. 31956], Robertson et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35676], Anderson 2018:9 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Baldwinella eos (Gilbert 1890). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California south to Colombia and Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

ephippium, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:408 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Possibly Java, Indonesia. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7794. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:20, 59 [ref. 19232]. New name for Holocentrus unicolor Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum 1792) -- (Bauchot et al. 1984:20, 59 [ref. 19232]). Current status: Synonym of Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum 1792). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

epinephelus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:330, 357 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Jamaica. Unneeded new name for Epinephelus striatus Bloch 1792. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

epistictus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:8 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D88 (stuffed). Type information: Boeseman 1947:24 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Mycteroperca episticta (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as epistictus). •Valid as Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:43 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:306 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:143 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476] dated 1843, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2496 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:720 [ref. 25086], Krupp et al. 2000:328 [ref. 25117], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:720 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:309, 591 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Al-Mukhtar et al. 2011:136 [ref. 31710], Craig et al. 2011:129 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:342 [ref. 36985], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Korea, southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

ergastularius, Epinephelus (Schistorus) Whitley [G. P.] 1930:119, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 4669] Off Long Bay, near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.2482. Paratypes: AMS I.4039 (1), I.11252 (1), I.13809 (1), IA 3992 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus septemfasciata (Thunberg 1793) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Epinephelus ergastularius Whitley 1930 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:140 [ref. 19601], Randall et al. 1993:26 [ref. 21004], Heemstra & Randall 1993:145 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2497 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999]). •Valid as Hyporthodus ergastularius (Whitley 1930) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:266 [ref. 31786], Kumar et al. 2012:115 [ref. 32541], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus ergastularius (Whitley 1930). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Australia: Queensland and New South Wales. Habitat: marine.

erythraeum, Liopropoma Randall [J. E.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1988:15, Pl. 4B [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 16; ref. 6429] Off Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, about 100 meters. Holotype: SMBL 73415 [not seen at FAKU]. Paratypes: (2) SMBL 73146 (1) [not seen at FAKU]. Replacement name for Pikea rubre Yoshino & Araga 1975, preoccupied in Liopropoma by Lipropoma rubre Poey 1861. •Valid as Liopropoma erythraeum Randall & Taylor 1988 -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:15 [ref. 6429], Kon et al. 1999:69 [ref. 23738], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:728 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:728 [ref. 26001], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma erythraeum Randall & Taylor 1988. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

erythraeus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:320 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N 34°15'E. No types known. •Unneeded replacement name for, and objective synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

erythraeus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:516 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7346. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:182 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

erythreum, Pseudogramma Randall [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 1997:25, Pl. 1 (fig. D) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 26; ref. 22812] Northern side, Caban Island [off southwestern Luzon, Batangas], Philippines, 13°39'N 120°50'E. Holotype (unique): BPBM 22233. Pseudogramma is feminine, so name should be erythrea. •Valid as Pseudogramma erythreum Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:161 [ref. 25813], Allen & Erdmann 2012:310 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:65 [ref. 33932]). •Valid as Pseudogramma erythrea Randall & Baldwin 1997. Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma erythrea Randall & Baldwin 1997. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

erythrogaster, Serranus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:21, Pl. 19 (fig. 52) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Florida, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

erythrurus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:320 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Malabar region, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7545. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:142 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:146 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2543 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as erythrourus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Socotra and Pakistan east to the Gulf of Thailand, Borneo and Sulawesi and other islands of Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

esonue, Promicrops Ehrenbaum [E.] 1915:54, Fig. [Über Küstenfische von Westafrika, besonders von Kamerun.; ref. 15784] Cameroon, West Africa. No types known. Also appeared in Ehrenbaum 1914:293 [ref. 17457]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110]). •Valid as Epinephelus esonue (Ehrenbaum 1915) -- (Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Thomson et al. 2000:89 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1343 [ref. 27060], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

estuarius, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1883:200 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 14342] Mary River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): MAMU (missing). •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

eukrines, Chorististium Starck [W. A., II] & Courtenay [W. R., Jr.] 1962:159, Figs. 1 a-b [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 75; ref. 6501] 2 1/2 miles south-southwest of Alligator Reef lighthouse, Monroe County, Florida, U.S.A., depth 150 feet. Holotype: ANSP 94357. Paratypes: USNM 196728 (1), 208564 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Liopropoma eukrines (Starck & Courtenay 1962) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:143 [ref. 23100], Randall & Taylor 1988:3 [ref. 6429], Bullock & Smith 1991:124 [ref. 36591], Boschung 1992:107 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:434 [ref. 23827], Heemstra et al. 2003:1326 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:163 [ref. 28815], Wirtz & Schliewen 2012:151 [ref. 32169], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Baldwin & Johnson 2014:7 [ref. 33312], Baldwin & Robertson 2014:75 [ref. 33311]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma eukrines (Starck & Courtenay 1962). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

eumelum, Diplectrum Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Johnson [G. D.] 1974:185, Fig. 1b [California Fish and Game v. 60 (no. 4); ref. 7537] Bahía de Banderas, Jalisco, Mexico, depth 31-35 meters. Holotype: SIO 65-160. Paratypes: SIO 15-111 (1) (ex UCLA W56-118), 15-181 (54) (ex UCLA W63-148), 65-160 (8), 70-141 (2), 70-218 (24), 71-57 (8), 71-249 (2); UCLA 63-142 (12); USNM 216407 [ex SIO 62-51] (7). •Valid as Diplectrum eumelum Rosenblatt & Johnson 1974 -- (Bortone 1977:39 [ref. 7064], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:90 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1582 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:282 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:335 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:362 [ref. 24555], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum eumelum Rosenblatt & Johnson 1974. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

euryplectrum, Diplectrum Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:157 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia. Syntypes: CAS-SU 1172 (6), 1458 (7); USNM 41141 (2), 41148 (1), ?41400 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Diplectrum euryplectrum Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Bortone 1977:36 [ref. 7064], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:90 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1583 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:276 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:335 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:361 [ref. 24555], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum euryplectrum Jordan & Bollman 1890. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

evansi, Anthias Smith [J. L. B.] 1954:1, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 7 (no. 73) (art. 1); ref. 4090] Shimoni, Kenya, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 125. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 38094 (6 not 5). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias evansi Smith 1954 -- (Heemstra 1973:207 [ref. 55], Heemstra & Randall 1986:512 [ref. 5667], Fricke 1999:207 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Mirolabrichthys evansi (Smith 1954) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251]). •Valid as Pseudanthias evansi (Smith 1954) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:93 [ref. 30492], Allen & Erdmann 2012:293 [ref. 31980], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:125, 141 [ref. 32094], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2018:157 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:69 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias evansi (Smith 1954). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Cocos-Keeling and Christmas islands, north to Andaman Sea and western Sumatra. Habitat: marine.

exsul, Plectranthias Heemstra [P. C.] & Anderson [W. D., Jr.] 1983:632, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 96 (no. 4); ref. 8334] North of Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Islands, 33°37'S, 78°49'W. Holotype: ANSP 127843. Paratypes: BPBM 27978 (1), MCZ 52520 (2), USNM 176577 (1), ZMMU P-16022. Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:81 [ref. 25714], Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]. Paratypes from the Nazca Ridge are now identified as P. nazcae. •Valid as Plectranthias exsul Heemstra & Anderson 1983 -- (Pequeño 1989:59 [ref. 14125], Anderson & Randall 1991:341 [ref. 18968], Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441], Randall 1996:117 [ref. 23194], Rojas & Pequeño 1998:49 [ref. 23540], Rojas & Pequeño 1998:185 [ref. 23775], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:380 [ref. 24574], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590], Anderson & Baldwin 2002:233 [ref. 25898], Anderson 2008:435 [ref. 29940], Dyer & Westneat 2010:605 [ref. 31446], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:37 [ref. 31956], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Shepherd et al. 2018:112 [ref. 35955], Anderson 2018:26 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias exsul Heemstra & Anderson 1983. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands and questionably from Desventuradas Islands. Habitat: marine.

exsul, Serrihastaperca Fowler [H. W.] 1944:385, 396, Figs. 182-183 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] About 20 miles south of Mazatlán, Mexico (stomach content). Holotype: ANSP 70060. Paratypes: ANSP 70061-62 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Young of ?Epinephelus -- (Heemstra 1974:25 [ref. 7125]). •Valid as Epinephelus exsul (Fowler 1944) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:146 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1593 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1341 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807]). •Valid as Hyporthodus exsul (Fowler 1944) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:269 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus exsul (Fowler 1944). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

extensa, Anthias rasor var. Klunzinger [C. B.] 1872:17 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 38 (pt. 1); ref. 2623] Hobson's Bay, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: SMNS 1559 [incl. old catalog number 1566] (2). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:17 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:58 [ref. 29864]. As Anthias extensus in Klunzinger 1880:339, Pl. 2 [ref. 2624]. •Synonym of Caesioperca rasor (Richardson 1839) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:503 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:983 [ref. 29078]). Current status: Synonym of Caesioperca rasor (Richardson 1839). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

fairchildi, Scorpis Hector [J.] 1875:241 [Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute v. 7 (art. 34); ref. 18269] Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. No types known. •Synonym of Caprodon longimanus (Günther 1859) -- (Rojas & Pequeño 1998:177 [ref. 23775], Dyer & Westneat 2010:605 [ref. 31446], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:27 [ref. 31956]). •Status uncertain -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:23 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Caprodon longimanus (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

falcatus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:138 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Marianao, near Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: ?MCZ (1, dismembered skeleton), MCZ 10014 (1), 10183 (1), 10188 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fario, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:296, Pl. 9 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26702] Japan. No types known. •Valid as Epinephelus fario (Thunberg 1793) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:222 [ref. 26639] dated 1792, Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476] dated 1792). •Regarded as unidentifiable; see Randall & Heemstra 1991:276 [ref. 19601]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus fario Thunberg 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

faroa, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:8 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Franzia Kamohara [T.] 1955:3, Fig. 1 [Research Reports of Kôchi University v. 3 (no. 26); ref. 12652] Okinoshima, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): BSKU 3032. Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:3 [ref. 19282]. •Valid as Anthias fasciata (Kamohara 1955) -- (Allen & Starck 1982:49 [ref. 8518] dated 1954, Paxton et al. 1989:501 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:6 [ref. 19830]). •Valid as Pseudanthias fasciatus (Kamohara 1955) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:136 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:93 [ref. 15987], Krupp & Paulus 1991:388 [ref. 20209], Kuiter 1993:140 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:28 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:92 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:116 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:93 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:107 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:704 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Ida & Sakaue 2001:267 [ref. 25544], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Nakabo 2002:704 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Allen et al. 2006:992 [ref. 29078], Motomura et al. 2010:123 [ref. 31101], Motomura et al. 2010:100 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:293 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146]). •Synonym of Pseudanthias gibbosus (Klunzinger 1884) -- (Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:142 [ref. 32094] for Red Sea populations only, Gill & Psomadakis 2018:530 [ref. 36054], Golani & Fricke 2018:66 [ref. 36273] for Red Sea populations, Fricke et al. 2019:123 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias fasciatus (Kamohara 1955). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xi, 40 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N, 34°15'E. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Gill & Kemp 2002:165 [ref. 30496] suggest splitting into several species; Epinephelus fasciatus would be restricted to Red Sea and Indian Ocean (or possibly to northern Red Sea only). Others (some unnamed): Western Australia; Western Pacific; Japan; Pacific Plate islands; Marquesas. •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:218 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:180 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Lee 1990:45 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:307 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:134 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:235 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:107 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2499 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:182 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:84 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:309, 591 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:134 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:272 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Yoshigou 2019:199 [ref. 36714], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Socotra east to Wake Atoll, Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatomaculosus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1865:111 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1865; ref. 13951] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 5552 (2). Misspelled fasciatomaculatus in early literature. •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculatus (Peters 1865) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:44 [ref. 19830]). •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus (Peters 1865) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:143 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:148 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2498 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:722 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:83 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:722 [ref. 26001], Craig et al. 2011:133 [ref. 31786] dated 1866, Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus (Peters 1865). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan and Taiwan, Philippines, along coast to Vietnam, China and to Sarawak (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

fasciatum, Liopropoma Bussing [W. A.] 1980:147, Fig. 1 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 28 (no. 1); ref. 6904] Off Isla del Caño, 17 kilometers west of Osa Peninsula, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, depth 240 meters. Holotype (unique): LACM 38650-1. •Valid as Liopropoma fasciatum Bussing 1980 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:288 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:337 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Thomson et al. 2000:98 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma fasciatum Bussing 1980. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Alphestes Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:163, Fig. 36 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 127950. Paratypes: (10 + 1) USNM 127951-54 (1, now 4, 1, 2); Gov't Peru [ex USNM 127952] (1). Two additional specimens (USNM 107069, USNM 119771) not regarded as types -- questionably referred to species. •Synonym of Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:21 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1578 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:86, Pl. 240 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] No locality. On p. 67 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Labrus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:265 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] •Synonym of Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Paralabrax Bleeker [P.] 1872:150 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] China. No types known. Original as Paralabrax? fasciatus. Based on a painting. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Plectropoma Costa [O. G.] 1844:Plectropoma p. 1, Pl. 6 [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] [Napoli] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Perca fasciata Forsskål 1775 in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:26 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Prionodes Jenyns [L.] 1840:47, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:20, 59 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Serranus psittacinus Valenciennes 1846 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:333 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:360 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus psittacinus Valenciennes 1846. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

fascicularis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:245, Pl. 30 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7022. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Bortone 1977:11 [ref. 7064]). Current status: Synonym of Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus 1766). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

faveatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:329 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1714 (1) Sri Lanka. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:152 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:152 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2500 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Allen & Erdmann 2012:272 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). •Synonym in part of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1858) -- (Fricke 1999:191 [ref. 24106] for Mauritius record, Craig et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31786]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India and Sri Lanka, Cocos-Keeling Islands and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

felinus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:134 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 9994-95 (2), 10004 (1), 10071 (1), 10073 (1), 10192 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:192 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fijiensis, Plectranthias Raj [U.] & Seeto [J.] 1983:15, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 30 (no. 1); ref. 8285] Suva Barrier Reef, Fiji Islands, 18°12'S, 178°25'E, depth 293 meters. Holotype (unique): USP 4392. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias fijiensis Raj & Seeto 1983 -- (Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441], Randall & Hoese 1995:333 [ref. 21929], Randall 1996:117 [ref. 23194], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias fijiensis Raj & Seeto 1983. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Fiji. Habitat: marine.

filamenta, Lepidoperca Roberts [C. D.] 1987:83 [Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 17722] West of Eucla, Great Australian Bight, 32°20'S, 128°00"E, Western Australia, depth 128-220 meters. Holotype: AMS I.12339. Paratypes: AMS E.2356-61 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), E.2489 (1), I.12335-38 (1, 1, 1, 1), 12340 (1); WAM P.26804-001 (2). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Lepidoperca filamenta Roberts 1987 -- (Roberts 1989:572 [ref. 12486], Gomon et al. 1994:542 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:987 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:546 [ref. 30641], Anderson 2018:17 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Lepidoperca filamenta Roberts 1987. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

filamentosus, Tosanoides Kamohara [T.] 1953:3, Fig. 3 [Research Reports of Kôchi University v. 2 (no. 11); ref. 2553] Okinoshima, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): BSKU 1908. Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:3 [ref. 19282], Anderson 2018:53 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Tosanoides filamentosus Kamohara 1953 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:135 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:696 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:696 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Pyle et al. 2016:174 [ref. 35003], Anderson 2018:53 [ref. 36146], Pinheiro et al. 2018:112 [ref. 36158], Pyle et al. 2018:150 [ref. 36180], Allen & Walsh 2019:33 [ref. 36524]). Current status: Valid as Tosanoides filamentosus Kamohara 1953. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

filiferus, Meganthias Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2008:6, Figs. 1-2 [Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin v. 68; ref. 29984] Off southwest coast of Thailand, Andaman Sea, depth 150 meters on bottom long line. Holotype (unique): PMBC 10034. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:20 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Meganthias filiferus Randall & Heemstra 2008 -- (Akhilesh et al. 2009:1 [ref. 31046], White 2011:21 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:20 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Meganthias filiferus Randall & Heemstra 2008. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: southwestern India east to Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

fimbriatus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:195, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society v. 6 (pts 1); ref. 2828] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 3388. Possible syntype: BMNH 1858.4.2.81 (1). Unneeded replacement name for Serranus marginatus Lowe 1834, not preoccupied by Serranus marginalis Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

flagris, Odontanthias Yoshino [T.] & Araga [C.] in Masuda, Araga & Yoshino 1975:219, Pl. 51 (fig. b) [Coastal fishes of southern Japan; ref. 2902] Off Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: SMBL F73147 [not seen at FAKU]. Paratypes: SMBL 73148-55 (8) [not seen at FAKU]. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:23 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Holanthias flagris (Yoshino & Araga 1975) -- (Nakabo 2000:698 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:698 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Odontanthias flagris Yoshino & Araga 1975 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:135 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 2006:15 [ref. 28602], White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:23 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Odontanthias flagris Yoshino & Araga 1975. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, Ogasawara Islands (Japan). Habitat: marine.

flammeus, Plectranthias Williams [J. T.], Delrieu-Trottin [E.] & Planes [S.] 2013:170, Figs. 2, 4 [Zootaxa 3647 (no. 1); ref. 32703] Nuku Hiva, Uea, west coast, on rock wall dropping to rubble and sand slope, Marquesas, French Polynesia, 10°28.29'S, 138°40.674'W, depth 20-40 meters. Holotype: USNM 409013. Paratypes: MNHN 2013-0001 [ex. USNM 409014] (1); USNM 409019 (1), 409425 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias flammeus Williams, Delrieu-Trottin & Planes 2013 -- (Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Gill et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34957], Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias flammeus Williams, Delrieu-Trottin & Planes 2013. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

flavescens, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:506 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7028. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

flavicauda, Hyporthodus Gill [T. N.] 1861:98 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13; ref. 1772] Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

flavicauda, Pseudanthias Randall [J. E.] & Pyle [R. L.] 2001:23, Figs. 5-8 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 49 (no. 1); ref. 25690] Beqa (Mbengga) Island, ocean side, Fiji, depth 61 meters. Holotype: BPBM 33921. Paratypes: AMS I.39907-001 (1); BMNH 2000.1.6.2 (1); BPBM 37209 (1), 38667-68 (1, 3); CAS 210369 (1); USNM 359478 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias flavicauda Randall & Pyle 2001 -- (Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495] with author as Randall (not this species, is tequila), Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:141 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Gill et al. 2017:72 [ref. 35653], Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias flavicauda Randall & Pyle 2001. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Fiji. Habitat: marine.

flavidum, Liopropoma Randall [J. E.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1988:35, Pl. 3C [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 16; ref. 6429] Reef off Avera, Rurutu, Austral Islands, depth 58 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 13701. •Valid as Liopropoma flavidum Randall & Taylor 1988 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:171 [ref. 28239], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma flavidum Randall & Taylor 1988. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: South Pacific. Habitat: marine.

flavimarginatus, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:109 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Al Muwaylih, Tabuk Province, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF (lost). Non-type: SMF 544 (1). •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:103 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

flaviventris, Dules Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:113 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-3018 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:116 [ref. 12478]. •Valid as Serranus flaviventris (Cuvier 1829) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:139 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:361 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:436 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27621], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:809 [ref. 33030], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Serranus flaviventris (Cuvier 1829). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay. Habitat: marine.

flavocaeruleus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:331, 367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Neotype: MNHN A-5747 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:41 [ref. 19232]. Originally flavo-cæruleus. Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Neotype designated by Randall & Whitehead 1985:37 [ref. 9723]. •Valid as Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:194 [ref. 19756], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:525 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:166 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:140 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Andaman Islands, western Thailand, Malay Peninsula and Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

flavofasciatus, Tosanoides Katayama [M.] & Masuda [H.] 1980:51, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 27 (no. 1); ref. 8707] Off Izu-Oshima, Japan, 34°47'N, 139°24'E, depth 50 meters. Holotype: ZUMT 54241. Paratypes: FSFL EE814 (1), NSMT-P 22994 [ex Kanayama coll. 5744] (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:53 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Tosanoides flavofasciatus Katayama & Masuda 1980 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:135 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:463, 665 [ref. 8056], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2471 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:697 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:697 [ref. 26001], Pyle et al. 2016:174 [ref. 35003], Anderson 2018:53 [ref. 36146], Pinheiro et al. 2018:113 [ref. 36158], Pyle et al. 2018:150 [ref. 36180], Allen & Walsh 2019:33 [ref. 36524]). Current status: Valid as Tosanoides flavofasciatus Katayama & Masuda 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

flavoguttatus, Anthias (Mirolabrichthys) Katayama [M.] & Masuda [H.] 1980:187, Figs. 2-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 8708] Coast of Izu-Oshima, Japan, depth 50 meters. Holotype: ZUMT 54243. Paratypes: NSMT-P 19137-38 (1, 1); ZUMT 54244 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Mirolabrichthys flavoguttatus (Katayama & Masuda 1980) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:137 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Pseudanthias flavoguttatus (Katayama & Masuda 1980) -- (Myers 1999:108 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:707 [ref. 25086], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Nakabo 2002:707 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2005:131 [ref. 28745], Allen & Erdmann 2012:294 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:39 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias flavoguttatus (Katayama & Masuda 1980). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), Indonesia, Palau, Marshall Islands and to Japan. Habitat: marine.

flavoguttatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:429 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique. Holotype (unique): ZMB 257. Also described as new in Peters 1855:235 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] and Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] but as caeruleopunctatus). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

flavolimbatus, Epinephelus Poey [F.] 1865:183 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 13954] Matanzas, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Epinephelus flavolimbatus Poey 1865 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:300 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:91 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:330 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:427 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:155 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:20 [ref. 25512], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Heemstra et al. 2003:1341 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:144 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Poey 1865) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:270 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus flavolimbatus (Poey 1865). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) to French Guinea; central Brazil to Brazil/Uruguay border. Habitat: marine.

flavopurpurea, Perca Bennett [J. W.] 1830:unnum. p., Pl. 19 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Originally as flavo-purpurea, correction mandatory. As Cynichthys flavopurpuratus in Swainson 1838:202. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

flavus, Holocentrus Risso [A.] 1810:293 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:41 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). (Bauchot et al. 1984:41 [ref. 19232]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

floridae, Hypoplectrus Victor [B. C.] 2012:4, Figs. 1-5, 7 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 5; ref. 32153] Ten Thousand Islands, 25.6°N, 81.25°W, off Everglades, southwestern Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: SIO 12-58 (40.3 mm SL). Paratypes: SIO 12-58 (3), 12-59 (1). Plus photographs. •Valid as Hypoplectrus floridae Victor 2012 -- (Tavera & Acero P. 2013:33 [ref. 32434], Victor & Marks 2018:12 [ref. 36139]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus floridae Victor 2012. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Gulf of Mexico and southern Florida, U.S.A. Habitat: marine.

foresti, Plectranthias Fourmanoir [P.] 1977:269, Fig. 2 [Cahiers du Pacifique No. 20; ref. 7247] Off southwestern Luzon, Philippines, 14°01'N, 120°16'E, depth 183-185 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1976-0377. Paratypes: BPBM 20873 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:19 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias foresti Fourmanoir 1977 -- (Randall 1980:124 [ref. 6717], Randall 1996:122 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Bineesh et al. 2014:494 [ref. 33319], Fricke et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33930], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Gill et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34957], Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias foresti Fourmanoir 1977. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

formosa, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1766:488 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Syntypes: Linn. Soc. Lond. 92 (right half-skin) Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:48-49 [ref. 20705]. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:203 [ref. 1841]. Based on multiple aources, including the 'Grunt; Perca marina capite striato' of Catesby 1743:6, Pl. 6, fig. 1 (v. 2) [ref. 774] [locality not stated], 'Squirrelfish' in manuscript description and a specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Bortone 1977:11 [ref. 7064], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:311 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:141 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:47 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:319 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:434 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:268 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:206 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1338 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:141 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus 1766). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

formosa, Sciaena Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1812:no page number, Pl. 1007 [The Naturalist's Miscellany; ref. 4013] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on "Rahtee bontoo" of Russell 1803:22, Pl. 29 [ref. 13862]. We treat authorship as Shaw in Shaw & Nodder. •Valid as Cephalopholis formosa (Shaw 1812) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:28 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:43 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:42 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:228 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2478 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:25 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:98 [ref. 34464], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis formosa (Shaw 1812). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: India east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

formosanus, Cephalopholis Tanaka [S.] 1911:24, Pl. 7 (fig. 22) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 2; ref. 14881] Keelung, Taihoku, Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 2975 (poor condition). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

formosus, Anthias Boulenger [G. A.] 1889:238 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1889 (pt 2); ref. 14491] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: BMNH 1889.4.15.15. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.4.15.16 (1). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Anthias formosus Bloch 1792, replaced by Anthias boulengeri Heemstra 1973. Lectotype selected by Heemstra & Randall 1979:3 [ref. 6938]. •Objective synonym of Sacura boulengeri (Heemstra 1973) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1979:3 [ref. 6938]). Current status: Synonym of Sacura boulengeri (Heemstra 1973). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

forskael, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:337, 377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N 34°15'E. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49, 58 [ref. 20740]. Unnecessary replacement name for Perca fasciata Forsskål 1775. •Objective synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757] as forsskael, Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

forsythi, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1937:222, Pl. 13 (fig. 4) [Australian Zoologist v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 4690] Lord Howe Island. Holotype: AMS I.1793. Paratypes: (2) not saved. •Synonym of Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:130 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:138 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fourmanoiri, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:125, Fig. 7 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Coral head in lagoon off marine pier at northern end of Enewetak Island, Marshall Islands, depth 50 feet. Holotype: BPBM 17242. Paratypes: ANSP 128436 (1); BMNH 1974.8.8.1 (1); BPBM 9263 (1), 9608 (1), 13925 (2), 15068 (1), 17466 (1); CAS 30867 (1); MNHN 1971-0133 (1); USNM 212176 (1); WAM P.26085-029 (1), P.26113-004 (2), P.26126-005 (1) Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:19 [ref. 19232], Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621], Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias fourmanoiri Randall 1980 -- (Randall 1996:121 [ref. 23194], Myers 1999:106 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:138 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:288 [ref. 31980], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias fourmanoiri Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) east to Indonesia to Society Islands and to Pitcairn. Habitat: marine.

fronticinctus, Anthias Günther [A.] 1868:226, Pl. 18 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 2) (art. 4) (for 26 Mar. 1868); ref. 1991] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic (15°58'S, 5°43'W). Lectotype: BMNH 1867.10.8.40. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1867.12.26.16 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:14 [ref. 36146]. Described in the genus Anthias but then Günther stated that this species may be regarded as the type of a distinct generic division (Holanthias), distinguished from Anthias by its convex caudal fin; this seems to be covered by Art. 11.9.3.6 (and 15.1 and 51.3.3), and the original genus should be regarded as Anthias. Lectotype selected by Anderson & Heemstra 2012:90 [ref. 31956]. •Valid as Holanthias fronticinctus (Günther 1868) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:636 [ref. 9166], Maugé 1990:708 [ref. 17126], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666] as fronticinetus, Anderson 2006:415 [ref. 28870], Motomura et al. 2010:114 [ref. 31256], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:89 [ref. 31956], Wirtz et al. 2014:6 [ref. 33516], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2395 [ref. 34618], Anderson 2018:14 [ref. 36146], Brown et al. 2019:177 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Holanthias fronticinctus (Günther 1868). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Bonaparte seamont (130 km west of Saint Helena), Saint Helena, Ascension Island, Grattan seamount (260 km southeast of Ascension Island). Habitat: marine.

fucinus, Anthias Randall [J. E.] & Ralston [S.] 1985:222, Figs. 1-4 [Pacific Science v. 38 (no. 3); ref. 12313] Southwestern end of Penguin Bank, 20°52.4'N, 157°39.3'W, Hawaiian Islands, depth 170 meters. Holotype: BPBM 28622. Paratypes: AMS I.24334-001 (1); BMNH 1983.12.22.3 (1); BPBM 28123 (1), 28350 (1), 29265 (3), 29267 (2); CAS 54302 (1); NSMT-P 22995 (1); ROM 43016 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 19798 (1); USNM 264611 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias fucinus (Randall & Ralston 1985) -- (Chave & Mundy 1994:367 [ref. 22375], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Mundy 2005:343 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:194 [ref. 30952], Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias fucinus (Randall & Ralston 1985). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

fulvus, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:287 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [Bahamas]. No types known. •Valid as Epinephelus fulvus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:97 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:324 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:303 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:426 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Bostrom et al. 2002:655 [ref. 26722], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Heemstra et al. 2003:1336 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:138 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Craig et al. 2011:27 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Garcia et al. 2018:962 [ref. 36271], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to southern Brazil and Uruguay, including offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

furcatus, Holanthias Pellegrin [J.] 1935:51 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 22810] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 1934-0272 (1, dry), Mus. Levallois-Perret (1, not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15-16 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Holanthias natalensis (Fowler 1925) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:513 [ref. 5667] as furcatus, Fricke 1999:202 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Meganthias natalensis (Fowler 1925) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:29 [ref. 28602]). Current status: Synonym of Meganthias natalensis (Fowler 1925). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

furcifer, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:264 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0131. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Bullock & Smith 1991:152 [ref. 36591], Heemstra 1991:57 [ref. 19323], Cervigón 1991:354 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:109 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:433 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:44 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666] as fuscifer, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:329 [ref. 24023], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:216 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Thomson et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Bostrom et al. 2002:655 [ref. 26722], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1362 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:172 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:328 [ref. 31786], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:42 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:6 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:165 [ref. 36561], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2401 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37097]). Current status: Valid as Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Gulf of Mexico, eastern and southeastern Caribbean Sea and south to Brazil; central and eastern Atlantic: Ascension Island and islands of the Gulf of Guinea. Invasive at Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

furva, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Schöpf) 1792:336 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Nova Eburacum [New York, U.S.A.]. No types known. Based on 'Perca, Blackfish, in Neu York' in Schöpf 1788:164 [ref. 18700]. •Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1986:420 [ref. 22186] as fulva). Current status: Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

fusca, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:297, Pl. 9 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26702] Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fuscipinnis, Anthias Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:389, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 49695. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6113 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291], Anderson 2018:23 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Holanthias fuscipinnis (Jenkins 1901) -- (Mundy 2005:341 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Odontanthias fuscipinnis (Jenkins 1901) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:17 [ref. 28602], Randall 2007:192 [ref. 30952], White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:23 [ref. 36146]), Current status: Valid as Odontanthias fuscipinnis (Jenkins 1901). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

fuscoguttata, Perca summana var. Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 42 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Sams Pier, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Neotype: USNM 147594. Originally as fusco-guttata, correction mandatory. Neotype designated by Randall 1964: 291 [ref. 3600]. Original type localities 'Sues' (As-Suways, Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea) and 'Djiddæ' (Jeddah/Juddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea). Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:230 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:525 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:108 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:235 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:108 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:188 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2501 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:168 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:142 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:102 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Phoenix Islands and Samoa, north to Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

fuscomarginatus, Epinephelus Johnson [J. W.] & Wilmer [J. W.] 2019:332, Figs. 2-4A [Zootaxa 4674 (no. 3); ref. 36985] Capricorn Channel, south of Swain Reefs, Queensland, Australia, 22°52.8'S, 152°40.8'E, depth 230 meters. Holotype: QM I.40945. Paratypes: CSIRO, QM. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscomarginatus Johnson & Wilmer 2019. Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fuscomarginatus Johnson & Wilmer 2019. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: South of Swain Reefs and east of the Capricorn-Bunker group, Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

fuscovittatus, Labrus Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Brünnich) 1788:110 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Spalato (Split, Croatia, Adriatic Sea). No types known. Originally as fusco-vittatus. Based on Labrus sp. of Brünnich 1768:98, No. 11 [ref. 17290]. •Synonym of Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

fusculus, Centropristes Poey [F.] 1861:342 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 10015. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:193 [ref. 22926]. Original genus should have been Centropristis. •Valid as Centropristis fuscula Poey 1861 -- (Bortone 1977:24 [ref. 7059], Robins & Ray 1986:138 [ref. 23100], Heemstra et al. 2003:1326 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Centropristis fuscula Poey 1861. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Acanthistius Regan [C. T.] 1913:368, Pl. 55 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1913 (pt 3); ref. 3652] Easter Island, southeastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1913.12.7.1. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Acanthistius fuscus Regan 1913 -- (Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:172 [ref. 23775], Pequeño 1989:59 [ref. 14125], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:380 [ref. 24574], Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:13 [ref. 31956], Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Acanthistius fuscus Regan 1913. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island and Sala y Gómez Island. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Epinephelus Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:92 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9346] West coast of Madagascar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1963-0603. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805]. Also appeared as new in Fourmanoir 1963:140, fig. [ref. 4824]. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscus Fourmanoir 1961 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:216 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:173 [ref. 19754]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:342, 384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] "Norway" [likely China]. Lectotype: ZMB 5221 (left half skin). Unneeded new name for Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:196 [Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society v. 6 (pts 1); ref. 2828] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 24928. Neotype designated by Heemstra 1991:48-49 [ref. 19323]. See Heemstra et al. 2003:1353 [ref. 27060]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838) -- (Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:265 [ref. 21042], Santos et al. 1997:81 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:80 [ref. 24952], Craig et al. 2011:299 [ref. 31786], dated 1836, Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2399 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca fusca (Lowe 1838). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde islands. Habitat: marine.

gabriellae, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:159, Pl. 14A, Pl. 36A,B; Fig. 78 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Eagles' Retreat, 16°58'00"N, 54°42'50"E, Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 6-8 meters. Holotype: BPBM 33947. Paratypes: ANSP 161089 (1), BPBM 33948 (1), FMNH 4005 (1), NSMT-P 29536 (1), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 34268 [not 33620] (1). •Valid as Epinephelus gabriellae Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:158 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:131 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:145 [ref. 31786], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus gabriellae Randall & Heemstra 1991. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Somalia, Yemen. Socotra and Oman. Habitat: marine.

gaimardi, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:520 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7547. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7420 (2), 0000-7641 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype designation not researched, not designated here. •Valid as Epinephelus gaimardi (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:210 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

galapagensis, Alphestes Fowler [H. W.] 1944:342, Fig. 186 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: ANSP 70138. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:21 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1578 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

galeus, Serranus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:621 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Guyana. Syntypes: ?ZMB 254 (1) Rio de Janeiro, 255 (1) Guyana. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

galzini, Pseudogramma Williams [J. T.] & Viviani [J.] 2016:256, Fig. 8 [Zootaxa 4111 (no. 3); ref. 34442] Kouaku Island, on SE side of archipelago, small surge channel in outer reef, Gambier Archipelago, depth 15-20 meters. Holotype: USNM 402553. Paratypes: USNM. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Pseudogramma galzini Williams & Viviani 2016. Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma galzini Williams & Viviani 2016. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Gambier, Rapa and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

gardineri, Xenanthias Regan [C. T.] 1908:223, Pl. 28 (fig. 1) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Amirante Islands, Seychelles, Indian Ocean, depth 25-35 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1908.3.23.62. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1908.3.23.63-66 (4). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]. Lectotype selected by Randall 1980:130 [ref. 6717]. •Valid as Plectranthias gardineri (Regan 1908) -- (Randall 1980:129 [ref. 6717], Randall & Shimizu 1994:114 [ref. 21441], Randall 1996:120 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 2009:8 [ref. 30535], Williams et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32703], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:27 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias gardineri (Regan 1908). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Seychelles, Amirante Islands. Habitat: marine.

garrupellus, Plectranthias Robins [C. R.] & Starck [W. A., II] 1961:295, Fig. 7a [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 113 (no. 11); ref. 3789] Western North Atlantic, southeast of Daytona Beach, Florida, U.S.A., 28°52'N, 80°05'W, depth 65 fathoms [119 meters]. Holotype: ANSP 95129. Paratypes: ANSP 94416 (1), FMNH 65811 (1), UF 204523 [ex UMML 4523] (1), USNM 197392 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:67 [ref. 12367], Anderson 2018:28 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias garrupellus Robins & Starck 1961 -- (Randall 1980:130 [ref. 6717], Robins & Ray 1986:145 [ref. 23100], Baldwin 1990:939 [ref. 21029], Bullock & Smith 1991:27 [ref. 36591], Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441], Randall 1996:119 [ref. 23194], Claro et al. 2000:22 [ref. 26458], Heemstra et al. 2003:1363 [ref. 27060], Roa-Varón et al. 2003:16 [ref. 27814], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:173 [ref. 28815], Wu et al. 2011:247 [ref. 31227], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:40 [ref. 31956], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:28 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias garrupellus Robins & Starck 1961. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Grenada, including Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

gemma, Hypoplectrus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:428 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 3422. •See Aguilar-Perera & González-Salas 2010:377 [ref. 30878]. •Valid as Hypoplectrus gemma Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Cervigón 1992:435 [ref. 23827], Domeier 1994:104 [ref. 21359], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Claro et al. 2000:22 [ref. 26458], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1365 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:158 [ref. 28815], Aguilar-Perera & Tuz-Sulub 2010:143 [ref. 31684], Lobel 2011:11 [ref. 31606], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860], Tavera & Acero P. 2013:33 [ref. 32434], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus gemma Goode & Bean 1882. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida and Bahamas, also Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

geoffroyi, Serranus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:675, footnote [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Port Safaga, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: SMNS 233. Syntypes: Not NMW 39276 (1) see Randal et. al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685]. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Valid as Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

geographicus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:322 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH D132 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

geometricus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:144 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17384] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.10140-41 (1, 1). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

georgei, Anthias Allen [G. R.] 1976:28, Fig. 2 [Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia v. 59 (pt 1); ref. 7332] About 40 nautical miles west of Bernier Island, Western Australia, 24°59'S, 112°27'E, depth 71 fathoms (130 meters). Holotype: WAM P.25205-001. Paratypes: WAM P.25205-002 (2). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:19 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias georgei Allen 1976 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:502 [ref. 12442]). •Questionably the same as Pseudanthias rubrolineatus (Fourmanoir & Rivaton 1979) -- (Motomura et al. 2010:119 [ref. 31101]). •Valid as Pseudanthias georgei (Allen 1976) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:993 [ref. 29078], Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias georgei (Allen 1976). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: off Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

gibbosus, Anthias (Pseudanthias) Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:9 [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMNS 3482 (2, not found). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:17 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:58 [ref. 29864], Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146]. •Synonym of Anthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855) -- (Dor 1984:103 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). •Valid as Pseudanthias gibbosus (Klunzinger 1884) -- (Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:126, 142 [ref. 32094], Gill & Psomadakis 2018:530 [ref. 36054], Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146], Golani & Fricke 2018:66 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias gibbosus (Klunzinger 1884). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

gibbosus, Serranus Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:654 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1888.12.29.36. •Synonym of Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:76 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:68 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Dermatolepis striolata (Playfair 1867). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gibbus, Cephalopholis Fourmanoir [P.] 1955:215, Pl. 8 B [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série A, Biologie Animale v. 9; ref. 12271] Mutsamudu, Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands, depth 30-80 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSMNB (lost). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:39-40 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:179 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2481 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Batrachus Günther [A.] 1869:131 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 3 (no. 14); ref. 18192] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2007.8.13.1 (dry head). •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gigas, Perca Brünnich [M. T.] 1768:65 [Ichthyologia Massiliensis, sistens piscium descriptiones eorumque apud incolas nomina; ref. 17290] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590]). •Regarded as a nomen dubium -- (Heemstra 1991:33, 38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:199 [ref. 19601]). •Possibly the same as Epinephelus haifensis Ben-Tuvia 1953 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:162 [ref. 21042]). •?Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). •Synonym of Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2396 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1842:19 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 55); ref. 21245] Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1968.3.11.3 (skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gladifer, Jeboehlkia Robins [C. R.] 1967:593, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1967 (no. 3); ref. 3786] Caribbean Sea, 16°06'N, 81°10.5'W, Oregon station 4932, depth 90 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 201422. •Valid as Jeboehlkia gladifer Robins 1967 -- (Baldwin & Johnson 1991;535 [ref. 16639] with uncertain family placement, Claro et al. 2000:22 [ref. 26458], Heemstra et al. 2003:1326 [ref. 27060]). Current status: Valid as Jeboehlkia gladifer Robins 1967. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Serranus Day [F.] 1871:678 [2] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1870.5.18.76. Day specimens: ZSI ?1678 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

godeffroyi, Percichthys Günther [A.] 1873:97 [1] [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 6423] Iquique, Chile. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.4.3.93. On p. 1 of separate. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

goldiei, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1882:226 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 17584] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16322-001 [ex MAMU F477]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

goldmanni, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:434 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16850] Obi Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5483. •Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:231 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:214 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

goliath, Oligorus De Vis [C. W.] 1882:318 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17382] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM (mounted, not found in 1997). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Serranus goliath Peters 1855 when both are in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goliath, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:430 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mossimboa, Mozambique, 11°S. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32500 (skeleton). Also described as new in Peters 1855:237 [ref. 13448]. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gordensis, Anthias Wade [C. B.] 1946:225, Pl. 32 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 8); ref. 13136] Inner Gorda Bank, Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico, depth 70-78 fathoms. Holotype: LACM 21714 [ex AHF 924]. Paratypes: LACM 21713 [ex AHF 925] (1). •Synonym of Pronotogrammus multifasciatus Gill 1863 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1612 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:338 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:353 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:78 [ref. 25640], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:105 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Pronotogrammus multifasciatus Gill 1863. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

goreensis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:511 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7323 (2), 0000-7324 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus goreensis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra 1991:30 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:159 [ref. 21042], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:146 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2391 [ref. 34618]). •Valid as Mycteroperca goreensis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus goreensis (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritanea to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and islands of the Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Anthias Franz [V.] 1910:38, Pl. 6 (fig. 47) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Dzushi, Japan, depth 80 meters. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (3) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:280 [ref. 28925]. •Uncertain in genus Pseudanthias Bleeker 1871 -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm., Oct. 2018). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

grahami, Odontanthias Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 2006:17, Figs. 1H, 7, Pl. IVB [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 38; ref. 28602] Off northern New South Wales, 28°27'S, 153°50'E to 28°24S, 153°49'E, depth 126-130 meters. Holotype (unique): AMS I.32142-010. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:23 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Odontanthias grahami Randall & Heemstra 2006 -- (White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:23 [ref. 36146], Gill & Russell 2019:182 [ref. 36578]). Current status: Valid as Odontanthias grahami Randall & Heemstra 2006. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: off northern New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

grammatophorus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:64, Pl. 3 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.2.6.2 (1), 1905.6.6.94 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

grammicus, Serranus Day [F.] 1868:700 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3); ref. 14045] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2952. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2506 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

grammistes, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:335 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Grammistes sexlineatus (Thunberg 1792) -- (Parenti 2003:498 [ref. 27322]). Current status: Synonym of Grammistes sexlineatus (Thunberg 1792). Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

grandinatus, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Fowler 1949:84 [ref. 1462]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gregoryi, Caribrhegma Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:44, Fig. 22 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] Glovers Reef, Belize. Holotype: YPM 476. Paratypes: USNM 117797 (1), YPM 221 (orig. 2, now 1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Pseudogramma gregoryi (Breder 1927) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:146 [ref. 23100], Randall & Baldwin 1997:28 [ref. 22812], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:217 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:161 [ref. 25813], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Wirtz et al. 2007:10 [ref. 30263], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:42 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:6 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:15 [ref. 34324], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2402 [ref. 34618], Prokofiev 2019:425 [ref. 36810]). Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma gregoryi (Breder 1927). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; Ascension Island (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

guasa, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:141, 354, Pl. 13 (fig. 8) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 34157 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:190-191 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guativere, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:336 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Guativere' of Parra 1787:7, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guaza, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:372 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 21 (for 1895) Appendix 5; ref. 2442] See Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). New spelling for Labrus gvaza Linnaeus 1758. See Labrus gvaza Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

guineensis, Rhegma Norman [J. R.] 1935:10, Fig. 2 [Discovery Reports v. 12; ref. 13911] Off Annobón Island, Equatorial Guinea, Gulf of Guinea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1935.5.11.50. •Valid as Pseudogramma guineensis (Norman 1935) -- (Randall & Baldwin 1997:31 [ref. 22812], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:161 [ref. 25813], Wirtz et al. 2007:10, 30 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2403 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma guineensis (Norman 1935). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands and islands of the Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

gummigutta, Plectropoma Poey [F.] 1851:[70, 75], Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (?): USNM 2667. Originally gummi-gutta. Name dates from plate: Nov. 1851; text published Apr. 1852. •Valid as Hypoplectrus gummigutta (Poey 1851) -- (Cervigón 1992:435 [ref. 23827], Domeier 1994:104 [ref. 21359], Acero P. & Garzón-Ferreira 1994:13 [ref. 22090], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1366 [ref. 27060], Aguilar-Perera & González-Salas 2010:377 [ref. 30878], Lobel 2011:11 [ref. 31606], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus gummigutta (Poey 1851). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guntheri, Homalogrystes Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:269, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] About 12 miles south of Papua New Guinea coast at Katow [Mawatta, Western Province], depth 6-7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Bleeker 1855) in Pomacentridae -- (Allen 1991:235 [ref. 19344]). •Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:25 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guntheri, Neoanthias Castelnau [F. L.] 1879:367 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 764] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:42 [ref. 19232]. Mandatory correction of species name to guentheri. •Synonym of Caprodon longimanus (Günther 1859) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:504 [ref. 12442], Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:45 [ref. 23540], Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:177 [ref. 23775], Allen et al. 2006:984 [ref. 29078], Dyer & Westneat 2010:605 [ref. 31446]). •Status uncertain -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:23 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Caprodon longimanus (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:292 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:203 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:49 [ref. 20705]. •Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:99 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:331 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:21 [ref. 25512], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:266 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1342 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:145 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:149 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:999 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:172 [ref. 32953], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Venezuela, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:36, Pl. 224 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Indian Ocean and Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 5213 (1, right skin) Japan, 33016 (1, stuffed). Spelled gutatus in text, guttatus on plate; first reviser perhaps Paepke 1999:134 [ref. 24282]. On p. 26 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. On Official Index of rejected names (Opinion 1439). •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:77 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Bonací cardenal' of Parra 1787:29, Pl. 16 [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:215 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Paralabrax Bleeker [P.] 1872:150 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 431] China. No types known. Original as Paralabrax? guttatus. Based on a painting, Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guttavarium, Plectropoma Poey [F.] 1852:70 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 9781 (2). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:194 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Hypoplectrus guttavarius (Poey 1852) -- (Cervigón 1992:435 [ref. 23827], Domeier 1994:104 [ref. 21359], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1366 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Aguilar-Perera & González-Salas 2010:377 [ref. 30878], Lobel 2011:11 [ref. 31606], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:40 [ref. 33341], Victor & Marks 2018:13 [ref. 36139]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus guttavarius (Poey 1852). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1878:33, Pl. 2 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 2868] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16324-001 [ex MAMU F1166]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Macleay 1878) -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Synonym of Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442] as undulostriatus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:283 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:249 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2528 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gvaza, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:285 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] "Pelago" [Cumana, Caribbean coast of Venezuela]. No types known. Spelled guaza by authors; "u" mistypset "v" in original; spelling guaza regarded as in prevailing usage. Based on a specimen from Venezuela mentioned in a letter by Pehr Löfling (1729-1756), one of the 'Linnaeus apostles'. Subsequently confused by authors with a Mediterranean serranid, which is now classified as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). •Valid as Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666] as quaza). •In genus Mycteroperca, as güaza, regarded as a nomen dubium with discussion of locality -- (Heemstra 1991:38, 41 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] as gvasa, Heemstra & Randall 1993:188 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013]). •Possibly the same as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966, Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860), or Mycteroperca phenax Jordan & Swain 1884 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:188, 264, 266 [ref. 21042]). •Nomen dubium in Mycteroperca -- (Smith Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753] as guaza). •Regarded as of uncertain status in Mycteroperca. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gymnopareius, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:248 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7071. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gymnosus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:335, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [No locality stated] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Possible types: MNHN A-5747 (1) coll. Commerson. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:48 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:41 [ref. 19232]. Figured on Pl. 27 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocoeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

haifensis, Epinephelus Ben-Tuvia [A.] 1953:21, Fig. 14 [Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries, Sea Fisheries Research Station Haifa No. 8; ref. 257] Off Caesarea, Israel, Mediterranean Sea, depth 120 fathoms. Holotype: HUJ 8604 [ex SFRS M411]. Paratypes: ANSP 128518 (1), BMNH 1955.9.25.5 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621], Golani 2006:25 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Epinephelus haifensis Ben-Tuvia 1953 -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:786 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:162 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533]). •Incertae sedis in Hyporthodus -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046]). ▐ Valid as Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben Tuvia 1953) -- (Craig et al. 2011:273 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2396 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

haplodactylus, Dactylanthias Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:333 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 2nd edition v. 1; ref. 537] •Unjustified emendation of Anthias aplodactylus Bleeker 1858. •Synonym of Dactylanthias aplodactylus (Bleeker 1858) -- (Randall 2007:83 [ref. 28979]). Current status: Synonym of Dactylanthias aplodactylus (Bleeker 1858). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

hasseltii, Paraserranus Bleeker [P.] 1874:7 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 14 (art. 2); ref. 5110] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

hata, Epinephelus Katayama [M.] 1953:52, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Yamaguchi University v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 19758] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 41376 [ex Katayama coll. 1541]. Paratypes: (4) Katayama coll. 1537-40 (now should be 3), ZUMT 41376 (1, not seen in 1997). •Synonym of Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:163 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:164 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2502 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hawaiiensis, Anthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis Randall [J. E.] 1979:9, Figs. 5-6 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 302; ref. 12314] Off northern side at base of drop-off, Moku Manu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 49 meters. Holotype: BPBM 10560. Paratypes: AMS I.18720-001 (1); ANSP 134236 (1); BMNH 1976.3.15.2 (1); BPBM 15058-59 (1, 3), 10172 (1), 10561 (7); CAS 35679 (1); LACM 35578-1 (1), MNHN 1974-0017 (1); USNM 215285 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:10 [ref. 19232], Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621], Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146]. The author states, Anthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis hawiiensis new species and subspecies (p. 9) and on p. 12 Anthias (Pseudanthias) ventralis ventralis new subspecies. The new taxa he is describing are the new species ventralis and the new subspecies hawaiiensis. The types of the subspecies hawaiiensis are not the types of the nominate subspecies ventralis. We regard the types on p. 9 as being the types of the subspecies hawaiiensis and the types of ventralis ventralis on p. 12 as the types of the new species ventralis. •Valid as Pseudanthias hawaiiensis (Randall 1979) -- (Randall 2005:146 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:343 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:195 [ref. 30952], Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias hawaiiensis Randall 1979. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

hawaiiensis, Pseudogramma polyacanthum Randall [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 1997:42 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 26; ref. 22812] Ke'ei, Hawaii Islands. Holotype: BPBM 28742. Pseudogramma is feminine, so name should be polyacantha. •Synonym of Pseudogramma polyacantha (Bleeker 1856), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Mundy 2005:350 [ref. 28379] as polyacantha). •Synonym of Pseudogramma brederi (Hildebrand 1940) -- (Williams & Viviani 2016:253 [ref. 34442]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudogramma brederi (Hildebrand 1940). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hectori, Scorpis Hutton [F. W.] 1872:4, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Fishes of New Zealand (Hutton); ref. 2287] Milford Sound, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): presumed lost. Type catalog: Russell 1996:226 [ref. 22562]. •Synonym of Caesioperca lepidoptera (Forster 1801). Current status: Synonym of Caesioperca lepidoptera (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

heemstrai, Pseudanthias Schuhmacher [H.], Krupp [F.] & Randall [J. E.] 1989:339, Figs. 1-3, Pls. 1-9 [Fauna of Saudi Arabia v. 10; ref. 13857] In front of Marine Science Station, 12 kilometers south of Aqaba, Jordan, 29°45'N, 34°58'E, Red Sea, depth 20 meters. Holotype: SMF 23176. Paratypes: BMNH 1989.10.11.1 (1); BPBM 28867 (8); SMF 23177 (5). Non-types: BPBM 17787 (1), 7888 (3); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 26175 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias heemstrai Schuhmacher, Krupp & Randall 1989 -- (Krupp & Paulus 1991:388 [ref. 20210], Goren & Dor 1994:28 [ref. 25356], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:125, 145 [ref. 32094], Anderson 2018:40 [ref. 36146], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:66 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias heemstrai Schuhmacher, Krupp & Randall 1989. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

helenae, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:131, Fig. 10 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Off northern shore of Oahu Island, 21°43'36" - 21°40'N, 158°04'06" - 158°07'18"W, Hawaiian Islands, depth 65-92 fathoms [119-168 meters]. Holotype: BPBM 13957. Paratypes: BPBM 21091 (1), CAS 40803 (1), USNM 218367 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:28 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias helenae Randall 1980 -- (Lee 1990:15 [ref. 19830], Randall 1996:119 [ref. 23194], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Chen & Shao 2002:64 [ref. 25977], Mundy 2005:341 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:192 [ref. 30952], Wu et al. 2011:253 [ref. 31227], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:28 [ref. 36146], Wada et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 36335]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias helenae Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Taiwan, Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

helenensis, Anthias Katayama [M.] & Amaoka [K.] 1986:215, Fig. 2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 33 (no. 3); ref. 6680] North of Saint Helena Island, southern central Atlantic, 11°37'S, 5°13'W, depth 163-460 meters. Holotype: HUMZ 100156. Paratypes: HUMZ 100157-63 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1) with 100158 and 100163 headless. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias helenensis Katayama & Amaoka 1986 -- (Anderson & Baldwin 2000:372 [ref. 24574], Anderson 2006:416 [ref. 28870], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:75 [ref. 31956], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2383 [ref. 34618], Anderson et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35505], 3°01'S, 0°46'E). Current status: Valid as Anthias helenensis Katayama & Amaoka 1986. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: north of Saint Helena. Habitat: marine.

hemistiktos, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:109, Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 314. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.11.9.96 (1); SMF 2999 (1), 3007 (1), 4895-96 (1, 1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. Misspelled hemistictus by authors. •Valid as Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:46 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:44 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:30 [ref. 31786], Psomadakis et al. 2015:195 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Oman and Persian Gulf east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

heniochus, Epinephelus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:522, Pl. 18 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ANSP 27557. Paratypes: ANSP 27558 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:169 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:163 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:164 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:236 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2502 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:151 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:342 [ref. 36985]). •Valid as Mycteroperca heniochus (Fowler 1904) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Sumatra east to New Britain, north to Japan and Korea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

hensleyi, Odontanthias Anderson [W. D., Jr.] & García-Moliner [G.] 2012:26, Fig. 1 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 18 (no. 1); ref. 31761] Mona Passage, off west coast of Puerto Rico, 18°07'N, 67°40'W, depth 338 meters. Holotype: USNM 400888. Paratypes: UPRM 3793 (1), 3794 (1), 3809 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Odontanthias hensleyi Anderson & García-Moliner 2012 -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:96 [ref. 31956], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2016:585 [ref. 34589]). •Valid as Anthias hensleyi (Anderson & García-Moliner 2012) -- (Anderson et al. 2017:76, 92 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Anthias hensleyi (Anderson & García-Moliner 2012). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Mona Passage, between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Habitat: marine.

hepatus, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:282 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:356 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:791 [ref. 13676], Klausewitz 1989:261 [ref. 13650], Smith 1990:705 [ref. 18227], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:77 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:37 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Wirtz & Iwamoto 2016:192 [ref. 34418] Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2410 [ref. 34618], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:13 [ref. 36189], Martins & Carneiro 2018:126 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Serranus hepatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal and Canary Islands south to Senegal. Habitat: marine.

heterurus, Paracentropristis Cadenat [J.] 1937:456, Figs. 13-14 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 10 (fasc. 4, no. 40); ref. 17134] West Africa. Syntypes: MHNLR P.407 (1), 1 lost. Type catalog: Aloncle 1968:686-687 [ref. 20713], Bauchot et al. 1984:43 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Serranus sanctaehelenae Boulenger 1895 -- (Smith 1990:706 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Serranus heterurus (Cadenat 1937) -- (Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:166 [ref. 25813], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Wirtz & Iwamoto 2016:192 [ref. 34418], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2411 [ref. 34618], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:15 [ref. 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus heterurus (Cadenat 1937). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Ghana, including Cape Verde Islands, São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

hexagonatus, Holocentrus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:323 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] [Otaheitee] Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:189 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Holocentrus hexagonatus Forster 1801 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider). •Valid as Serranus hexagonatus (Forster 1901) -- (Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:46 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:108 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:166 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:165 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Randall et al. 1997:108 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:189-190 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2503 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:84 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Ikeda 2004:2 [ref. 27940], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:67 [ref. 35264], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:153 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706] as Bloch & Schneider ex Forster, Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932] as Bloch & Schneider ex Forster, Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, northern Line Islands and to the Pitcairn Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

hians, Holocentrum Nardo [G. D.] 1827:31, 38 (no. 105) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 480 and 486 [ref. 19740]. •Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

hiatula, Labrus Bonnaterre [J. P.] 1788:116, Pl. 52 (fig. 198) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Not an independent species description, but a misidentification of Labrus hiatula (non Linnaeus 1766) (originally from the Western Atlantic), but based on Mediterranean specimens of 'De hiatvla sive channa' of Salviani 1558:229 [ref. 30229] and 'Channa Bondeletii & Bellonii' of Willughby 1686:327 [ref. 30164]. See Labrus salviani Suckow 1799. •In the synonymy of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm., 1/03). Current status: Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae.

hirundinaceus, Centropristis Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:450 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Japan. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7428 (1, dry, poor condition), 0000-3061 (1, dry); ZMB 6983 (1, not found), 10282 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:12 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Chelidoperca hirundinacea (Valenciennes 1831) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:133 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:469, 668 [ref. 8056], Lee 1990:68 [ref. 19830], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:231 [ref. 27969] as hirudinacea, Chen et al. 1997:52 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:692 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122] as hirundacea, Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:692 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:430 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2014:259 [ref. 33330], Bineesh et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33649], Williams & Carpenter 2015:287 [ref. 33647], Matsunuma & Motomura 2016:388, 399 [ref. 34335], Motomura et al. 2017:83 [ref. 35490], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35700], Lee et al. 2019:23 [ref. 36888], Ogino et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37056]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca hirundinacea (Valenciennes 1831). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan to Philippines south to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

hispanum, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:396 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7679. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:21 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Gonioplectrus hispanus (Cuvier 1828) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:143 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:122 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:338 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:107 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:430 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:252 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:32 [ref. 25512], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Betancur-R. et al. 2001:26 [ref. 26211], Heemstra et al. 2003:1349 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:152 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:259 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Gonioplectrus hispanus (Cuvier 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.), Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and south to Brazil and Trindade Island off Brazil. Habitat: marine.

hispanus, Aylopon Guichenot [A.] 1868:81 [2] [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 10; ref. 1936] Algésiras Bay, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4315. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:10-11 [ref. 19232]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:69 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

hiva, Pseudanthias Randall [J. E.] & Pyle [R. L.] 2001:25, Figs. 9-11 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 49 (no. 1); ref. 25690] Hiva Oa, northwestern side of Tepuhiaatuna Point, Marquesas Islands, depth 20 meters. Holotype: BPBM 12223. Paratypes AMS I.39908-00 1(1), I.33909-001 (1); BPBM 11792 (1), 11861 (5), 11929 (4), 38530 (3), 38671 (1); CAS 210370-71(1. 1); MNHN 2000-3 (1), 2000-4 (1); NSMT-P 58836 (1); USNM 359479-80 (1, 1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:41 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias hiva Randall & Pyle 2001 -- (Randall 2005:142 [ref. 28239], Williams et al. 2013:76 [ref. 32703], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Anderson 2018:41 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias hiva Randall & Pyle 2001. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

hoedtii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:406 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5494. Paralectotypes: RMNH 30345 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus hoedtii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:177 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:236 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hoevenii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:36 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8158 [from Day] (1), RMNH 6164 (some syntypes out of 23), SMNS 10635 (1 syntype). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:58 [ref. 29864] •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) [sometimes as caeruleopunctatus] -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

homfrayi, Serranus Day [F.] 1871:678 [2] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI 1680. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

homosinensis, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1944:267 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] Broom, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.2413-001. Paratypes: WAM P.2412-001 (1), P.2430-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335] altered the type locality to Broome, Western Australia, Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hopkinsi, Mycteroperca Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:105 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Region of Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 5073. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:70 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:276 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca tigris (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

horridus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:321 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH D19 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D2160 (1, stuffed); ?SMF 2986 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hostiaretis, Epinephelus summana Whitley [G. P.] 1954:25 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1952-53; ref. 4721] Queensland, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:220 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

howlandi, Serranus Günther [A.] 1873:8, Pl. 9 (fig. B) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Howland Island, 0°48'N, 176°38'W, central Pacific. Holotype: BMNH 1873.4.3.237. Paratypes: ?NMV 8239 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873) -- (Randall et al. 1990:109 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:169 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:167 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1997:109 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:156 [ref. 31786], Ho et al. 2013:77 [ref. 33261], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mostly at islands in the West and southern Pacific: China Sea and southern Japan throughout the west-central Pacific east to the Line Islands, south to Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

huascarii, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1900:208 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 37 (no. 18) (for 12 July 1900); ref. 14771] Paita, northern Peru. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:281 [ref. 28925]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1902:112, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 10435]. •Valid as Prionodes huascarii (Steindachner 1900) -- (Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125]). •Valid as Serranus huascarii Steindachner 1900 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:360 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:74 [ref. 25640], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:165 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:812 [ref. 33030], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus huascarii Steindachner 1900. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central Gulf of California south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

huchtii, Anthias Bleeker [P.] 1857:38 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (6) ?BMNH 1880.4.21.50 (1), ?NMV 46523 (1), RMNH 5453 (some or all of 6). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:41 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias huchtii Bleeker 1857 -- (Allen & Starck 1982:49 [ref. 8518], Paxton et al. 1989:502 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Pseudanthias huchtii (Bleeker 1857) -- (Randall et al. 1990:93 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:114 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:93 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:108 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:55 [ref. 27510], Allen et al. 2006:993 [ref. 29078], Allen & Erdmann 2012:294 [ref. 31980], Williams et al. 2013:179 [ref. 32703], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Anderson 2018:41 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2019:124 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias huchtii (Bleeker 1857). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Eastern Indonesia east to Palau and Solomon Islands, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

humeralis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:246 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coast of Chile. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7072 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Paralabrax humeralis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Pequeño 1989:59 [ref. 14125], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1606 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:328 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:356 [ref. 24555], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:163 [ref. 25813], Pondella et al. 2003:182 [ref. 29770]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax humeralis (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

huntii, Plectropoma Hector [J.] 1875:240, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute v. 7 (art. 34); ref. 18269] Chatham Islands, off New Zealand. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Ellerkeldia huntii (Hector 1875) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:175 [ref. 24556]). •Valid as Hypoplectrodes huntii (Hector 1875) -- (Paulin & Roberts 1992:139 [ref. 24625], Roberts 2015:1191 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:15 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrodes huntii (Hector 1875). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

hutomoi, Anthias Allen [G. R.] & Burhanuddin [A. I.] 1976:46, Fig. 1 [Marine Research in Indonesia No. 16; ref. 7333] Seram, Seleman Bay, Maluku Islands, Indonesia, depth 54 meters. Holotype: LON NCIP 3493. Paratypes: LON NCIP 3494-3499 (6), WAM P.25199-001 (4). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:19 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:41 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias hutomoi (Allen & Burhanuddin 1976) -- (Randall & Hutomo 1988:671 [ref. 6679], Senou & Imai 1998:5 [ref. 24385], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Allen & Erdmann 2012:295 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:41 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias hutomoi (Allen & Burhanuddin 1976). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Brunei and Indonesia east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

hypselosoma, Pseudanthias Bleeker [P.] 1877:3 [Processen-verbaal van de gewone vergaderingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen; Afdeeling Natuurkunde 1877-1878 (no. 4); ref. 17115] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Described in more detail in Bleeker 1878:58 [ref. 456] Pl. 2 (fig. 2). •Valid as Pseudanthias hypselosoma Bleeker 1877 (often seen as 1878) -- (Randall et al. 1990:94 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:92 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:114 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:94 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:108 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:703 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:198 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Ida & Sakaue 2001:267 [ref. 25544], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Nakabo 2002:703 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:142 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:993 [ref. 29078], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:295 [ref. 31980], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:125, 146 [ref. 32094], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34709], Anderson 2018:41 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2019:124 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias hypselosoma Bleeker 1877. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives east to Samoa and Palau, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

igarashiensis, Cephalopholis Katayama [M.] 1957:156, Fig. 3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 6 (nos 4-6); ref. 12079] Sumisu-tu, Izu Islands, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 18655 [ex Katayama Coll. 1930]. Paratypes: ZUMT 39466 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:162 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:28 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:46 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2478 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:490 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011: 42 [ref. 31432], Craig et al. 2011:32 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to French Polynesia, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

igneus, Hypoplectrodes Roberts [C. D.] in Roberts, Stewart & Struthers (eds) 2015:1192, Fig. 166.11 [ ref. 34193] L'Esperance Rock, Kermadec Islands, New Zealand. Holotype: NMNZ P.050481. •Was to appear in Roberts 2015 in Zootaxa (Roberts 2015:S105 [ref. 34193]). It did not appear there. Not available. Current status: Unknown. Serranidae: Anthiadinae.

ignitus, Anthias (Mirolabrichthys) Randall [J. E.] & Lubbock [R.] 1981:18, Fig. 12 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 333; ref. 6912] Lagoon reef, Villingili Island, North Male Atoll, Maldives, western Indian Ocean, depth 25 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18858. Paratypes: AMS I.19219-001 (1); BMNH 1976.9.30.8 (1), 1977.5.11.5-6 (2); CAS 37888 (1); LACM 35905-1 (1); USNM 216494 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias ignitus (Randall & Lubbock 1981) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:141 [ref. 28239], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:93 [ref. 30492], Allen & Erdmann 2012:296 [ref. 31980], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:124, 148 [ref. 32094], Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias ignitus (Randall & Lubbock 1981). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Maldives east to Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

imeldae, Mirolabrichthys Burgess [W. E.] 1977:39, Figs. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 25 (no. 10); ref. 7236] Philippines. Holotype: USNM 216923. Paratypes: USNM 216922 (2). •Synonym of Pseudanthias lori (Lubbock & Randall 1976) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias lori (Lubbock & Randall 1976). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

immaculatus, Alphestes Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1936:22, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 3); ref. 634] No locality stated (eastern Pacific). Holotype (unique): YPM 596. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:21 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:107 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1578 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:275 [ref. 24545] as inmaculatus, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:312 [ref. 24023], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:349 [ref. 24555], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:79 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2006:327 [ref. 29772], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:6 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Alphestes immaculatus Breder 1936. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern Gulf of California to southern Peru, including the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

immaculatus, Giganthias Katayama [M.] 1954:57, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 5619] Izu-Oshima, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 18654 [ex Katayama Fish Coll. 1534]. Paratypes: K.F.C. 1535 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:13 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Giganthias immaculatus Katayama 1954 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:64 [ref. 19830], Nakabo 2000:733 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:733 [ref. 26001], White & Dharmadi 2012:65 [ref. 31746], Peristiwady et al. 2014:104 [ref. 35217], Anderson 2018:13 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Giganthias immaculatus Katayama 1954. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan and Taiwan south to Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

immunerur, Serranus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:422 [144] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 144 of reprint. •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

imperator, Perca Günther [A.] 1859:88 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Name on specimen listed under Anthias sacer, not available. Evidently a name in synoymy and not available; from Madeira. Serranidae: Anthiadinae.

impetiginosus, Serranus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:665 [13] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 237. Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:13. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

incandescens, Liopropoma Pinheiro [H. T.], Shepherd [B.], Greene [B. D.] & Rocha [L. A.] 2019:99, Figs. 1-2 [ZooKeys No. 863; ref. 36820] West side of Ahnd (Ant) Atoll, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, 6.75589N, 157.91933E, depth 130 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 246199. •Valid as Liopropoma incandescens Pinheiro, Shepherd, Greene & Rocha 2019. Current status: Valid as Liopropoma incandescens Pinheiro, Shepherd, Greene & Rocha 2019. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Micronesia, southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

incisus, Serranus Colin [P. L.] 1978:191, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 91 (no. 1); ref. 8944] Piedra de Carabinero, Mona Island, Puerto Rico, depth 33 meters. Holotype: ANSP 137657. Paratypes: ANSP 137658 (1), UF 232963 [ex UMML 32963] (1), USNM 216596 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Parasphyraenops incisus (Colin 1978) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:217 [ref. 25013], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:42 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Parasphyraenops incisus (Colin 1978). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

incomptum, Liopropoma Randall [J. E.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1988:17, Fig. 4 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 16; ref. 6429] Outer reef slope off Kranket Island, Madang, New Guinea, depth 61 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 13436. •Valid as Liopropoma incomptum Randall & Taylor 1988 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Allen & Erdmann 2012:307 [ref. 31980], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma incomptum Randall & Taylor 1988. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Madang (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

indelebilis, Bodianus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:521, Pl. 17 (lower fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27553. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

indigo, Plectropoma Poey [F.] 1851:[69, 75], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana, Cuba. Poey specimens: ZMB 5960 (1). Name dates from plate: Nov. 1851; text published Apr. 1852. •Valid as Hypoplectrus indigo (Poey 1851) -- (Cervigón 1992:435 [ref. 23827], Domeier 1994:104 [ref. 21359], Acero P. & Garzón-Ferreira 1994:13 [ref. 22090], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1366 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Aguilar-Perera & González-Salas 2010:377 [ref. 30878], Lobel 2011:11 [ref. 31606], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860], Victor 2012:3 [ref. 32153], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:40 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Victor & Marks 2018:14 [ref. 36139]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus indigo (Poey 1851). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

indistinctus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:171, Fig. 84 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Indian Ocean off east coast of Somalia, 9°03'N, 50°59'E, depth 70-80 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 148119. •Valid as Epinephelus indistinctus Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:168 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:131 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:158 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. indistinctus). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus indistinctus Randall & Heemstra 1991. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Somalia, Oman. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:135, Fig. 11 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Southwestern side of Caban Island, Batangas, Luzon Island, Philippines [Verde Island Passage, South China Sea, western Pacific, ca. 13°41'N 120°50'E], depth 30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 22468. Paratypes: BMNH 1978.2.27 (2); BPBM 20324 (1), 21087 (2), 22460 (3); CAS 40800 (1); NCIP 3768-3769 (2); USNM 210121 (1); WAM P.26121-001 (2), P.26125-008 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:20 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:28 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias inermis Randall 1980 -- (Heemstra 1997:140 [ref. 23064], Randall 1996:119 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Heemstra & Randall 2009:9 [ref. 30535], Allen & Erdmann 2012:288 [ref. 31980], Williams et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32703], Bineesh et al. 2014:494 [ref. 33319], Fricke et al. 2014:63 [ref. 33932], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Gill et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34957], Anderson 2018:28 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias inermis Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius; Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) and Indonesia east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

inermis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:436 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Antilles. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5633 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus inermis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:103 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:326 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:307 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:426 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:66 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:16 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1337 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:139 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:67 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean to Venezuela; also off Brazil and offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

inexpectatus, Serranus (Paracentropristis) Wirtz [P.] & Iwamoto [T.] in Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:18, Figs. 13-15 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 65 (no. 1); ref. 36189] Angola, 10°49'S, 13°43'E, depth 35-36 meters. Holotype: ZSM 45041. Paratypes: IRSNB 9534 (1); ZSM 32516 (1). •Valid as Serranus inexpectatus Wirtz & Iwamoto 2018. Current status: Valid as Serranus inexpectatus Wirtz & Iwamoto 2018. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

inmaculatus, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1955:119 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] No types known. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 1962:27 [ref. 26395] and 2000:46 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. Serranidae. Habitat: marine.

inornata, Lepidoperca Regan [C. T.] 1914:15 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 13 (no. 73); ref. 3661] Off North Cape [Cape North], North Island, New Zealand (ca. 34°20'S, 173°00'E), depth 70 fathoms (128 meters). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1913.12.4.20. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:18 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Lepidoperca inornata Regan 1914 -- (Roberts 1989:578 [ref. 12486], Paulin et al. 1989:176 [ref. 24556], Roberts 2015:1194 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:18 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Lepidoperca inornata Regan 1914. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Zealand, Wanganella Bank, Kermadec Ridge and offshore banks. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1955:122 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] whereabouts unknown. Trisotropis no. 181 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 1962:29 [ref. 26395] and 2000:49 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. •Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Poey 2000:902 [ref. 26366]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Xenanthias Kotthaus [A.] 1973:26, Fig. 293 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 16; ref. 7572] Off Socotra, Arabian Sea, 11°33.9'N, 52°54'E to 11°38'N, 52°52'E, Meteor station 102, depth 290-190 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5132 [ex IOES 167a]. Paratypes: ZMH 5133 [ex IOES 167b] (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:417 [ref. 21161], Anderson 2018:28 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias intermedius (Kotthaus 1973) -- (Randall 1980:138 [ref. 6717], Randall 1996:116 [ref. 23194], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Zajonz 2006:25 [ref. 29414], Heemstra & Randall 2009:10 [ref. 30535], Bineesh et al. 2014:494 [ref. 33319], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:28 [ref. 36146], Zajonz et al. 2019:104 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias intermedius (Kotthaus 1973). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra. Habitat: marine.

interstitialis, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:127, Pl. 12 (fig. 6) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:131 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:346 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:431 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:266 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:36 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Heemstra et al. 2003:1356 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:167 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:301 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Flordia (U.S.A.) to southern Brazil and offshore islands. Habitat: marine.

investigatoris, Centropristis Alcock [A. W.] 1890:199 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 33) (art. 26); ref. 82] Off Madras coast, India, 18°30'N, 84°46'E, Investigator station 96, depth 98-102 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F12820-21 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:143 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:39 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1894: Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [ref. 17304]. •Valid as Chelidoperca investigatoris (Alcock 1890) -- (Bineesh et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33649], Williams & Carpenter 2015:287 [ref. 33647], Matsunuma & Motomura 2016:388 [ref. 34335], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[1] [ref. 35700]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca investigatoris (Alcock 1890). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: India and Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

ionthas, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1913:32, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 2490] Pusan, South Korea. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55797 [ex CM 4559]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Youn 2002:590 [ref. 26218]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

irradians, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:244 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Montevideo, Uruguay; Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7018 (1, holotype of radians) Rio de Janeiro, A-0461 (1, dry) Brazil, A-0462 (1), A-0464 (1, dry) Brazil. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29, 60 [ref. 19232]. Based on Serranus radians Quoy & Gaimard 1824 plus specimens. •Synonym of Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Bortone 1977:11 [ref. 7064]). •Synonym of Diplectrum radiale [in part] (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bortone 1977:26 [ref. 7064] one of 4 syntypes, A.462). Current status: Synonym of Diplectrum formosum (Linnaeus 1766). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

irrorata, Perca var. Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:333, xlv [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] St. Christian Island [=Tahuata], Marquesas Islands. Holotype (?): MNHN 0000-7438. As Percam irroratam in text, name Latinized in index (p. xlv). Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Described as probably a variety of Bodianus miniatus. See Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994]. •Valid as Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994], Randall & Heemstra 1991:174 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:169 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2504 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Craig et al. 2011:160 [ref. 31786], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

itajara, Serranus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1822:278 [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1820-1821; ref. 17529] Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 238. Spelled itaiara by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:376 [ref. 997]. •Valid as Promicrops itaiara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Valid as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:104 [ref. 36591], Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Cervigón 1991:337 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Grace et al. 1994:22 [ref. 25512], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1594 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:147 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:257 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:355 [ref. 24555], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:264 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:208 [ref. 25013], Keith et al. 2000:84 [ref. 24547], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:89 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1341 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:146 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Craig et al. 2009:167 [ref. 29773] with eastern Pacific population a different species, Epinephalus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868), Craig et al. 2011:162 [ref. 31786], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618], Reis et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34496], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U. S. A.) south to Brazil, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago; southern central Atlantic: Ascension Island; eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ivicae, Aylopon Guichenot [A.] 1868:81 [2] [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 10; ref. 1936] [Iviça] Ibiza, Baleares Islands, Spain; Malta, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4313 (1) Iviça, 0000-4314 (1) Malta. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:11 [ref. 19232]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:69 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

jacobevertsen, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:283, 296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic [erroneous, should be Indo-West Pacific]. Originally jacob-evertsen, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

jacome, Serranus Poey [F.] 1851:[57, 59], Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 10008 (1), 10067 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:193-194 [ref. 22926]. Name dates from plate (Nov. 1851); text published Apr. 1852. •Synonym of Serranus tabacarius (Cuvier 1829). Current status: Synonym of Serranus tabacarius (Cuvier 1829). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

jamesoni, Hypoplectrodes Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:16 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3286] Woody Point, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.1537. Paratypes: AMS I.9494 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:15 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Ellerkeldia jamesoni (Ogilby 1908) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:504 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Hypoplectrodes jamesoni Ogilby 1908 -- (Kuiter 1993:136 [ref. 23929], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Allen et al. 2006:986 [ref. 29078], Anderson 2018:15 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrodes jamesoni Ogilby 1908. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland to central New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

jansenii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1857:376 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 358] Sangi [Sangihe] Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

janthinopterus, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1873:45 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 7; ref. 433] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH 5507. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Anthias Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:49 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 20 (no. 7) (for 8 Mar. 1883); ref. 20489] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1891.5.26.1 (1), MZS 1180 (1); NMW 42378-79 (1, 3), ?ZMB 12058 (1). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:227 [p. 19 of separate] Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [ref. 4246]. Type information (MZS, ZMB) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:154, 161 [ref. 26515]. •Permanently invalid, preoccupied by Anthias japonicus Bloch 1793, replaced by Pseudanthias azumanus Jordan & Richardson 1910. •Same as Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall 1980:104 [ref. 6717]). Current status: Synonym of Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Aporops Kamohara [T.] 1957:21, Fig. 14 [Reports of the Usa Marine Biological Station v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 12148] Wan, Amami, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): BSKU 5425. Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:3 [ref. 19282]. •Valid as Aporops japonicus Kamohara 1957 -- (Hayashi in Masuda et al. 1984:140 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Aporops bilinearis Schultz 1943 -- (Randall & Baldwin 1997:10 [ref. 22812]). Current status: Synonym of Aporops bilinearis Schultz 1943. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Epinephelus Tilesius [W. G. von] 1814:no page number, Pl. 64 (fig. 2) [Atlas zur Reis; ref. 19304] Japan. Scientific name not on plate so not available; served as basis for Serranus trimaculatus Valenciennes 1828; see Randall & Heemstra 1991:276 [ref. 19601]. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

japonicus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:565 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Japan. Unneeded new name for Epinephelus ruber Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Labracopsis Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:50 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 20 (no. 7) (for 8 Mar. 1883); ref. 20489] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: (several) NMW 76565 (2). Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:235 [p. 27 of separate] Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [ref. 4246]. •Valid as Chorististium japonicum (Döderlein 1883) -- (Shen & Lin 1984:21 [ref. 13822]). •Valid as Liopropoma japonicum (Döderlein 1883) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:473, 670 [ref. 8056], Randall & Taylor 1988:13 [ref. 6429], Lee 1990:66 [ref. 19830], Kon et al. 1999:70 [ref. 23738], Nakabo 2000:729 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Okamoto & Ida 2001:97 [ref. 25278], Nakabo 2002:729 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:310, 592 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:430 [ref. 28370], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma japonicum (Döderlein 1883). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Paracirrhites Steindachner [F.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:25 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 48 (1. Abth.); ref. 4247] Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 20490]. •Valid as Isobuna japonica (Steindachner 1883) -- (Randall 1963:394 [ref. 3599]). •Valid as Plectranthias japonicus (Steindachner 1883) -- (Randall 1980:139 [ref. 6717], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:134 [ref. 6441], Shen & Lin 1984:20 [ref. 13822], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:506 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:15 [ref. 19830], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:243 [ref. 27969], Randall 1996:116 [ref. 23194], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977] dated 1884, Chen et al. 1997:52 [ref. 26476] dated 1884, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:696 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Chen & Shao 2002:64 [ref. 25977], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:696 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:310, 593 [ref. 26218], Allen et al. 2006:990 [ref. 29078], Wu et al. 2011:252 [ref. 31227], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Okamoto & Motomura 2017:51 [ref. 35248], Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias japonicus (Steindachner 1883). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Serranus areolatus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:8 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Japan. Holotype: RMNH D76 (stuffed). Type information: Boeseman 1947:25 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

jayakari, Serranus Boulenger [G. A.] 1889:237 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1889 (pt 2); ref. 14491] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1888.12.29.32 (1, skin, missing), 1888.12.29.33 (1, skin), 1888.12.29.34 (1, skin). •Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999]). •Valid as Epinephelus jayakari (Boulenger 1889) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus jayakari (Boulenger 1889). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

joanae, Acanthistius Heemstra [P. C.] 2010:61, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa No. 2352; ref. 30720] Off Umdloti, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 80 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 26401. Paratypes: (many) BPBM, SAIAB, SAM, USNM. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Acanthistius joanae Heemstra 2010 -- (Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Acanthistius joanae Heemstra 2010. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: east coast of South Africa. Habitat: marine.

jordani, Epinephelus Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:140 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 39628. Paratypes: CAS 61868 [ex IU 4031] (1), CAS-SU 416 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:199 [ref. 9277], Heemstra & Randall 1993:268 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:110 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1599 [ref. 22830], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:91 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2011:304 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca jordani (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) to Gulf of California and western Mexico. Habitat: marine.

jothyi, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1996:122, Fig. 1 [Micronesica v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 23194] Strait of Malacca, off northern part of west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, depth 180-400 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 30230. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146] •Valid as Plectranthias jothyi Randall 1996 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias jothyi Randall 1996. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Malaysia. Habitat: marine.

kamii, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:141, Fig. 14 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Naha fish market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: BPBM 19636. Paratypes: BPBM 5845 (1), USNM 219329 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146]. •Synonym of Plectranthias anthioides (Günther 1872) -- (Lee 1990:13 [ref. 19830], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815]). •Valid as Plectranthias kamii Randall 1980 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:134 [ref. 6441], Shen & Lin 1984:9 [ref. 13822], Randall 1996:118 [ref. 23194], Nakabo 2000:695 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Chen & Shao 2002:64 [ref. 25977], Nakabo 2002:695 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2005:120 [ref. 28745], Wu et al. 2011:253 [ref. 31227], Motomura et al. 2010:99 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Motomura et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35333], Okamoto & Motomura 2017:51 [ref. 35248], Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146], Peristiwady et al. 2019:74 [ref. 36694]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias kamii Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

kashiwae, Leptanthias Tanaka [S.] 1918:525, Pl. 138 (fig. 387) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 29; ref. 4331] Kashiwajima, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8459 (lost). •Valid as Anthias kashiwae (Tanaka 1918) -- (Allen & Starck 1982:50 [ref. 8518]). •Valid as Pseudanthias kashiwae (Tanaka 1918) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:137 [ref. 6441], Fricke 1999:207 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815]). •Synonym of Pseudanthias cooperi (Regan 1902) -- (Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Randall 2005:140 [ref. 28239], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:138 [ref. 32094]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias cooperi (Regan 1902). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

katayamai, Holanthias Randall [J. E.], Maugé [A. L.] & Plessis [Y. B.] 1979:16, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 26 (no. 1); ref. 8794] Northwest of Haputu Point, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific, depth 177 meters. Holotype: BPBM 8527. Paratypes: BPBM 5848 (1), MNHN 1978-0136 (1), URB 78-0148 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:16 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:23 [ref. 36146]. •Synonym of Holanthias chrysostictus (Günther 1872) -- (Lee 1990:10 [ref. 19830], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495]). •Valid as Holanthias katayamai Randall, Maugé & Plessis 1979 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:135 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:699 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:699 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Odontanthias katayamai (Randall, Maugé & Plessis 1979) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:20 [ref. 28602], White 2011:22 [ref. 31494], Anderson 2018:23 [ref. 36146]) Current status: Valid as Odontanthias katayamai (Randall, Maugé & Plessis 1979). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: southern Japan, Taiwan, Mariana Islands. Habitat: marine.

kelloggi, Anthias Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:179 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Off Kailua, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50642. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7460 (1), USNM 125630 [ex USFC 2711] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291], Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Zalanthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Smith & Craig 2007:45 [ref. 29042] in family Serranidae). •Valid as Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Randall 1980:145 [ref. 6717], Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:219, 373 [ref. 8256] as valid subspecies azumanus, Shen & Lin 1984:19 [ref. 13822], Lee 1990:16 [ref. 19830], Randall 1996:116 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Chen & Shao 2002:64 [ref. 25977], Youn 2002:310, 593 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:431 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:342 [ref. 28379] with subspecies, Randall 2007:193 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Wu et al. 2011:252 [ref. 31227], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Okinawa Trough, Kyushu-Palau Ridge, Japan and Ogasawara Islands; Chesterfield Islands and Grande Terre (New Caledonia); Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

kendalli, Cephalopholis Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:76, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55911. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:41 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:40 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2477 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

kingyo, Holanthias Kon [T.], Yoshino [T.] & Sakurai [Y.] 2000:75, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 47 (no. 1); ref. 24483] Houzan-sone, off Miyako Island, Okinawa, Japan. Holotype: URM-P 18748. Paratypes: URM-P 28315 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:20 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Holanthias kingyo Kon, Yoshino & Sakurai 2000 -- (Nakabo 2000:698 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:698 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Meganthias kingyo (Kon, Yoshino & Sakurai 2000) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:29 [ref. 28602], Randall & Heemstra 2008:5 [ref. 29984], Akhilesh et al. 2009:1 [ref. 31046], White 2011:21 [ref. 32494], Anderson 2018:20 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Meganthias kingyo (Kon, Yoshino & Sakurai 2000). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Okinawa (Ryukyu Islands, Japan). Habitat: marine.

kiomeamea, Luzonichthys Shepherd [B.], Pinheiro [H. T.], Phelps [T.], Pérez-Matus [A.] & Rocha [L. A. ] 2019:19, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 33; ref. 36755] Hanga Piko, Rapa Nui, Chile, -27.15333°, -109.44778°, depth 83 meters. Holotype (unique): CAS 244640. •Valid as Luzonichthys kiomeamea Shepherd, Pinheiro, Phelps, Pérez-Matus & Rocha 2019. Current status: Valid as Luzonichthys kiomeamea Shepherd, Pinheiro, Phelps, Pérez-Matus & Rocha 2019. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Rapa Nui, Chile. Habitat: marine.

klausewitzi, Plectranthias Zajonz [U.] 2006:21, Figs. 2-3 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 29414] Northwest of Perim Island, Strait of Perim, Yemen, southern Red Sea, 12°43.7'N, 43°15.0'E, depth 228-235 meters. Holotype: SMF 29279. Paratypes: (6) SMF 29294 (5); SAIAB 65098 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias klausewitzi Zajonz 2006 -- (Heemstra & Randall 2009:10 [ref. 30535], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:29 [ref. 36146], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:65 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias klausewitzi Zajonz 2006. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

knappi, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1996:126, Fig. 2 [Micronesica v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 23194] Southwest of Caruruan Pt., 11°38'00"N, 123°52'38"E, Visayan Sea between northern Negros and Masbate Island, Philippines, depth 89.7 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 219865. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias knappi Randall 1996 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias knappi Randall 1996. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

knysnaensis, Serranus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:2, Pl. 19 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Knysna, Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype (unique): SAM 11647. Spelled knysnaensis on p. 1 and on plate, Kynsnaensis on p. 2; Corrigenda for vol. III corrects p. 2 to knysnaensis and locality to Knysna. •Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:536 [ref. 5667]). •Valid as Serranus knysnaensis Gilchrist 1904 -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:174 [ref. 28072], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:812 [ref. 33030], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2409 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35805], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:36 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus knysnaensis Gilchrist 1904. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic Ocean, Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

koehleri, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:92 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

kohleri, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:336, Fig. 51 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Bock Passage, Rongerik Atoll, western Pacific, depth 60 feet. Holotype: USNM 141922. Paratypes: UW (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

koschar, Perca summana var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:345 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskal 1775) -- (Parenti 2003:499 [ref. 27322]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

krasyukovae, Caprodon Kharin [V. E.] in Kharin & Dudarev 1983:23, Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 9102] Western Pacific, 25°15.0'S, 159°43.3'E, depth 55 meters. Holotype: ZIN 45346. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:11 [ref. 36146]. •Status uncertain -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:23 [ref. 31956]). •Valid as Caprodon krasyukovae Kharin 1983 -- (Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Allen et al. 2006:984 [ref. 29078], Anderson 2018:11 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Caprodon krasyukovae Kharin 1983. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland and New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

kulas, Plectropoma Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:423 [145] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 145 of reprint. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042] with question). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

kunhardtii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1851:169 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16895] Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 32444 [ex RMNH 6164]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

kupangensis, Epinephelus Tucker [S. J.], Kurniasih [E. M.] & Craig [M. T.] 2016:658, Fig. 1 [Copeia v. 104 (no. 3); ref. 34684] Timor Sea, Sahul Banks (approx. 12°01'S, 124°8'E), depth 50-300 meters. Holotype: MZB 23005. Paratypes: BBPM, MZB, SIO, UF, USNM. •Valid as Epinephelus kupangensis Tucker, Kurniasih & Craig 2016 -- (Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus kupangensis Tucker, Kurniasih & Craig 2016. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Savu Sea, Timor Sea, Sulawesi, Philippines, Taiwan and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

labarum, Diplectrum Rosenblatt [R. H.] & Johnson [G. D.] 1974:181, Fig. 1a [California Fish and Game v. 60 (no. 4); ref. 7537] Bahía de Banderas, Jalisco, Mexico, depth 31-35 meters. Holotype: SIO 65-160. Paratypes: BMNH [ex SIO 65-250] (1); CAS 47785 [ex SIO 65-305] (2); 47786 [ex SIO 61-282] (3), 47787 [ex SIO 63-526] (10), 47788 [ex SIO 65-350] (7), 47789 [ex SIO 68-66] (7), 47790 [ex SIO 68-74] (14); FMNH 82963 [ex SIO 68-71] (57); ?to Mexico [ex SIO 68-74] (14); SIO (56 lots, 1503); UCLA 56-118 (1); USNM 216406 [?ex SIO ] (18). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:32 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Diplectrum labarum Rosenblatt & Johnson 1974 -- (Bortone 1977:37 [ref. 7064], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:90 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1584 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:277 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:360 [ref. 24555], González-Acosta & De la Cruz-Agüero 1999:41 [ref. 24505], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum labarum Rosenblatt & Johnson 1974. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

labriformis, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:8, Pl. 3 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Off San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.25.5 (right half skin on wood). •Valid as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:173 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1595 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:284 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:319 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:355 [ref. 24555], Allen & Robertson 1999:13 [ref. 24279], Thomson et al. 2000:86 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2006:91 [ref. 29771], Craig et al. 2006:969 [ref. 29775], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:165 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Chile, including offshore islands and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:431, 477, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Grand golfe de l'lnde [Indian Ocean]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:98 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1984:42 [ref. 19232]. Original spelling lævis. Based on a description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:12 [ref. 6009], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:59 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:117 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:292 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:290 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:244 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:53 [ref. 25135], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:117 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:204 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2532 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:709 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:190 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:709 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:165 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1021 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:99 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:333 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:282 [ref. 31980], Nair et al. 2013:3 [ref. 32542], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Oeno (Pitcairn Group), north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

lamillai, Plectranthias Rojas M. [J. R.] & Pequeño [G.] 1998:203 [Scientia Marina v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 23541] Rey de Bastos Sector, Isla Alejandro Selkirk, 33°46'S, 80°46'W, Juan Fernández Archipelago, depth 180-200 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHNC P.7055. •Valid as Plectranthias lamillai Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998 -- (Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:187 [ref. 23775], Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:48 [ref. 23540], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590]). •Synonym of Plectranthias exsul Heemstra & Anderson 1983 -- (Anderson & Baldwin 2000:381 [ref. 24574], Anderson & Baldwin 2002:233 [ref. 25898], Anderson 2008:435 [ref. 29940], Dyer & Westneat 2010:605 [ref. 31446], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:37 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Plectranthias exsul Heemstra & Anderson 1983. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

lanceolatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:92, Pl. 242 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Ostindien [East Indies], Indonesia. Syntypes: ZMB 169 (1), ZMB (1, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 72 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Promicrops lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:808 [ref. 20764], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:246 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:109 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat et al. 1993:106 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 1993:132 [ref. 23929], Randall 1994:261 [ref. 21644], Gomon et al. 1994:535 [ref. 22532], Randall 1995:132 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:109 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:190 [ref. 24106] with a holotype, Kuo & Shao 1999:401 [ref. 24297], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2505 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:184 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:85 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] with author as Bleeker, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:167 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:158 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Randall 2007:196 [ref. 30952], Roberts & Gomon 2008:542 [ref. 30641], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:168 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:274 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Gill 2014:599 [ref. 33481], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1186 [ref. 34193], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:185 [ref. 36495], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Jawad et al. 2019:186 [ref. 36777], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), northern New Zealand and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lasti, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] & Hoese [D. F.] 1995:332, Fig. 3 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 47 (no. 3); ref. 21929] 175 kilometers north of Port Hedland, 18°32'S, 118°17'E, Northwest Shelf, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS I.22807-056. Paratypes: CSIRO H 651-02 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias lasti Randall & Hoese 1995 -- (Randall 1996:117 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Allen et al. 2006:990 [ref. 29078], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias lasti Randall & Hoese 1995. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

lata, Cerna acutirostris var. Döderlein [P.] 1882:243 [76], Pl. 3 (fig. 6) [Giornale di scienze naturali ed economiche, Società Naturali ed Economiche di Palermo v. 15; ref. 17414] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. On p. 76 of separate. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

latepictus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1861:353 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:262 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

latifasciata, Pikea Tanaka [S.] 1922:595, Pl. 147 (fig. 405) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 32; ref. 4334] Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 8000. Paratypes: ZUMT 3423 (1, lost). •Valid as Liopropoma latifasciatum (Tanaka 1922) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:471, 669 [ref. 8056], Randall & Taylor 1988:15 [ref. 6429], Lee 1990:66 [ref. 19830], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:728 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:728 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:310, 593 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:430 [ref. 28370], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130], Koeda et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35354]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma latifasciatum (Tanaka 1922). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

latifasciatus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:6 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D21 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D22 (1, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:22 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:46 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:132 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:237 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476] dated 1843, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2506 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:718 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:718 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:310, 591 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:170 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to South China Sea, north to Japan, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

latus, Serranocirrhitus Watanabe [M.] 1949:18, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan v. 14 (no. 4) (for Apr. 1949); ref. 6581] Itoman, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): TUFIL W.1301 (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:52 [ref. 36146] •Valid as Serranocirrhitus latus Watanabe 1949 -- (Allen & Starck 1982:52 [ref. 8518], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:135 [ref. 6441], Shen & Lin 1984:10 [ref. 13822], Paxton et al. 1989:508 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:99 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:96 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:120 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:99 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:109 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2471 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:697 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:203 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2002:697 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:147 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:996 [ref. 29078], Motomura et al. 2010:101 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:303 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35333], Anderson 2018:52 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Serranocirrhitus latus Watanabe 1949. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia to Palau and Fiji and Solomon Islands, northeastern Australia to Japan. Habitat: marine.

leai, Epinephelides Ogilby [J. D.] 1899:170 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 3279] Pelsart Island, Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.4917. •Synonym of Epinephelides armatus (Castelnau 1875) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:505 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:985 [ref. 29078]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelides armatus (Castelnau 1875). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

lebretonianus, Serranus Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:33, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7548. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29-30 [ref. 19232] also type described. •Valid as Epinephelus lebretonianus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1853) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:181 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:177 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2011:172 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus lebretonianus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1853). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Locality unknown, probably Indo-Pacific but no specific information (known from one specimen). Habitat: marine.

lecromi, Chelidoperca Fourmanoir [P.] 1982:63, Fig. 4 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 8483] Chesterfield Island, Coral Sea, 19°40'S, 158°31'E, depth 300 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1981-1436. Paratype: MNHN 1981-1437 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:13 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Chelidoperca lecromi Fourmanoir 1982 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Bineesh et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33649], Williams & Carpenter 2015:287 [ref. 33647], Matsunuma & Motomura 2016:388, 399 [ref. 34335], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35700], Lee et al. 2019:21 [ref. 36888], Ogino et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37056]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca lecromi Fourmanoir 1982. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western South Pacific: Chesterfield Islands and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

lemniscatum, Liopropoma Randall [J. E.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1988:23, Fig. 5 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 16; ref. 6429] Nahu fish market, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: BPBM 19185. Paratypes: BPBM 19929 (1); USNM 213787 (1). •Valid as Liopropoma lemniscatum Randall & Taylor 1988 -- (Kon et al. 1999:68 [ref. 23738], Nakabo 2000:728 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:728 [ref. 26001], Allen & Erdmann 2012:307 [ref. 31980], Akhilesh et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32130], Wirtz & Schliewen 2012:149 [ref. 32169]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma lemniscatum Randall & Taylor 1988. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, Palau and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

leopardinus, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:392, Pl. 36 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Indian seas. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:21 [ref. 19232]. Unjustified emendation of Holocentrus leopardus Lacepède 1802. Name spelled leopardinum on p. xvj and leopardinus on p. 392 and Pl. 36. •In the synonymy of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:16 [ref. 6009], Randall & Heemstra 1991:294 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:292 [ref. 21042], Randall et al. 1997:118 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2533 [ref. 24815], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

leopardus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:332, 367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7673 (dry skin, right side). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:16 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:158 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:126 [ref. 6441], Randall & Hoese 1986:16 [ref. 6009], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:60 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:118 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:294 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:292 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:244 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:40 [ref. 26476], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2533 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:708 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:191 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:88 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:708 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:310, 593 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:54 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:166 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:120 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1022 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:99 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:336 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:283 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:105 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:122 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

leopardus, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:450, 518, Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Grand Océan équatorial, ou les mers qui en sont voisines [Indo-West Pacific]. Syntypes: MNHN A-5725 (3, dry) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:98 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1984:17 [ref. 19232]. Based on drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476] dated 1802, Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:177 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2541 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:34 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to northern Marianas, Line and Marquesas islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

lepidolepis, Anthias Bleeker [P.] 1857:37 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) RMNH 4555 (2 or 3 of 3). •Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

lepidopterus, Epinephelus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:302 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New Zealand seas. No types known. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:10 [ref. 36146]. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Caesioperca lepidoptera (Forster 1901) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:503 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:176 [ref. 24556], Aizawa & Matsuura in Amaoka et al. 1990:251 [ref. 16024], Kuiter 1993:137 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:531 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:120 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:983 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:538 [ref. 30641], Roberts 2015:1183 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:10 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Caesioperca lepidoptera (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

leprosus, Epinephelus Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:310, Pl. 1 (fig. A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 88) (art. 38); ref. 4096] Aldabra Island, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 434. Paratypes: (many) not researched. •Valid as Epinephelus leprosus Smith 1955 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:226 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

leptus, Anthiasicus Ginsburg [I.] 1952:91, Fig. 4 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 1805] Off Dauphin Island, Alabama, U.S.A., 29°14'30"N, 88°09'30"W, Albatross station 2378, depth 68 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 134189. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:14 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Hemanthias leptus (Ginsburg 1952) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:314 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:144 [ref. 23100], Baldwin 1990:925 [ref. 21029], Bullock & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:369 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:107 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:424 [ref. 23827], Heemstra et al. 2003:1350 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:154 [ref. 28815], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:48 [ref. 31956], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Anderson 2018:13 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Hemanthias leptus (Ginsburg 1952). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) southward, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, south to Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. Habitat: marine.

leucogrammicus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:347 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7166. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7165 (1), RMNH D117 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983:381 [ref. 8284]. Based on specimens and additional literature sources (Renard, Vlaming, Valentyn). •Valid as Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:192 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:516 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:22 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:24 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:100 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:23 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:23 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:125 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:226 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:44 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:174 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2475 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:177 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:46 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:148 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1003 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:83 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:10 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:260 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:144 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:60 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:110 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Phoenix Islands and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

leucostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:346 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:267 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:239 [ref. 21042], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leucostigmata, Chelidoperca Lee [S.-H.], Lee [M.-Y.], Matsunuma [M.] & Chen [W.-J.] 2019:8, Fig. 5 [Frontiers in Marine Science v. 6: 465; ref. 36888] North Macclesfield Bank, South China Sea, 16°07′N, 114°20′E, depth 162 - 165 meters. Holotype: NTUM 14721. Paratypes: NTUM. •Valid as Chelidoperca leucostigmata Lee, Lee, Matsunuma & Chen 2019 -- (Ogino et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37056]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca leucostigmata Lee, Lee, Matsunuma & Chen 2019. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Macclesfield Bank (Zhongsha), South China Sea, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

leucozonus, Anthias (Pseudanthias) Katayama [M.] & Masuda [H.] 1982:393, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 28 (no. 4); ref. 8464] Izu Peninsula, Japan, depth 40 meters. Holotype: ZUMT 54295. Paratypes: NSMT-P 54296 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias leucozonus (Katayama & Masuda 1982) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:136 [ref. 6441], Senou & Mishiku 1994:2 [ref. 24342], Nakabo 2000:702 [ref. 25086], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Nakabo 2002:702 [ref. 26001], Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias leucozonus (Katayama & Masuda 1982). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

liberte, Hypoplectrus Victor [B. C.] & Marks [K. W.] 2018:10, Figs. 1, 2A [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 31; ref. 36139] Baie de Fort-Liberté, off Fort St. Joseph, Haiti, 19.677°, -71.843°, depth 9 meters. Holotype: UF 239538. Paratypes: UF, USNM. •Valid as Hypoplectrus liberte Victor & Marks 2018. Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus liberte Victor & Marks 2018. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Fort-Liberté Bay, northeastern Haiti. Habitat: marine.

lightfooti, Epinephelus Fowler [H. W.] 1907:258, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1376] Dominican Republic, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16514. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2006:329 [ref. 29772]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lineata, Suttonia Gosline [W. A.] 1960:28, Fig. 1 [Pacific Science v. 14; ref. 11916] Off Waianae coast, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 10-12 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 177950. Paratypes: UH 2460 (5, not found in 1997). •Valid as Suttonia lineata Gosline 1960 -- (Randall & Baldwin 1997:39 [ref. 22812], Myers 1999:118 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:171 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:350 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1028 [ref. 28999], Randall 2007:198 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:311 [ref. 31980], Endo & Kenmotsu 2013:16 [ref. 32578], Fricke et al. 2014:65 [ref. 33932] with author as Bleeker 1857). Current status: Valid as Suttonia lineata Gosline 1960. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Islands and Christmas Island east to Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands and Society Islands, north to Philippines Japan, Mariana Islands, south to eastern Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

lineata, Ypsigramma Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:375, Fig. 59 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef off Namu Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141872. Paratypes: FMNH 62617 [ex ?USNM 142311] (1); USNM 141873-75 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:85 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Liopropoma susumi (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:26 [ref. 6429], Lee 1990:67 [ref. 19830]). Current status: Synonym of Liopropoma susumi (Jordan & Seale 1906). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Habitat: marine.

lineatum, Plectropoma Bliss [R.] (ex Steindachner) 1883:45 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5712. •Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:18 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:178 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Grammistes Arnoult [J.] in Arnoult, Bauchot-Boutin & Roux-Estève 1958:62, Fig. 2 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco (Nouvelle Série) v. 34; ref. 12043] Aldabra, 9°23'S, 43°25'45"E. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1954-0144. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232]. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:312 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7544 (dry), A-7681 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:284 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:250 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2529 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lineoocellatus, Serranus Guichenot [A.] in Duméril 1861:244 [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10 [for 1858]; ref. 1149] Gabon; Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7370-to 0000-7371 (1, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. Originally as lineo-ocellatus, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:299 [ref. 6204], Heemstra 1991:11 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:695 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:51 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lobotoides, Epinephelus Nichols [J. T.] 1913:179, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 32 (art. 7); ref. 14964] Shimonoseki Market, Honshu, Japan. Holotype (unique): AMNH 3957. •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

loeflingii, Labrus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:262 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. •Unidentifiable serranid -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

longilepis, Liopropoma Garman [S.] 1899:45 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] South of Gulf of Panama, 7°33'N, 78°34'20"W, Albatross station 3397, depth 85 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28778 (3), USNM 153602 [ex MCZ 28778] (1). •Valid as Liopropoma longilepis Garman 1899 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816] as liolepis, Thomson et al. 2000:98 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma longilepis Garman 1899. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longimanus, Anthias Günther [A.] 1859:94 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] No locality stated [Indian or Australian Seas, apparently Australia, western Pacific]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1857.6.13.116 (stuffed). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:11 [ref. 36146]. Also listed was Plate VII. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Caprodon longimanus (Günther 1859) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:504 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:59 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:176 [ref. 24556], Aizawa & Matsuura in Amaoka et al. 1990:252 [ref. 16024], Kuiter 1993:136 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Pequeño & Lamilla 1996:25 [ref. 23035], Kuiter 1997:120 [ref. 25488], Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:44 [ref. 23540], Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:177 [ref. 23775], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:380 [ref. 24574], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:32 [ref. 24590], Mundy 2005:340 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:984 [ref. 29078], Randall 2007:191 [ref. 30952], Dyer & Westneat 2010:605 [ref. 31446], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:25 [ref. 31956], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1184 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:11 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Caprodon longimanus (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Pacific, antitropical; Hawaiian Islands; New South Wales (Australia) to Kermadec Islands and northern New Zealand; Easter Island, Sala y Gomez Ridge, Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, Juan Fernández (southeastern Pacific). Habitat: marine.

longimanus, Pteranthias Weber [M.] 1913:209, Fig. 54 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Paternoster Island, East Indies, Siboga station 315, depth 36 meters. Lectotype: ZMA 113364. Paralectotypes: (7) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 818 [ex ZMA 100477] (1); ZMA 100475-78 (1, 1, 2, 1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146]. Lectotype selected by Randall 1980:149 [ref. 6717]. •Valid as Plectranthias longimanus (Weber 1913) -- (Randall 1980:148 [ref. 6717], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:134 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:514 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:507 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:28 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:17 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:90 [ref. 15987], Collette & Parin 1991:10 [ref. 19110], Randall 1996:120 [ref. 23194], Randall et al. 1997:90 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:106 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:694 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Chen & Shao 2002:64 [ref. 25977], Nakabo 2002:694 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:138 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:990 [ref. 29078], Heemstra & Randall 2009:11 [ref. 30535], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Wu et al. 2011:252 [ref. 31227], Allen & Erdmann 2012:288 [ref. 31980], Williams et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32703], Fricke et al. 2014:63 [ref. 33932], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Koeda et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35333], Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias longimanus (Weber 1913). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar east to Marshall Islands and Fiji, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

longipinna, Serranus (Variola) Swainson [W.] 1839:202 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Red Sea. No types known. Based on Serranus louti of Rüppell 1830: Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [ref. 3843], but see Serranus phaenistomus Swainson 1839. •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1024 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Serranus Kner [R.] 1864:483 [3] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 49; ref. 4927] Madras, India. No types known. On p. 3 of separate. Also appeared in Kner 1865: 275, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 2638]. •Valid as Epinephelus longispinis (Kner 1864) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:182 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:178 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:190 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2507 [ref. 24815], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:173 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:274 [ref. 31980], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus longispinis (Kner 1864). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to eastern Indonesia, north to Andaman Islands. Habitat: marine.

lori, Anthias Lubbock [R.] & Randall [J. E.] in Fourmanoir & Laboute 1976:287, Fig. [ ref. 19314] Point Mackau, Maré Island, Loyalty Islands, depth 50 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1976-0001. Paratypes: AMS 18563-001 [ex BPBM 13998] (1); ANSP; BMNH; BPBM 8437 (1), 8597 (1), 9629 (2), 13998 (3), 14026 (1), 14997 (1); LACM 35552-1 (1); WAM P.25493-001 (1); USNM 215263 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:9 [ref. 19232], Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621], Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:19 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]. Appeared first as above, then in Randall & Lubbock 1981:14 [ref. 6917]; specimens listed as types in Randall & Lubbock are not types. •Valid as Mirolabrichthys lori (Lubbock & Randall 1976) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:137 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Anthias lori Lubbock & Randall 1976 -- (Allen & Starck 1982:50 [ref. 8518], Paxton et al. 1989:502 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Pseudanthias lori (Lubbock & Randall 1976) -- (Randall et al. 1990:94 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:118 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:94 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:108 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:707 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:199 [ref. 25191], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:707 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830] dated to 1981, Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:142 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:993 [ref. 29078], Motomura et al. 2010:100 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:296 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias lori (Lubbock & Randall 1976). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Malaysia and Indonesia, east to Palau and Tuamotu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

loro, Paralabrax Walford [L. A.] 1936:2 [Occasional Papers of the Santa Barbara Museum v. 4; ref. 13272] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: USNM 100978 (1). Additional material: (3) USNM. •Valid as Paralabrax loro Walford 1936 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:114 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1607 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:76 [ref. 25640], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:163 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Pondella et al. 2003:182 [ref. 29770], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax loro Walford 1936. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

louisi, Anthias Bean [T. H.] 1912:124 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 25; ref. 232] Argus Bank, Bermuda (stomach content). Holotype (unique): AMNH 7308. •Synonym of Holanthias martinicensis (Guichenot 1868) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 1980:82 [ref. 5434]). •Synonym of Pronotogrammus martinicensis (Guichenot 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:217 [ref. 25013], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:99 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Pronotogrammus martinicensis (Guichenot 1868). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

louti, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:40, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMUC P43566 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588]. Spelled luti by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828 [ref. 997]. Surviving syntype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965: Pl. 9 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:178 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:156 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:103 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:126 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:536 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:501 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:63 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:120 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 20996], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:134 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:138 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:247 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:41 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:102 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:120 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:209 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2539 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:709 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:193 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:12 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:709 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:33 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:56 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:173 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:167 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1024 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:49 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:95 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:101 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:354 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:285 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:66 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:158 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:67 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:126 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Variola louti (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

luciopercanus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1852:56, 59, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana, Cuba. Poey specimens: ZMB 5965 (1). •Valid as Serranus luciopercanus Poey 1852 -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:187 [ref. 28815], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:43 [ref. 33341], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus luciopercanus Poey 1852. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: West Indies, Honduras. Habitat: marine.

luctuosus, Homalogrystes De Vis [C. W.] 1882:369 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 1087] Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.179 (dry mount). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lunaria, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:39, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:20 [ref. 19601] as lunaris, as lunaria on p. 329, Heemstra & Randall 1993:16 [ref. 21042] as lunaris, Golani & Fricke 2018:60 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Anthias Kotthaus [A.] 1973:20, Fig. 290 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 16; ref. 7572] Somali Basin, Somalia, western Indian Ocean, 7°43.3'N, 49°57.5'E to 7°45.2'N 49°59'E, depth 72-41 meters. Holotype: ZMH 5127 [ex IOES 161a]. Paratypes: ZMH 5128 [ex IOES 161b] (1). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:416 [ref. 21161], Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias lunulatus Kotthaus 1973 -- (Dor 1984:103 [ref. 29757], Heemstra & Randall 1986:512 [ref. 5667], Goren & Dor 1994:28 [ref. 25356], Fricke 1999:174 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Pseudanthias lunulatus (Kotthaus 1973) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Allen & Erdmann 2012:297 [ref. 31980], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:125, 149 [ref. 32094], Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146], Golani & Fricke 2018:66 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias lunulatus (Kotthaus 1973). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: South Africa, Somalia, Maldives, Mauritius (Mascarenes), and Bali (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Bodianus Shaw [G.] 1803:575 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. No types known. Unneeded new name for Perca lunaria Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Aethaloperca rogaa (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Grystes Guichenot [A.] 1863:C-4 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1318. •Valid as Liopropoma lunulatum (Guichenot 1863) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:133 [ref. 6441], Randall & Taylor 1988:22 [ref. 6429], Fricke 1999:202 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:729 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:729 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:426 [ref. 31739], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130], Nair et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32542], Baldwin & Robertson 2014:75 [ref. 33311], Golani & Fricke 2018:65 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma lunulatum (Guichenot 1863). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Mascarenes east to Society Islands, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Lutianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:329 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Not same as lunulatus Park. Based on 'Cabrilla' Parra 1787:93, Pl. 36 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042] with author as Parra). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

luridus, Serranus Ranzani [C.] 1842:356, Pl. 36 (fig. 1) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 9017] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 977. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

luteoroseus, Anthias (Odontanthias) Liénard [F.] in Sauvage 1891:136 [Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar; ref. 14503] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:38 [ref. 19232]. Original as luteo-roseus. Based on 'Barbier jaune et rose' of Liénard 1843:59 [ref. 20927]; description quoted from Liénard. •Synonym of Liopropoma lunulatum (Guichenot 1863) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:22 [ref. 6429], Fricke 1999:203 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Liopropoma lunulatum (Guichenot 1863). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Habitat: marine.

lutra, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:474 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7278. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:188 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

luzonensis, Anthias (Pseudanthias) Katayama [M.] & Masuda [H.] 1983:340, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 4); ref. 8326] Off Batangas, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: NSMT-P21435. Paratypes: NSMT-P 21436 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias luzonenesis Katayama & Masuda 1983 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:502 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:7 [ref. 19830]). •Valid as Pseudanthias luzonensis (Katayama & Masuda 1983) -- (Randall et al. 1990:95 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:92 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:116 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:95 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:108 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Ida & Sakaue 2001:267 [ref. 25544], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Allen et al. 2006:993 [ref. 29078], Allen & Erdmann 2012:297 [ref. 31980], Anderson 2018:42 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias luzonensis (Katayama & Masuda 1983). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Vanuatu and Fiji, north to Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

maccullochi, Ellerkeldia Whitley [G. P.] 1929:110, Pl. 30 (fig. 3) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 4665] Maroubra, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.12472. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:16 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Ellerkeldia maccullochi Whitley 1929 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:504 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Hypoplectrodes maccullochi (Whitley 1929) -- (Kuiter 1993:136 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:538 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:112 [ref. 25488], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Allen et al. 2006:986 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:544 [ref. 30641], Anderson 2018:16 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrodes maccullochi (Whitley 1929). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania (Australia). Habitat: marine.

macracanthus, Trachypoma Günther [A.] 1859:167 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Norfolk Island. Syntypes: BMNH 1855.9.19.40-41 (2), 1855.9.19.208-209 (2). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:53 [ref. 36146]. Also listed was Plate III. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Trachypoma macracanthus Günther 1859 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:174 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:127 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Pequeño & Lamilla 1996:28 [ref. 23035], Kuiter 1997:100 [ref. 25488], Rojas & Pequeño 1998:190 [ref. 23775], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:380 [ref. 24574], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Allen et al. 2006:996 [ref. 29078], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:16 [ref. 31956], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1199 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:53 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Trachypoma macracanthus Günther 1859. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: South Pacific: eastern Australia, New Zealand and Kermadec Islands east to Easter Island and Desventuradas Islands off Chile. Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:281, 293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [No locality] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Possible types: MNHN A-5747 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:39 [ref. 19232]. Based on Commerson drawing. Figured on Pl. 20 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710]. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

macrogenis, Cerna Sassi [A.] 1846:139 [Descrizione di Genova del Genovesato; ref. 18659] Italy, Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MSNG 43110 (= oMSNG 38933) not found in 1995. Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:335 [ref. 10350]. Original not seen. Also appeared with description in Sassi 1846:390 [ref. 22007]. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

macrolepidotus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:53, Pl. 230 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] East Indies. No types known. On p. 39 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. Serranidae. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmos, Plectropoma Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:6 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Lurin and Callao, Peru. Syntypes: (several) ZMB 291 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:50 [ref. 25858] as macrophthalmus and with ZMB 291 as holotype. Family placement uncertain (see genus account). •Valid as Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos (Tschudi 1846) -- (Pequeño 1989:59 [ref. 14125], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], as macrophthalmus, Grove & Lavenberg 1997:304 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:355 [ref. 24555], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957] as macrophthalmus). Current status: Valid as Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos (Tschudi 1846). Serranidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macropoma, Centropristis Günther [A.] 1864:145 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Pacific coast of Panama. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.426 (1), 1977.8.30.1-2 (2); ZMB 6799 (1). •Valid as Diplectrum macropoma (Günther 1864) -- (Bortone 1977:41 [ref. 7064], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:90 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1585 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:278 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:336 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:362 [ref. 24555], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum macropoma (Günther 1864). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macrospilos, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:499 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16851] Batjan, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5503. Later spelled macrospilus. •Valid as Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:110 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:186 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:179 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:237 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:110 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:191 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2508 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:158 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:175 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:275 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Hata et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35065], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sakamoto et al. 2018:216 [ref. 36508]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall and Marquesas islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

macrostigmus, Rypticus Courtenay [W. R., Jr.] 1967:261, Figs. 1C, 9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 119 (no. 6); ref. 7882] Near Wood Cay, off Grand Bahama Island, Bahamas, depth 70 feet. Holotype: ANSP 100968. Paratypes: MCZ 43620 (1); UF 13420 (1), 13441 (1), 13457 (1), 13473 (4), 222737 [ex UMML 22737] (1); USNM 201408 (1). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:112 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Rypticus bornoi Beebe & Tee-Van 1928 -- (Guimarães 1999:348 [ref. 24429], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060]). Current status: Synonym of Rypticus bornoi Beebe & Tee-Van 1928. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Paralabrax Howell Rivero [L.] 1936:59 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 12257] Matanzas, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 34040. Paratypes: MCZ 34041 (3). •Synonym of Serranus baldwini (Evermann & Marsh 1899) -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus baldwini (Evermann & Marsh 1899). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:220 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] St. Christian Island, Waitako [= Vaitahu, Tahuata Island, Marquesas Islands]. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca maculata Bloch 1792 (and also secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790). Lichtenstein (editor, p. 220, footnote) treats as a synonym of "Perca miniata Forsk. Faun. orient. p. 41", "Bodianus miniatus Bl. Sch. p. 332", and "Serranus variolosus Cuv. Val. II. p. 265." •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculata, Perca Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:333, xlv [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] St. Christine Island or Waitako. No types known. Name Latinized in index on p. xlv. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Perca Bloch [M. E.] 1792:92, Pl. 313 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790. On p. 81 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. Replaced by Sparus atlanticus Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Pikea Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:50 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 20 (no. 7) (for 8 Mar. 1883); ref. 20489] Tokyo, Japan and Tokyo Bay. Holotype (unique): NMW 38846. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:234 [p. 26 of separate] Pl. 6 (figs. 1-1b) [ref. 4246]. •Valid as Chorististium maculatum (Döderlein 1883) -- (Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:221, 374 [ref. 8256]). •Valid as Liopropoma maculatum (Döderlein 1883) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Randall & Taylor 1988:12 [ref. 6429], Nakabo 2000:729 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:729 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Mundy 2005:349 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:199 [ref. 30952], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130], Pinheiro et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36820]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma maculatum (Döderlein 1883). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western and central North Pacific: Ruykyu Islands and Kyushu-Palau Ridge to Korea, Japan and Guam; Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

maculatofasciatus, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1868:120 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 5 (no. 14) (for 22 May 1867); ref. 20463] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: (several) whereabouts unknown. Species originally spelled as maculato-fasciatus, later described in more detail in Steindachner 1868:969 [p. 5 of separate], Pl. 2 [ref. 14081]. •Valid as Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Steindachner 1868) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:200 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:114 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1608 [ref. 22830], Tranah & Allen 1999:103 [ref. 24152], Fuller et al. 1999:352 [ref. 25838], Stepien et al. 2001:1852 [ref. 25601], Thomson et al. 2000:75 [ref. 25640], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:164 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Pondella et al. 2003:181 [ref. 29770], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:222 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Steindachner 1868). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:48, Pl. 228 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] "Japan" [probably in error for Java, Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8599 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:134 [ref. 24282]. On p. 35 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Plectropomus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:184 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:159 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757], Randall & Hoese 1986:16 [ref. 6009], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:118 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:295 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:293 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:245 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:106 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:118 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2534 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1022 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:339 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:283 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:103 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:100 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33930], Motomura et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:122 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Solomon Islands, north to Philippines, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Bodianus Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:236, Fig. 39 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Bodianus maculatus Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Cephalopholis Seale [A.] & Bean [B. A.] 1907:235, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1568); ref. 4002] Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 57843. Paratypes: USNM 61153 (1). •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:96, Pl. 242 (fig. 3) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] East Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB (not found). On p. 76 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:176 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:47 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:110 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:110 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2509 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:184 [ref. 25191], Johnson 2001:730 [ref. 25471], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:159 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:178 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:275 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Island east to the Line Islands, north to southern Japan, south to southeastern Australia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Hypoplectrodes nigroruber Whitley [G. P.] 1965:106, Fig. 3 [Australian Zoologist v. 13 (pt 2); ref. 9267] Tuggerah, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.886. Paratypes: AMS I.9953 (1). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Plectranthias Fourmanoir [P.] 1982:58, Fig. 1 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 8483] Philippines, 14°01'N, 120°17.1'E, depth 174 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1981-1438. Paratypes: MNHN 1981-1439 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:19 [ref. 19232]. Listed as a new species in Fourmanoir 1985:31 [ref. 8092], but described first as above. •Valid as Plectranthias maculatus Fourmanoir 1982 -- (Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441]). •Synonym of Selenanthias analis Tanaka 1918 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2471 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Selenanthias analis Tanaka 1918. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Rhypticus Gill [T. N.] 1862:251 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): ?USNM 3689. Original genus should have been Rypticus. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Rypticus maculatus Holbrook 1855. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Rypticus Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:39, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] Off Cape Romain, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13232. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:112 [ref. 13621]. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:42, Pl. 6 (fig. 2). •Valid as Rypticus maculatus Holbrook 1855 -- (Courtenay 1967:271 [ref. 7882], Robins & Ray 1986:146 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:158 [ref. 36591], Boschung 1992:110 [ref. 23239], Guimarães 1999:350 [ref. 24429], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:177 [ref. 28815], Baldwin & Weigt 2012:34 [ref. 31864], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Rypticus maculatus Holbrook 1855. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Taeniodon Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:235 [27] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 47 (pt 1); ref. 4246] On p. 27 of separate. Not available, name mentioned in passing; from Tokyo, Japan. •In the synonymy of Liopropoma maculatum (Döderlein 1883). Current status: Synonym of Liopropoma maculatum (Döderlein 1883). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae.

maculicauda, Chelidoperca Bineesh [K. K.] & Akhilesh [K. V.] In Bineesh et al. 2013:74, Figs. 2-5 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 19 (no. 2); ref. 32687] Off Kollam, Kerala coast, India, southeastern Arabian Sea, depth 180-320 meters. Holotype: CMFRI GB 31.138.14.5. Paratypes: CMFRI GB 31.139.14.5 (1), GB 31.139.5.2 (1). •Valid as Chelidoperca maculicauda Bineesh & Akhilesh 2013 -- (Bineesh et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33649], Williams & Carpenter 2015:287 [ref. 33647], Matsunuma & Motomura 2016:388 [ref. 34335], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35700], Ogino et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37056]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca maculicauda Bineesh & Akhilesh 2013. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Off Quilon, Kerala coast, India and Indonesia, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

maculicauda, Serranops Regan [C. T.] 1914:15 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 13 (no. 73); ref. 3661] Off North Cape, Aupori Peninsula, North Island, ca. 34°23'S, 173°01'E, New Zealand, depth 128 meters (70 fathoms). Lectotype: BMNH 1913.12.4.12-19 (83 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1913.12.4.12-19 (8). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146]. Lectotype selected by Randall 1980:152 [ref. 6717]. •Valid as Plectranthias maculicauda (Regan 1914) -- (Randall 1980:151 [ref. 6717], Paxton et al. 1989:507 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:175 [ref. 24556], Randall 1996:117 [ref. 23194], Allen et al. 2006:990 [ref. 29078], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Roberts 2015:1198 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias maculicauda (Regan 1914). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

maculiferus, Hypoplectrus Poey [F.] 1871:78, Pl. 1 (bottom) [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 10 (no. 1-3) (art. 3); ref. 3506] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 9783 or USNM 24783. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:194 [ref. 22926]. •Questionably a synonym of Hypoplectrus aberrans (Poey 1868) -- (Domeier 1994:105 [ref. 21359]). •Valid as Hypoplectrus maculiferus Poey 1871 -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1367 [ref. 27060] as cf. maculiferus, Lobel 2011:11 [ref. 31606], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus maculiferus Poey 1871. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

maculosa, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:350 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality given. No types known. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of taeniops as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:495 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti 2003:495 [ref. 27322]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculosa, Perca punctata Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:350 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Described as a "varietas" of Perca punctata, species no. 55 on p. 349. Based on Seba and Pennant. •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:332 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [? Martinique]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7360. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232], Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:266 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maderaspatensis, Priacanthichthys Day [F.] 1868:193 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 1); ref. 1076] Madras, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1868.10.27.38 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762] as madraspatensis. •Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maekawa, Plectranthias Wada [H.], Senou [H.] & Motomura [H.] 2018:270, Figs. 1, 2a [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36335] Off Gaja-jima island, Tokara Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, 29°53ʹ04ʺN, 129°37ʹ11ʺE, depth 170 meters. Holotype: KAUM-I 110114. Paratypes: KAUM-I. •Valid as Plectranthias maekawa Wada, Senou & Motomura 2018. Current status: Valid as Plectranthias maekawa Wada, Senou & Motomura 2018. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Tokara Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Habitat: marine.

maene, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:87 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

magna, Lepidoperca Katayama [M.] & Fujii [E.] 1982:250, Fig. 7 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 29 (no. 3); ref. 8465] Norfolk Ridge, southern Pacific, 29°35'S, 168°05.8'E, depth 308 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 21443. Paratypes: AMS I.23358-001 (1), NSMT-P 21444-50 (7, 1 ea.), ZUMT 54319 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:18 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Lepidoperca magna Katayama & Fujii 1982 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:505 [ref. 12442], Roberts 1989:586 [ref. 12486], Paulin et al. 1989:176 [ref. 24556], Aizawa & Matsuura in Amaoka et al. 1990:253 [ref. 16024], Allen et al. 2006:988 [ref. 29078], Roberts 2015:1195 [ref. 34193], Anderson 2018:18 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Lepidoperca magna Katayama & Fujii 1982. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: eastern Australia to Norfolk Ridge, south to New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

magnificus, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1882:229 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 17584] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.9460. The type has been found, Feb. 2013. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Gill 2014:599 [ref. 33487]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

magniscuttis, Epinephelus Postel [E.], Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1963:365, Fig. 9 [Mémoires de l'Institut français d'Afrique Noire No. 68; ref. 5208] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 1962-1296. Paratypes: MNHN 1963-0037 (1) [not listed in original description]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:527 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:192 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:182 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:71 [ref. 21258], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:505 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:192 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2510 [ref. 24815], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:180 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakamura et al. 2018:226 [ref. 36354], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:345 [ref. 36985]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa and western Mascarenes east to Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to eastern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

malabaricus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:319, Pl. 63 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 190. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:236 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:182 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:786 [ref. 13676], Heemstra & Randall 1986:527 [ref. 5667], Daget & Smith 1986:303 [ref. 6204], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:48 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:111 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601] with remarks on type, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:807 [ref. 20764], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Kuiter 1993:132 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:133 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476], Machida et al. 1997:50 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:111 [ref. 25919], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:192 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2511 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:185 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:86 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3338 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:168 [ref. 28072], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:196 [ref. 28107], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:159 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:89 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:182 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:276 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:187 [ref. 36495], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871] as cf. malabaricus). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia); Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

manadensis, Anthias Bleeker [P.] 1856:39 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5456. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias manadensis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias manadensis (Bleeker 1856). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

manca, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:349 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated (probably Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia), No types known. Based on Percis pinnis quatuor ... of Klein 1749:43, pl. 8, fig. 3 [ref. 30141], a pre-Linnaean name. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of guoyanus as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:496 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Parenti 2003:496 [ref. 27322]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

marcia, Pseudanthias Randall [J. E.] & Hoover [J. P.] 1993:47, Figs. 1-5 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 20 (no. 2); ref. 21009] Off Rahah Bay, southwestern coast of Oman, 16°57.0'N, 54°49.2'E, depth 14 meters. Holotype: BPBM 35457. Paratypes: BMNH 1993.7.22.1 (1), BPBM 35455-56 (1, 2), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 525 (1), USNM 320765 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias marcia Randall & Hoover 1993 -- (Randall 1995:123 [ref. 22896], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Akhilesh 2012:124, 151 [ref. 32094], Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146], Zajonz et al. 2019:69 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias marcia Randall & Hoover 1993. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra, Oman. Habitat: marine.

margaritaceus, Anthias Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1879:78 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1879; ref. 18288] Tokyo Bay, Japan. Holotype: ZMB 10603 (1). Hilgendorf specimens: BMNH. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:51 [ref. 36146]. Correct spelling of species when in Sacura not researched. •Valid as Sacura margaritacea (Hilgendorf 1879) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1979:4 [ref. 6938], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:135 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:20 [ref. 19830], Nakabo 2000:700 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:700 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:310, 594 [ref. 26218], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242], Shinohara et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31715], Iwatsubo et al. 2011:19 [ref. 32400], Motomura et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35530], Anderson 2018:50 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Sacura margaritacea (Hilgendorf 1879). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Korea, Japan, Taiwan and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

margaritifer, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:131 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] South America [probably Guyana]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2015.12.15.1. Also listed was Plate IX. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 3B in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Synonym of Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

margaritifera, Chelidoperca Weber [M.] 1913:207, Fig. 53 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Between Misool [Misol] Island and New Guinea, 2°28.5'S, 131°3.3'E, Siboga station 166, depth 118 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 101029. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:87 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Chelidoperca margaritifera Weber 1913 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:133 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura et al. 1985:471, 669 [ref. 8056], Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:692 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:692 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:430 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1032 [ref. 29000], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Bineesh et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33649], Williams & Carpenter 2015:287 [ref. 33647], Matsunuma & Motomura 2016:388, 399 [ref. 34335], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35700], Lee et al. 2019:23 [ref. 36888], Ogino et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37056]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca margaritifera Weber 1913. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Pacific: India to Japan. Habitat: marine.

marginalis, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:14, Pl. 328 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] East India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5224 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 12 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Holocentrus marginatus Lacepède 1802:384 [ref. 4929] is an incorrect subsequent spelling. Lacepède 1802:384 refers only to "Bloch, pl. 328, fig. 1." See Holocentrus marginatus Shaw 1803:566 [ref. 4014], an unjustified emendation and objective synonym of Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227] as marginatus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999]). •Valid as Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:331 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil. No types known. Based on Pirati apua of Marcgrave 1648:158 and Bodianus apua Bloch. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

marginatus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793 (see Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042]). Lacepède 1802 refers only to "Bloch, pl. 328, fig. 1." Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232] considered the name an unneeded replacement for Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. Also see Holocentrus marginatus Shaw 1803. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

marginatus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:566 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] East India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5224 (right skin). An unjustified emendation and objective synonym of Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. Shaw 1803 referred to "Epinephelus marginalis Bloch" but intentionally changed name to Holocentrus marginatus. Also see Holocentrus marginatus Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1834:142 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1) (for 24 Dec.); ref. 2826] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 3388. Possible syntype: BMNH 1858.4.2.81 (1) [from Lowe]. Neotype designated by Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19323]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca marginata (Lowe 1834) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as marginatus). •Valid as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:155 [ref. 25472], Grace et al. 1994:23 [ref. 25512], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:133 [ref. 22896], Louisy 1996:21 [ref. 22516], Santos et al. 1997:80 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:79 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Machado et al. 2003:133 [ref. 26945], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Luiz et al. 2004:1176 [ref. 27860], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:169 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:185 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2393 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Reid et al. 2016:100 [ref. 36644], Martins & Carneiro 2018:124 [ref. 36550], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37097], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Angola, offshore islands including São Tomé and Principe; western Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina; Western Indian Ocean: South Africa to southern Mozambique; Réunion; Oman. Habitat: marine.

marina, Holocentrus Suckow [G. A.] 1799:536 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] New combination for Perca marina Linnaeus 1758 (serranid). Also see Sebastes norvegicus (Ascanius 1772). •In the synonymy of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae.

marina, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:290 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Original localities Norway, northeastern Atlantic Ocean; Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: NRM 9 (1), ?442 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:238-240 [ref. 20707]. Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:238-240 [ref. 20707] pointed out that the sources for the species description in 1758 were referable to Serranus; Fernholm & Wheeler suggest synonymizing P. marina with P. scriba Linnaeus 1758. NRM 442 is the type of scriba. See Sebastes marinus Linnaeus. •Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758) -- (authors) in Serranidae. Current status: Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marisrubri, Plectropomus pessuliferus Randall [J. E.] & Hoese [D. F.] 1986:23, Pl. 3 (figs. b-c), 5 (figs. f-g) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 13; ref. 6009] Dahab, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: BPBM 18146. Additional material examined (not labeled as paratypes): BPBM 18146 (1), 20817 (1); HUJ 4614 (1), 5061 (1), 9068 (1); LACM 33776-3 (1); NMW 42528 (1), 42574 (1); SMF 4503 (1), 8629 (1); USNM 13146 (1) •Synonym of Plectropomus pessuliferus Fowler 1904, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Randall 2005:166 [ref. 28239]). •Valid as Plectropomus marisrubri Randall & Hoese 1986 -- (DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:65 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus marisrubri Randall & Hoese 1986. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Dermatolepis Osburn [R. C.] & Mowbray [L. L.] 1915:1, Fig. [New York Zoological Society Unnumbered publ.; ref. 12100] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): AMNH 4775. Was to have appeared also in Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society but did not appear there. •Synonym of Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:66 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Dermatolepis inermis (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Plectropomus Talbot [F. H.] 1959:751, Pl. 21 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 11) [1958]; ref. 12033] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1959.7.16.1 [ex SAM 21533]. Paratypes: EAMFRO uncat. (1); SAM 21534-36 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Plectropomus punctatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:26 [ref. 6009], Randall & Heemstra 1991:297 [ref. 19601], Randall 1995:138 [ref. 22896], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus punctatus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Serranus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:5, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Red Sea. Holotype: ZMB 208 (not found). Randall & Heemstra 1991:201 [ref. 19601] treat as a nomen dubium, possibly with incorrect type locality, type not found. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maroccanus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:320 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Morocco. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5531 (left skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. •Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:706 [ref. 18227]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mars, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:390 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 2); ref. 1090] Cardwell, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: not at QM. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

martinicensis, Aylopon Guichenot [A.] 1868:85 [6] [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 10; ref. 1936] Off Martinique Island, West Indies. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-4319. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2767 [or 2667] [ex MNHN 0000-4319] (3). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:11 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:35 [ref. 36146]. On p. 6 of separate. Lectotype selected by Anderson & Heemstra 1980:82 [ref. 5434]. •Valid as Ocyanthias martinicensis (Guichenot 1868) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:312 [ref. 14275]). •Valid as Holanthias martinicensis (Guichenot 1868) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 1980:82 [ref. 5434], Robins & Ray 1986:145 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:25 [ref. 36591], Boschung 1992:107 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1991:375 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:425 [ref. 23827]). •Valid as Pronotogrammus martinicensis (Guichenot 1868) -- (Baldwin 1990:930 [ref. 21029], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:217 [ref. 25013], Claro et al. 2000:22 [ref. 26458] as martinicaensis, Heemstra et al. 2003:1364 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:174 [ref. 28815], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2009:29 [ref. 30412], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:100 [ref. 31956], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Anderson et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:35 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pronotogrammus martinicensis (Guichenot 1868). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to northern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

matterni, Epinephelus Fowler [H. W.] 1918:31, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype: ANSP 47506. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maugei, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:152, Fig. 18 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Off Tuléar, 23°36'03"S, 43°32'05"E, Madagascar, depth 250 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1978-0083. Paratypes: BPBM 21157 (1), MNHN 1978-0184 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:19 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias maugei Randall 1980 -- (Randall 1996:122 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 2009:12 [ref. 30535], Bineesh et al. 2014:494 [ref. 33319], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Gill et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34957], Anderson 2018:30 [ref. 36146], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias maugei Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: southwestern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

mauritianus, Aylopon Guichenot [A.] 1868:86 [7] [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 10; ref. 1936] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4320 (1, dry) Réunion, MNHN 0000-4322 (1, dry) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:11 [ref. 19232]. On p. 7 of separate. •Synonym of Holanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:513 [ref. 5667], Fricke 1999:202 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Odontanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:9 [ref. 28602]). Current status: Synonym of Odontanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

mauritianus, Epinephelus Baissac [J. de B.] 1962:188 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Arts and Science Mauritius v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 5776] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NHMI uncat. •Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:51 [ref. 9721], Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:245 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:224 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:198 [ref. 24106], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

mauritiiae, Serranus Gudger [E. W.] 1929:527 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 58 (art. 10); ref. 11184] Name on a drawing by Pike from Mauritius, not available, no description. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:182 [ref. 24106] as mauritiae). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

maximum, Diplectrum Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:185, Fig. 42 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Paita, Peru. Holotype: USNM 77624. Paratypes: USNM 77698 (1). The specimen in USNM 77698 (1) was included with some question but is regarded as a paratype. •Valid as Diplectrum maximum Hildebrand 1946 -- (Bortone 1977:33 [ref. 7064], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1586 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:279 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:361 [ref. 24555], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], González-Acosta et al. 2016:[2] 1626 [ref. 36125], Kells et al. 2016:350 [ref. 35888], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum maximum Hildebrand 1946. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

maya, Hypoplectrus Lobel [P. S.] 2011:4, Figs. 1, 2, 4 [Zootaxa No. 3096; ref. 31606] Tunicate Cove, Pelican Cays, 16°39.6'N, 88°11.1'W, depth 3 meters. Holotype: MCZ 169196. Paratypes: MCZ 166194 (1), 169195 (1), 169197 (1), 169198 (1), 169199 (1), 169200 (1), 169201 (1), 169202 (1). •Valid as Hypoplectrus maya Lobel 2011 -- (Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860], Tavera & Acero P. 2013:37 [ref. 32434]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus maya Lobel 2011. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Caribbean Sea: Belize. Habitat: marine.

maytagi, Serranus Robins [C. R.] & Starck [W. A., II] 1961:288, Fig. 5a [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 113 (no. 11); ref. 3789] Caribbean Sea, 16°38'N, 81°39'W, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype: ANSP 95130. Paratypes: FMNH 65004 (1), UF 204795 [ex UMML 4795] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Serranus maytagi Robins & Starck 1961 -- (Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:165 [ref. 25813], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus maytagi Robins & Starck 1961. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: central Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

mcmichaeli, Dactylanthias Whitley [G. P.] 1962:3, Fig. 1 [North Queensland Naturalist v. 30 (no. 131); ref. 6585] Lihou Atoll, Coral Sea. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.4907. •Synonym of Serranocirrhitus latus Watanabe 1949 -- (Randall 2005:147 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:996 [ref. 29078], Fricke et al. 2011:387 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Synonym of Serranocirrhitus latus Watanabe 1949. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

medurensis, Serranus Günther [A.] 1873:8, Pl. 9 (fig. A) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Maduro [Majuro], Marshall Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.4.3.243. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2509 [ref. 24815]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

megachir, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:230 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Coasts of China. Holotype: BMNH 1968.3.11.2 (skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Epinephelus megachir (Richardson 1846) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:51 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2518 [ref. 24815], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:87 [ref. 25480], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

megalepis, Anthias Günther [A.] 1880:37, Pl. 16 (fig. E) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Challenger station 192, Indonesia, Banda Sea, depth 129 fathoms. Lectotype: BMNH 1879.5.14.180. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1890.2.26.28 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]. Lectotype selected by Randall 1980:157 [ref. 6717]. •Valid as Plectranthias megalepis (Günther 1880) -- (Randall 1996:121 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Gill et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34957], Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias megalepis (Günther 1880). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Kai Islands, Maluku, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

megalophthalmus, Plectranthias Fourmanoir [P.] & Randall [J. E.] 1979:316, Fig. 1 [Micronesica v. 15 (nos 1-2); ref. 8834] South of Isle of Pines, New Caledonia, depth 360 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 22486. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias megalophthalmus Fourmanoir & Randall 1979 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:507 [ref. 12442], Randall & Hoese 1995:333 [ref. 21929], Randall 1996:116 [ref. 23194], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:990 [ref. 29078], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias megalophthalmus Fourmanoir & Randall 1979. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

megamycterum, Pseudogramma Randall [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 1997:32, Pl. 1 (fig. F) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 26; ref. 22812] Off desalination plant, Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18289. Paratypes: BPBM 37115 (1), USNM 231347 (1). Pseudogramma is feminine, so name should be megamyctera. •Valid as Pseudogramma megamycterum Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:161 [ref. 25813], Allen & Erdmann 2012:310 [ref. 31980], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706]). •Valid as Pseudogramma megamyctera Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:66 [ref. 36273], Prokofiev 2019:425 [ref. 36810]). Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma megamyctera Randall & Baldwin 1997. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Pacific: West Papua (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

melanesius, Plectranthias kelloggi Randall [J. E.] 1980:148 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Isle of Pines, New Caledonia, depth 360 meters. Holotype: BPBM 22484. Paratypes: BPBM 21067 (1), 22485 (4). •Synonym of Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903) -- (Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Synonym of Plectranthias kelloggi (Jordan & Evermann 1903). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

melanocelidota, Perca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:110 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 1853.11.12.57 (skin). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melanoleucus, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:283, 296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7677 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:12 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Plectropomus melanoleucus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:190 [ref. 19756], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:12 [ref. 6009], Paxton et al. 1989:499 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:59 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:117 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:292 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:290 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:204 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2532 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:165 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1021 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242]). Current status: Synonym of Plectropomus laevis (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melanometopon, Epinephelus flavocoeruleus var. Bleeker [P.] 1871:96 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17077] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Mozambique. Description somewhat confused as to allocation to varieties melanometopon and xanthometopon. Based on specimens and literature sources. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melanorhina, Plectropoma Guichenot [A.] 1853:18, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sagra, R. de la, Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba; ref. 18164] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7797. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:21 [ref. 19232]. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

melanostigma, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:348, Fig. 54 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Reef off Swains Island, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 115375. Paratypes: BMNH 1962.12.12.52 [ex USNM 115385] (1); FMNH 62614 [ex USNM 148966] (2); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 18870 [ex USNM 148966] (2); USNM 115374 (4), 115376 (18, ? now 17), 115385 (6, now 5), 148965 (5), 148966 (18, now 14), 148967-68 (2, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:35 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Epinephelus melanostigma Schultz 1953 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:49 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:202 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:189 [ref. 21042], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:193 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:188 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:276 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus melanostigma Schultz 1953. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Line Islands and Cook Islands, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

melanotaenia, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1857:33 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Bodianus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 21 (figs. 1-2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7409 (2), 0000-7410 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:12 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melanus, Centropristes Ginsburg [I.] 1952:84, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 1805] Newport, near Wakulla, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: FMNH 33719. Paratypes: FMNH 33717-18 (1, 1), 33720-23 (1, 1, 1, 1); USNM 21483 (1), 73009 (1), 92232 (1), 106990 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367]. Centropristis is feminine, so correct is probably Centropristes melana when recognized. Mentioned as sometimes treated as a subspecies of striata by Heemstra et al. 2003:1334 [ref. 27060]. Original genus should have been Centropristis. •Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Bortone 1977:23 [ref. 7059]). •Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1334 [ref. 27060]). Current status: Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

melas, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:429 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] "Querimba-Ilseln (Ibo)", Mozambique. Also described as new in Peters 1855:236 [ref. 13448]. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

meleagris, Sebastes Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1864:392 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1864; ref. 3437] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 198 (4). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:101 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:268 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:239 [ref. 21042], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

menezesi, Anthias Anderson [W. D., Jr.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1980:80, Figs. 4-5 [Copeia 1980 (no. 1); ref. 5434] Off southern Brazil, 33°38'S, 51°04'W, depth 215 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 11765. Paratypes: ISH 1732-1968 (2), 1044-1966 (4), 1600-1966 (1); MZUSP 11766-67 (1, 1), 12609-10 (1, 1); USNM 216270-71 (1, 1). Type catalog: Krefft 1987:85 [ref. 20751], Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias menezesi Anderson & Heemstra 1980 -- (Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:76 [ref. 31956], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565] dated 1990, Anderson et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Anthias menezesi Anderson & Heemstra 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: marine.

mentzelii, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:291 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coast of Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0137 (1), 7368 (1), A-5777 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. For remarks on type see Heemstra 1991:37 [ref. 19323]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

merou, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:337, 377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. No types known. New name for Perca gigas Brünnich 1768. •Status uncertain -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323]). •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

merra, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:17, Pl. 329 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Japan Sea [probably Indian Ocean]; Ostindien [Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 8716 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB (3, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 15 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:214 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:49 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:111 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:205 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:191 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:130 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:238 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:50 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:111 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:193 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2512 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:186 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:87 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576] as Bloch 1790, Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:191 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

merus, Centropristis Poey [F.] 1868:288 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Matanzas, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus nigritus (Holbrook 1855) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:201 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook 1855). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

merus, Perca Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Perca merus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857 [ref. 17320]. •In genus Epinephelus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

merus, Perca Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:7 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:181 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Epinephelus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

meteori, Flagelloserranus Kotthaus [A.] 1970:11, Fig. 1 [Dana Report No. 78; ref. 2670] Off the northwestern coast of New Guinea, 0°18'S, 132°52'E, depth about 100 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P43207. Paratypes: ZMUC uncat. (137). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Liopropoma susumi (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:26 [ref. 6429], Randall et al. 1990:121 [ref. 15987]). Current status: Synonym of Liopropoma susumi (Jordan & Seale 1906). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Habitat: marine.

mexicanum, Diplectrum Hildebrand [S. F.] 1948:13, Fig. 6 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 110 (no. 9); ref. 2162] Gulf of California, Mexico, 30°18'N, 113°05'W, Albatross station 3018, depth 36 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 46518. •Synonym of Diplectrum macropoma (Günther 1864) -- (Bortone 1977:41 [ref. 7064], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1585 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Diplectrum macropoma (Günther 1864). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

mexicanus, Pikea Schultz [L. P.] 1958:323, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 108 (no. 3405); ref. 10155] Gulf of Mexico, southeast of Corpus Christi, Texas, U.S.A., 27°22'N, 96°08'W, depth 103 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 158246. Paratypes: FMNH 64544 [ex USNM] (1); TU 11004 (6), 11008 (1), 12972 (11), 12985 (1), 14739 (1); USNM 117191 (6), 155240 (2), 155508 (1), 156706-09 (1, 1, 1, 1), 158240 (1), 158246 (1), 177730 (6). Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:125-126 [ref. 20861], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367], Bart & Taylor 1993:54 [ref. 20906]. Described as a new species and subspecies; types for P. m. atlanticus not included here. •Valid as Pikea mexicana Schultz 1958 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:315 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:144 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:154 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:367 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:434 [ref. 23827]). •Valid as Bathyanthias mexicana (Schultz 1958) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:4 [ref. 6429], Boschung 1992:109 [ref. 23239]). •Valid as Bathyanthias mexicanus (Schultz 1958) -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1325 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Bathyanthias mexicanus (Schultz 1958). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

mica, Pseudanthias Allen [G. R.] & Erdmann [M. V.] 2012:1106, Figs 1-3 [Reef fishes of the East Indies.; ref. 31980] Suangi, southwestern Lembata Island, Sawu Sea, 8°34.111'S, 123°13.452'E, Indonesia, depth 52 meters. Holotype: MZB 20600. Paratypes: MZB 20601 (1), WAM P.33406-002 (3). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias mica Allen & Erdmann 2012 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:298 [ref. 31980], Williams et al. 2013:176 [ref. 32703], Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias mica Allen & Erdmann 2012. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Sawu Sea (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

microdon, Chelidoperca Lee [S.-H.], Lee [M.-Y.], Matsunuma [M.] & Chen [W.-J.] 2019:14, Fig. 6 [Frontiers in Marine Science v. 6: 465; ref. 36888] Off Isle of Pines, New Caledonia, Coral Sea, 22°43′S, 167°16′E, depth 265 - 305 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2019-0020. Paratype: NTUM 15636 (1). •Valid as Chelidoperca microdon Lee, Lee, Matsunuma & Chen 2019 -- (Ogino et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37056]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca microdon Lee, Lee, Matsunuma & Chen 2019. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: New Caledonia and Chesterfield Plateau, Coral Sea, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microdon, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1856:86 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 16856] Ora Malang, southeastern Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5510 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus microdon (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Chen et al. 1997:50 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:231 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:214 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2516 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Naurua Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:345, Fig. 3 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 89) (art. 42); ref. 4097] Aldabra Island, 9°30'S, 46°15'E, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 168. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:19 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Luzonichthys microlepis (Smith 1955) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:513 [ref. 5667], Randall & McCosker 1992:8 [ref. 20204], Copus et al. 2015:2 [ref. 33771], Anderson 2018:19 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Luzonichthys microlepis (Smith 1955). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Aldabra and Agalega Islands (Seychelles). Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Trisotropis Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1879:141 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 2 (no. 74); ref. 18134] Western Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 5137 (2). •Valid as Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:135 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:134 [ref. 36591], Boschung 1992:108 [ref. 23239], Heemstra & Randall 1993:269 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:38 [ref. 25512], Murdy et al. 1997:258 [ref. 23144], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:214 [ref. 25013], Musick 2000:17 [ref. 24959], Heemstra et al. 2003:1357 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192] dated 1880, Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:168 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:306 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode & Bean 1879). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Massachusetts (U.S.A.) to Gulf of Mexico and Yucatan (Mexico); population in southern Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microleptes, Eteles (Uriphaeton) Swainson [W.] 1839:202 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7173 (dry). Based on Cuv. Pl. 34, which is Serranus phaeton. Unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Serranus phaeton Valenciennes 1828. •A hoax; body is a Serranus, with tail of Fistularia artificially attached! •See Heemstra & Randall 1993:26 [ref. 21042]. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

micronotatus, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:90 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 2001. •Synonym of Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757] as micronottatus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:23 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:23 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2475 [ref. 24815], Golani & Fricke 2018:60 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Anyperodon leucogrammicus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

microprion, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1852:552 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 16834] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5476 or 5467. Paralectotypes: RMNH 31257 [ex RMNH 5476 or 5467] (2). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19601]. •Valid as Cephalopholis microprion (Bleeker 1852) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:52 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:48 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:48 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2541 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Satapoomin 2000:7 [ref. 25340], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:49 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:36 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:263 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis microprion (Bleeker 1852). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Andaman Sea, Gulf of Thailand and Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Philippines, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

microps, Perca Broussonet [P. M. A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:62 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Jamaica. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:22 [ref. 19232]. Name mentioned in passing for fish from Jamaica. Serranidae: Grammistinae.

microps, Rypticus Castelnau [F. L.] (ex Broussonet) 1855:6 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7844 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:22 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Rypticus saponaceus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Courtenay 1967:248 [ref. 7882]). Current status: Synonym of Rypticus saponaceus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

microps, Trisotropis Poey [F.] 1955:115 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1; ref. 22481] No types known. Trisotropis no. 171 of Poey 1875 [ref. 3509]. Posthumous publication. Also appeared in Poey 1962:25 [ref. 26395] and 2000:43 [ref. 26366] with figures in atlas. •Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860) -- (Poey 2000:902 [ref. 26366]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey 1860). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

miliaris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:520 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7547. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7641 (1), 0000-7642 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983:407 [ref. 8284]. Based on a specimen collected by Commerson, and a description and specimen provided by Quoy & Gaimard from New Guinea. •Valid as Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Adam et al. 1998:12 [ref. 23610], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:194 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:194 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

miltostigma, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1873:45 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 7; ref. 433] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5508. •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

miniata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xi, 41 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P43567 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588]. Surviving syntype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965: Pl. 9 [ref. 20847] as holotype. Cephalopholis is feminine, so miniata is correct. Lecteotype designated by Fricke 2008:27. •Valid as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:168 [ref. 19754] as miniatus, Kyushin et al. 1977:182 [ref. 19756] as miniatus, Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as miniatus, Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:29 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:103 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:228 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:103 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:178 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:729 [ref. 25471] as miniatus, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2480 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:178 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003: [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:163 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:150 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:95 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011: 42 [ref. 31432], Craig et al. 2011:37 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:263 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Line Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

miniatus, Lutjanus Suckow [G. A.] 1799:539 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] New combination for Perca miniata Forsskål 1775; not an original description. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

mitratum, Liopropoma Lubbock [R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1978:191, Fig. 2 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 64 (no. 3); ref. 8913] 30 meters outside fringing reef, Al Korae, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype: BMNH 1976.7.13.8. Paratypes: BPBM 17892 (1); HUJ 8300 (1); SMF 13614 (1); USNM 216427-28 (1, 2). Type catalog: Golani 2006:25 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Liopropoma mitratum Lubbock & Randall 1978 -- (Dor 1984:101 [ref. 29757], Randall & Taylor 1988:34 [ref. 6429], Randall et al. 1990:120 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Randall et al. 1997:120 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hagiwara 2001:2 [ref. 25498], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:171 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1029 [ref. 29000], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:427 [ref. 31739], Allen & Erdmann 2012:307 [ref. 31980], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130], Fricke et al. 2014:63 [ref. 33932], Golani & Fricke 2018:65 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma mitratum Lubbock & Randall 1978. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), Indonesia east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Amami Islands (southern Japan), south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

mitsukurii, Sayonara Smith [H. M.] & Pope [T. E. B.] 1906:469, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1489); ref. 4058] Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 55617. •Synonym of Plectranthias japonicus (Steindachner 1883) -- (Randall 1980:139 [ref. 6717]). Current status: Synonym of Plectranthias japonicus (Steindachner 1883). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

moara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:10, Pl. 4 (fig. 2 [not 1]) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D72 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D70 and D71 (2, dry), 181 (1, dry?); ZMB 5215 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Originally as mo-ara, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:28 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Lee 1990:39 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:108 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2490 [ref. 24815], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480] as mo-ara). •Valid as Epinephelus moara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura et al. 1985:475, 671 [ref. 8056], Liu et al. 2013:1684 [ref. 32705], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Japan. Habitat: marine.

modestus, Epinephelus Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:218 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Durban market, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10446. •Synonym of Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:114 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:124 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus chabaudi (Castelnau 1861). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

monacanthus, Plectropoma Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:665 [13] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 292. Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:13. •Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2006:329 [ref. 29772]). Current status: Synonym of Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

mooreanus, Anthias Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:405 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Moorea Island, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): FMNH 17325. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:9 [ref. 12367], Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias mooreanus (Herre 1935) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Randall 2005:143 [ref. 28239], Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias mooreanus (Herre 1935). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Society, Tuamotu and Pitcairn islands. Habitat: marine.

morgansi, Pelontrus Smith [J. L. B.] 1961:365, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 21; ref. 18464] Off Lamu, Kenya, western Indian Ocean, depth about 40 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB 134. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 806 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias morgansi (Smith 1961) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:514 [ref. 5667], Randall 1996:120 [ref. 23194], Zajonz 2006:25 [ref. 29414], Heemstra & Randall 2009:12 [ref. 30535], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Gill et al. 2016:355 [ref. 34957], Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias morgansi (Smith 1961). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Kenya (East Africa) to Eastern Cape Province (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

morio, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:285 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] New York; Santo Domingo [= Dominican Republic]. Syntypes: MNHN (1, not found) New York, MNHN A-7675 (1, dry) Santo Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232] with A.7675 as paratype. •Valid as Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:301 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:109 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:332 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:24 [ref. 25512], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:208 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466] with question, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1344 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:147 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:196 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and possibly eastern Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) (strays) to southern Brazil, also Bermuda. Habitat: marine.

morrhua, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:434 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7431. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. Based on specimen and manuscript description sent by Desjardins (Julien Desjardins, 1799-1840, French zoologist). •Valid as Mycteroperca morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:200 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Randall & Klausewitz 1986:234 [ref. 11513], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:50 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:211 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:196 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:71 [ref. 21258], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:238 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:505 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:195 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2513 [ref. 24815], Mishra et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25315], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Shinohara et al. 2005:430 [ref. 28370], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:198 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Cook Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Tuamotu Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

mortoni, Anthias Macleay [W.] 1883:253 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 17587] Pitt Bay, Moresby Island, New Guinea. Syntypes: AMS I.9223-25 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Pseudanthias huchtii (Bleeker 1857) -- (Randall et al. 1990:93 [ref. 15987], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias huchtii (Bleeker 1857). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

mowbrayi, Liopropoma Woods [L. P.] & Kanazawa [R. H.] 1951:633, Fig. 134 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 31 (no. 53); ref. 12812] On beach after a storm, south shore of Bermuda. Holotype (unique): FMNH 48544. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:52 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Liopropoma mowbrayi Woods & Kanazawa 1951 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:143 [ref. 23100], Randall & Taylor 1988:3 [ref. 6429], Cervigón 1992:434 [ref. 23827], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:212 [ref. 25013], Heemstra et al. 2003:1326 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Wirtz & Schliewen 2012:151 [ref. 32169], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Baldwin & Johnson 2014:7 [ref. 33312], Baldwin & Robertson 2014:75 [ref. 33311], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:41 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma mowbrayi Woods & Kanazawa 1951. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

multifasciatus, Pronotogrammus Gill [T. N.] 1863:81 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 2762. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:35 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pronotogrammus multifasciatus Gill 1863 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:201 [ref. 9277], Jones et al. 1985:116 [ref. 11577], Anderson & Rosenblatt 1989 [ref. 20111], Baldwin 1990:925 [ref. 21029], Bussing & López S. 1994:96 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1612 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:338 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:353 [ref. 24555], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:379 [ref. 24574], Thomson et al. 2000:78 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:105 [ref. 31956], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Anderson 2018:35 [ref. 36146], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Pronotogrammus multifasciatus Gill 1863. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including offshore islands, Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

multiguttatum, Plectropoma Günther [A.] 1867:600 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Panama. Holotype: BMNH 1866.1.14.3. •Valid as Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther 1867) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:22 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:107 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1579 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:275 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:314 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:349 [ref. 24555], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:79 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2006:327 [ref. 29772], Craig et al. 2011:8 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther 1867). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru, including Cocos and Malpelo islands. Habitat: marine.

multilineatum, Liopropoma Randall [J. E.] & Taylor [L. R., Jr.] 1988:41, Pl. 2C [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 16; ref. 6429] South side of Tanavulu Pt., Florida Island, Solomon Islands, 9°02'44"S, 160°04'07"E, depth 18-37 meters. Holotype: BPBM 15662. Paratypes: AMS I.25107-014 (1); BMNH 1987.3.31.1 (1); BPBM 15546 (1), 15939 (1); USNM 235750 (1), 235793 (2), 278050 (1), 285943 (2); WAM P.28024-007 (1), P.28186-017 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Liopropoma multilineatum Randall & Taylor 1988 -- (Randall et al. 1990:120 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1997:122 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:120 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:172 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1030 [ref. 29000], Allen & Erdmann 2012:308 [ref. 31980], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130], Fricke et al. 2014:63 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma multilineatum Randall & Taylor 1988. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Fiji, north to the Philippines, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

multinotatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:435 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 18495] Mauritius [Île aux Fouquets, 8 kilometers east of Mahébourg] Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9452. Type locality see Möbius 1880 [ref. 30489]. •Valid as Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:195 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2545 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:166 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:200 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104] as cf. multinotatus, Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes north to Persian Gulf and east to India; northern Territory (Australia) south to Shark Bay (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

multipunctatus, Serranus celebicus var. Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:382 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Syntypes: (7) SMF 14349 (1). Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:6 [ref. 14246]. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601] with comments on a syntype, Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

mundulus, Anthias Johnson [J. Y.] 1890:452 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1890 (pt 2) (art. 5) (for 3 June 1890); ref. 14496] Madeira. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.5.31.2-3 (2). •Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:69 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

myersi, Selenanthias Randall [J. E.] 1995:48, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 22074] South China Sea, off Vietnam, 15°40'N, 109°25'30"E, depth 110-200 meters. Holotype: CAS 53554. Paratypes: BPBM 30360 (1), USNM 276253 (2). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:52 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Selenanthias myersi Randall 1995 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2471 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Anderson 2018:52 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Selenanthias myersi Randall 1995. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

myriaster, Plectropoma Steindachner [F.] 1866:50 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 20460] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: NMW 38909 (2). Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:426, [p. 3 of separate] Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 4210]. •Synonym of Acanthistius ocellatus (Günther 1859) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:489 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Bray 2006:1032 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Acanthistius ocellatus (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

myriaster, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:365 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Bora Bora, Society Islands; Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7218 (1) Bora Bora, 0000-7219 (1) Hawaiian Is. [probably in error]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

mystacinus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1852:52, 59, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 9991. Paratypes: MCZ 10009 (1) Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:190 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. Published April 1852. Records from Japan are based on E. octofasciatus -- (Heemstra et al. 2003:1345 [ref. 27060]). •Valid as Epinephelus mystacinus (Poey 1852) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:172 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:134 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:114 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:333 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:429 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:200 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:27 [ref. 25512], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:321 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:209 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1345 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:148 [ref. 28815], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957] as mysticinus). •Valid as Hyporthodus mystacinus (Poey 1852) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:274 [ref. 31786], Kumar et al. 2012:115 [ref. 32541], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:40 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus mystacinus (Poey 1852). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) to Brazil; eastern Pacific: Cocos Island, Paramount Seamount, Galápagos Islands and coastal Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

mysticalis, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:390 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 2); ref. 1090] Queensland coast, Australia. QM (whereabouts unknown). •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:508 [ref. 12442]). •Incertae sedis in Serraninae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1033 [ref. 29000]). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

nadjil, Perca miniata var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:339 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti 2003:499 [ref. 27322], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nanus, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] 1980:159, Fig. 22 [Micronesica v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 6717] Reef off northwestern side of Cocos Island, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific, depth 29-36.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 7279. Paratypes: AMS I.17902-001 (2); ANSP 128434-35 (2, 1), 128437 (2), 128454 (5); BMNH 1974.8.8.2 (1); BPBM 6345 (2), 6928 (1), 8068 (1), 8132 (2), 8444 (1), 9768 (1), 9905 (1), 12283 (3), 13909 (1), 13926 (3), 14042 (1), 16542 (4), 16744 (2), 16847 (1), 16891 (2), 17027 (1), 17181 (1), 17701 (3); CAS 24405 (1); MNHN 1974-83 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 3646 (2); USNM 212228 (2); WAM P.26090-002 (1), P. 26122-003 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:19 [ref. 19232], Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621], Hutchins & Smith 1991:20 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias nanus Randall 1980 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:507 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:17 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:90 [ref. 15987], Randall 1994:261 [ref. 21644], Randall 1996:120 [ref. 23194], Kuiter 1997:112 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:90 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:106 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:12 [ref. 25806], Chen & Shao 2002:64 [ref. 25977], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:138 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:342 [ref. 28379], Allen et al. 2006:991 [ref. 29078], Randall 2007:193 [ref. 30952], Heemstra & Randall 2009:13 [ref. 30535], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Wu et al. 2011:252 [ref. 31227], Allen & Erdmann 2012:289 [ref. 31980], Williams et al. 2013:172 [ref. 32703], Bineesh et al. 2014:496 [ref. 33319], Fricke et al. 2014:63 [ref. 33932], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146], Golani & Fricke 2018:65 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias nanus Randall 1980. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Christmas and Cocos Keeling Islands east to Hawaiian Islands, Line Islands, Marquesas Islands and Pitcairn Group, south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Sacura Fowler [H. W.] 1925:226, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 77; ref. 5570] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 93154. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621], Anderson 2018:21 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Holanthias natalensis (Fowler 1925) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:513 [ref. 5667], Fricke 1999:202 [ref. 24106], Kon et al. 2000:78 [ref. 24483]). •Valid as Meganthias natalensis (Fowler 1925) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:29 [ref. 28602], Anderson 2006:412 [ref. 28870], Randall & Heemstra 2008:8 [ref. 29984], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], Akhilesh et al. 2009:1 [ref. 31046], White 2011:21 [ref. 31494], Fricke et al. 2018:155 [ref. 35805], Anderson 2018:21 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Meganthias natalensis (Fowler 1925). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius (Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

nazcae, Plectranthias Anderson [W. D., Jr.] 2008:430, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 121 (no. 4); ref. 29940] Nazca Ridge, 25°43'S, 85°22'W, southeastern Pacific, depth 185-200 meters. Holotype: USNM 312926. Paratypes: BPBM 27978 (1), 29400 (1); USNM 312927 (1); ZMMU P-16022 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]. Specimens from Nazca Ridge earlier identified as exsul are nazcae. •Valid as Plectranthias nazcae Anderson 2008 -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:42 [ref. 31956], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Shepherd et al. 2018:112 [ref. 35955], Anderson 2018:31 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias nazcae Anderson 2008. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Nazca Ridge. Habitat: marine.

nebulifer, Labrax Girard [C. F.] 1854:142 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 282 (2). •Valid as Paralabrax nebulifer (Girard 1854) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:201 [ref. 9277], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1609 [ref. 22830], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:164 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], Pondella et al. 2003:181 [ref. 29770], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:222 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Paralabrax nebulifer (Girard 1854). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nebulosa, Cerna Cocco [A.] 1884:gen. 45, sp. 2 [Naturalista Siciliano [Il Naturalista Siciliano, Giornale di scienze naturali] v. 4; ref. 4874] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Centropristis Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:5, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7821 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:13 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:57 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:313 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7421 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:25 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebulosus, Terranus Cocco [A.] 1833:20 [Giornale di Scienze Lettere e Arti per La Sicilia v. 42 (no. 124); ref. 859] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. The original genus is correctly Serranus. Attributed by Cocco to Cuvier and perhaps not intended as a new species; preoccupied by Serranus nebulosus Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Uncertain as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nicaeensis, Aylopon Guichenot [A.] 1868:83 [4] [Annales de la Société Linnéenne du Département de Maine-et-Loire v. 10; ref. 1936] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0226 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:11 [ref. 19232]. On p. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 2012:69 [ref. 31956]). Current status: Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

nicholsi, Anthias Firth [F. E.] 1933:158, Fig. [Copeia 1933 (no. 4); ref. 16484] East by south of Chesapeake Light Vessel, off Virginia, U.S.A., depth 40-50 fathoms (73-91 meters). Holotype: USNM 92936. Paratypes: AMNH 12337 (1), 20933 [ex USNM] (1); USNM (1 or 2). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias nicholsi Firth 1933 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:144 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:362 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:138 [ref. 14674], Baldwin 1990:927 [ref. 21029], Bullock & Smith 1991:14 [ref. 36591], Boschung 1992:104 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:424 [ref. 23827], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:371 [ref. 24574], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:391 [ref. 26158], Heemstra et al. 2003:1331 [ref. 27060], Moore et al. 2003:225 [ref. 27076], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:129 [ref. 28815], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:78 [ref. 31956], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Anderson et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:8 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Anthias nicholsi Firth 1933. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) and east coast of U.S.A. south to Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

nigrescens, Coryphaena Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Schöpf) 1801:297 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8168 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:134-135 [ref. 24282] with a holotype. Apparently based on Schöpf description and on one specimen; technically ZMB 8168 probably should be selected as the lectotype. •Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1986:420 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

nigri, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:112 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Niger River mouth. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.4.4.5. Also listed was Plate IX. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 3A in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Valid as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:299 [ref. 6204], Heemstra 1991:11 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:695 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:665 [ref. 21590], Heemstra & Randall 1993:51 [ref. 21042], Poll & Gosse 1995:123 [ref. 24781], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:40 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2384 [ref. 34618], Vella et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35106], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37097]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea: Malta; eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands; Senegal south to Angola, including islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigricans, Centropristis Cuvier [G.] 1829:145 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6974 (1) New York, 0000-6975 (2) New York. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:13, 58 [ref. 19232]. Based on Lutjanus trilobatus Lacepède 1802 and Coryphaena nigrescens Bloch & Schneider 1801. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:37, Pl. 44 [ref. 4879]. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

nigricans, Plectropoma Poey [F.] 1852:71, 75 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 3497] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 34036. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:194-195 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Hypoplectrus nigricans (Poey 1852) -- (Cervigón 1992:435 [ref. 23827], Domeier 1994:104 [ref. 21359], Acero P. & Garzón-Ferreira 1994:11 [ref. 22090], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1367 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:159 [ref. 28815], Aguilar-Perera & González-Salas 2010:377 [ref. 30878], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2012:4 [ref. 31860], Victor 2012:15 [ref. 32153], Tavera & Acero P. 2013:33 [ref. 32434], Page et al. 2013:132 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:40 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:144, 149 [ref. 34961], Victor & Marks 2018:14 [ref. 36139]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrus nigricans (Poey 1852). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nigriceps, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:517 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7393. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nigriculus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:375 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7275 (1) Martinique, 0000-7276 (1) San Domingo [=Dominican Republic]; ZMB 241 [ex MNHN] (1) St. Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Rhypticus Gill [T. N.] 1861:53 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 13; ref. 1769] Panama (Pacific). Holotype (unique): USNM 3700. Original genus should have been spelled Rypticus. •Valid as Rypticus nigripinnis Gill 1861 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:119 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:96 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1577 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:331 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:273 [ref. 24555], Guimarães 1999:353 [ref. 24429], Thomson et al. 2000:101 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Rypticus nigripinnis Gill 1861. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:339 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [probably Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: MNHN A-5733 (2, dry skins, left side). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:181 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2483 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239]). •Valid as Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Allen & Erdmann 2012:264 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: South and East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Andaman Sea and Christmas Island (eastern Indian Ocean). Habitat: marine.

nigritus, Serranus Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:177, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13468. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:173, Pl. 25 (fig. 2). •Valid as Epinephelus nigritus (Holbrook 1855) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:299 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:134 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:116 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:333 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:429 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:201 [ref. 21042], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Grace et al. 1994:28 [ref. 25512], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:264 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:210 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1346 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:149 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook 1855) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:276 [ref. 32786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus nigritus (Holbrook 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massahusetts (U.S.A.), Gulf of Mexico, northern Caribbean Sea, Trinidad and southern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

nigrofasciatus, Serranus Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:36, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. Originally nigro-fasciatus. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nigromaculatus, Rhypticus Steindachner [F.] 1867:348 [42] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 56 (1. Abth.); ref. 14188] Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): NMW 57867. Original genus should have been Rypticus. •Synonym of Rypticus subbifrenatus Gill 1961 -- (Courtenay 1967:255 [ref. 7882], Baldwin & Weigt 2012:30 [ref. 31864]). Current status: Synonym of Rypticus subbifrenatus Gill 1861. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

nigropunctatus, Prionodes Hildebrand [S. F.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1940:236, Fig. 7 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth 30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 108877. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

nigrorubrum, Plectropoma Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:402 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] King George Sound, Western Australia. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7776 (poor condition). Paralectotypes: MNHN 1988-0799 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:21 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:16 [ref. 36146]. Originally as nigro-rubrum, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Anderson & Heemstra 1989:1005 [ref. 13526]. •Valid as Hypoplectrodes nigrorubrum (Cuvier 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:505 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Hypoplectrodes nigroruber (Cuvier 1828) -- (Anderson & Heemstra 1989:1005 [ref. 13526], Kuiter 1993:135 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:539 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:112 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:986 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:545 [ref. 30641], Anderson 2018:16 [ref. 36146], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Hypoplectrodes nigroruber (Cuvier 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: New South Wales to southern Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

niphobles, Epinephelus Gilbert [C. H.] & Starks [E. C.] in Gilbert 1897:442 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico, 24°35'30"N, 112°05'W, Albatross station 3041. Holotype (unique): USNM 47582. •Valid as Epinephelus niphobles Gilbert & Starks 1897 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:203 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1596 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:323 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:354 [ref. 24555], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:211 [ref. 25013], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:83 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1347 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894]). •Valid as Hyporthodus niphobles (Gilbert & Starks 1897) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:278 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Kells et al. 2016:226 [ref. 35888], Robertson et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35676], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus niphobles (Gilbert & Starks 1897). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

niveatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:380 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7318 to 0000-7319 (2, 2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:197 [ref. 9277], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:302 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:134 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:364 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:138 [ref. 14674], Bullock & Smith 1991:118 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:334 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:107 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:429 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:204 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:29 [ref. 25512], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:210 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1347 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:74 [ref. 31601], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:150 [ref. 28815]). •Valid as Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:280 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:171 [ref. 32953], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565] as Hyportodus, Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus niveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Uruguay, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

niwae, Tosana Smith [H. M.] & Pope [T. E. B.] 1906:470, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 31 (no. 1489); ref. 4058] Urado Bay, Tosa, southern Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 55618. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:52 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Tosana niwae Smith & Pope 1906 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:135 [ref. 6441], Randall 1995:125 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:146 [ref. 23922], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2471 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:700 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:611 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:700 [ref. 26001], Anderson 2018:52 [ref. 36146], Gill et al. 2019:573 [ref. 36768]). Current status: Valid as Tosana niwae Smith & Pope 1906. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: southern China north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

nobilis, Anthias Franz [V.] 1910:38, Pl. 6 (fig. 44) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Misaki, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (3) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:280-281 [ref. 28925]. •Valid as Pseudanthias nobilis (Franz 1910) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Anderson 2018:43 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias nobilis (Franz 1910). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

noeli, Anthias Anderson [W. D., Jr.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 2000:372, Figs. 1, 3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 113 (no. 2); ref. 24574] Seamount southeast of Isla San Cristobal, Galápagos Islands, 1°06.48'S, 89°06.70'W, depth 202 meters. Holotype: USNM 353113. Paratypes: ANSP 177770 (3); CAS 86573 (1), 86807 (1), 201896 (1); GMBL 95-34 (1); HBOM 107:08471 (1); UF 110990 (2); USNM 351333-35 (2, 2, 2). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:9 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Anthias noeli Anderson & Baldwin 2000 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:82 [ref. 31956], Anderson et al. 2017:76 [ref. 35505], Anderson 2018:9 [ref. 36146], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Anthias noeli Anderson & Baldwin 2000. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador, Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island (Costa Rica). Habitat: marine.

notospilus, Serranus Longley [W. H.] 1935:87 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 34; ref. 13714] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 103765. •Valid as Serranus notospilus Longley 1935 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:140 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:66 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:362 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:109 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:436 [ref. 23827], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:165 [ref. 25813], Heemstra et al. 2003:1327 [ref. 27060], Nelson et al. 2004:129 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:188 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:133 [ref. 32708], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:809 [ref. 33030], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:35 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus notospilus Longley 1935. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Georgia (U.S.A.), Florida Keys (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to Suriname. Habitat: marine.

novemcinctus, Serranus Kner [R.] 1864:483 [3], Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 49; ref. 4927] Cape of Good Hope and St. Paul Island, southern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1883.7.4.76 (1); NMW 20562 (1), 39230 (1), 39425-29 (1, 2, 1, 5, 2). On p. 3 of separate. •Valid as Serranus novemcinctus Kner 1864 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:536 [ref. 5667], Collette & Parin 1991:9 [ref. 19110], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:165 [ref. 25813], Carvalho Filho & Ferreira 2013:812 [ref. 33030], Iwamoto & Wirtz 2018:36 [ref 36189]). Current status: Valid as Serranus novemcinctus Kner 1864. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Southern Indian Ocean: Walters Shoals, Saint Paul and Amsterdam islands. Records from Cape Hoorn are probably erroneous. Habitat: marine.

obama, Tosanoides Pyle [R. L.], Greene [B. D.] & Kosaki [R. K.] 2016:168, Figs. 1-6 [ZooKeys No. 641; ref. 35003] Kure Atoll, northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 28.4938°N, 178.2879°W, depth 90 meters. Holotype: BPBM 41315. Paratype: BPBM. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:53 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Tosanoides obama Pyle, Greene & Kosaki 2016 -- (Anderson 2018:53 [ref. 36146], Pinheiro et al. 2018:112 [ref. 36158], Pyle et al. 2018:150 [ref. 36180], Allen & Walsh 2019:33 [ref. 36524]). Current status: Valid as Tosanoides obama Pyle, Greene & Kosaki 2016. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

obtusauris, Cephalopholis Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:77, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55910. •Valid as Cephalopholis obtusauris Evermann & Seale 1907 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:165 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as obtusaurus). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Lepidoperca Whitley [G. P.] 1951:398 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 4715] Between Cape Naturaliste and Geraldton, Western Australia, depth 20-100 fathoms. Holotype: AMS E.2493. Paratypes: AMS I.12400 (1), I.12494 (1), I.28926-001 [ex AMS E.2493] (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:18 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Lepidoperca occidentalis Whitley 1951 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:506 [ref. 12442], Roberts 1989:586 [ref. 12486], Gomon et al. 1994:543 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2006:988 [ref. 29078], Roberts & Gomon 2008:547 [ref. 30641], Anderson 2018:18 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Lepidoperca occidentalis Whitley 1951. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

occipitalis, Chelidoperca Kotthaus [A.] 1973:30, Fig. 299 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 16; ref. 7572] Southwest of Socotra, Arabian Sea, 11°33.9'N, 52°54'E to 11°38'N, 52°52'E, Meteor station 102, depth 290-190 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 5136 [ex IOES 162]. Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:417 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Chelidoperca occipitalis Kotthaus 1973 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Bineesh et al. 2014:119 [ref. 33649], Williams & Carpenter 2015:287 [ref. 33647], Psomadakis et al. 2015:195 [ref. 34104], Matsunuma & Motomura 2016:388 [ref. 34335], Rao & Naranji 2016:88 [ref. 36356], Matsunuma et al. 2017:[19] [ref. 35700], Ogino et al. 2019:14 [ref. 37056]). Current status: Valid as Chelidoperca occipitalis Kotthaus 1973. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Yemen, Oman, south to Madagascar and east to India. Habitat: marine.

oceanicus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:345, 389, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [Grand Océan] Indo-West Pacific, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Commerson specimens: MNHN A-5734 (2) Mauritius, 7295 (1) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:16 [ref. 19232]. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Epinephelus oceanicus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mozambique channel, Mascarenes, etc. [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ocellata, Pogonoperca Günther [A.] 1859:169 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] No locality stated [Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1841.6.0.1766 (stuffed, not seen). Also listed was Plate XIV, fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Valid as Pogonoperca ocellata Günther 1859 -- (Chen et al. 1997:39 [ref. 26476], Anderson et al. 1998:23 [ref. 23611], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:169 [ref. 28239], Fricke et al. 2009:48 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:93 [ref. 30492], Allen & Erdmann 2012:305 [ref. 31980], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pogonoperca ocellata Günther 1859. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Socotra, Seychelles, Réunion and Mauritius (Mascarenes), and Maldives east to Andaman Sea and western Indonesia (Sumatra, Java). Habitat: marine.

ocellatum, Plectropoma Günther [A.] 1859:504 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Australian seas. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1846.10.22.1 (right half skin), 1847.6.17.3 (right half skin), 1847.6.17.22 (right half skin), 1848.10.25.7 (1, stuffed), 1848.10.25.8 (right half skin). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]. Replacement name for Plectropoma cyanostigma Günther 1859, preoccupied by Plectropoma cyanostigma Bleeker 1845. •Valid as Acanthistius ocellatus (Günther 1859) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:489 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:128 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:528 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:102 [ref. 25488], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2469 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:729 [ref. 25471]). •Valid as Acanthistius ocellatus (Günther 1859) but incertae sedis in Percoidei -- (Smith & Craig 2007:45 [ref. 29042], Hoese & Bray 2006:1032 [ref. 29000], Roberts & Gomon 2008:536 [ref. 30641], Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720], Anderson 2018:5 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Acanthistius ocellatus (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New South Wales (Australia) and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Grammistops Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:386, Fig. 62 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon at Arji Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 20-40 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 141871. Words ending in ops are masculine, so the spelling ocellatus is correct. •Valid as Grammistops ocellatus Schultz 1953 -- (Randall et al. 1971:176 [ref. 30341], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:139 [ref. 6441], Randall 1986:538 [ref. 5706], Paxton et al. 1989:517 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:123 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:123 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:118 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:731 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:731 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495] as ocellata, Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624] as ocellata, Randall 2005:169 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1027 [ref. 28999], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:91 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:305 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Grammistops ocellatus Schultz 1953. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to Marshall and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

octocinctus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:7, Pl. 4A (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 123. Paralectotypes: RMNH 124 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:23 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:250 [ref. 19601]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793). Current status: Synonym of Hyporthodus septemfasciatus (Thunberg 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

octofasciatus, Epinephelus Griffin [L. T.] 1926:540, Pl. 95 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 56; ref. 15589] Arid Island, off the northeastern coast of Great Barrier Island, Auckland District, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): AIM MA 259. Trnski personal communication (12/1/2017) on type status. •Valid as Epinephelus octofasciatus Griffin 1926 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:175 [ref. 24556], Randall & Heemstra 1991:217 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:206 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Kuiter 1993:133 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Carpenter et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23922], Adam et al. 1998:12 [ref. 23610], Fricke 1999:196 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2545 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1187 [ref. 34193], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333]). •Valid as Hyporthodus octofasciatus (Griffin 1926) -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046], Craig et al. 2011:282 [ref. 31786], Kumar et al. 2012:113 [ref. 32541], Psomadakis et al. 2015:201 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus octofasciatus (Griffin 1926). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden, South Africa, Socotra, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands, north to Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), New Caledonia, northern New Zealand, Kermadec Islands and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

ocyurus, Serranus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1887:468 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 586); ref. 2441] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 37997. Paratypes are probably available based on cited literature reference in the original description. •Valid as Centropristis ocyurus (Jordan & Evermann 1887) -- (Bortone 1977:23 [ref. 7059], Robins & Ray 1986:137 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:30 [ref. 36591], Boschung 1992:104 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:267 [ref. 24550] as Centropristes, Nakabo 2000:957 [ref. 25182], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:133 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Centropristis ocyurus (Jordan & Evermann 1887). Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

okinawae, Gracila Katayama [M.] 1974:102, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Yamaguchi University v. 24 (pt 2); ref. 7257] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: Katayama Fish Coll. 5180 (apparently lost). •Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:18 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

olfax, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:9, Pl. 4 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7..25.7 (left half skin). •Valid as Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:270 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:110 [ref. 22193], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1600 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:324 [ref. 24023], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:309 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns 1840). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Cocos, Malpelo and Galápagos islands and mainland Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

oligacanthus, Plectropoma Bleeker [P.] 1855:422 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16941] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5513. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1880.4.21.45 (1). Lectotype selected by Randall & Hoese 1986:21 [ref. 6009]. •Valid as Plectropomus oligacanthus (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Hoese 1986:20 [ref. 6009], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477] as oligocanthus, Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:119 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:296 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:295 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:245 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977] as oligocanthus, Chen et al. 1997:40 [ref. 26476] dated 1845, Randall et al. 1997:119 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2535 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Hoese et al. 2006:1022 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:342 [ref. 31786], dated 1854, Allen & Erdmann 2012:284 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:64 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:122 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus oligacanthus (Bleeker 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Marshall and Solomon islands, north to Sabah (Malaysia) and Philippines, south to Western Australia and Cape York (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: marine.

oligosticta, Cephalopholis Randall [J. E.] & Ben-Tuvia [A.] 1983:386, Pl. 1 (fig. D) [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 33 (no. 2); ref. 8284] South side of entrance to Port Sudan about 100 meters from end of jetty, Sudan, Red Sea, depth 40 meters. Holotype: BPBM 19709. Paratypes: BMNH 1981.4.6.1 (1); BPBM 20401 (1), 20837 (1); CAS 47921 (1); HUJ 10440 (1), 10543 (1); MNHN 1981-0720 (1); NMW 39259 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 513 (1); SMF 8618 (1); USNM 226618 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14 [ref. 19232], Golani 2006:25 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Cephalopholis oligosticta Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983 -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:56 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:52 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Craig et al. 2011:43 [ref. 31786], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis oligosticta Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

olivaceus, Anthias (Pseudanthias) Randall [J. E.] & McCosker [J. E.] 1982:59, Figs. 6-8 [Journal of Aquariculture v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 8559] Outside reef east of Avaavaroa Pass, Rarotonga, Cook Islands, depth 33.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 13907. Paratypes: AMS I.22165-001 [ex BPBM 7520](2); BMNH 1981.3.18.1-2 (2); BPBM 7570 (8), 13094 (1), 14030 (2), 19572 (2), 26533 (1); CAS 42080 (5), 48006-07 (5, 1); MNHN 1981-0858 (2); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 511 (2); USNM 226551 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:9 [ref. 19232], Anderson 2018:44 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias olivaceus (Randall & McCosker 1982) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Ida & Sakaue 2001:267 [ref. 25544], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Randall 2005:143 [ref. 28239], Anderson 2018:44 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias olivaceus (Randall & McCosker 1982). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

olneyi, Liopropoma Baldwin [C. C.] & Johnson [G. D.] 2014:7, Figs. 5-7, 8A [PLoS ONE v. 9 (no. 5): e97661; ref. 33312] Curaçao, near 12.0832 N, 68.8991W, west of Substation Curaçao downline, depth 154 meters. Holotype: USNM 426805. Paratypes: (adults) USNM 406130 (1), 414828 (1), 426808(1), 426809 (1), 426810 (1), 426815 (1), 422698 (1), 426868 (1); VIMS 13590 (1). •Valid as Liopropoma olneyi Baldwin & Johnson 2014 -- (Baldwin & Robertson 2014:1 [ref. 33311]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma olneyi Baldwin & Johnson 2014. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Florida Straits, Gulf of Mexico and Curaçao. Habitat: marine.

ongus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:69, Pl. 234 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan [erroneous, is Java, Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 5533 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB 5214 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. Genus spelled Holoncentrus in text. On p. 52 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. See Randall & Heemstra 1991:199-200 [ref. 19601] but with a holotype and wrong number. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:490 [ref. 25598], Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:239 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:52 [ref. 25135], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:112 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2514 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:186 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Craig 2007:81 [ref. 29774], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:89 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:202 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:278 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

opercularis, Rainfordia McCulloch [A. R.] 1923:120, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 2946] Middle Island, Edgecumbe Bay, Whitsunday Passage, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.923. •Valid as Rainfordia opercularis McCulloch 1923 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:60 [ref. 25477], Allen & Swainston 1988:60 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:500 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:121 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:94 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:121 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:263 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1030 [ref. 29000], Baldwin & Leis 2007:193 [ref. 29234]). Current status: Valid as Rainfordia opercularis McCulloch 1923. Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

ordinatus, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:466 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13457. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:173 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Grammistes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:188 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ZMB 103 (1), 106 (1). •Synonym of Grammistes sexlineatus (Thunberg 1792) -- (Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282], Hoese et al. 2006:1027 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Grammistes sexlineatus (Thunberg 1792). Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

ornatus, Anthias Fourmanoir [P.] 1955:213, Fig. 8 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série A, Biologie Animale v. 9; ref. 12271] Great Comore and Anjouan islands, Comoro Islands. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 48. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:38 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Holanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:513 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Odontanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:9 [ref. 28602]). Current status: Synonym of Odontanthias borbonius (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

osbeck, Trachinus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:353, 364 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Ascension Island. No types known. Unecessary replacement name for Trachinus adscensionis Osbeck 1765. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:247, 262 [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

ouatalibi, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:381 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7257 (1) and 0000-7258 (1) Martinique, A-5746 (1, dry) and A-5778 (1, dry) Martinique, A-7677 (1, dry) and A-7717 (1, dry) St. Thomas. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:33 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

oumati, Pseudanthias Williams [J. T.], Delrieu-Trottin [E.] & Planes [S.] 2013:175, Fig. 9 [Zootaxa 3647 (no. 1); ref. 32703] Fatu Hiva, south of Baie Hanavave (Baie des Vierges) at tip of Pointe Matautu, Marquesas, French Polynesia, 10°28'17.40''S, 138°40'40.44''W, depth 50-55 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 409433. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:44 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias oumati Williams, Delrieu-Trottin & Planes 2013 -- (Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Gill et al. 2017:72 [ref. 35653], Anderson 2018:44 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias oumati Williams, Delrieu-Trottin & Planes 2013. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia). Habitat: marine.

oxyptera, Corvina DeKay [J. E.] 1842:77, Pl. 30 (fig. 96) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York coast, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): Cabinet of Lyceum of N.Y. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:702 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:57 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:284 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Paranthias furcifer (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

oxyrhynchus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:320 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Malabar, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7206. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:33 [ref. 19232], Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. •Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Serranus cabrilla (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

pachycentron, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [= East Indies]. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7432 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:33 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis pachycentron (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:161 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:43 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:77 [ref. 25480], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

pacificum, Diplectrum Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1925:477, Pl. 46 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 226); ref. 13609] Naos Island, Panama. Holotype: USNM 81756. Paratypes: FMNH 8394 (3), USNM 80228 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:32 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Diplectrum pacificum Meek & Hildebrand 1925 -- (Bortone 1977:28 [ref. 7064], Allen & Robertson 1994:108 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:90 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1587 [ref. 22830], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:280 [ref. 24545], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:362 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:269 [ref. 24550], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Diplectrum pacificum Meek & Hildebrand 1925. Serranidae: Serraninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pallidum, Chorististium Fowler [H. W.] 1938:199, Pl. 9 (fig. 20) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Kiritimati [formerly Christmas Island], Line Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68397. Paratypes: ANSP 68398 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Liopropoma pallidum (Fowler 1938) -- (Randall & Taylor 1988:33 [ref. 6429], Matsuura & Tachikawa 1994:144 [ref. 21905], Myers 1999:117 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:727 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:727 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:622 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:172 [ref. 28239], Shao et al. 2008:247 [ref. 29952], Akhilesh et al. 2012:48 [ref. 32130]). Current status: Valid as Liopropoma pallidum (Fowler 1938). Serranidae: Liopropomatinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pallidus, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] & Hoese [D. F.] 1995:330, Fig. 2 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 47 (no. 3); ref. 21929] Off Townsville, 17°58'30"S, 147°00'30"E, Queensland, Australia, depth 220 meters. Holotype (unique): AMS I.25800-005. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:32 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias pallidus Randall & Hoese 1995 -- (Randall 1996:119 [ref. 23194], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Allen et al. 2006:991 [ref. 29078], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:32 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias pallidus Randall & Hoese 1995. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1876:551 [1], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 40730 (1). On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Epinephelus panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:53 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545]). •Valid as Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1580 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:334 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:82 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:45 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Ecuador, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

pannuceus, Anthias Tanaka [S.] 1922:584, Pl. 145 (fig. 402) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 32; ref. 4334] Tokyo market, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 9960. Paratypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Odontanthias rhodopeplus (Günther 1872) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:21 [ref. 28602]). Current status: Synonym of Odontanthias rhodopeplus (Günther 1872). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

pantherinus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:345, 389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [Fort Dauphin, Madagascar] No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:41-42 [ref. 19232]. Figured in Lacepède 1801:Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [ref. 2710] but with vernacular name. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:200 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) (author often seen as Forsskål) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:199 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

papilionaceus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:471 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Gorée, Senegal; Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7279 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:33 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:706 [ref. 18227]). Current status: Synonym of Serranus scriba (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pardalis, Mycteroperca Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:551 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] La Paz Bay, Baja California, Mexico, Gulf of California. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:274 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1602 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca rosacea (Streets 1877). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1848:635 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 2 (no. 9); ref. 315] Bima, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8324 (1), SMNS 10636 (3 syntypes) Java. Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864] dated 1849. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

pardalotus, Acanthistius Hutchins [J. B.] 1981:493, Figs. 1B, 2 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 5583] Rock pool at mouth of Murchison River, Kalbarri, 27°42'S, 114°12'E, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.5113-001. Paratypes: AMS I.21432-001 (1); BMNH 1980.3.24.1 (1); WAM P.3784-001 (1), P.4465-001 (1), P.4502-001 (1), P.4791-001 (1), P.4792-001 (1), P.5577-001 (1), P.5777-001 (1), P.14532-001 (1), P.14533-001 (1), P.16775-001 (1), P.26664-004 (1), P.26825-001 (2). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:17 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:19 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:6 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Acanthistius pardalotus Hutchins 1981 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:489 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1032 [ref. 29000], Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720], Anderson 2018:6 [ref. 36146], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Acanthistius pardalotus Hutchins 1981. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia endemic. Habitat: marine.

parini, Plectranthias Anderson [W. D., Jr.] & Randall [J. E.] 1991:336, Figs. 1, 2A [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 104 (no. 2); ref. 18968] Sala y Gómez Ridge, southeastern Pacific, 25°02.6'S, 97°29.2'W, depth 260-272 meters. Holotype (unique): USNM 312925. Type catalog: Anderson 2018:32 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias parini Anderson & Randall 1991 -- (Randall & Shimizu 1994:109 [ref. 21441], Randall 1996:117 [ref. 23194], Pequeño 1997:83 [ref. 23536], Rojas & Pequeño 1998:49 [ref. 23540], Rojas & Pequeño 1998:189 [ref. 23775], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:380 [ref. 24574], Anderson 2008:435 [ref. 29940], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:44 [ref. 31956], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Shepherd et al. 2018:112 [ref. 35955], Anderson 2018:32 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias parini Anderson & Randall 1991. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Sala y Gómez Ridge and Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

parkinsonii, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:329 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. Based on a Parkinson drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:166 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:165 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

parva, Sacura Heemstra [P. C.] & Randall [J. E.] 1979:9, Fig. 2; Pl. 4 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 20; ref. 6938] Dillon Shoals, Timor Sea, 11°S, 124°E, depth 130 meters. Holotype: WAM P.24785-001. Paratypes: WAM P.26459-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:20 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:21 [ref. 30117], Anderson 2018:51 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Sacura parva Heemstra & Randall 1979 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:60 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:94 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2471 [ref. 24815], Allen et al. 2006:996 [ref. 29078], Motomura et al. 2017:295 [ref. 35530], Anderson 2018:51 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Sacura parva Heemstra & Randall 1979. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia including Timor Sea. Habitat: marine.

parvirostris, Anthias (Mirolabrichthys) Randall [J. E.] & Lubbock [R.] 1981:6, Fig. 2 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 333; ref. 6912] Outer reef slope on western side, Alite Reef, off Malaita, Solomon Islands, western Pacific, depth 60 meters. Holotype: BPBM 15605. Paratypes: BMNH 1976.9.30.10 (1), 1979.1.3.1 (1); BPBM 20448 (6); CAS 37886 (1); LACM 35904-1 (1); USNM 216490 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:44 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Pseudanthias parvirostris (Randall & Lubbock 1981) -- (Kudo et al. 1996:2 [ref. 24362], Myers 1999:108 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:207 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:706 [ref. 25086], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Nakabo 2002:706 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall 2011:82 [ref. 31328], Allen & Erdmann 2012:298 [ref. 31980], Iwatsubo et al. 2011:18 [ref. 32400], Anderson 2018:44 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias parvirostris (Randall & Lubbock 1981). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius (Mascarenes); Indonesia east to Palau, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

pascalus, Entonanthias Jordan [D. S.] & Tanaka [S.] 1927:385, Pl. 34 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 17 (nos 3-4) (12); ref. 2537] Naha market, Okinawa, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 59184 [ex CM 8327]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23680 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:92 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:69 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367], Anderson 2018:44 [ref. 36146]. •Synonym of Mirolabrichthys tuka Herre & Montalban 1927, but a valid subspecies -- (Heemstra 1973:208 [ref. 55]). •Valid as Mirolabrichthys pascalus (Jordan & Tanaka 1927) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:137 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Anthias pascalus (Jordan & Tanaka 1927) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:502 [ref. 12442], Allen & Starck 1982:51 [ref. 8518], Lee 1990:5 [ref. 19830]). •Valid as Pseudanthias pascalus (Jordan & Tanaka 1927) -- (Randall et al. 1990:95 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:92 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:118 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:95 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:108 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2470 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:706 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122] as pascalis, Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:199 [ref. 25191], Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690], Suzuki 2001:115 [ref. 26143], Nakabo 2002:706 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:620 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:141 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:144 [ref. 28239], Allen et al. 2006:994 [ref. 29078], Motomura et al. 2010:100 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:386 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:299 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35333], Anderson 2018:44 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Pseudanthias pascalus (Jordan & Tanaka 1927). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Western and South Pacific: Indonesia east to Society Islands and Tuamotu Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Great Barrier Reef (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

pasquensis, Pseudogramma australis Randall [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 1997:23, Pl. 1 (fig. C) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 26; ref. 22812] Easter Island, offshore from Ahu Akapu, rocky substratum, 21.5 m depth. Holotype: BPBM 6623. Additional non-type material: AMS I.37619-001 (1); BPBM 6620-21 (2, 1), 13531 (1); CAS 87907 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 41659 (1); USNM 303170 (2). The holotype listed on p. 19 and all additional specimens from Easter Island on p. 19 belong to pasquensis but are not types of Pseudogramma australis australis. Instead of naming the Easter Island subspecies, P. a. australis, Randall & Baldwin named it P. a. pasquensis. •Synonym of Pseudogramma australis Randall & Baldwin 1997, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:160 [ref. 25813]). •Synonym of Pseudogramma australis Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Randall et al. 2002:2 [ref. 26441]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudogramma australis Randall & Baldwin 1997. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

patachonica, Plectropoma Jenyns [L.] 1840:11 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Rio de la Plata mouth (depth 40 fathoms) and Patagonia coast, 38°20'S. Syntypes: BMNH 1917.7.14.34-35 (2), 1917.7.25.4 (1, dry, on wood). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:6 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Acanthistius patachonicus (Jenyns 1840) -- (Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:196 [ref. 14235], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Irigoyen et al. 2008:54 [ref. 29703], Anderson & Heemstra 2012:13 [ref. 31956], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565] dated 1842, Anderson 2018:6 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Acanthistius patachonicus (Jenyns 1840). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: southern Brazil to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

paucilepis, Pseudogramma Williams [J. T.] & Viviani [J.] 2016:254, Fig. 7 [Zootaxa 4111 (no. 3); ref. 34442] Tubuai south end, outer reef slope with dense coral, Austral Islands, depth 18-22 meters. Holotype: USNM 423375. Paratypes: USNM. •Valid as Pseudogramma paucilepis Williams & Viviani 2016. Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma paucilepis Williams & Viviani 2016. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Gambier Archipelago and Austral Islands. Habitat: marine.

paxtoni, Acanthistius Hutchins [J. B.] & Kuiter [R. H.] 1982:128, Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 10 (pt 2); ref. 5373] Seal Rocks, 32°26'S, 152°32'E, New South Wales, Australia, depth 64 meters. Holotype: AMS I.21555-001. Paratypes: AMS I.16997-001 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:6 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Acanthistius paxtoni Hutchins & Kuiter 1982 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:489 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:128 [ref. 23929], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1032 [ref. 29000], Heemstra 2010:60 [ref. 30720], Anderson 2018:6 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Acanthistius paxtoni Hutchins & Kuiter 1982. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

paytensis, Plectropoma Lesson [R. P.] 1831:233 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Payta, Peru. Holotype (unique): not saved. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:43 [ref. 19232]. Based on a drawing, specimen not saved. •Questionably a synonym of Diplectrum conceptione (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Bortone 1977:32 [ref. 7064], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:162 [ref. 25813]). Current status: Uncertain as Diplectrum conceptione (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

peaolopesi, Glaucosoma Smith [J. L. B.] 1939:216, Fig. 1 [Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa v. 27 (pt 3); ref. 17223] Between Delagoa Bay and Inhambane, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): Now MHNMM [Museu Alvarez da Castro] (dry). •Synonym of Holanthias natalensis (Fowler 1925) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:513 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Meganthias natalensis (Fowler 1925) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:29 [ref. 28602]). Current status: Synonym of Meganthias natalensis (Fowler 1925). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

pectoralis, Franzia Tanaka [S.] 1917:268 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29; ref. 4332] Tanabe, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 9896. •Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855) -- (Randall & Pyle 2001:34 [ref. 25690]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudanthias squamipinnis (Peters 1855). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

pectoralis, Pseudogramma Randall [J. E.] & Baldwin [C. C.] 1997:35, Pl. 1 (fig. G) [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 26; ref. 22812] Augulpelu Reef, 7°16'N, 134°32'E, Palau Islands, depth 34-52 meters. Holotype: BPBM 9447. Paratypes: USNM 3242077 (1). •Valid as Pseudogramma pectoralis Randall & Baldwin 1997 -- (Myers 1999:118 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2473 [ref. 24815], Rojas M. & Pequeño 2001:161 [ref. 25813], Allen & Erdmann 2012:310 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Pseudogramma pectoralis Randall & Baldwin 1997. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines and Palau [total 2 specimens]. Habitat: marine.

pelicieri, Plectranthias Randall [J. E.] & Shimizu [T.] 1994:109, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 41 (no. 2); ref. 21441] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 50-70 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34646. Paratypes: BPBM 35420 (1); NSMT-P 45179-80 (1, 1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 37015 (1); USNM 325539 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:32 [ref. 36146]. •Valid as Plectranthias pelicieri Randall & Shimizu 1994 -- (Senou & Yunokawa 1995:4 [ref. 24357], Randall 1996:121 [ref. 23194], Heemstra 1997:143 [ref. 23064], Fricke 1999:203 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2000:23 [ref. 24943], Nakabo 2000:694 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:694 [ref. 26001], Heemstra & Randall 2009:13 [ref. 30535], Fricke et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33930], Allen & Walsh 2015:83 [ref. 33954], Anderson 2018:32 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Plectranthias pelicieri Randall & Shimizu 1994. Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa, Mauritius (Mascarenes); western Pacific: Izu Islands and Ryukyu Islands to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

pennanti, Holocentrus Suckow [G. A.] 1799:535 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] Gibraltar, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Based in part on Bloch 1792:422, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [ref. 14112] with additional description. See Perca pennanti. •Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Anthias anthias (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

pennanti, Perca Günther [A.] 1859:88 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Name only; not available. Appeared in the synonymy of Anthias sacer and credited to Bloch 1792 [ref. 14112]. The name does not appear as such in Bloch 1792; only the common name of "Pennantsche Barsch", a description (p. 422), and figure (Pl. 9, fig. 1). See Holocentrus pennanti Suckow 1799. Serranidae: Anthiadinae.

pentacantha, Perca Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:398, 424 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): MNHN (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:43 [ref. 19232], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:117 [ref. 12478]. Serranidae: Grammistinae. Habitat: marine.

percacaroli, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:88 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. See also Curtiss 1844:8 [ref. 12574] where this species is replaced by Anthias faroa and A. tearlachi. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

perguttatus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:445 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] New Hebrides [Vanuatu]. Holotype (?): QM I.497. The alleged holotype is a specimen of Cephalopholis urodeta and differs form the description of De Vis which is of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) suggesting a specimen switch (Randall & Heemstra 1991:55 [ref. 19601]). •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

perplexus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.], Hoese [D. F.] & Last [P. R.] in Randall & Heemstra 1991:222, Fig. 116 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] 36.5 miles northeast of Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia, depth 70-75 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS E.2116. Replacement name for Epinephelus thompsoni Whitley 1948, secondarily preoccupied by Stereolepoides thompsoni Fowler 1923 when both are in Epinephelus. •Valid as Epinephelus perplexus Randall, Hoese & Last 1991 -- (Randall et al. 1993:30 [ref. 21004], Heemstra & Randall 1993:210 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2545 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999]). •Incertae sedis in Hyporthodus -- (Craig & Hastings 2007:17 [ref. 29046]). •Valid as Hyporthodus perplexus (Randall, Hoese & Last 1991) -- (Craig et al. 2011:285 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis). Current status: Valid as Hyporthodus perplexus (Randall, Hoese & Last 1991). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southern Queensland, Australia (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

peruanus, Anthias (Hemanthias) Steindachner [F.] 1875:378 [4] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 70 (1. Abth.); ref. 4219] Paita, Peru. Lectotype: MCZ 10232 (248 mm SL). Paralectotypes: MCZ 166564 [ex 10232] (1), NMW 42406 (1). Type catalog: Anderson 2018:14 [ref. 36146]. On p. 4 of separate. Lectotype selected by Anderson & Heemstra 2012:53 [ref. 31956]. •Valid as Hemanthias peruanus (Steindachner 1875) -- (Pequeño 1989:59 [ref. 14125], Bussing & López S. 1994:96 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1597 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:286 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:336 [ref. 24023], Rojas M. & Pequeño 1998:180 [ref. 23775], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:353 [ref. 24555], Anderson & Baldwin 2000:379 [ref. 24574], Thomson et al. 2000:77 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957] with genus as Hemianthis, Anderson & Heemstra 2012:52 [ref. 31956], Kells et al. 2016:222 [ref. 35888], Anderson 2018:14 [ref. 36146]). Current status: Valid as Hemanthias peruanus (Steindachner 1875). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California Sur (Mexico) and Gulf of California south to Peru; Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

peruanus, Epinephelus Chirichigno F. [N.] 1963:44, Fig. 37 B [Serie de Divulgación Cientifica, Servicio de Pesquería, Ministerio de Agricultura, Lima, No. 22; ref. 4500] Puerto Pizarro, Peru. Holotype: MHNJP [= MUSM] P 1173. Paratypes: ?MHNJP [SP 537] (1). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus niphobles Gilbert & Starks 1897 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:203 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Epinephelus niphobles Gilbert & Starks 1897 -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1596 [ref. 22830]). •Valid as Epinephelus peruanus Chirichigno F. 1963 -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:359 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus peruanus Chirichigno F. 1963. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Peru. Habitat: marine.

peruanus, Serranus Lesson [R. P.] 1831:234 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Paita, Peru. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

perumali, Holanthias Talwar [P. K.] 1976:362, Fig. [Journal of Natural History v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 7395] Arabian Sea off Quilon, 9°N, 76°E, India, depth 300 meters. Holotype: ZSI F6566/2. Paratypes: ZSI F6567/2 (1), 6568/2 (4). See Das 2003:376 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Holanthias perumali Talwar 1976 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377]). •Synonym of Odontanthias rhodopeplus (Günther 1872) -- (Randall & Heemstra 2006:21 [ref. 28602]). Current status: Synonym of Odontanthias rhodopeplus (Günther 1872). Serranidae: Anthiadinae. Habitat: marine.

pessuliferum, Plectropoma Fowler [H. W.] 1904:520, Pl. 17 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia [eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27546. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Plectropomus pessuliferus (Fowler 1904) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:535 [ref. 5667], Randall & Hoese 1986:22 [ref. 6009], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:296 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:296 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2536 [ref. 24815], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:32 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:166 [ref. 28239], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:92 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:344 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:284 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:156 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). Current status: Valid as Plectropomus pessuliferus (Fowler 1904). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Fiji and Tonga. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to P. marisrubri Randall & Hoese 1986. Habitat: marine.

petrosus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:136 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:278 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Mycteroperca venenosa (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

phaenistomus, Serranus Swainson [W.] 1839:201 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] No types known. Based on Rüppell 1830:Pl. 26 (fig. 2) [ref. 3843], but perhaps an error because Variola longipinns Swainson on the next page is based on the same figure. •Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:305 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:304 [ref. 21042]). Current status: Synonym of Variola louti (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

phaeostigmaeus, Serranus Fowler [H. W.] 1907:255, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1376] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ANSP 13463. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

phaeton, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:309, Pl. 34 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7173 (dry). Type information: Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. Body is a Serranus, with tail of Fistularia artificially attached! A hoax -- see also Heemstra & Randall 1993:26 [ref. 21042]. Spelled phaëton in Griffith & Smith 1834:113 [ref. 1908]. Serranidae: Serraninae.

phenax, Mycteroperca falcata