Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
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Species in the family or subfamily Soleidae: [ 293 ] records


abnormis, Achirus Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1929:163 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 5; ref. 16063] Fish market, Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109466. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •In Aserragodes Kaup 1858 based on placement of Beaufortella -- (see Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:192 [ref. 21500]). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

achira, Synaptura Duncker [G.] 1904:168 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 21; ref. 5560] Sukakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: part of RMNH 6711. Lectotype selected by Kottelat (2013). •Synonym of Achiroides leucorhynchos Bleeker 1851 -- (Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Achiroides leucorhynchos Bleeker 1851. Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater.

aegyptiaca, Solea vulgaris forma Chabanaud [P.] 1927:35 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 488; ref. 782] Ismailia, Egypt, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: MNHN 1902-0009. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]. Neotype designated by Vachon et al. 2008:21 [ref. 29607]. •Synonym of Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Torchio 1973:628 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1318 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212]). •Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:949 [ref. 15614]). •Valid as Solea aegyptiaca Chabanaud 1927 -- (Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:21 [ref. 29607], Chanet et al. 2012:581 [ref. 34114], Golani et al. 2014:321 [ref. 33139]). Current status: Valid as Solea aegyptiaca Chabanaud 1927. Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea endemic; Gulf of Suez, Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

aenea, Synaptura Smith [H. M.] 1931:32, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 79 (no. 2873); ref. 4047] Lop Buri River at Lop Buri, central Thailand. Holotype: USNM 90311 (not found in 1980). Additional material: (1). •Synonym of Achiroides harmandi (Sauvage 1878) -- (Rainboth 1996:221 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Brachirus aenea (Smith 1931) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25559], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314]). •Synonym of Brachirus harmandi (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus harmandi (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Distribution: Thailand (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

albida, Bathysolea Roule [L.] 1916:28 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 320; ref. 3818] Cape Verde Islands, station 1186, depth 660 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM (lost). Type catalog: Belloc 1949:13 [ref. 21544], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. See also Roule 1919:91, Pl. 5 (figs. 4-4a) [ref. 19805]. •Synonym of Bathysolea lactea Roule 1916 -- (Desoutter 1990:1037 [ref. 18967], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:408 [ref. 23363], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Bathysolea lactea Roule 1916. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

albidus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:305, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Lembeh Strait, off Kungkungan Bay, Sulawesi, Indonesia, depth 15 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 38802. •Valid as Aseraggodes albidus Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1050 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes albidus Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Sulawesi (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

alboguttata, Solea Fowler [H. W.] 1929:251, Fig. 1 (top) [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 1403] Off Natal Bluff, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665]). Current status: Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

albomaculata, Synaptura Kaup [J. J.] 1858:96 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] Coromandel coast, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3436. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. Kottelat (2013) cites as inland record from Myanmar. •Valid as Synaptura albomaculata Kaup 1858 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1048 [ref. 20764], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] with question, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Dagetichthys albomaculatus (Kaup 1858) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:406 [ref. 32765] as albomaculata, Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys albomaculatus (Kaup 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alleni, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:85, Fig. 2 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Bintuni River, small mangrove creek, 2°07'S, 133°31'E, ca. 19 kilometers upstream of Bintuni Bay, Papua Province, Indonesia, New Guinea, depth 0.1-1.0 meters. Holotype: WAM P.29959. Paratypes: BPBM 40459 (2), NTM 16247-001 (2), USNM 387649 (3), WAM P.29959-015 (6), ZMB 33742 (2). Plus 3 non-type specimens at NTM. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus alleni Randall 2007. Current status: Valid as Leptachirus alleni Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: West Papua, Indonesia. Habitat: brackish.

altipinnis, Synaptura Alcock [A. W.] 1890:441 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Off Vizagapatam coast, east-northeast of Bimilipatnam, India, Investigator station 93, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12917. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Zebrias altipinnis (Alcock 1890) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1993:235 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:246 [ref. 23283], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:598 [ref. 27969], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:48 [ref. 27712]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias altipinnis (Alcock 1890). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in Randall, Bogorodsky & Mal 2013:6, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32941] North Malé Atoll, North Malé Island, east end of island off building of Marine Research Section, Ministry of Fisheries, outer surge zone of seaward reef, Republic of Maldives, depth 1-1.5 meters. Holotype (unique): PBM 33022. •Valid as Aseraggodes andersoni Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes andersoni Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Soleidae. Distribution: Maldives. Habitat: marine.

angulatus, Pleuronectes Guichenot [A.] 1850:107 [Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poissons; ref. 1940] Oran, Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. •Possible synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Desoutter 1990:1039 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Uncertain as Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angulosa, Solea Kaup [J. J.] 1858:94 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] La Rochelle, France, Bay of Biscay, northeastern Atlantic; Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3223 (1), 0000-3242 (1), 0000-3241 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:323-324 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Dicologoglossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1039 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Microchirus theophila (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of the younger Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:323 [ref. 25922] based on current usage). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

annandalei, Zebrias Talwar [P. K.] & Chakrapany [S.] 1967:119, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Calcutta v. 20 (no. 2); ref. 20557] Puri Beach, Orissa, India. Holotype: ZSI F5011/2. Paratypes: ZSI F5012/2 (1). See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706] with second author as Chakrapani and date 1968 and species as annandelei. Soleidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

annectens, Pseudaustroglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1937:932 [1] [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 205; ref. 794] Estuary of Congo River, depth 20 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 806. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]. Author suggested that this taxon might be based on a hybrid between Synaptura lusitanica x Austroglossus microlepis; if proposed for a hybrid the taxon is unavailable. Soleidae.

annularis, Brachirus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:346, Fig. 99 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] China Sea, vicinity of Taiwan, 21°40'N, 116°58'E, Albatross station D.5315, depth 148 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93095. Paratypes: USNM 93206 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Synaptura annularis (Fowler 1934) -- (Gonzales et al. 1994:491 [ref. 22282], Nakabo 2000:1387 [ref. 25182], Nair 2006:118 [ref. 29899] dated 1933, Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461] as annlaris). •Valid as Brachirus annularis Fowler 1934 -- (Li & Wang 1995:309 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:1387 [ref. 26193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1844 [ref. 29000], Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]). •Valid as Zebrias annularis (Fowler 1934) -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus annularis Fowler 1934. Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

arafurensis, Synaptura Günther [A.] 1880:49 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Arafura Sea, Challenger station 190, depth 35 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.69. •Synonym of Dexillus muelleri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1846 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Dexillus muelleri (Steindachner 1879). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

argentea, Pleuronectes Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Petiver) 1788:77 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Philippines. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. Based on the 'Solea philippensis argentea of Petiver 1702:41, Pl. 26 [ref. 30233]. Soleidae.

arnoglossa, Solea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14, 52 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Soleidae.

aspilos, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1852:74 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16832] Singapore. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.5 (1). •Valid as Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1851, Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

atlanticus, Monochirus hispidus Chabanaud [P.] 1940:150 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 13167] Banjul (formerly Bathurst), western coast of Africa. Holotype: IRSNB (lost in WWII). Paratypes: (numerous) BMNH 1872.2.6.9 (1), 1924.1.31.1 (1); IRSNB 52 (1); MNHN 1942-0079 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922]. Also described as new (Monochirus atlanticus) in Chabanaud 1949:57 [ref. 13003]. •Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814 -- (Torchio 1973:634 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Monochirus atlanticus Chabanaud 1940 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922] with doubt as to status as a subspecies, Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3022 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Monochirus atlanticus Chabanaud 1940. Soleidae. Distribution: Coast of West Africa. Habitat: marine.

aurantiaca, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:467 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: (at least 13) BMNH 1848.1.12.545-547 and 549 (skins), 1856.12.10.139 and 141 (skins), 1982.3.12.9 (1). Based on literature sources and specimens. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967] as auriantiaca). • Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auroculus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:195, Fig. 2 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Moorea, off northwestern coast, 17°31'00"S, 149°555'30"E, Society Islands, depth 18-24 meters. Holotype: ROM 61358. Paratypes: BPBM 39690 (1), ROM 61357 (1), USNM 381623 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes auroculus Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes auroculus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

australis, Microchirus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:6 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] 15 miles southwest of Moita Seca, Angola, 6°16'S, 12°07'E, depth 50 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 96. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Microchirus boscanion (Chabanaud 1926) -- (Desoutter 1994:232 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus boscanion (Chabanaud 1926). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

azevia, Solea de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:166 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 14041] Lisbon/Lisboa, Portugal; Gibraltar; Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands; Bilbao, northeastern Atlantic; Barcelona, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4850 [or 4805] (1) Lisbon, ZMB 6456 (1) Lisbon. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Microchirus theophila (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1314 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1994:232 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:152 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3015 [ref. 34618] dated 1868). Current status: Valid as Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Senegal; strays to British Isles. Habitat: marine.

bahamondei, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Meléndez C. [R.] 1987:99, Figs. 1-4 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 27; ref. 9173] Off Mataveri O Tai near southern end of western coast, Easter Island, depth 20 feet. Holotype: BPBM 6610. Paratypes: AMS IB.6385 (1), I.25700-001 (1); BPBM 6611 (1), 14755 (1), 14790 (1), 30554 (2), 30851 (2); LACM 6560 (13); MNHN 1985-0885 (1); MNHNC P.6142 (1); UBC 65-452 (1), 65-455 (1), 65-457 (3); MZUC 2096 (1); NSMT-P 44015 (1); USNM 274719 (1). Type catalog: Meléndez C. et al. 1993:208 [ref. 24124], Desoutter et al. 2001:318-319 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Aseraggodes bahamondei Randall & Meléndez C. 1987 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:241 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:133 [ref. 20996], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:621 [ref. 24023], Francis et al. 1999:578 [ref. 24249], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:70 [ref. 26163], Randall 2002:253 [ref. 26248], Randall & Bartsch 2005:137 [ref. 28374], Randall 2005:197 [ref. 28892], Hoese & Bray 2006:1842 [ref. 29000], Dyer & Westneat 2010:610 [ref. 31446], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Munroe 2015:1704 [ref. 34321]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes bahamondei Randall & Meléndez C. 1987. Soleidae. Distribution: South Pacific: Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island east to Easter Island and to Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

balius, Pardachirus Randall [J. E.] & Mee [J. K. L.] 1994:343, Pls. 1-2 [Fauna of Saudi Arabia v. 14; ref. 21638] Off Raysut, 19°24' to 25'N, 57°48'E, southern Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 26-30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34506. Paratypes: BMNH 1994.5.10.1 (1); BPBM 36319 (1); CAS 73287 (3); ROM 40267 (1), 40269 (1); USNM 329542 [ex BPBM 35976] (1). •Valid as Pardachirus balius Randall & Mee 1994 -- (Randall 1995:360 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Randall & Johnson 2007:7 [ref. 29291]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus balius Randall & Mee 1994. Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea and Somalia. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:658, 660 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. •Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757], Randall & Johnson 2007:9 [ref. 29291]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

barnardi, Coryphaesopia cornuta Chabanaud [P.] 1934:430 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 59; ref. 791] Off Amatikulu Hill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 26 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:869 [ref. 5665], Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

barnardi, Synaptura Smith [J. L. B.] 1931:148, Pl. 16 [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 4062] Great Fish Point, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] [ex AMG] 138. •Synonym of Synaptura marginata Boulenger 1900 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665]). •Synonym of Dagetichthys marginata (Boulenger 1900) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:407 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989] as marginatus). Current status: Synonym of Dagetichthys marginatus (Boulenger 1900). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

beauforti, Aseraggodes Chabanaud [P.] 1930:189 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 13 (no. 3-4); ref. 16264] Timor Sea, 10°27.9'S, 123°28.7'W, Siboga station 302, depth 216 meters. Lectotype: ZMA 115242 (49,2 mm). Paralectotypes: (11) ZMA 123862 [ex ZMA 115242] (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922] with a different location than given below. Based Aseraggodes cyaneus of Weber 1913:435 (not Solea cyanea Alcock). Lectotype selected by Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:308 [ref. 29399]; the smaller specimen not this species. •Valid as Aseraggodes beauforti Chabanaud 1930 -- (Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:308 [ref. 29399], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes beauforti Chabanaud 1930. Soleidae. Distribution: Timor Sea. Habitat: marine.

bensbach, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:88, Fig. 3 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] 12 kilometers downstream of Balamuk, 8°59'S, 141°14'E, Bensbach River, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: WAM P.27820-003. Paratypes: BPBM 40462 (1); WAM P.27820-007 (1), P.27822-004 (2), P.31342-004 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. Name treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Leptachirus bensbach Randall 2007. Current status: Valid as Leptachirus bensbach Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Bensbach River, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

bleekeri, Solea Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:2 [Marine Investigations in South Africa No. 1; ref. 14678] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3571. Also p. 2 of v. 1 in 1902. •Valid as Solea bleekeri Boulenger 1898 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:438 [ref. 28072]). •Synonym of Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814) -- (Vachon et al. 2005:315 [ref. 29620]). •Valid as Pegusa bleekeri (Boulenger 1898) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:373 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa bleekeri (Boulenger 1898). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borbonica, Solea Regan [C. T.] 1905:393, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 13; ref. 15384] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MHNG 678.03. Type catalog: Mahnert 1976:475 [ref. 21535], Weber 1998:13 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Soleichthys borbonica (Regan 1905) -- (Quéro 1997:324 [ref. 23236]). •Synonym of Soleichthys tubifera (Peters 1876) -- (Fricke 1999:574 [ref. 24106], Munroe & Menke 2004:252 [ref. 27772]). •Synonym of Soleichthys tubiferus (Peters 1876) or a valid species -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597]). Current status: Synonym of Soleichthys tubiferus (Peters 1876). Soleidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Réunion Island and Mauritius, Mascarenes [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

borehami, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 1996:429, Figs. 1-3 [Pacific Science v. 50 (no. 4); ref. 21993] In cave off channel entrance at northeast end of Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, depth 29 meters. Holotype: BPBM 7834. Paratypes: AMS I.37164-001 [ex BPBM 7834] (1); BMNH 1996.1.24.1 (1); BPBM 31030 (1), 33478 (1), 36804 (1), 36867 (1); CAS 85567 (1); NSMT-P 48114 (1); USNM 339301 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes borehami Randall 1996 -- (Randall 2002:248 [ref. 26248], Mundy 2005:521 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:466 [ref. 30952], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes borehami Randall 1996. Soleidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

boscanion, Solea (Microchirus) Chabanaud [P.] 1926:127 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 32 (no. 2); ref. 15579] Eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: MNHN 1886-0007 (1), 1886-0008 (1) Coast of Spain, 1886-0013 (1), 1886-0014 (1), 1909-0467 (5) Sudan; Lab. Pêches et Productions Coloniales d'Origine Animale (1) Lévrier Bay. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892]). •Valid as Microchirus boscanion (Chabanaud 1926) -- (Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1314 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1040 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:230 [ref. 22326], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Zenetos et al. 2010:412 [ref. 31201], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3016 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus boscanion (Chabanaud 1926). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

bourbonensis, Rhombus Guichenot [A.] (ex Kaup) 1863:C-29 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]. Nomen nudum, not available. Soleidae.

brasiliensis, Solea Kaup [J. J.] 1858:95 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] Montevideo, Uruguay [in error, eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): MNHN-1460. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922] and locality correction. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Solea brasiliensis Agassiz 1831; replaced by Solea kaupi Berg 1895. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Solea Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:87, Pl. 48 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Mediterranean Sea [not Brazil]. Syntypes: MHNN 804 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:150 [ref. 21784]. Type information: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). •Valid as Solea brasiliensis Agassiz 1831 -- (Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

breviceps, Brachirus Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:36 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.865 (poor condition). •Valid as Brachirus breviceps Ogilby 1910 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus breviceps Ogilby 1910. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Gon [O.] 2006:170, Fig. 1 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 28662] Off Al Almal Hotel, just east of Matsumudu, 12°09'30"S, 44°24'E, Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands, depth 6-18 meters. Holotype: ROM 76770. Paratypes: BPBM 40150 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes brevirostris Randall & Gon 2006 -- (Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes brevirostris Randall & Gon 2006. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Comoro Islands. Habitat: marine.

brownii, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:477 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Atlantic coast of southern states of North America. Syntypes: BMNH 1852.8.16.23 (1), 1852.12.9.27 (1), Based on literature sources and 2 specimens. •Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

buglossa, Solea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Unneeded replacement name for Pleuronectes solea Linnaeus 1758. Soleidae.

cadenati, Pegusa Chabanaud [P.] 1954:255, Figs. 2-15 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 12641] Cape Verde Islands, western Africa. Holotype: MNHN 1952-0275 [ex IFAN 50-1165]. Paratypes: (11) BMNH 1953.6.22.1 [ex IFAN 50-1160] (1); IFAN 50-1161 (1), 50-1167 (1), 50-1168 (1); MNHN 1952-276 (2), 1952-277 (2), 1952-0278 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:323 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Pegusa cadenati Chabanaud 1954 -- (Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3023 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa cadenati Chabanaud 1954. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands and possibly Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

cadenati, Synaptura Chabanaud [P.] 1948:512 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 20 (no. 6); ref. 19524] Lomé, Togo, depth 4-5 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1949-0001. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Synaptura cadenati Chabanaud 1948 -- (Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Synaptura lusitanica de Brito Capello 1868 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Dagetichthys lucitanica (de Brito Capello 1868) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:410 [ref. 32765]). •Valid as Dagetichthys cadenati (Chabanaud 1948) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:409 [ref. 32765], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3011 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys cadenati (Chabanaud 1948). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Congo. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caecus, Typhlachirus Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1931:415, Fig. 5 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 13 (pts 3-4); ref. 2036] Malacca Strait, eastern Indian Ocean. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (5) MNHN 1942-0080 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. Appeared first as Cryptops coeca Hardenberg 1931, which is regarded as unavailable. •Valid as Typhlachirus caecus Hardenberg 1931 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Typhlachirus caecus Hardenberg 1931. Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

callizona, Synaptura Regan [C. T.] 1903:57, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 11 (no. 61) (art. 5); ref. 15040] Arafura Sea (?). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.68. •Valid as Pseudaesopia callizona (Regan 1802) -- (Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Pseudaesopia callizona (Regan 1903). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Territory, Australia. Habitat: marine.

cancellata, Synaptura McCulloch [A. R.] 1916:60, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 2944] Near Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS I.13199. Other specimens or paratypes: (5) AMS E.2486-87 (2?). •Valid as Strabozebrias cancellatus (McCulloch 1916) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] with question). •Valid as Zebrias cancellatus (McCulloch 1916) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:862 [ref. 22532], Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:819 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias cancellatus (McCulloch 1916). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

canus, Pleuronectes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:91 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Brachirus pan (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Brachirus pan (Hamilton 1822). Soleidae.

capellonis, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1868:722 [56], Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 57 (1. Abth.); ref. 18779] Gibraltar; Hvar [Lesina], Croatia, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: NMW 14035-36 (1, 1), 14037-38 (3), 14059-60 (2). On p. 56 of separate. •Synonym of Solea kleini (Bonaparte 1933, ? = Risso 1826 = 1927) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Synaptura kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Current status: Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Heteromycteris Kaup [J. J.] 1858:103 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype: MNHN B-2288. Paratypes (?): MNHN B-2289 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25922] with a holotype and paratypes. Locality by inference. Kaup perhaps saw only one specimen, therefore no paratypes. •Valid as Heteromycteris capensis Kaup 1858 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:179 [ref. 25472], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris capensis Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic to southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Solea (Pegusa) Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1902:110, Pl. 9 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 2; ref. 1644] Fish-Hoek and Muizenberg, False Bay; 4.5 miles off Cape St. Blaize, depth 30 fathoms; and Algoa Bay, South Africa. Holotype: SAM 15423. Paratypes: BMNH 1901.7.27.9 (1); SAM 15405-06 [? = 15423-24] (1, 1). •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665]). •Valid as Solea capensis Gilchrist 1902 -- (Desoutter 1990:1045 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Valid as Solea capensis Gilchrist 1902. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic off South Africa. Habitat: marine.

captivus, Zebrias Randall [J. E.] 1995:243, Fig. 1 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 23283] Persian Gulf off Bahrain. Holotype: BPBM 29478. Paratypes: USNM 334423 (1). •Valid as Zebrias captivus Randall 1995 -- (Randall 1995:362 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:234 [ref. 23922]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias captivus Randall 1995. Soleidae. Distribution: Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

chapleaui, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:309, Fig. 3 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Rausch Pass, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, depth 30 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 15863. •Valid as Aseraggodes chapleaui Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1050 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fricke et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes chapleaui Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Madang, Papua New Guinea and Raja Ampat Islands (West Papua, Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

cheni, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Senou [H.] 2007:304, Figs. 1-4 [Zoological Studies v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 29156] Seven-star Rock, 21°45.5'N, 120°49.4'E, Taiwan, depth 48 meters. Holotype: ASIZP 66518. Paratypes: KPM-NI 9576 (1), 9577-78 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Aseraggodes cheni Randall & Senou 2007 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Koeda et al. 2016:108 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes cheni Randall & Senou 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

cheni, Heteromycteris japonica japonica morpha Chabanaud [P.] (ex Norman) 1935:220 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 60; ref. 25931] Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. Not available, infrasubspecific (from China, specimen is BMNH 1930.7.28.7). •In the synonymy of Heteromycteris japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Current status: Synonym of Heteromycteris japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae.

chirophthalmus, Solea Regan [C. T.] 1915:129 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 15 (no. 85); ref. 15006] Lagos, Nigeria. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1914.11.2.61-63 (3), MNHN 1926-0010 [ex BMNH 1914.11.2.64] (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922] as chirophthalma. The original spelling was chirophthalmus but evidently should be emended to chirophthalma. •Valid as Vanstraelenia chirophthalmus (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter 1990:1048 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:237 [ref. 22326]). •Valid as Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3029 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola. Habitat: marine.

ciliata, Synaptura Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:14, Pl. 34 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Inner harbor, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 15428. •Synonym of Synaptura marginata Boulenger 1900 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665]). •Synonymy of Dagetichthys marginata (Boulenger 1900) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:407 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989] as marginatus). Current status: Synonym of Dagetichthys marginatus (Boulenger 1900). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cinerascens, Synaptura Günther [A.] 1862:482 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1854.3.29.30 (not seen in 1983). •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae.

cinerea, Solea Guichenot [A.] (ex Valenciennes) 1850:106 [Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poissons; ref. 1940] Algier, Algeria, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3296 (8). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324-325 [ref. 25922]. Virtually no distinguishing features presented, marginally available. •Synonym of Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cinerea, Synaptura De Vis [C. W.] 1883:288 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 1088] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.118. •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cithara, Solea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14, 52 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Soleidae.

cleverleyi, Solea Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1906:160, Pl. 44 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 4; ref. 1647] Walvis Bay, southwestern Africa. Holotype (unique): SAM 15401. •Synonym of Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858 -- (Desoutter 1990:1046 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:870 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1994:242 [ref. 22326]). Current status: Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cochinensis, Zebrias Rama-Rao [K. V.] 1967:99, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Zoological Society of India v. 19 (nos 1-2); ref. 22121] Off Vypeen Island, Cochin, India, 16-20 meters. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Zebrias cochinensis Rama-Rao 1967 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias cochinensis Rama-Rao 1967. Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

coeca, Cryptops Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1931:125 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 13 (pt 1); ref. 16298] Rokan River mouth, Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. Description as "no eyes, tentacles on the finrays, etc." footnote says the new species will be published in a short time. Later published as Typhlachirus caecus Hardenberg 1931; Cryptops coeca regarded as not available, not sufficient distinguishing features. Soleidae.

commersonnii, Pleuronectes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:599, 654 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. Figured on Pl. 12 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name commersonnien; see discussion in Munroe & DeSoutter 2001:273-277 [ref. 25706]. The correct spelling is commersonnii. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Synaptura commersoniana (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:235 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Synaptura commersoni (Lacepède 1802) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) in Bothidae but text only -- (Fricke 1999:570 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Synaptura commersonnii (Lacepède 1802) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922], Munroe 2001:3888 [ref. 26314] as commersonii, Munroe & Desoutter 2001:273 [ref. 25706], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461] as commersonii, Yoshida et al. 2013:220 [ref. 34464]). •Valid as Dagetichthys commersonii (Lacèpede 1802) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:405 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:327 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:396 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys commersonnii (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf east to Indonesia, north to Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cornuta, Aesopia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:98 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] British Indies [India, Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: MNHN 1998-1304 (1), 1998-1305 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Coryphaesopia cornuta (Kaup 1858) -- (Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858 -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Gon 1986:869 [ref. 5665], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:105 [ref. 15757], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:204 [ref. 21500], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:322 [ref. 16193], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:177 [ref. 26476], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1386 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1386 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Shinohara et al. 2005:443 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1842 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:320 [ref. 31170], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:101 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1049 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:326 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:396 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:222 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa and Madagascar east to Indonesia, north to southern Japan, south to northern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

corymbus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bartsch [P.] 2007:107, Figs. 1-3 [Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin v. 83 (no. 2); ref. 29373] Gulf of Carpentaria, 17°25'S, 140°10'E, Queensland, Australia, depth 10 meters. Holotype: AMS I.15557-061. Paratypes: BMNH 40512 (1), QM I.11272 (2), ZMB 33764 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes corymbus Randall & Bartsch 2007 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes corymbus Randall & Bartsch 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

craticula, Synaptura McCulloch [A. R.] 1916:62, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 2944] Near Bowen, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS E.2700. Paratypes: AMS I.13616 (1) The name craticula perhaps is a noun and correct name is Zebrias craticula (research needed). •Valid as Zebrias craticula (McCulloch 1916) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314] as craticulus, Hoese & Bray 2006:1851 [ref. 29000] as craticulatus, Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias craticula (McCulloch 1916). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

crossolepis, Zebrias Zheng [P.-S.] & Chang [Y.-W.] 1965:271 [English p. 277], Fig. 3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 7953] Jieshi Harbor, Guangdong, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NSMC] 29861. Paratypes or other material (24): ASIO (?), ASIZB [now NSMC] (9). Type catalog: Zhang 1996:503 [ref. 24036] Ye et al. 2015:108 [ref. 33808]. First author's name as Cheng in English summary. •Valid as Zebrias crossolepis Zheng & Chang 1965 -- (Li & Wang 1995:315 [ref. 16193], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461] as crosslepis, Ye et al. 2015:108 [ref. 33808], Voronina et al. 2016:400 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias crossolepis Zheng & Chang 1965. Soleidae. Distribution: China and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

crypticus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 2007:110, Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29913] Christmas Island, 10°26'S, 105°40'E, Indian Ocean, depth 16-18 meters. Holotype: WAM P.28990-020. Paratypes: WAM P.26108-016 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Aseraggodes crypticus Randall & Allen 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1050 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes crypticus Randall & Allen 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Christmas Island, Indian Ocean (2 specimens). Habitat: marine.

cuneata, Solea Moreau [E.] (ex de la Pylaie) 1881:312 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Moreau); ref. 3040] Atlantic coast of France. Syntypes: (2) MNHN 1898-0951 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922] with a paratype. •Valid as Dicologoglossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:179 [ref. 25472], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:152 [ref. 26753]). •Valid as Solea cuneata Moreau 1881 -- (Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643]). •Valid as Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1312 [ref. 13677], Heemstra & Gon 1986:870 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1994:239 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:22, 41 [ref. 30263], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3013 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cyanea, Solea Alcock [A. W.] 1890:439 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Off Ganjam coast, Investigator station 79, depth 33 fathoms, and off Vizagapatam coast, Investigator, depth 20-25 fathoms, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1928.3.20.136 [ex ASI F12818] (1), ZSI F12918 (1) depth 33 fathoms. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:45 [ref. 22148]. •Valid as Aseraggodes cyaneus (Alcock 1890) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:106 [ref. 15757], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes cyaneus (Alcock 1890). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Gulf of Aden east to India; Indonesia to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

cyclurus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:198, Fig. 6 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Papara, Teavaraa Pass, Tahiti, Society Islands, depth 27.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 8105. Paratypes: ROM 61359 (1), USNM 379462 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes cyclurus Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes cyclurus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Society Islands [provisional specimen form Fiji]. Habitat: marine.

cynoglossa, Solea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14, 53 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Soleidae.

darwinensis, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:90, Fig. 4 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] East Alligator River, 3 kilometers upstream from Cahills Crossing, 12°27'S, 132°58'E, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: NTM S.10618-001. Paratypes: BPBM 40477 (1); NTM S.10868-001 (1), S.15583-01 (1), S.16036-001 (1). •Valid as Leptachirus darwinensis Randall 2007 -- (Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Leptachirus darwinensis Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Territory, Australia. Habitat: freshwater.

dicholepis, Synaptura Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:844 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] New Hanover, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9861. •Valid as Brachirus dicholepis (Peters 1877) -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1876). Current status: Valid as Brachirus dicholepis (Peters 1877). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

diringeri, Parachirus Quéro [J.-C.] 1997:320, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 21 (no. 3); ref. 23236] Cape Homard, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1996-0118. Paratypes: MNHN 1996-0119 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:322-323 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Parachirus diringeri Quéro 1997 -- (Fricke 1999:572 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Aseraggodes diringeri (Quéro 1997) -- (Randall 2005:211 [ref. 28892], Randall & Gon 2006:173 [ref. 28662], Randall & Senou 2007:307 [ref. 29156], Fricke et al. 2009:114 [ref. 30213], Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes diringeri (Quéro 1997). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa and western Mascarenes east to Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

dori, Soleichthys Randall [J. E.] & Munroe [T. A.] 2008:77, Figs. 1-2 [Electronic Journal of Ichthyology, Bulletin of the European Ichthyology Society. v. 2; ref. 29862] 7 kilometers south of Nuweiba, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 2-4 meters. Holotype: BPBM 20784. Paratypes: HUJ 7725 (1); TAU [= SMNHTAU] P.5112 (1), P.7934 (1), P.11245 (2); USNM 291079 (1), 291080 (1), 291081 (2), 291082 (1). •Valid as Soleichthys dori Randall & Munroe 2008. Current status: Valid as Soleichthys dori Randall & Munroe 2008. Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Aseraggodes Weber [M.] 1913:438, Fig. 82 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Java Sea, 6°16.5'S, 114°37'E, Siboga station 319, depth 82 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109390. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Aseraggodes dubius Weber 1913 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Larson et al. 2013:225 [ref. 32988], Voronina et al. 2016:396 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes dubius Weber 1913. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea, Timor Sea and Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Solea Day [F.] 1877:426, Pl. 90 (fig. 4) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Madras, India. Syntypes (2) and/or Day specimens: ?AMS B.8278-79 (2); ZSI 1091 (1, lost), 1094 (1, lost), 2714 (1, figured specimen, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:297 [ref. 25110]. •Valid as Solea elongata Day 1877 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:361 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:234 [ref. 23922], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:16 [ref. 29607], Psomadakis et al. 2015:327 [ref. 34104]). Current status: Valid as Solea elongata Day 1877. Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to Sri Lanka and western Bay of Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Typhlachirus Pellegrin [J.] & Chevey [P.] 1940:155, Fig. 1 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 65; ref. 13132] Bac Lieu to Vinh Chau, Vietnam. Syntypes: MNHN 1939-0270 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Brachirus elongatus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1940) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus elongatus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1940). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: brackish.

elongatus, Xenobuglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:13 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] Walvis Bay, Namibia, 22°54'S, 14°30'E, southeastern Atlantic, depth 8 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 426. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Desoutter 1994:242 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalmus (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter 1990:1048 [ref. 18967], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3029 [ref. 34618] as chirophthalma). Current status: Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciata, Solea Basilewsky [S.] 1855:261 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Shantung [Shandong], China. No types at ZIN. •Valid as Zebrias fasciatus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Gomon 1987:21 [ref. 17667], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:201 [ref. 21500], Nakabo 2000:1386 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1386 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:440, 687 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) -- (Li & Wang 1995:317 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Wang et al. 2014:50 [ref. 34516]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific off northern China (if valid). Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Synaptura Macleay [W.] 1882:14 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 2870] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16281-001 [ex MAMU F1168]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Solea fasciata Basilewsky 1855 when both are in Zebrias; replaced by Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987. •Objective synonym of Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:865 [ref. 22532], Hoese & Bray 2006:1852 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] 1824:230 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) v. 7; ref. 3144] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also appeared in Nardo 1827:32 [ref. 3146] and 1827:481 [ref. 19740]. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

filamentosa, Synaptura (Synaptura) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:93 [8] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 18663] Laos Cambodgien. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9643. On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Euryglossa orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440]). •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

filiger, Aseraggodes Weber [M.] 1913:436, Pl. 11 (fig. 4) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Buka Bucht, Rotti Island, Siboga station 299, depth 34 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109387. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Coryphillus filiger (Weber 1913) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314]). •Valid as Aseraggodes filiger Weber 1913 -- (Randall 2002:252 [ref. 26248] as filifer, Yoshida et al. 2013:217 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes filiger Weber 1913. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

firmisquamis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bartsch [P.] 2005:134, Fig. 6 [Micronesica v. 38 (no. 1); ref. 28374] Outside barrier reef southwest of Koror, Palau, depth 6 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 30652. •Valid as Aseraggodes firmisquamis Randall & Bartsch 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes firmisquamis Randall & Bartsch 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Palau. Habitat: marine.

fischerei, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1879:150 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 15) (for 19 June 1879); ref. 20478] Río Mamoni near Chepo, Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW. Species originally described as above, but later as fischeri when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:161 [p. 13 in separate], Pl. 2 (fig. 8) [ref. 18782]. Soleidae.

fitzroiensis, Synaptura De Vis [C. W.] 1882:319 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17382] Mouth of Fitzroy River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I373 (1, destroyed in 1909), QM I.79. •Valid as Brachirus fitzroiensis (De Vis 1882) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus fitzroiensis (De Vis 1882). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

fluviatilis, Solea Ramsay [E. P.] 1882:111 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 18594] Hunter River, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: not at AMS. If a synonym of macleayanus then the habitat should be marine. •Synonym of Aseraggodes macleayanus (Ramsay 1881) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Synclidopus macleayanus (Ramsay 1881) -- (Randall 2005:193 [ref. 28892]). Current status: Synonym of Synclidopus macleayanus (Ramsay 1881). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

foliacea, Solea Richardson [J.] 1846:279 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; coasts of China. No types known. Non-types: BMNH 1851.12.27.213-214. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 28a [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Li & Wang 1995:305 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

frechkopi, Microchirus Chabanaud [P.] 1952:1 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 28 (no. 69); ref. 12687] 25 miles southwest of Point Banda, 3°57'30"S, 10°36'30"E, South Atlantic, depth 85 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 433. Paratypes: (15) IRSNB 434-438 (2, 1, 2, 1, 1); MNHN 1951-0018 (1); MRAC 140350-54 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 140355-56 (2). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Microchirus frechkopi Chabanaud 1952 -- (Desoutter 1990:1041 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:225 [ref. 22326], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3017 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus frechkopi Chabanaud 1952. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

fulvomarginata, Solea Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:13, Pl. 33 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] False Bay, South Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.9.29.6 [or 1] [from Gilchrist] (1), SAM 15402 (1). Originally as fulvo-marginata. New catalog number for BMNH from P. Campbell, 10/2/2003, pers. comm. •Valid as Solea fulvomarginata Gilchrist 1904 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:438 [ref. 28072]). •Valid as Barnardichthys fulvomarginatus (Gilchrist 1904) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:23 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Valid as Barnardichthys fulvomarginata (Gilchrist 1904). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and western Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

greenii, Solea Günther [A.] 1889:249 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 21); ref. 18208] Southwestern coast of Ireland, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1889.10.28.14. Described in more detail in Günther 1889:419 [ref. 18783]. •Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888) -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:406 [ref. 23363]). Current status: Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Aseraggodes Kaup [J. J.] 1858:103 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] [Not specified] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1246. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Aseraggodes guttulatus Kaup 1858 -- (Quéro 1997:320 [ref. 23236], Fricke 1999:572 [ref. 24106], Randall & Gon 2006:175 [ref. 28662], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Randall et al. 2013:3 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes guttulatus Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion (western Mascarenes) and Maldives east to South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

haackeana, Solea (Achirus) Steindachner [F.] 1883:195 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 20 (no. 22); ref. 20488] St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 14330-33 (1, 1, 1, 1). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1884:1104 [p. 40 of separate], Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 4234]. •Valid as Aseraggodes haackeanus (Steindachner 1883) -- (Randall & Meléndez 1987:104 [ref. 9173], Gomon et al. 1994:860 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Randall 2005:210 [ref. 28892], Hoese & Bray 2006:1842 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:817 [ref. 30616], Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes haackeanus (Steindachner 1883). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

harmandi, Synaptura (Anisochirus) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:94 [9] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 18663] Me Kong River, Cambodia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9517. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Euryglossa harmandi (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440], Rainboth 1996:221 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Brachirus harmandi (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1998:117 [ref. 23436], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus harmandi (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Distribution: Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

hartzfeldii, Achirus Bleeker [P.] 1853:123 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1862.6.3.24 (1). •Valid as Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker 1853) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1847 [ref. 29000], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1055 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:223 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker 1853). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines south to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

hediste, Synaptura Mees [G. F.] 1964:49, Pl. 4 [Fisheries Bulletin Western Australia No. 9 (pt 4); ref. 9231] Off Cheyne Head, King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.5532-001. Paratypes: WAM P.5533-001 (1), P.5534-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:43 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Incertae sedis in Soleidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1852 [ref. 29000]). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

hedleyi, Pardachirus Ogilby [J. D.] 1916:144, Pl. 17 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 3297] Port Jackson, N. S. W; Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (9) QM I.2491-92 (1, 1, not found), I.2493 (1), I.2494 (1, not found), I.2495-97 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Pardachirus hedleyi Ogilby 1916 -- (Clark & George 1979:115 [ref. 6992], Kuiter 1993:390 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:384 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1847 [ref. 29000], Randall & Johnson 2007:8 [ref. 29291]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus hedleyi Ogilby 1916. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

heemstrai, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Gon [O.] 2006:177, Figs. 6-7 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 28662] Aliwal Shoal, 30°15'S, 30°49'E, Clives Reef, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 27 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 46335. Paratypes: AMS I.43580 (1); BMNH 2005.4.20.1 (1); BPBM 40151 (1); CAS 222154 (1); MNHN 2005-0654 (1); NSMT-P 70720 (1); ROM 72970 (1); SAIAB 46405 (1), 57367 (1), 59705 (1), 62264 (1), 64690 (2), 65224 (1); USNM 383129 (1). Published in 2006. •Valid as Aseraggodes heemstrai Randall & Gon 2006 -- (Randall et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes heemstrai Randall & Gon 2006. Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

heinii, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1903:153 [31], Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 71; ref. 15046] Qishn, Yémen, Arabian coast. Syntypes: (7) NMW (lost). Not included in abstract [ref. 14894]. On p. 29 of separate. •Valid as Solea heinii Steindachner 1903 -- (Coad 1991:27 [ref. 15702], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:18 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Valid as Solea heinii Steindachner 1903. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

helotes, Aesopia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:99 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] Coromandel, India. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]. Based on Russell, drawing 71. •Status uncertain -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) -- (Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787). Soleidae.

heraldi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bartsch [P.] 2005:129, Figs. 1-2 [Micronesica v. 38 (no. 1); ref. 28374] Outer reef flat, Kwajalein Island, Kwajalein Atoll [Ralik Chain], Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 18445. Paratypes: USNM 141788 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes heraldi Randall & Bartsch 2005 -- (Randall 2005:205 [ref. 28892], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes heraldi Randall & Bartsch 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Marshall Islands. Habitat: marine.

herrei, Aseraggodes Seale [A.] 1940:12, Pl. 2 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 12332] Post Office Bay, Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 5747. •Valid as Aseraggodes herrei Seale 1940 -- (Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:1614 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:621 [ref. 24023], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes herrei Seale 1940. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

heterolepis, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1856:65 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.1 (1). •Valid as Brachirus heterolepis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1054 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus heterolepis (Bleeker 1856). Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia east to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

heterorhinos, Solea Bleeker [P.] 1856:64 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) ?AMS B.7685 (1); ?BMNH 1862.6.3.12 or 13 (1), RMNH 6758 (3). •Valid as Aesopia heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977]). •Valid as Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Li & Wang 1995:289 [ref. 16193], Myers 1999:280 [ref. 23965], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1385 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:451 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1385 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Munroe & Menke 2004:248 [ref. 27772], Randall 2005:617 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1849 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862], Motomura et al. 2010:231 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:108 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1056 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:191 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856). Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Red Sea to Marshall Islands, Tonga and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

hexophthalma, Solea Bennett [E. T.] 1831:147 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] Atlantic coast of northern Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.12.26.540 [or 520] [ex Zool. Soc.]. Species name misspelled exophthalma by Gruvel & Bouyat 1906:155 [ref. 30367]. •Valid as Dicologoglossa [sic] hexophthalma (Bennett 1831) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1313 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1039 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Solea hexophthalma Bennett 1831 -- (Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643]). •Valid as Microchirus hexophthalmus (Bennett 1831) -- (Desoutter 1994:234 [ref. 22326], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3018 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus hexophthalmus (Bennett 1831). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hispidus, Monochirus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:17 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814 -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1317 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:153 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3022 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814. Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Ghana. Habitat: marine.

hogani, Synclidopus Johnson [J. W.] & Randall [J. E.] 2008:247, Figs. 1-4 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 52 (part 2); ref. 29797] Daintree River, upstream from Daintree township, 16°14.69'S, 145°18.44'E, Queensland, Australia, depth 0.4-0.8 meters. Holotype: QM I.38104. Paratypes: AMS I.44260-001 (1); BPBM 40656 (1); QM I.36402 (1), I.38105 (2). Plus non-type material (1). •Valid as Synclidopus hogani Johnson & Randall 2008. Current status: Valid as Synclidopus hogani Johnson & Randall 2008. Soleidae. Distribution: Daintree River, Queensland, Australia. Habitat: freshwater.

holcomi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2002:248, Figs. 1-2 [Pacific Science v. 56 (no. 3); ref. 26248] Off Ala Moana Beach Park, near a rock wall, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, depth 0.6 meters. Holotype: BPBM 38448. Paratypes: BPBM 37852 (1), CAS 214207 (1), MNHN 2001-1113 (1), NSMT-P.60933 (1), USNM 365371 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes holcomi Randall 2002 -- (Mundy 2005:521 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:467 [ref. 30952], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes holcomi Randall 2002. Soleidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

humilis, Solea Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1201 [219] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.480 (skin). On p. 219 of separate. •Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846 -- (Li & Wang 1995:287 [ref. 16193], Munroe 2001:3887 [ref. 26314], Vachon et al. 2008:12 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

impar, Solea Bennett [E. T.] 1831:147 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] West Africa, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.9.13.163 [ex Zool. Soc.]. •Valid as Solea impar Bennett 1831 -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1319 [ref. 13677]). •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:955 [ref. 15614], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753]). •Valid as Pegusa impar (Bennett 1831) -- (Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa impar (Bennett 1831). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Gibraltar to Senegal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

indica, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:474 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1846.11.22.--. Soleidae.

insignis, Vanstraelenia Chabanaud [P.] 1950:10 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] 10 miles northwest of Luanda, 8°37'S, 13°12'E, depth 60 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 416. Paratypes: IRSNB 417-425 (1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1); MNHN 1951-0016 (1); MRAC 140357-58 (1, 1), 140359-61 [?60-61 exchanged] (3, or 1), 140362 (1), 140363-64 (2), 140365 (1), 140366-67 (2). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalmus (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter 1990:1049 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter 1994:239 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3029 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Aesopia Bleeker [P.] 1860:71 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 1); ref. 374] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Zebrias japonicus (Bleeker 1860) -- (Li & Wang 1995:314 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Pseudaesopia japonica (Bleeker 1860) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:195 [ref. 21500], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1385 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] as Pseudoaesopia dated 1862, Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1385 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:440, 687 [ref. 26218], Hoese & Bray 2006:1849 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:108 [ref. 32413]). Current status: Valid as Pseudaesopia japonica (Bleeker 1860). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific; antitropical. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Achirus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:186 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 4832. Type information: Boeseman 1947:151 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Heteromycteris japonica (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Ohashi & Motomura 2011:106 [ref. 32413]). •Valid as Heteromycteris japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:266 [ref. 19754], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:188 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:300 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1383 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:45 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1383 [ref. 26193], Youn 2002:440, 687 [ref. 26218], Voronina et al. 2016:398 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

jaubertensis, Achirus Rendahl [H.] 1921:16 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 61 (no. 9); ref. 3700] 45 nautical miles west-southwest of Cape Jaubert, northwestern Australia, depth 72 feet. Holotype: NRM 9895. Paratypes: MNHN 1959-0612 (1), NRM 25900 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Rendahlia jaubertensis (Rendahl 1921) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1849 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Rendahlia jaubertensis (Rendahl 1921). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

jenny, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Gon [O.] 2006:182, Fig 8 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 28662] Off Flic en Flac, 20°15'S, 57°22'E, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 8-15 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 52097. •Valid as Aseraggodes jenny Randall & Gon 2006 -- (Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes jenny Randall & Gon 2006. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius (Mascarenes endemic). Habitat: marine.

jerreus, Pleuronectes Cuvier [G.] 1829:343 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344-345 [ref. 25922]. Available from footnote as, "Pl. jerreus, N., ou Jerré potoo, B., Russel, 71." •Unidentifiable -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787). Soleidae.

kaiana, Solea Günther [A.] 1880:49, Pl. 21 (fig. C) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Indonesia, Banda Sea, Challenger station 192, depth 129 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.64. •Valid as Aseraggodes kaianus (Günther 1880) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:192 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:295 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1385 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1385 [ref. 26193], Park et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29188], Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:311 [ref. 29399], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:104 [ref. 32413], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes kaianus (Günther 1880). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Arafura Sea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

kaupi, Solea Berg [C.] 1895:79 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 4; ref. 261] Eastern Atlantic [not Montevideo, Uruguay]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1998-1460. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922] with correction of type locality. Replacement for Solea brasiliensis Kaup 1858, preoccupied by Solea brasilinesis Agassiz 1831. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

keralensis, Zebrias (Nematozebrias) Joglekar [A.] 1976:68, Fig. 1 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 197 (no. 1-2); ref. 7341] Aleppy Kerala coast, Arabian Sea, India. Holotype: ZSI F6822/2. Paratypes: ZSI F6823/2 (3). •Valid as Zebrias keralensis Joglekar 1976 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias keralensis Joglekar 1976. Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

kikori, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:93, Fig. 5 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Kikori River, 4 kilometers southwest of Ero village, 7°28'S, 144°26'E, Papua New Guinea, depth 0-1.2 meters. Holotype: WAM P.31210-002. Paratypes: BPBM 40466 (3), NTM S.16250-001 (3); USNM 387207 (3); WAM P.30977-020 (13), P.31210-018 (6); ZMB 33746 (3). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. Name is treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Leptachirus kikori Randall 2007. Current status: Valid as Leptachirus kikori Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Kikori River, southern Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish.

kimurai, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:312, Fig. 7 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Dumaguete fish market, Negros, Philippines. Holotype: BPBM 22165. Paratypes: USNM 385814 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes kimurai Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fricke 2015:7 [ref. 33807]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes kimurai Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Philippines and Papua Nea Guinea. Habitat: marine.

kleinii, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1827:255 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Solea kleini (Risso 1827) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1319 [ref. 13677]). •Valid as Synaptura kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922] but dating to 1810). •Valid as Synapturichthys kleini (Risso 1827) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:155 [ref. 26753]). •Valid as Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3028 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean (South Africa). Habitat: brackish, marine.

klunzingeri, Pardachirus Weber [M.] 1907:250, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Süsswasserfische von Neu-Guinea v. 5 (Zool.) pt 2; ref. 4599] Mouth of the Merauke River, Papua, Indonesia; Port Darwin; plus one more. Syntypes: (3) SMNS 2521 (1) Port Darwin, ZMA 109407 (1). Weber specimens: BMNH 1913.12.15.38-39 (2), MNHN 1859-592 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236], Fricke 1995:19 [ref. 28100] with a syntype at SMNS but dates to Weber 1917, Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864]. Based on 3 specimens; the syntype that is described and figured (ZMA 109407) would make the best lectotype; it is from Papua. Randall 2007:96 [ref. 29914] treats a holotype that is lost. •Valid as Aseraggodes klunzingeri (Weber 1907) -- (Roberts 1978:69 [ref. 8886], Larson & Martin 1990:76 [ref. 16606], Allen 1991:206 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27467], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] as Bleeker 1851, Allen et al. 2002:324 [ref. 25930], Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Leptachirus klunzingeri (Weber 1907) -- (Randall 2007:96 [ref. 29914], Morgan et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31262]). Current status: Valid as Leptachirus klunzingeri (Weber 1907). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

kobensis, Solea (Achirus) Steindachner [F.] 1896:218 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 11; ref. 14618] Kobe, Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW 14318. •Valid as Aseraggodes kobensis (Steindachner 1896) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:192 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:294 [ref. 16193], Chen et al. 1997:177 [ref. 26476], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1385 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1385 [ref. 26193], Randall 2002:252 [ref. 26248], Youn 2002:440, 687 [ref. 26218], Randall 2007:466 [ref. 30952], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:104 [ref. 32413], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Yoshida et al. 2013:218 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2017:222 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes kobensis (Steindachner 1896). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Korea to Gulf of Thailand, Philippines. Habitat: marine.

krempfi, Synaptura Durand [J.] 1940:39, Pl. 7 [Institut Océanographic de l'Indochine Note 36; ref. 13008] Grand Lac, Cambodia. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (3) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Euroglossa siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1984:817 [ref. 11440]). •In a category synonyms/misidentifications under Euryglossa panoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Rainboth 1996:222 [ref. 22772]). •Synonym of Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kruppi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in Randall, Bogorodsky & Mal 2013:7, Fig. 2 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32941] Unnamed small island off Qunfudhah, east side, 19°16.813’N, 40°53.265’E, coral patch near outer edge of fringing reef, Saudia Arabia, Red Sea, depth 2 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 33620. •Valid as Aseraggodes kruppi Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes kruppi Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Habitat: marine.

lactea, Bathysolea Roule [L.] 1916:9 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 19523] Cape Verde Islands, station 1186, depth 660 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM (lost). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. Type lost by Chabanaud. •Valid as Bathysolea lactea Roule 1916 -- (Desoutter 1990:1037 [ref. 18967], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:109 [ref. 15757], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:408 [ref. 23363], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3007 [ref. 34618] doubtful species). Current status: Valid as Bathysolea lactea Roule 1916. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern central Atlantic: off Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

lagarderae, Bathysolea Quéro [J.-C.] & Desoutter [M.] 1990:107, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 15757] Off Madagascar, 12°36'00"S, 47°17'03"E, depth 310 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1988-415. Paratypes: MNHN 1988-0416 (2, 1 cleared and stained), 1988-0417 to 0419 (2, 1, 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al 2001:320 [ref. 25922], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Bathysolea lagarderae Quéro & Desoutter 1990 -- (Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:408 [ref. 23363], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Bathysolea lagarderae Quéro & Desoutter 1990. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

lakdoensis, Dagetichthys Stauch [A.] & Blanc [M.] 1964:173, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 4200] Upper Bénoué basin, northern Cameroon, western Africa. Holotype: MNHN 1962-0309. Paratypes: MNHN 1962-0310 through 0317 (8). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:320-321 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Dagetichthys lakdoensis Stauch & Blanc 1964 -- (Desoutter 1986:430 [ref. 6212], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:863 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Chapleau & Desoutter 1996:103 [ref. 22306], Vachon et al. 2008:404 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys lakdoensis Stauch & Blanc 1964. Soleidae. Distribution: West Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

lascaris, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:311, Pl. 7 (fig. 32) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0873 (dry, no skeleton). Type catalog: Bertin 1945:378 [ref. 21554], Desoutter et al. 2001:323 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1320 [ref. 13677], Ben-Tuvia 1990:955 [ref. 15614], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753]). •Valid as Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:872 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967], Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Parin et al. 2014:548 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3024 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Islands to South Africa; Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

lateralis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:199, Figs. 7-8 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands, depth 4.5-9 meters. Holotype: BPBM 10092. Paratypes: BPBM 12757 (1), USNM 392053 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes lateralis Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes lateralis Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

lenisquamis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:201, Fig. 9 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Camp Cove, 33°50'S, 151°17'E, Sydney Harbor. New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: NMV A 19646. Paratypes: AMS I.27047-001 (1), 27063-013 (1), 28514-002 (1); BMNH 2004.10.26.4 (1); BPBM 39610 (1); CAS 221846 (1); NMV A 3607 (1), 5827 (1), 25543-002 (2); NSMT P 70086 (1); USNM 380210 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes lenisquamis Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes lenisquamis Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

leucorhynchos, Achiroides Bleeker [P.] 1851:411 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Surakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6771 (1 of 6). •Valid as Achiroides leucorhynchos Bleeker 1851 -- (Roberts 1989:183 [ref. 6439] as leucorhynchus, Kottelat et al. 1993:170 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:221 [ref. 22772], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Achiroides leucorhynchos Bleeker 1851. Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineata, Solea Ramsay [E. P.] 1883:406 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 20899] Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS A.13191. •Described from a damaged juvenile, status uncertain -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:248 [ref. 27772]). •Valid as Soleichthys lineatus (Ramsay 1883) -- (Munroe & Menke 2004:253 [ref. 27772]). •Synonym of Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1849 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

linguatula, Solea (Monochirus) Swainson [W.] 1839:303 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Rondelet 324. Monochirus is masculine, so species probably should have been lingulatus if an adjective. Possibly preoccupied by Monochirus linguatulus Thompson 1839. Soleidae.

linguatulus, Monochirus Thompson [W.] 1839:405 [Annals of Natural History, or Magazine of Zoology, Botany, and Geology v. 2 (no. 12) (art. 47); ref. 17906] Brixham, England. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Described independently of Monochirus linguatula Swainson 1839; earliest not researched; based on specimens and literature sources. Soleidae.

lingula, Monochirus Costa [O. G.] 1847-48:50, Pl. 49 [Fauna del regno di Napoli v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 980] Naples, Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. Original not seen. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

lipophthalma, Synaptura Károli [J.] 1882:176 [Természetrajzi Füzetek, Budapest v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1881); ref. 14295] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): MNSB 1115 (whereabouts unknown). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

longipinnis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:314, Fig. 8 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Nil Desperandum Reef, 6°37'S, 129°47'E, Banda, Indonesia, depth 9 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 36647. •Valid as Aseraggodes longipinnis Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1051 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes longipinnis Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Banda, Indonesia (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

longisquamis, Capartella Chabanaud [P.] 1950:19 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] French Equatorial Africa, 10°05'N, 77°W, depth 320-360 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 432. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:46 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888) -- (Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:402 [ref. 23363], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

lorentz, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:96, Fig. 7 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Lorentz River, Papua Province, Indonesia, New Guinea. Holotype: ZMA 109399. Paratypes: BMNH 1913.12.15.38-39 (2); BPBM 40460 (1); USNM 387648 (1); WAM P.32818-001 (1); ZMA 123605-08 (4). Plus 2 non-types at MNHN. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus lorentz Randall 2007. Current status: Valid as Leptachirus lorentz Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Lorentz River, Papua Province, southern New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

lucapensis, Zebrias Seigel [J. A.] & Adamson [T. A.] 1985:13, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 98 (no. 1); ref. 17276] Vicinity of Hundred Islands, Lucap Bay, Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. Holotype: LACM 37436-6 (1). Paratypes: LACM 37346-8 (1). •Valid as Zebrias lucapensis Seigel & Adamson 1985 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Voronina et al. 2016:401 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias lucapensis Seigel & Adamson 1985. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

lusitanica, Synaptura de Brito Capello [F.] 1868:62 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 2 (no. 5); ref. 17968] Lisbon and Setubal, Portugal [eastern Atlantic]. Syntypes: (8) BMNH 1867.7.23.9 (1), MNHN 0000-4804 (1), lost in fire (probably 6). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Synaptura lusitanica (de Brito Capello 1868) -- (Torchio 1973:634 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1323 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:864 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781]). •Valid as Dagetichthys lusitanicus (de Brito Capello 1868) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:408 [ref. 32765], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3012 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys lusitanicus (de Brito Capello 1868). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

luteus, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:312 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, northwestern Mediterranean Sea, depth 60 meters. Neotype: MNHN 1986-0259. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:323 [ref. 25922]. Neotype designated by Desoutter 1987:438 [ref. 6742]. Another neotype designated by Fricke 1999:53 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Monochirus luteus (Risso 1810) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:180 [ref. 25472], Fricke 1999:53 [ref. 24101], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577]). •Valid as Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1311 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:152 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:190 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:548 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3010 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Scotland and southern Norway to Morocco. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macleayana, Solea Ramsay [E. P.] 1881:462 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 18588] Manly Beach, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (several) AMS I.16278-001 [ex MAMU F1167] (1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Aseraggodes macleayanus (Ramsay 1881) -- (Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Synclidopus macleayanus (Ramsay 1881) -- (Randall 2005:193 [ref. 28892], Johnson & Randall 2008:245 [ref. 29797]). Current status: Valid as Synclidopus macleayanus (Ramsay 1881). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1858:7 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 7); ref. 364] Singkawang, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Euryglossa macrolepis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:596 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Brachirus macrolepis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus macrolepis (Bleeker 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macronasus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in Randall, Bogorodsky & Mal 2013:10, Figs. 4-6 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32941] Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt, Dahab, dive site, "lighthouse", 28°29’54.94"N, 34°31’11.71"E, coral reef, depth 5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 41155. Paratypes: BPBM 42256 (1), SAIAB 190254 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes macronasus Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes macronasus Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Soleidae. Distribution: Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, Habitat: marine.

maculata, Solea Bleeker [P.] (ex Cuvier) 1851:409 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker refers lists Cuvier as author, but we find no species with this name dating to Cuvier. •Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846 -- (Li & Wang 1995:287 [ref. 16193], Vachon et al. 2008:12 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Achirus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:18 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 9); ref. 16875] Name only in the synonymy of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). •In the synonymy of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:13 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae.

maculipinnis, Monochirus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Agassiz) 1858:101 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] A misspelling of Monochir maculipennis Agassiz 1851 and not an original description. Mentioned by Desoutter et al. 2001:340 [ref. 25992]. Soleidae.

maculosus, Soleichthys Muchhala [N.] & Munroe [T. A.] 2004:58, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 27597] Gulf of Carpentaria, northwestern Queensland, Australia, 12°31'S, 141°02'E, depth 51 meters. Holotype: QM I.28800. Paratypes: CSIRO H 4201-03 (1), H 4202-01 (1); QM I.23399 (1), I.30098 (2). •Valid as Soleichthys maculosus Muchhala & Munroe 2004 -- (Munroe & Menke 2004:253 [ref. 27772], Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys maculosus Muchhala & Munroe 2004. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Zebrias Oommen [V. P.] 1977:285, Fig. 7 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 74 (pt 2); ref. 7272] Arabian Sea, 9°30'N, 75°50'E, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype: IFP F55a. Paratypes: IFP [Mus. Mar. Res. Integrated. Fish. Proj.] F55b-c (2). •Valid as Zebrias maculosus Oommen 1977 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias maculosus Oommen 1977. Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

magnoculus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:203, Fig. 10 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Isle Ua, 22°42'40"S, 166°48'50"E, New Caledonia, depth 9-18 meters. Holotype: ROM 64830. Paratypes: ROM 76686 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes magnoculus Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes magnoculus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

mangilli, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:310 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922] as no type at MNHN and as mangili.. Spelled mangili in Risso 1827:255 [ref. 3757]. Species name misspelled maugilii by Cuvier 1831:252 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892] as mangili, Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967] as mangili, Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

margaritifera, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:468 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Borneo?. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1844.11.17.62. •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginata, Synaptura Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:11, Pls. 2, 3 (fig. 1) [Marine Investigations in South Africa No. 8; ref. 14723] Algoa Bay, South Africa, 33°52'30"S, 25°47'30"E, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.12.17.36. •Valid as Synaptura marginata Boulenger 1900 -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665], Nakabo 2000:1387 [ref. 25182], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:1387 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:216 [ref. 27510], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:437 [ref. 28072], Shao et al. 2008:265 [ref. 29952], Motomura et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:109 [ref. 32413]). •Valid as Dagetichthys marginata (Boulender 1900) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:407 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989] as marginatus). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys marginatus (Boulenger 1900). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marmorata, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1853:90 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16911] Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Brachirus marmoratus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1054 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus marmoratus (Bleeker 1853). Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:658, 660, Pl. 12 ( fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Neotype: BPBM 20092. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:340-341 [ref. 25922] Figured on Pl. 12 (fig. 3) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:574 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Neotype designated by Randall & Johnson 2007:9 [ref. 29291]. •Valid as Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Clark & George 1979:110 [ref. 6992], Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757], Heemstra & Gon 1986:872 [ref. 5665], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:110 [ref. 15757], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:361 [ref. 22896], Quéro 1997:323 [ref. 23236], Carpenter et al. 1997:233 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:573 [ref. 24106], Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:437 [ref. 28072], Randall & Johnson 2007:11 [ref. 29291], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:433 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East and South Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

martine, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in Randall, Bogorodsky & Mal 2013:13, Fig. 7-9 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32941] Lakshadweep (Laccadive Islands), Andrott Island, lagoon, sand bottom, India, depth 1.5 meters. Holotype: UOK 132. Paratypes: SAIAB 80938 (1), UOK 133 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes martine Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes martine Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Soleidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

matsubarai, Heteromycteris Ochiai [A.] 1963:17, Pl. 8; Fig. 8b [Biogeographical Society of Japan (Tokyo) 1963; ref. 7982] Tanegashima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 26154. Paratypes: FAKU 26153 (1), 26155-60 (6), 26834-35 (2), 26397 (1). •Valid as Heteromycteris matsubarai Ochiai 1963 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:266 [ref. 19754], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:188 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:302 [ref. 16193], Nakabo 2000:1383 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1383 [ref. 26193], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:107 [ref. 32413]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris matsubarai Ochiai 1963. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

matsuurai, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:315, Figs. 9-10 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Northeast coast of Kodek Bay, Lombok, Indonesia, depth 15 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P-71517. Paratypes: CAS 46099 (1), ROM 48617 (1), USNM 273855 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes matsuurai Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1051 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes matsuurai Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

mbaoensis, Solea senegalensis var. Pellegrin [J.] 1907:87 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 32; ref. 15166] M'bao, between Dakar and Rufisque, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1907-0254. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]. Originally as m'baoensis. Also appeared in Pellegrin 1907:83 [ref. 14411]. •Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Desoutter 1990:1039 [ref. 18967] as Dicologoglossa, Desoutter 1994:242 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

megalepidoura, Brachirus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:347, Fig. 100 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Off east coast of Leyte Island, Philippines, Albatross station D.5204, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93081. Paratypes: USNM 93552-54 (2, 2, 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. Spelled megalepidura by Chabanaud 1938. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

melanochira, Solea Moreau [É.] 1874:115, Pl. 15 (figs. A-C) [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Ser. 3) v. 2; ref. 17791] Arcachon basin, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6916 (1), 0000-7308 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858 -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1046 [ref. 18967], Ben-Tuvia 1990:953 [ref. 15614], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Vachon et al. 2008:22 [ref. 29607], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3026 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

melanoptera, Synaptura Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:13, Pl. 32 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Off East London, South Africa, 33°06'45"S, 27°55'45"E, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 43 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAM 15429. •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665]). Current status: Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanorhynchus, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1850:15 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16884] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.186 (1), NMV 46409 (1). Originally as melanorhijnchus. •Valid as Achiroides melanorhynchus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Roberts 1989:183 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:170 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:221 [ref. 22772], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Achiroides melanorhynchus (Bleeker 1850). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

melanospilos, Achirus Bleeker [P.] 1854:257 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 345] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6756. Correct spelling is melanospilos. •Valid as Aseraggodes melanospilos (Bleeker 1854) [commonly as melanospilus] -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Liachirus melanospilos (Bleeker 1854) [commonly as melanospilus] -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Li & Wang 1995:297 [ref. 16193], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:597 [ref. 27969] as melanospilus, Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1384 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] as melanospilus, Nakabo 2002:1384 [ref. 26193] as melanospilus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377] as melanospilus, Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461] as melanospilus, Ohashi & Motomura 2011:107 [ref. 32413] as melanospilus, Allen & Erdmann 2012:1055 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:219 [ref. 34464], Voronina et al. 2016:398 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:224 [ref. 35490] as melanospilus). Current status: Valid as Liachirus melanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean: Indonesia and Philippines, south to Australia, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

melanosticta, Solea (Achirus) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:845 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] Bougainville Island, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9814. •Valid as Aseraggodes melanostictus (Peters 1877) -- (Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:279 [ref. 23965], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1876, Randall 2002:252 [ref. 26248], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] dated 1876, Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495] dated 1876, Randall & Bartsch 2005:131 [ref. 28374], Randall 2005:204 [ref. 28892], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:355 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Bray 2006:1844 [ref. 29000], Randall & Allen 2007:111 [ref. 29913], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Larson et al. 2013:225 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes melanostictus (Peters 1877). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

microcephala, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:466 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1855.9.19.1247 (1). •Valid as Aesopia microcephala (Günther 1862) -- (Kuiter 1993:389 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:384 [ref. 25488]). •Valid as Soleichthys microcephalus (Günther 1862) -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:250 [ref. 27772], Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys microcephalus (Günther 1862). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microchirus, Pleuronectes Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:356 [70], Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] Barcelona, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922] as no type at MNHN. On p. 70 and Pl. 1 of separate. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

microlepidota, Rhinosolea Fowler [H. W.] 1946:211, Fig. 71 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72084. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Rhinosolea microlepidota Fowler 1946 -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:1386 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1386 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Rhinosolea microlepidota Fowler 1946. Soleidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microlepidotus, Aseraggodes Weber [M.] 1913:438, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Saleh Bay, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, 8°19'S, 117°41'E, Siboga station 312, depth 274 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109405. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Aseraggodes microlepidotus Weber 1913 -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:318 [ref. 29399], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes microlepidotus Weber 1913. Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1863:456 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 15; ref. 17016] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3555. •Valid as Austroglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:869 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1990:1037 [ref. 18967], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:179 [ref. 25472], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:437 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Austroglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1863). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Monochirus Parnell [R.] 1837:222 [L'Institut v. 5 (no. 217); ref. 18521] Devonshire, Great Britain. No types known. Also appeared in Parnell 1837:527 [ref. 18520], earliest not established. •Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892]). Current status: Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

monochir, Solea Bonaparte [C. L.] 1833:fasc. 5, punt. 28, Pl. 103 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 516] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 8594-96 (3, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814 -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:153 [ref. 26753]). Current status: Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

morrowi, Aseraggodes Chabanaud [P.] 1954:800, Pls. 24, 25 (fig. 2A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 7 (no. 83) (art. 98); ref. 12674] Shimoni, Kenya. Holotype (unique): YPM 3740 [ex BOC 6224]. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25 [ref. 16741], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Pardachirus morrowi (Chabanaud 1954) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:872 [ref. 5665], Quéro Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922], Randall & Johnson 2007:11 [ref. 29291], Fricke et al. 2018:373 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus morrowi (Chabanaud 1954). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

muelleri, Synaptura Steindachner [F.] 1879:30 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Cleveland Bay near Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 19°16'S, 146°48'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2278. Type catalog: Fricke 1995:19 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:60 [ref. 29864]. Species originally as Mülleri, change mandatory; later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:4 [ref. 4228]. •Valid as Dexillichthys muelleri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3885 [ref. 26314]). •Valid as Brachirus muelleri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Dexillus muelleri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Hoese & Bray 2006:1846 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:223 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Dexillus muelleri (Steindachner 1879). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

multifasciata, Aesopia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:97 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1998-1306. •Synonym of Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]). •Valid as Soleichthys multifasciatus (Kaup 1858) -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:255 [ref. 27772], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys multifasciatus (Kaup 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

munroi, Strabozebrias Whitley [G. P.] 1966:238, Pl. 13 [Australian Zoologist v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 4734] Gulf of Carpentaria, 17°32'20"S, 140°33'35"E, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.7210. Paratypes: AMS 15557-063 (3). •Valid as Strabozebrias munroi Whitley 1966 -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Phyllichthys munroi (Whitley 1966) -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314]). •Valid as Zebrias munroi (Whitley 1966) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1851 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias munroi (Whitley 1966). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

napai, Achirus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:488 [210] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 210 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Achirus barbatus; Woodlark I., South Pacific. •In the synonymy of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Clark & George 1979:113 [ref. 6992], Randall & Johnson 2007:13 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae.

nasutus, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1814:425 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Crimea, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:355 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:955 [ref. 15614], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753]). •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810), but a valid subspecies nasuta -- (Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:173 [ref. 31251]). •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908]). •Valid as Solea nasuta (Pallas 1814) -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1321 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 2003:S70 [ref. 28535], Vasil'eva 2007:190 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:549 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Sea of Azov. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebulosa, Synaptura Chen [J. T. F.] & Weng [H. T. C.] 1965:76, Fig. 52 [Biological Bulletin, Department of Biology, College of Science, Tunghai University, v. 25, 27, Ichthyological Series, No. 5; ref. 9207] Tungkong, southwestern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NMMBP 5173 (formerly THUP 02768). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. Genus originally misspelled once as Synatura on p. 76. •Synonym of Brachirus annularis Fowler 1934 -- (Li & Wang 1995:309 [ref. 16193]), Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Synaptura annularis (Fowler 1934) -- (Gonzales et al. 1994:491 [ref. 22282]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus annularis Fowler 1934. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Synaptura Macleay [W.] 1880:49 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 17579] Sydney market (Botany Bay at mouth of Cook's River and Port Jackson), New South Wales, Australia. Paratypes: (several) AMS I.16280-001 [ex MAMU F225a] (3). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. Possibly niger. •Valid as Synaptura nigra Macleay 1880 -- (Kuiter 1993:391 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:861 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:384 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Brachirus nigra (Macleay 1880) -- (Gomon 2008:818 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus nigra (Macleay 1880). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: southern Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigrocirratus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:205, Fig. 12 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Southeast of Evans Head, off Iluka, 29°20'S, 153°29'E, New South Wales, Australia, depth 40-51 meters. Holotype: AMS I.26535-001. Paratypes: AMS I.321 (1), I.26535-008 (2), IA.5449 (2); NMV A 21382 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes nigrocirratus Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32941], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes nigrocirratus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nigromaculata, Synaptura punctatissima var. Pellegrin [J.] 1905:141 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 30; ref. 15374] Nouakchott, Mauritania, West coast of Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1905-0296. •Synonym of Synaptura lusitanica de Brito Capello 1868, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Desoutter 1990:1048 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Synaptura lusitanica de Brito Capello 1868 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Dagetichthys lusicanicus (de Brito Capello 1868) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:408 [ref. 32765]). Current status: Synonym of Dagetichthys lusitanica (de Brito Capello 1868). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigrostriolata, Solea Steindachner [F.] & Kner [R.] 1870:427 [7], Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4250] Viti-Levu, Fiji Islands. Syntypes: (2) NMW [ex MGH 5427] On p. 7 of separate. •Synonym of Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Li & Wang 1995:289 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Soleichthys nigrostriolatus (Steindachner & Kner 1870) -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:248 [ref. 27772], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys nigrostriolatus (Steindachner & Kner 1870). Soleidae. Distribution: Fiji Islands. Habitat: marine.

nitidus, Liachirus Günther [A.] 1862:479 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] China. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.3.16.198-199 (2), 1862.6.3.22 (1). •Synonym of Liachirus melanospilos (Bleeker 1854) -- (Li & Wang 1995:297 [ref. 16193] as melanospilus). Current status: Synonym of Liachirus melanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

normani, Aseraggodes Chabanaud [P.] 1930:241 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 5 (no. 26); ref. 16074] Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1925.7.22.73. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. Type figured in Norman 1926:290, fig. 12 [ref. 3216]. Also appeared in Chabanaud 1930:191 [ref. 16264]. •Valid as Aseraggodes normani Chabanaud 1930 -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1926, Randall & Bartsch 2005:137 [ref. 28374], Randall 2005:207 [ref. 28892], Hoese & Bray 2006:1844 [ref. 29000], Randall & Bartsch 2007:109 [ref. 29373], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Larson et al. 2013:225 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes normani Chabanaud 1930. Soleidae. Distribution: Queensland and Northern Terratory, Australia. Habitat: marine.

normani, Heteromycteris hartzfeldi hartzfeldi morpha Chabanaud [P.] 1935:221 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 60; ref. 25931] Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. Not available, infrasubspecific, hartzfeldi a misspelling. •In the synonymy of Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker 1853). Current status: Synonym of Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker 1853). Soleidae.

obtusus, Pleuronectes Cabrera, Pérez [A.] & Haenseler [F.] in Machado 1857:23 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Based on Pleuronectes obtusus Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler 1817 [ref. 17319], apparently an unpublished work. Also appeared in Graells 1887:178 [30438]. •In the synonymy of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Current status: Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Soleidae.

obtusus, Pleuronectes Cabrera [A.], Pérez [L.] & Haenseler [F.] 1817:4 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly unpublished. See also Pleuronectes obtusus Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler in Machado 1857. Also appeared in Graells 1887:178 [30438]. •In the synonymy of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Current status: Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Soleidae.

ocellatus, Aseraggodes Weed [W. H., III] 1961:293, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1961 (no. 3); ref. 9387] North of Sweat Bay, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, depth 0-6 feet. Holotype: YPM 1288. Paratypes: YPM 1289 (16). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25-26 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:9 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:269 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Surinami [Suriname, in error]. Holotype: NRM 19. Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:273 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Monochirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665]). •Valid as Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1315 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1041 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:225 [ref. 22326], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:153 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3019 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Spain to Sierra Leone; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Solea Risso [A.] 1827:248 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] France, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3249. •Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter 1990:1041 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

oculofasciatus, Soleichthys Munroe [T. A.] & Menke [S. B.] 2004:255, Figs. 2, 4 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27772] Trunk Reef, Australia, 18°23.5'S, 146°45'E, depth 49 meters. Holotype: QM I.23589. Paratypes: QM I.23194 (1). •Valid as Soleichthys oculofasciatus Munroe & Menke 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys oculofasciatus Munroe & Menke 2004. Soleidae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

oculus, Solea Alcock [A. W.] 1889:285, Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] About 32 miles southwest of Puri, Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal, Investigator station 38, depth 7 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.12.4.8-9 [ex ZSI] (2), ZSI F12429-30 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:45 [ref. 22148]. •Valid as Heteromycteris oculus (Alcock 1889) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1993:235 [ref. 24016], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:48 [ref. 27712]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris oculus (Alcock 1889). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ommatura, Solea Richardson [J.] 1846:279 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; coasts of China; Sea of Borneo. Syntypes: Cambridge Philosophical Soc. (2, whereabouts unknown) Type information: Whitehead 1970:218 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:198 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:317 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Wang et al. 2014:50 [ref. 34516]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orientalis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Senou [H.] 2007:307, Fig. 5 [Zoological Studies v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 29156] Shikoku, between Shirahama and Kinohana, east of Kashima-jima, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, depth 3 meters. Holotype: ZUMT 59828. Paratypes: SAIAB 34992 (1), ZUMT 59827 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Aseraggodes orientalis Randall & Senou 2007 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes orientalis Randall & Senou 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:157 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Syntypes: ZMB 7404 (1, right skin), 7405 (1, dry, lost), 7407 (1, right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:139-140 [ref. 24282] with syntypes; listing of ZMB 7404 as holotype by Eschmeyer et al. 1998:1250 [Catalog of Fishes] technically may have established a lectotype. •Valid as Synaptura orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212], Ataur Rahman 1989:28 [ref. 24860], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Nakabo 2000:1387 [ref. 25182]). •Valid as Euryglossa orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1047 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:27 [ref. 15702], Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:360 [ref. 22896], Rainboth 1996:222 [ref. 22772], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:596 [ref. 27969], Rema Devi et al. 1996:144 [ref. 24021], Carpenter et al. 1997:233 [ref. 23922], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:188 [ref. 25703]). •Valid as Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Lu & Wu in Kuang et al. 1986:334 [ref. 26639], Li & Wang 1995:305 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25559], Munroe 2001:3883 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1387 [ref. 26193], Ataur Rahman 2003:43 [ref. 31338], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:326 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:396 [ref. 35064], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Sri Lanka to Vietnam [ref. 35064]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ornatus, Pleuronectes Griffith [E.] & Smith [C. H.] 1834:517, Pl. 59 (opp. p. 517) [The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier; ref. 1908] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): BMNH (whereabouts unknown). Based on a specimen in BMNH. •Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

ovalis, Solea Richardson [J.] 1846:279 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Coasts of China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 10b [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Solea ovalis Richardson 1846 -- (Li & Wang 1995:286 [ref. 16193]). •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Li & Wang 1995:305 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Distribution: China (if valid). Habitat: marine.

ovata, Solea Richardson [J.] 1846:279 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; China seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.3.16.197-200 (4). •Valid as Solea ovata Richardson 1846 -- (Feng in Pan et al. 1991:530 [ref. 23876], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3887 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:12 [ref. 29607], Yoshida et al. 2013:219 [ref. 34464], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:94 [ref. 34319], Voronina et al. 2016:399 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:225 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Solea ovata Richardson 1846. Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan east to Philippines, north to China, south to New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

pan, Pleuronectes Hamilton [F.] 1822:130, 373, Pl. 24 (fig. 42) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Eastern Ganges River estuaries from Dhaka downwards. No types known. •Valid as Euryglossa pan (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1046 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Synaptura pan (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:27 [ref. 24860], Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448]). •Valid as Brachirus pan (Hamilton 1822) -- (Li & Wang 1995:307 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Ataur Rahman 2003:42 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus pan (Hamilton 1822). Soleidae. Distribution: Southern central Asia and its coasts. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

panoides, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1851:440 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16897] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes (2) and/or Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.7 (1) Singapore. Originally as panöides. •Valid as Euryglossa panoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kottelat 1984:817 [ref. 11440], Rainboth 1996:222 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Synaptura panoides Bleeker 1851 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210]). •Valid as Brachirus panoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:218 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus panoides (Bleeker 1851). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia: Thailand and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pavoninus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:658, 660 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [probably Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]. •Objective synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus Lacepède 1802 -- (Fricke 1999:574 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Clark & George 1979:113 [ref. 6992], Kyushin et al. 1982:267 [ref. 19754], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:450 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:390 [ref. 23929], Li & Wang 1995:291 [ref. 16193], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:597 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:384 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:450 [ref. 25919] in Paradachirus, Anderson et al. 1998:29 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:280 [ref. 23965], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1384 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:450 [ref. 25191], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693] in Paradachirus, Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922], Munroe 2001:3886 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1384 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:216 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Tan & Lim 2004:111 [ref. 27716], Randall 2005:617 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1847 [ref. 29000], Randall & Johnson 2007:12 [ref. 29291], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Matsuura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:321 [ref. 31170], Motomura et al. 2010:231 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:107 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1055 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:219 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33932], Voronina et al. 2016:398 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:224 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka east to Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Onslow (Western Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

pectoralis, Synaptura Kaup [J. J.] 1858:96 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0173. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Austroglossus pectoralis (Kaup 1858) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:870 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1990:1037 [ref. 18967], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:179 [ref. 25472], Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:437 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Austroglossus pectoralis (Kaup 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic to southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

pegusa, Monochirus Risso [A.] 1827:258 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Apparently wrongly treated as an original description with a holotype by Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922]. This is apparently a misidentification (new combination) of Pleuronectes pegusa Lacepède 1802 as redescribed by Risso 1810. Soleidae.

pegusa, Pleuronectes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:596, 635 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepéde) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922]. Spelled peguza on p. 596, pegusa on p. 635. First reviser not researched. Solea pegusa Yarrell 1829 is apparently a new combination. •Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

pelvicus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:208, Fig. 14 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Gilette Cay, Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.6134. •Valid as Aseraggodes pelvicus Randall 2005 -- (Randall & Senou 2007:309 [ref. 29156], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes pelvicus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

penescalaris, Zebrias Gomon [M. F.] 1987:21 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 17667] Anxious Bay, South Australia, 33°28'S, 134°48'E, depth 30 fathoms. Holotype: SAMA A96. Paratypes: AMS I.20194-029 (7); CSIRO H 572-03 (1); SAMA A1085 (4), A1662 (1), A1697 (1), A6554 (2). •Valid as Zebrias penescalaris Gomon 1987 -- (Kuiter 1993:389 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:863 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1851 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:820 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias penescalaris Gomon 1987. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

persimilis, Solea Günther [A.] 1909:346 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1880.3.17.8. •Valid as Aseraggodes persimilis (Günther 1909) -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314]). •Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:12 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Distribution: Western central Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

pilosa, Solea (Monochir) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:709 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7074. Soleidae.

polli, Capartella Chabanaud [P.] 1950:16 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] 53 miles west of Ambrizette, 7°16'S, 12°08'E, depth 380-420 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 427. Paratypes: (16) IRSNB 428-431 (1, 1, 3, 1); MNHN 1951-0019 [ex MRAC] (1); MRAC 140368-69 (1), 140370 (1), 140371-72 (2), 140373-76 (4). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:46 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al 2001:320 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888) -- (Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Bathysolea polli (Chabanaud 1950) -- (Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:406 [ref. 23363], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3008 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Bathysolea polli (Chabanaud 1950). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola. Habitat: marine.

polus, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1827:480, Fig. 32 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]. •Unidentifiable -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]). Soleidae.

polylepis, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:99, Fig. 8 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] East Alligator River, Cannon Hill Lagoon, 12°22.0'S, 132°57.2'E, Northern Territory, Australia, depth 1-4 meters. Holotype: NTM S.14083-007. Paratypes: NTM S.14083-007 (1), S.14476-001 (2), S.14546-001 (3); WAM P.32819-001 (2); ZMB 33743 (1). Plus 190 non-type specimens at NTM. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus polylepis Randall 2007. •Synonym of Leptachirus darwinensis Randall 2007 -- (Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Synonym of Leptachirus darwinensis Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Rivers emptying into Van Diemen's Gulf, Northern Territory, Australia (if valid). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

poropterus, Achirus Bleeker [P.] 1851:410 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5). •Valid as Achirus poropterus Bleeker 1851 -- (Allen 1991:205 [ref. 21090], Miesen et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34492]). •Valid as Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Clark & George 1979:114 [ref. 6992], Kottelat et al. 1993:170 [ref. 23448], Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1848 [ref. 29000], Randall & Johnson 2007:14 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to New Guinea, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

proboscideus, Monodichthys Chabanaud [P.] 1925:356 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 31 (no. 5) [1925]; ref. 780] Cape Blanc [Blanco], Mauritania. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1925-0242. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Heteromycteris proboscideus (Chabanaud 1925) -- (Desoutter 1986:430 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1040 [ref. 18967], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:861 [ref. 21590], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:180 [ref. 25472], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3014 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris proboscideus (Chabanaud 1925). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to southern Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

profundicola, Solea Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:190 [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Portugal, depth 1290 meters. Lectotype: MNHN 1883-0128. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1903.6.29.27 (1, poor condition); MNHN 1883-0126 (1, missing), 1883-0127 (1), 1886-0015 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:325-326 [ref. 25922] with MNHN 1883-0128 as holotype. Lectotype selected by Eschmeyer 1998:1382 [ref. 23416]; status depends on interpretation of mention of a catalog with the measured specimen; the measured specimen alone is not automatically the holotype when more than one specimen is involved, but it is a measured syntype. •Valid as Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888) -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1310 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:109 [ref. 15757], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:406 [ref. 23363], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922], Bañón et al. 2016:325 [ref. 34397], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3009 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Ireland south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

punctatissima, Synaptura Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:249, Pl. (fig. 2) [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876 (for 27 Apr. 1876); ref. 10019] Victoria, West Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9330. •Synonym of Synaptura lusitanica de Brito Capello 1868 -- (Torchio 1973:634 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Dagetichthys lusitanica (de Brito Capello 1868). Current status: Synonym of Dagetichthys lusitanica (de Brito Capello 1868). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctatus, Achirus Desjardins [J.] 1837:40 [Rapport Annuel sur les travaux de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Ile Maurice No. 8; ref. 20928] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]. Original not seen. Name given as Achirus punctulatus by Monod 1976:21 [ref. 30339]. For comments on authorship see Monod 1976:21 [ref. 30339]. •Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke 1999:573 [ref. 24106]). •Questionably a synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:9 [ref. 29291]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Phyllichthys McCulloch [A. R.] 1916:67 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 2944] Busselton Geographe Bay, southwestern Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.12963-64 (2). •Valid as Phyllichthys punctatus McCulloch 1916 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1848 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Phyllichthys punctatus McCulloch 1916. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

quadriocellata, Solea von Bonde [C.] 1922:20, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 192, depth 30 or 33 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.3.27.9. •Synonym of Monochirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665]). •Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

quagga, Aesopia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:98 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] Mumbai, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1998-1307. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Zebrias quagga (Kaup 1858) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1994:301 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:312 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:246 [ref. 23283], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:598 [ref. 27969], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:48 [ref. 27712], Hoese & Bray 2006:1851 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:321 [ref. 31170], Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:220 [ref. 34464], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:94 [ref. 34319], Voronina et al. 2016:401 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:226 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:373 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias quagga (Kaup 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to southern China, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

ramsaii, Solea Ogilby [J. D.] 1889:70, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney No. 2 (art. no. 3); ref. 18489] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1951. The correct original spelling is ramsaii -- Ogilby dropped the terminal y and used the spelling ramsaii twice. •Valid as Aseraggodes ramsaii (Ogilby 1889) -- (Randall & Meléndez 1987:104 [ref. 9173] as ramsayi, Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479] as ramsayi, Randall 2005:209 [ref. 28892], Hoese & Bray 2006:1844 [ref. 29000], Randall & Senou 2007:309 [ref. 29156], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes ramsaii (Ogilby 1889). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

rautheri, Achirus Chabanaud [P.] 1931:95, Figs. 1-10 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 93 (nos 3/4); ref. 16265] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, 12°28'S, 130°50'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2521. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922], Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864]. The holotype is also a syntype of Pardachirus klunzingeri Weber 1907. •Synonym of Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967]). •Synonym of Pardachirus hedleyi Ogilby 1916 -- (Clark & George 1979:115 [ref. 6992], Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]). •Incertae sedis in Soleidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1852 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Pardachirus rautheri (Chabanau7 1931) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:14 [ref. 29291], Morgan et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31262], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus rautheri (Chabanaud 1931). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish.

regani, Synaptura Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1906:160, Pl. 45 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 4; ref. 1647] 2 1/2 miles from mouth of Umhlanga River, off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22-26 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.12.31.12 [ex SAM] (1), SAM 15424 (1). •Valid as Zebrinus regani (Gilchrist 1906) -- (Dor 1984:271 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Zebrias regani (Gilchrist 1906) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:246 [ref. 23283]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias regani (Gilchrist 1906). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

robertsi, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:102, Fig. 9 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Tidal creek on right side of the Lower Fly River, 1 kilometer upriver from D'Albertis Island, 8°12'54"S, 142°03'54"E, Western Province, Papua New Guinea, depth 0-1.0 meters. Holotype: USNM 217314. Paratypes: BMNH 2007.2.9.1 (1); BPBM 40506 (1); NTM S.16389-001 (1); USNM 217313 (2), 389200 (12); WAM P.28150-001 (1), P.28151-006 (3). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus robertsi Randall 2007 -- (Allen et al. 2008:190 [ref. 30265]). Current status: Valid as Leptachirus robertsi Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Lower Fly River basin, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rudis, Solea Costa [O. G.] 1847:Pleuronettidae p. 40, Pl. 45 [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Published 18 Nov. 1847. Soleidae.

russellii, Solea Bleeker [P.] 1851:15 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 9); ref. 16875] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1862.6.3.6 (1) Bleeker coll. Based on literature and specimens. Soleidae.

salinarum, Brachirus Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:35 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Salt pans at Kimberly, northern Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.870 (123 mm). Paratypes: QM I.870 (1 of 2, 105 mm). •Valid as Brachirus salinarum Ogilby 1910 -- (Allen et al. 2002:325 [ref. 25930], Hoese & Bray 2006:1846 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus salinarum Ogilby 1910. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: freshwater.

satapoomini, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:318, Fig. 13 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] West coast, Ko Racha Noi, southeast end of Thailand, 7°28'16"N, 98°19'35"E, Andaman Sea, depth 1.5-9 meters. Holotype (unique): ROM 69819. •Valid as Aseraggodes satapoomini Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1051 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes satapoomini Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Similan Islands, Andaman Sea (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

savignyi, Synaptura Kaup [J. J.] 1858:97 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3292 (3), 0000-3312 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Solea kleini (Bonaparte 1933, ? = Risso 1827) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922] dated 1810). Current status: Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scalaris, Zebrias Gomon [M. F.] 1987:21 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 17667] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16281-001 [ex MAMU F1168]. Replacement name for Synaptura fasciata Macleay 1882, secondarily preoccupied in Zebrias by Solea fasciata Basilewsky 1855. •Valid as Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987 -- (Kuiter 1993:389 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:864 [ref. 22532], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1852 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:820 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: southern Queensland and Victoria. Habitat: marine.

sclerolepis, Synaptura Macleay [W.] 1878:363, Pl. 10 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): MAMU F225. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Phyllichthys sclerolepis (Macleay 1878) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1848 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Phyllichthys sclerolepis (Macleay 1878). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scriba, Solea Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (1 of 3): MNHN A-8745 (1), A-9826 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922] with syntypes, but the species dates to the plate in Jan. 1839, so there is a holotype if identifiable; text published in 1843. Eschmeyer et al 1998 dated to the wrong reference. •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae.

sejunctus, Phyllichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1935:237, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 4); ref. 4683] Fitzallen Island, Whitsunday Passage, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6292. •Valid as Phyllichthys sejunctus Whitley 1935 -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1848 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Phyllichthys sejunctus Whitley 1935. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

selheimi, Synaptura Macleay [W.] 1882:71 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 14344] Palmer River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (several) MAMU? (probably lost). •Valid as Brachirus selheimi (Macleay 1882) -- (Larson & Martin 1990:76 [ref. 16606], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25559], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1883, Allen et al. 2002:326 [ref. 25930], Hoese & Bray 2006:1846 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus selheimi (Macleay 1882). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

senegalensis, Solea Kaup [J. J.] 1858:94 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 2578] St. Louis, Senegal [eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9825. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858 -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1322 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1045 [ref. 18967], Ben-Tuvia 1990:953 [ref. 15614], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:22 [ref. 29607], Golani et al. 2014:319 [ref. 33139], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3026 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay to Angola. Habitat: marine.

senoui, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:320, Figs. 14-15 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Mabul Island, Malaysia [off southeastern Sabah, Malaysia, Sulawesi Sea, western Pacific, ca. 4°15'N, 118°38'E], depth 17 meters. Holotype (unique): KPM-NI 1853. •Valid as Aseraggodes senoui Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1052 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32941], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes senoui Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Mabul Island, Sabah, Malaysia (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

serpenpellis, Soleichthys Munroe [T. A.] & Menke [S. B.] 2004:253, Figs. 2-3 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27772] Gulf of Carpentaria, 12-18°S, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.7211. Paratypes: QM I.11204 (1), WAM P.5739 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Soleichthys serpenpellis Munroe & Menke 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys serpenpellis Munroe & Menke 2004. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

setifer, Synaptura Paradice [W. E. J.] in Paradice & Whitley 1927:101, Fig. 3 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 9 (pt 1); ref. 15810] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.1535. •Valid as Paradicula setifer (Paradice 1927) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] with authors as Paradice & Whitley, Hoese & Bray 2006:1847 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Paradicula setifer (Paradice 1927). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish.

siamensis, Synaptura Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:94 [9] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 18663] Stung Strang, Laos. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9644. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Euryglossa siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440]). •In a category synonyms/misidentifications under Euryglossa panoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Rainboth 1996:222 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

siammakuti, Soleichthys Wongratana [T.] 1975:22, Figs. 1-5 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 56 (nos 1/3); ref. 7484] Fish Market Bangkok, Gulf of Thailand. Holotype: MFLB (uncat.). Paratypes: SMF 12650 (1). •Valid as Soleichthys siammakuti Wongratana 1975 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:253 [ref. 27772], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys siammakuti Wongratana 1975. Soleidae. Distribution: Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

simonensis, Solea von Bonde [C.] 1922:19, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] Simonstown, False Bay, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.3.27.15. •Synonym of Solea bleekeri Boulenger 1898 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665]). •Synonym of Solea turbyneu Gilchrist 1904 -- (Vachon et al. 2005:315 [ref. 29620]). Current status: Synonym of Solea turbynei Gilchrist 1904. Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sindensis, Solea Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:133 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (art. 12); ref. 14478] Karachi market, Pakistan. Soleidae.

sinusarabici, Aseraggodes Chabanaud [P.] 1931:296 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 56; ref. 785] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea, 29°11'N, 32°55'E. Lectotype: MNHN 1959-0611. Paralectotypes: (11) MNHN 1959-0588 (1), 1966-0136 to 0139 (4), 1966-0141 (1), 2005-0274 [ex 1959-0611] (2) Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:319 [ref. 25922]. Originally as sinus-arabici, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Randall & Gon 2006:186 [ref. 28662] but with catalog numbers confused. •Valid as Aseraggodes sinusarabici Chabanaud 1931 -- (Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Randall & Gon 2006:185 [ref. 28662], Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes sinusarabici Chabanaud 1931. Soleidae. Distribution: Gulf of Aden (northwestern Indian Ocean) and Red Sea. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Aseraggodes Woods [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:73, Fig. 151 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Ocean reef, Bock Island, Rongerik Atoll, Marshall Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 141766. •Valid as Aseraggodes smithi Woods 1966 -- (Myers 1999:279 [ref. 23965], Randall 2002:252 [ref. 26248], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] as cf smithi, Randall & Bartsch 2005:137 [ref. 28374]). •Synonym of Aseraggodes xenicus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1963) -- (Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:328 [ref. 29399]). Current status: Synonym of Aseraggodes xenicus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1963). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Chabanaudetta Joglekar [A.] 1971:370, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 187 (nos 5/6); ref. 21783] Nontabury, Thailand. Holotype: ZSI F 6284/2. Paratypes: ZSI F 6285/2 (1). •Synonym of Euryglossa siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1984:817 [ref. 11440]). •Synonym of Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater.

smithii, Synaptura Regan [C. T.] 1903:57, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 11 (no. 61) (art. 5); ref. 15040] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.10.31.152. •Synonym of Pseudaesopia japonica (Bleeker 1860) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:195 [ref. 21500]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudaesopia japonica (Bleeker 1860). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

solea, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:270 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Charente-Maritime, France [Bay of Biscay, eastern Atlantic]. Neotype: MNHN 2000-5637. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:54 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Neotype then designated by Borsa & Quignard 2001:2298 [ref. 25908] and with the same number by Vachon et al. 2008:20 [ref. 29607]. •Wrongly as a synonym of Solea vulgaris vulgaris Quensel 1806 -- (Torchio 1973:628 [ref. 6892] with question, Desoutter 1990:1046 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:948 [ref. 15614], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:863 [ref. 21590], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Fricke 1999:53 [ref. 24101], Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:192 [ref. 30517], Vachon et al. 2008:20 [ref. 29607], Chanet et al. 2012:582 [ref. 34114], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:549 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3027 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Norway to Senegal including Madeira, Canary and ? Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sorsogonensis, Synaptura Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:106, Fig. 22 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55916. •Valid as Brachirus sorsogonensis (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3884 [ref. 26314]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus sorsogonensis (Evermann & Seale 1907). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

stanalandi, Solea Randall [J. E.] & McCarthy [L. J.] 1989:197, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 14260] Off UPM Beach, Half Moon Bay near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf. Holotype: BPBM 32806. Paratypes: USNM 300936 (1). •Valid as Solea stanalandi Randall & McCarthy 1989 -- (Randall 1995:361 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:234 [ref. 23922], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:17 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Valid as Solea stanalandi Randall & McCarthy 1989. Soleidae. Distribution: Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

steinitzi, Aseraggodes Joglekar [A.] 1971:166, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India v. 12; ref. 27575] Cundabilu, Dahlak Archipelago, Eritrea, Red Sea, 15°44'N, 39°53'E. Holotype: ZSI F 6280. Paratypes: USNM (1) [not received], ZSI uncat. (1). See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Aseraggodes steinitzi Joglekar 1971 -- (Randall & Gon 2006:187 [ref. 28662], Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes steinitzi Joglekar 1971. Soleidae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

stephanica, Solea Chabanaud [P.] 1926:12 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 51; ref. 15581] Lévrier Bay, coast of western Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 1926-0005 to 0008 (1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Microchirus theophila (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

suzumotoi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:322, Fig. 16-19 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Ambon Island harbour, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: BPBM 36545. Paratypes: AMS I.43820-001 (1), BPBM 36471 (1), CAS 223735 (1), MNHN 2006-0770 (1), NSMT-P62058 (1), USNM 38195 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes suzumotoi Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1052 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes suzumotoi Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

swinhonis, Synaptura Steindachner [F.] 1867:586 [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 55 (pts 4-5); ref. 4213] Hong Kong, South China Sea. Holotype (unique): NMW 43070. •Valid as Brachirus swinhonis (Steindachner 1867) -- (Li & Wang 1995:310 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Synaptura swinhonis Steindachner 1867 -- (authors). Current status: Valid as Brachirus swinhonis (Steindachner 1867). Soleidae. Distribution: South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

synapturoides, Solea Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:28, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 10428] Off Ganjam coast, India, depth 24-30 fathoms. Syntypes: MNHN 1976-0380 (1), ZSI F3430/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Desoutter et al. 2001:326-327 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Zebrias synapturoides (Jenkins 1910) -- (Randall 1995:246 [ref. 23283], Randall 1995:362 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:235 [ref. 23922], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:327 [ref. 34104] as cf. synapturoides). Current status: Valid as Zebrias synapturoides (Jenkins 1910). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

textilis, Solea Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:6 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 18604] Gulf of St. Vincent, 10 miles west of Glenelg Jetty, South Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1. •Synonym of Aseraggodes haackeanus (Steindachner 1883) -- (Randall & Meléndez 1987:105 [ref. 9173], Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Aseraggodes haackeanus (Steindachner 1883). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

texturatus, Aseraggodes Weber [M.] 1913:437, Fig. 81 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Timor Sea, 10°27.9'S, 123°28.7'E, Siboga station 302, depth 216 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109388. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Aseraggodes texturatus Weber 1913 -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes texturatus Weber 1913. Soleidae. Distribution: Timor Sea [one specimen]. Habitat: marine.

theophilus, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:313 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:345-346 [ref. 25922]. •Questionably a synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892]). •Valid as Microchirus theophila (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). •Unidentifiable with certainty -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3015 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

thepassii, Achirus Bleeker [P.] 1854:500 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1863.6.3.19 (1). •Synonym of Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Clark & George 1979:114 [ref. 6992], Randall & Johnson 2007:14 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851). Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

therese, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 1996:434, Figs. 4-6 [Pacific Science v. 50 (no. 4); ref. 21993] Cave in reef 200 meters southwest of bulk garbage pier on southeast side of Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaiian Islands, depth 8 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34845. Paratypes: AMS I.37165-001 (1); BMNH 1996.1.24.2 (1); BPBM 7832 (4), 30650 (1), 31311-12 (1, 1), 31314 (2), 36794 (7); CAS 85568 (3); NSMT-P 48115 (1); USNM 339302 (1). Additional material: BPBM 31313 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes therese Randall 1996 -- (Randall 2002:248 [ref. 26248], Mundy 2005:521 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:466 [ref. 30952], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes therese Randall 1996. Soleidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

trichodactyllus, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] 1827:32, 38 (no. 138) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 481 and 487 [ref. 19740] [and spelled trichodactylus] -- essentially the same as ref. 3146, but with minor changes; earliest not determined. Apparently not the same as Pleuronectes trichodactylus Linnaeus 1758; apparently a new name for Pleuronectes microchirus Delaroche 1809. •Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814 -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

trichodactylus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:268 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Misspelled tricodactylus (and misidentified) by Cabrera, Pérez & Haenseler:4 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:178 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Monochirus trichodactylus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Li & Wang 1995:291 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Valid as Monochirus trichodactylus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Distribution: Western central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

triophthalmus, Solea Bleeker [P.] 1863:27, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Abraoun, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3575. •Valid as Pegusa triophthalma (Bleeker 1863) -- (Desoutter 1986:430 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1045 [ref. 18967], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:862 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781] as Pegusia, Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3025 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa triophthalma (Bleeker 1863). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern central Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

triramus, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:104, Fig. 10 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Wattie Creek, 17°24'S, 130°52'E, Victoria River, Northern Australia, depth 0-2 meters. Holotype: NTM S.11543-004. Paratypes: QM I.38113 (3); NTM S.11543-009 (1); USNM 387647 (2); WAM P.20608 (4), P.30067-007 (4). Plus non-types provisionally identified. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus triramus Randall 2007 -- (Morgan et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31262], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Leptachirus triramus Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: Northern Territory and Western Australia. Habitat: freshwater.

tubifera, Solea Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:444 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 18495] Île aux Fouquets, 8 kilometers east of Mahébourg, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9470. Type locality see Möbius 1880 [ref. 30489]. Correct spelling is apparently tubifer (masculine ending) when in Soleichthys. •Valid as Soleichthys tubifera (Peters 1876) -- (Fricke 1999:574 [ref. 24106] dated 1877, Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213] dated 1877). •Valid as Soleichthys tubiferus (Peters 1876) -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862], Voronina et al. 2016:399 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys tubiferus (Peters 1876). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes endemic) and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

turbynei, Solea Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:10, Pl. 28 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Mossel Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 18 fathoms, and other localities. Syntypes: (numerous) BMNH 1903.12.31.11 (1), SAM 15409 (11). •Synonym of Solea bleekeri Boulenger 1898 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665]). •Valid as Solea trubynei Gilchrist 1904 -- (Vachon et al. 2005:315 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:18 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Valid as Solea turbynei Gilchrist 1904. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Tanzania to about Cape Town, South Africa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

typica, Solea vulgaris forma Chabanaud [P.] 1927:32 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 488; ref. 782] Baltic Sea, North Sea, eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea. •Synonym of Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806 -- (Torchio 1973:628 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

umbratilis, Solea Alcock [A. W.] 1894:131 [17], Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 63 (pt 2); ref. 90] Bay of Bengal, 21°52'N, 68°06'E. Lectotype: BMNH 1895.1.3.7[ex ZSI F13619]. Paralectotypes: USNM 46759 [ex ZSI F13620] (1); ZSI F13616 (1), F13618 (1), F13624 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:378 [ref. 27516] with orignal genus as Soles, Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:45 [ref. 22148]. On p. 17 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1895: Pl. 15 (fig. 4) [ref. 20532]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Gon 2006:189 [ref. 28662]. •Valid as Aseraggodes umbratilis (Alcock 1894) -- (Randall & Gon 2006:188 [ref. 28662], Randall et al. 2013:3 [ref. 32941], Psomadakis et al. 2015:326 [ref. 34104] as cf. umbratilis). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes umbratilis (Alcock 1894). Soleidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Solea Shen [S.-C.] 1967:200, Figs. 97-101b [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 20 (nos 1-2); ref. 20549] Ta-Men Island, off Hong Kong. Holotype (unique): NTUM. •Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846 -- (Li & Wang 1995:287 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Pleuronectes Donovan [E.] 1808:3 unnum. pp., Pl. 117 [The natural history of British fishes, including scientific and general descriptions of the most interesting species, and an extensive selection of accurately finished coloured plates.; ref. 17408] England. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1316 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:217 [ref. 22326], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:153 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:191 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:548 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3020 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Senegal. Habitat: marine.

variolosa, Solea Kner [R.] 1867:289, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Reise der öesterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18426] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 85305. Soleidae.

vermeuleni, Solea Metzelaar [J.] 1919:279, Fig. 60 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Cape Blanc [Blanco], [Mauritania/Spanish Sahara], northwestern coast of Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112927. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

villosa, Synaptura Weber [M.] 1907:251, Pl. 13 (fig. 3) [Süsswasserfische von Neu-Guinea v. 5 (Zool.) pt 2; ref. 4599] Wagani River, southern New Guinea. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1913.12.15.37 (1) Lorenz R.; ZMA 108181-82 (1, 2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:109 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Synaptura villosa Weber 1907 -- (Allen 1991:206 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27467] dated 1908). •Valid as Brachirus villosus (Weber 1907) -- (Roberts 1978:69 [ref. 8886], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1908, Allen et al. 2008:191 [ref. 30265]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus villosus (Weber 1907). Soleidae. Distribution: Central-southern New Guinea (Papua Province, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). Habitat: freshwater.

vulgaris, Solea Quensel [C.] 1806:54, 230 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 27; ref. 3569] North Sea; Baltic Sea. No types known. •Valid as Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806 -- (Torchio 1973:628 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1322 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1046 [ref. 18967], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Arruda 1997:120 [ref. 24952]). •Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:948 [ref. 15614], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:863 [ref. 21590], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Vachon et al. 2008:21 [ref. 29607], Parin et al. 2014:549 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3027 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Solea Risso [A.] 1827:247 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. If independent, then objectively invalid; preoccupied by Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806. Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

whitakeri, Aseraggodes Woods [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:71, Fig. 150 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Coral head north end of lagoon, Kieshiechi Island, Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands, depth 20 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 141765. •Valid as Aseraggodes whitakeri Woods 1966 -- (Myers 1999:279 [ref. 23965], Randall 2005:210 [ref. 28892], Randall & Senou 2007:309 [ref. 29156], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes whitakeri Woods 1966. Soleidae. Distribution: Western and South Pacific east to Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

whitleyi, Liachirus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:563 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 22 (no. 5); ref. 12944] District of Livingstone, about 23°S, east coast of Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.4227. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Liachirus whitleyi Chabanaud 1950 -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847]). Current status: Valid as Liachirus whitleyi Chabanaud 1950. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

winterbottomi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:325, Fig. 22 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Mouth of Bais Bay, 9°37'N, 123°10'E, Negros, Philippines, depth 7.5 meters. Holotype: ROM 55042. Paratypes: BPBM 40444 (1), ROM 55040 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes winterbottomi Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1052 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32941], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes winterbottomi Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Philippines (three specimens). Habitat: marine.

wittei, Microchirus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:7 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] 21 miles west of Point Dandé, 8°30'S, 12°58'30"E, depth 190-230 meters. Lectotype: IRSNB 408. Paralectotypes: IRSNB 409-414 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1); MNHN 1951-0017 (1); MRAC 140343-46 (1, 1, 1, 1), 140347-48 (2), 140349-50 (1, 1); non-types IRSNB 415 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:321-322 [ref. 25922]. In list of materials for other species, Chabanaud recorded "Localité du holotype" but for wittei he did not, but evidently IRSNB 408 was intended holotype; Lectotype selected by Desoutter 1994:223 [ref. 22326]. •Valid as Microchirus wittei Chabanaud 1950 -- (Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:223 [ref. 22326], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3021 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus wittei Chabanaud 1950. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Congo. Habitat: marine.

xenicus, Parachirus Matsubara [K.] & Ochiai [A.] 1963:94, Figs. 6-8 [Bulletin of the Misaki Marine Biological Institute, Kyoto University No. 4; ref. 2908] Ankyaba, Amami Islands, Japan. Holotype: not at FAKU. Paratypes: (58) ? FAKU 130781 (5). •Valid as Parachirus xenicus Matsubra & Ochiai 1963 -- (Clark & George 1979:107 [ref. 6992], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1384 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1384 [ref. 26193], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:216 [ref. 27510]). •Valid as Aseraggodes xenicus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1963) -- (Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:327 [ref. 29399], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:105 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1053 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:9 [ref. 32941], Koeda et al. 2016:109 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes xenicus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1963). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Sea, Indonesia, Philippines, Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, Palau and Marshall Islands. Habitat: marine.

zanzibaricus, Barbourichthys Chabanaud [P.] 1934:388 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 58 (no. 6); ref. 790] Zanzibar, Tanzania, East Africa. Holotype (unique): MCZ 11321. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Barbourichthys zanzibaricus Chabanaud 1934 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Barbourichthys zanzibaricus Chabanaud 1934. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] 1787:27, Pl. 187 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] East Indies [label says Indian Ocean]. Lectotype: ZMB 2423. Paralectotypes: ZMB 7406 (1, dry, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:140 [ref. 24282]. On p. 20 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:140 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:198 [ref. 21500], Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Li & Wang 1995:317 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:459 [ref. 26385], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3889 [ref. 26314], Wang et al. 2001:318 [ref. 26566], Youn 2002:440, 688 [ref. 26218], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1057 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines, to China, Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zebrina, Solea Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:185, Pl. 95 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1308 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1306-07 (2, stuffed), 3580 (3). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:151 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787)-- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:198 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:317 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Nakabo 2000:1386 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1386 [ref. 26193], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:1079 [ref. 32413], Wang et al. 2014:50 [ref. 34516]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan to China. Habitat: marine.

zentilis, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806. Also not available from Ninni 1872:61 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. Soleidae.

zizette, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:329, Fig. 25 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Siberut, Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, depth 0.3-1.5 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 145364. •Valid as Aseraggodes zizette Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1053 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes zizette Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Mentawai Islands (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.