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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Synbranchidae: [ 67 ] records


aenigmaticum, Ophisternon Rosen [D. E.] & Greenwood [P. H.] 1976:52, Figs. 23-24 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 157 (art. 1); ref. 7094] About 13 kilometers southwest of Sebol, Alta Verapaz, Río Chajmaic, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 32410. Paratypes: AMNH 3286 (2), 8817 (ca 15), 17269SW (1 c&s), 18683 (3), 19584 (1), 24515 (1), 25145 (1), 25187 (1), 25403 (2), 25470 (2), 26271 (1), 30217 (1), 31502 (1), 31504 (4), 31508 (1), 31554 (1), 31573 (3), 31594 (3), 31619 (1), 31701 (1), 31723 (2), 32002 (2), 32017 (3), 32071 (4), 32096 (2), 32408 (3); UMMZ 104117 (1), 98883 (1), 158397 (1), 167700 (1), 190581 (2), 190711 (3), 190810 (2), 193885 (2). •Valid as Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen & Greenwood 1976 -- (Villa 1982:156 [ref. 36708], Lee et al. 1983:62 [ref. 22527], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:62 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:138 [ref. 22947], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Perdices et al. 2005:460 [ref. 28418], Miller 2006:323 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:37 [ref. 30398], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32708], Phillip et al. 2013:21 [ref. 32896], Angulo et al. 2013:998 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Ophisternon aenigmaticum Rosen & Greenwood 1976. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Atlantic Slope of Central America and Caribbean islands: Belize, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Saint Lucia (introduced), and Trinidad and Tobago. Habitat: freshwater.

afer, Symbranchus Boulenger [G. A.] 1909:430 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 14366] Port Mansoa, Guinea-Bissau. Lectotype: BMNH 1909.10.29.114. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1909.10.29.113 (1), 1909.10.29 115 (1, skeleton). Lectotype selected by Rosen & Greenwood 1976:51-52 [ref. 7094]. •Valid as Ophisternon afrum (Boulenger 1909) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:51 [ref. 7094], Daget 1986:291 [ref. 6203], Greenwood 1990:1023 [ref. 19525], Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:660 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:83 [ref. 24781], Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Britz et al. 2016:313 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Ophisternon afrum (Boulenger 1909). Synbranchidae. Distribution: West Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

alba, Muraena Zuiew [B.] 1793:299, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Nova Acta Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis Petropolitanae v. 7 (for 1789); ref. 17717] No locality stated [Suriname]. Syntypes: ZIL uncat. (Dhalberg Collection, whereabouts unknown). Originally from Suriname, not Asia of authors (per comm. Tyson R. Roberts, Oct. 20, 2014). •Valid as Fluta alba (Zuiew 1793) -- (Okada 1961:718 [ref. 6363]). •Valid as Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Berg 1949:1008 [ref. 20662], Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:366 [ref. 6441], Wang 1984:89 [ref. 22951], Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:213 [ref. 26639], Paxton et al. 1989:436 [ref. 12442], Roberts 1989:183 [ref. 6439], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:676 [ref. 25598], Zheng 1989:302 [ref. 21202], Lim et al. 1990:49 [ref. 16753], Yang 1991:200 [ref. 13585], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:778 [ref. 20764], Liu in Pan et al. 1991:357 [ref. 23876], Roberts 1993:45 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:101 [ref. 23448], Zhuo in Ding 1994:500 [ref. 21531], Yang & Chen 1995:109 [ref. 23555], Kottelat & Lim 1995:245 [ref. 23210], Zhu 1995:168 [ref. 25213], Rainboth 1996:177 [ref. 22772], Cheng & Zhou 1997:246 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:396 [ref. 24032], Vu & Nguyen 1997:27 [ref. 26438], Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Kottelat 1998:108 [ref. 23436], Yang in Chen 1998:320 [ref. 23556], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Fuller et al. 1999:337 [ref. 25838], Nakabo 2000:511 [ref. 25086], Freyhof et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25184], Karmakar 2000:34 [ref. 25662], Matsuura et al. 2000:201 [ref. 26000], Tang et al. 2001:15 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:58 [ref. 25482], Doi et al. 2001:16 [ref. 25691], Sakai et al. 2001:92 [ref. 25693], Kottelat 2001:146 [ref. 25780], Kim & Park 2002:318 [ref. 25913], Allen et al. 2002:173 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:511 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:237, 557 [ref. 26218], Gopi 2002:139 [ref. 27553], Tan & Lim 2004:110 [ref. 27716], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Grinang & Lim 2004:291 [ref. 28551], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:164 [ref. 28284], Mundy 2005:323 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:860 [ref. 28997], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Page & Burr 2011:466 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32708], Miesen et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34492], Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Asia; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

albinus, Pneumabranchus McClelland [J.] 1844:196, 219 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal, India. No types known. •Synonym of Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1999:280 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ambigua, Muraena Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:152 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Flumina Americes sub linea aequinoctiali. •Possibly a synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Uncertain as Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

aptera, Falconeria Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:381 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:297 [ref. 20322]. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:595 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bengalensis, Ophisternon McClelland [J.] 1844:197, 204, 220, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal, India. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.3.19.765. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.766-775. Lectotype selected by Rosen & Greenwood 1976:51 [ref. 7094]. Kottelat (2013) indicated that the type is not BMNH 1869.3.19.765 but is a specimen 2 feet long. •Valid as Ophisternon bengalense McClelland 1844 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:51 [ref. 7094], Paxton et al. 1989:436 [ref. 12442], Ataur Rahman 1989:51 [ref. 24860] as bengalensis, Pethiyagoda 1991:205 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:780 [ref. 20764], Allen 1991:110 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:101 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:177 [ref. 22772], Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Menon 1999:282 [ref. 24904], Pusey et al. 2000:72 [ref. 24466], Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Allen et al. 2000:91 [ref. 27467] dated 1845, Allen et al. 2002:174 [ref. 25930], Ataur Rahman 2003:66 [ref. 31338], Hoese & Gates 2006:860 [ref. 28997], Larson et al. 2013:78 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:309 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Ophisternon bengalense McClelland 1844. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Asia and western Pacific countries. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bicolor, Monopterus Nguyen [H. D.] & Nguyen [V. H.] in Nguyen 2005:629, Fig. 1 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 3; ref. 29809] Dien Khanh (Khanh Hoa), Vietnam. Holotype: Su Pham Univ., Hanoi. Paratypes: (1). •Valid as Monopterus bicolor Nguyen & Nguyen 2005 as species inquienda - (Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus bicolor Nguyen & Nguyen 2005. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Dien Khanh, Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

boueti, Typhlosynbranchus Pellegrin [J.] 1922:884, Fig. [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 174; ref. 3402] Creek near Monrovia, Liberia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1922-0002. •Valid as Monopterus boueti (Pellegrin 1922) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:59 [ref. 7094], Daget 1986:291 [ref. 6203], Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:661 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:83 [ref. 24781], Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Britz et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31404], Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914], Britz et al. 2018:325 [ref. 36207]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus boueti (Pellegrin 1922). Synbranchidae. Distribution: West Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

caligans, Symbranchus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1316 [334], Pl. 7 (fig. 1-3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Penang, Malaysia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1860.3.19.943 (1). On p. 334 of separate. •Valid as Macrotrema caligans (Cantor 1849) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:50 [ref. 7094], Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Britz et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31404], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:73 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Macrotrema caligans (Cantor 1849). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

candidum, Anommatophasma Mees [G. F.] 1962:27 [Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia v. 45 (pt 1); ref. 2966] Tantabiddi Well, Yardie Creek Station, North West Cape, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.4917-001. Paratypes: WAM P.4918-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:16 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117] •Valid as Ophisternon candidum (Mees 1962) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:51 [ref. 7094], Paxton et al. 1989:436 [ref. 12442], Humphreys 1999:469 [ref. 24250], Unmack 2001:1062 [ref. 25797], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:175 [ref. 25930], Romero & Paulson 2001:33 [ref. 26040], Humphreys 2001:297 [ref. 26398], Proudlove 2006:185 [ref. 28992], Chakrabarty 2010:26 [ref. 30921], Morgan et al. 2014:29 [ref. 36567], Moore 2018:[2] 161 [ref. 36551]). Current status: Valid as Ophisternon candidum (Mees 1962). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Western Australia endemic: Cape Range peninsula, Bungaroo aquifer, and Barrow Island, Pilbara. Restricted to subterranean aquifers. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cayennensis, Symbranchus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:77 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Name only, not available. Synbranchidae.

cendre, Synbranchus McClelland [J.] 1844:220 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Coast of Guinea. Appeared as Synbranchus cendre, Bon., but no species under this name has been located except as above. Synbranchidae.

cinerea, Muraena Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Gronow) 1788:35 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Guinea. No types known. Based on 'Muraena unicolor: maxilla superiore longiore ...' of Gronow 1763:39 [ref. 1910]. Also described as Muraena microphthalma Walbaum 1792. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority in favor of Symbranchus afer Boulenger 1909 is followed (Art. 23.9). •In the synonymy of Ophisternon afrum (Boulenger 1909). Current status: Synonym of Ophisternon afrum (Boulenger 1909). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cinerea, Unibranchapertura Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:656, 658 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Guinea, Africa. No types known. Named grisea on p. 658. First reviser not researched. •Status uncertain -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094]). Synbranchidae.

cinereus, Pneumabranchus McClelland [J.] 1843:411, Pl. 25 (fig. 3) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2927] Chusan, China. No types known. •Synonym of Fluta alba (Zuiew 1793) -- (Okada 1961:718 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094] but with later source and author as Richardson). •Not treated in Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477]. Current status: Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cuchia, Unibranchapertura Hamilton [F.] 1822:16, 363, Pl. 16 (fig. 4) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Southeastern Bengal, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.767 (1). Spelled cachia by Cuvier 1829:354 [ref. 995]. •Valid as Amphipnous cuchia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Shrestha 1978:40 [ref. 15970]). •Valid as Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:59 [ref. 7094], Ataur Rahman 1989:50 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:776 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:583 [ref. 23778], Zhu 1995:168 [ref. 25213], Banik & Choudhury 1996:579 [ref. 24736], Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Menon 1999:280 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:327 [ref. 25220], Karmakar 2000:34 [ref. 25662], Gopi 2002:139 [ref. 27553], Ataur Rahman 2003:65 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:208 [ref. 29923], Britz et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31404], Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477], Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Asia: Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and ? China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

desilvai, Monopterus Bailey [R. M.] & Gans [C.] 1998:6, Figs. 1-4 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 726; ref. 23296] In rice paddy, village of Marawila, west.-central Sri Lanka, 7°24.5'N, 79°50.45'E. Holotype (unique): UMMZ 199721. •Valid as Monopterus desilvai Bailey & Gans 1998 -- (Britz et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31404], Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus desilvai Bailey & Gans 1998. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Sri Lanka. Habitat: freshwater.

dienbienensis, Monopterus Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [H. D.] in Nguyen 2005:631, Fig. 2 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 3; ref. 29809] Doi III, xa Thanh Luong, Dien Bien Province, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I Inst., Bac Ninh. Paratypes: (3). •Valid as Monopterus dienbienensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2005 as species inquirendae -- (Kottelat 2013:308 [reef. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus dienbienensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2005. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Dien Bien Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

digressus, Monopterus Gopi [K. C.] 2002:137, Figs. 1-6; Pl. 1 [Records of the Zoological Survey of India v. 100 (pt 1-2); ref. 27553] Homestead well at Kuthiravattom, a suburban locality of Calicut, Kerala, India, elevation 40 meters. Holotype: ZSI-WGFSR 10684. Paratypes: (7). •Valid as Monopterus digressus Gopi 2002 -- (Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus digressus Gopi 2002. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

doeringii, Symbranchus Weyenbergh [H.] 1877:15, Pl. 2 [Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Buenos Aires. v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 14248] Lakes near Santa Fe, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) MACN. Species name originally spelled as Döringii; it is based on a German name and the correct spelling is doeringii according to Koerber 2007:68 [ref. 29162]. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

eapeni, Monopterus (Monopterus) Talwar [P. K.] in Talwar & Jhingran 1991:779 [Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries v. 1-2; ref. 20764] Well at Kottayam, 9°30'N, 76°33'E, Kerala, southern India. Syntypes: (5). Relacement for Monopterus indicus Eapen 1963, secondarily preoccupied in Monopterus by Monopterus indicus Silus & Dawson 1961. •Valid as Monopterus eapeni Talwar 1991 -- (Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Menon 1999:281 [ref. 24904], Romero & Paulson 2001:33 [ref. 26040], Gopi 2002:139 [ref. 27553], Proudlove 2006:186 [ref. 28992], Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus eapeni Talwar 1991. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

eurychasma, Symbranchus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1852:60 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 5); ref. 339] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy of Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800, spelled eurijchasma. •In the synonym of Synbranchus javanensis Lacepède 1800 -- (Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800. Synbranchidae.

fossorius, Amphipnous Nair [K. K.] 1952:311, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Section B (Animal Sciences) v. 34 (no. 6) [for 1951]; ref. 12904] Marshy area adjoining Karamanai River near Trivandrum, Travancore, India. Syntypes: Marine Biol. Lab., Trivandrum, Travancore, India. •Valid as Monopterus fossorius (Nair 1952) (sometimes seen as 1951) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:59 [ref. 7094], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:777 [ref. 20764], Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Menon 1999:281 [ref. 24904], Gopi 2002:139 [ref. 27553], Britz et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31404], Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus fossorius (Nair 1952). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

fuliginosus, Synbranchus Ranzani [C.] 1839:75 [11], Pl. 11 (figs. 1a-b) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 4 [1840]; ref. 18606] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 991. Appeared first without description as Ranzani in Alessandrini 1838:433 [ref. 25852]. Dates to publication in a separate, on p. 11 and Pl. 4 in 1839; journal version in 1840. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:53 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

grammicus, Symbranchus Cantor [T. E.] 1842:486 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (nos 58, 59, 60); ref. 17344] Chusan Island, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.766 (1). •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904]). •Not treated in Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477]. Current status: Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

grisea, Unibranchapertura Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:658 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Guinea. See Unibranchaptertura cinerea Lacepède 1803. •Status uncertain -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094]). Synbranchidae.

gutturalis, Synbranchus Richardson [J.] 1845:49, Pl. 30 (figs. 14-17) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH uncat. •Valid as Ophisternon gutturale (Richardson 1845) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:51 [ref. 7094], Paxton et al. 1989:436 [ref. 12442], Larson & Martin 1990:36 [ref. 16606], Allen 1991:111 [ref. 21090], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:176 [ref. 25930], Hoese & Gates 2006:861 [ref. 28997], Allen et al. 2008:108 [ref. 30265], Larson et al. 2013:79 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Ophisternon gutturale (Richardson 1845). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

helvolus, Monopterus Richardson [J.] 1846:316 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Appeared as Monopterus? helvolus. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:211, Pl. 20d [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094]). •Synonym of Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800 -- (Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hepaticus, Ophisternon McClelland [J.] 1844:198, 204, 221, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Arrakan coast, Myanmar. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Ophisternon bengalense McClelland 1844 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:51 [ref. 7094], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:780 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Ophisternon bengalense McClelland 1844 -- (Menon 1999:282 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:309 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Ophisternon bengalense McClelland 1844. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hieronymi, Symbranchus Weyenbergh [H.] 1877:14, Pl. 2 [Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Buenos Aires. v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 14248] Oran, Salta Province, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) ? Mus. Nacional Argentina, Buenos Aires. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hodgarti, Moringua Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1913:255, Pl. 9 (figs. 3, 3a-b) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 8 (pt 3); ref. 819] Upper Rotung, Abor Hills, Assam, India, elevation 2000 feet. Syntypes: ZSI F7830/1-7834/1 (5), F7838/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:133 [ref. 20743]. •Valid as Moringua hadgarti Chaudhuri 1913 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:77 [ref. 20764], Karmakar 2000:26 [ref. 25662]). •Valid as Monopterus hodgarti (Chaudhuri 1913) -- (Menon 1999:281 [ref. 24904] dating to Chaudhuri 1939 in Synbranchidae, Britz et al. 2018:323 [ref. 36207]). •Valid, but incertae sedis in Synbranchidae -- (Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32898]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus hodgarti (Chaudhuri 1913). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Northeast India. Habitat: freshwater.

ichthyophoides, Monopterus Britz [R.], Lalremsanga [H. T.], Lalrotluanga [no initials] & Lalramliana [no initials] 2011:52, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 2936; ref. 31404] Sawleng River, a tributary of Tuirial River in the vicinity of Sawleng, 23°58'52"N, 92°55'14"E, Barak River drainage, Mizoram, India. Holotype: PUCMF 3005. •Valid as Monopterus ichthyophoides Britz, Lalremsanga, Lalrotluanga & Lalramliana 2011 -- (Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus ichthyophoides Britz, Lalremsanga, Lalrotluanga & Lalramliana 2011. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Barak River drainage, Mizoram, India. Habitat: freshwater.

immaculata, Apterigia Basilewsky [S.] 1855:248 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Northern China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904]). •Not treated in Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477]. Current status: Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

immaculatus, Synbranchus Bloch [M. E.] 1795:87, Pl. 419 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Suriname; Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India [erroneous]. On p. 77 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:53 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

indicus, Amphipnous Silas [E. G.] & Dawson [E.] 1961:367 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 58 (pt 2); ref. 9380] Robbers Cave, Satara District, Maharashtra State, India. Holotype: BNHM uncat. Paratypes: ?BNHM (46). •Valid as Monopterus indicus (Silas & Dawson 1961) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:61 [ref. 7094], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:777 [ref. 20764], Bailey & Gans 1998:6 [ref. 23296], Menon 1999:282 [ref. 24904], Yadav 2000:41 [ref. 25661], Gopi 2002:139 [ref. 27553], Yadav 2003:23 [ref. 27711], Britz et al. 2011:57 [ref. 31404], Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus indicus (Silas & Dawson 1961). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Southern India. Habitat: freshwater.

indicus, Monopterus Eapen [K. C.] 1963:129, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of the Department of Marine Biology Oceanogrphy, University of Kerala v. 1; ref. 1784] Well at Kottayam, Kerala, southern India. Syntypes: (5). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Monopterus by Amphipnous indicus Silas & Dawson 1961, replaced by Monopterus eapeni Talwar 1991. •Treated as valid as Monopterus indicus Eapen 1963 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094]). •Should be treated as a synonym of Monopterus eapeni Talwar 1963. Current status: Synonym of Monopterus eapeni Talwar 1991. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater.

infernalis, Pluto Hubbs [C. L.] 1938:292, Pl. 4 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 491 (art. 21); ref. 2248] Hoctun Cave at Hoctun, between Merida and Chichen Itza, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype (unique): UMMZ 116093. •Valid as Ophisternon infernale (Hubbs 1938) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:52 [ref. 7094], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:62 [ref. 22290], Romero & Paulson 2001:34 [ref. 26040], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:323 [ref. 28615], Proudlove 2006:183 [ref. 28992], Page et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Ophisternon infernale (Hubbs 1938). Synbranchidae. Distribution: Atlantic Slope of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

javanensis, Monopterus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:138, 139 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Sunda Strait, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Spelled javanicus in Shaw 1803:39 [ref. 4014]. Apparently involves several species (Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Fluta alba (Zuiew 1793) -- (Okada 1961:718 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Berg 1949:1008 [ref. 20662], Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Roberts 1989:183 [ref. 6439], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:778 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904], Fuller et al. 1999:337 [ref. 25838], Hoese & Gates 2006:860 [ref. 28997]). •Valid as Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800 - (Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:47 [ref. 33971], Sulaiman et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35802], Robins et al. 2018:244 [ref. 35886], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

laevis, Unibranchapertura Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:657, 658, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality. •Synonym of Fluta alba (Zuiew 1793) -- (Okada 1961:718 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lampreia, Synbranchus Favorito [S. E.], Zanata [A. M.] & Assumpção [M. I.] 2005:321, Figs. 1, 2a, 5, 6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 28383] Rio Goiapi, tributary of rio Arari, Cachoeira do Arari (ca. 0°58'S, 48°57'), ilha de Marajó, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 50184. Paratypes: MPEG 3374 (1), 3377 (1), 3379 (1); MZUSP 50185 (4), 84453 (3 eggs). •Valid as Synbranchus lampreia Favorito, Zanata & Assumpção 2005. Current status: Valid as Synbranchus lampreia Favorito, Zanata & Assumpção 2005. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leprosus, Pneumabranchus McClelland [J.] 1844:195, 219 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Bengal. Syntypes: SMF 262 (1). •Synonym of Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1999:280 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lineata, Unibranchapertura Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:656, 658 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Cayenne, French Guiana. No types known. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:53 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lumbricus, Muraena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:18 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] West Africa and Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094]). Synbranchidae.

luticolus, Monopterus Britz [R.], Doherty-Bone [T. M.], Kouete [M. T.], Sykes [D.] & Gower [D. J.] 2016:312, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 27 (no. 4) for Dec.; ref. 34914] Mundame, along river Mungo, near Kumba, dug up from sandy soil in farmland with banana and cocoyam crops and tree ferns and palm trees, Cameroon, 4°33'N, 9°31'E, elevation 35-170 meters. Holotype: BMNH 2016.7.6.1. Paratypes: BMNH, ZMUC. •Valid as Monopterus luticolus Britz, Doherty-Bone, Kouete, Sykes & Gower 2016 -- (Britz et al. 2018:325 [ref. 36207]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus luticolus Britz, Doherty-Bone, Kouete, Sykes & Gower 2016. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Mount Cameroon, Cameroon. Habitat: freshwater.

madeirae, Synbranchus Rosen [D. E.] & Rumney [A.] 1972:11, Figs. 15-16, 17B, 18B [American Museum Novitates No. 2497; ref. 7640] Río Beni, Beni, Bolivia, 14°18'S, 67°23'W. Holotype: CAS 13704 [ex IU 17250]. Paratypes: AMNH 30214sw (4, c&s), 30219sw (1, c&s); CAS 13705 [ex IU 17250] (1). •Valid as Synbranchus madeirae Rosen & Rumney 1972 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:56 [ref. 7094], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Favorito et al. 2005:319 [ref. 28383], Sarmiento et al. 2014:181, 193 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Synbranchus madeirae Rosen & Rumney 1972. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Madeira River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

marmoratus, Monopterus Richardson [J.] (ex Temminck & Schlegel) 1846:315 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Chusan, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH. •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904]). •Not treated in Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477]. Current status: Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

marmoratus, Synbranchus Bloch [M. E.] 1795:87, Pl. 418 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Suriname. Lectotype: ZMB 4059. Paralectotypes: ?RMNH 24742 (1), ZMB 32467 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:146 [ref. 24282]. Genus spelled Synbronchus on plate. On p. 75 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 12 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype listed by Paepke 1999:146 [ref. 24282] as selected by Favorito-Amorim 1994. •Mention as Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Malabarba 1989:162 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:53 [ref. 7094], Villa 1982:157 [ref. 36708], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Bussing 1987:167 [ref. 22927], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:63 [ref. 22290], Fernández & Butí 1996:255 [ref. 22775], Gómez & Chebez 1996:65 [ref. 23791], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Galvis et al. 1997:107 [ref. 23651], Torelli et al. 1997:70 [ref. 24612], Bussing 1998:260 [ref. 24179], Sverlij et al. 1998:75 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:152 [ref. 24147], Keith et al. 2000:72 [ref. 24547], Marín 2000:79 [ref. 26252], Lasso et al. 2001:100 [ref. 25928], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Miquelarena et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26517], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:150 [ref. 28130], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131], Torres et al. 2005:277 [ref. 28299], Favorito et al. 2005:321 [ref. 28383], Perdices et al. 2005:460 [ref. 28418], Miller 2006:324 [ref. 28615], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:998 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:448 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32708], Phillip et al. 2013:21 [ref. 32896], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Ramos et al. 2014:5 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:181, 193 [ref. 35004], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:313 [ref. 34894], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561] as aff. marmoratus, Melo et al. 2016:377 [ref. 35317], Nión et al. 2016:45 [ref. 35565], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684] as aff. marmoratus, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267], González-Murcia et al. 2019:298 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Widespread in Central and South America; Mexico south to northern Argentina. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

mercedarius, Synbranchus Weyenbergh [H.] 1877:22, Pl. 4 [Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Buenos Aires. v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 14248] Lakes along Río Primero, near Cordoba and Chacra de la Merced, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) MSNG. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

microphthalma, Muraena Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Gronow) 1792:152 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Guinea. No types known. Based on 'Muraena unicolor: maxilla superiore longiore ...' of Gronow 1763:39 [ref. 1910]. Description independent of Muraena cinerea Bonnaterre 1788. Not used as valid after 1899; therefore reversal of priority in favor of Symbranchus afer Boulenger 1909 is followed (Art. 23.9). •Possibly a synonym of Ophisternon afrum (Boulenger 1909) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Uncertain as Ophisternon afrum (Boulenger 1909). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

microphthalmus, Tetrabranchus Bleeker [P.] 1851:69 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 327] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Ophisternon bengalense McClelland 1844 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:51 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:282 [ref. 24904]. Kottelat 2013:309 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ophisternon bengalense McClelland 1844. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

nigromaculata, Apterigia Basilewsky [S.] 1855:248, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Northern China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904]). •Not treated in Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477]. Current status: Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pardalis, Synbranchus Valenciennes [A.] 1836:Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. No types known. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:11 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 13 was published in 1836. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:53 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

phayriana, Ophicardia McClelland [J.] 1844:191, 204, 218, Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] Sandoway on the Arracan coast. Syntypes: ?SMF 928 (1) Bengal. Spelled phyariana on p. 191, and phayriana on pp. 204 and 218; dedicated to Capt. A. P. Phayre, so phayriana regarded as correct. •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904]). •Synonym of Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800 -- (Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pinnata, Falconeria Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:381 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Apparently available. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:297, 298, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi regarded as a synonym of Symbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:595 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

punctatus, Ophichthys Swainson [W.] 1839:336 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Ham. pl. 16, fig. 4 (Cuchia) -- which is Hamilton 1822:Pl. 16 (fig. 4) [ref. 2031]. Unneeded substitute for Unibranchapertura cuchia Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Menon 1999:280 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

robustus, Cryptophthalmus Franz [V.] 1910:15, Pl. 3 (fig. 11) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (8) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:281 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Fluta alba (Zuiew 1793) -- (Okada 1961:718 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (McCosker et al. 2011:272 [ref. 31452]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rongsaw, Monopterus Britz [R.], Sykes [D.], Gower [D. J.] & Kamei [R. G.] 2018:317, Figs. 1-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 28 (no. 4) [no. IEF-1086]; ref. 36207] Sohra [= Cherrapunji], Nongriat Village, Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India, 25°14'49.2"N, 91°40'1.2"E, elevation 440 meters. Holotype (unique): BNHS FWF 611. •Valid as Monopterus rongsaw Britz, Sykes, Gower & Kamei 2018. Current status: Valid as Monopterus rongsaw Britz, Sykes, Gower & Kamei 2018. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, northeast India. Habitat: freshwater.

roseni, Monopterus Bailey [R. M.] & Gans [C.] 1998:12, Figs. 5-7 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 726; ref. 23296] From a well, Periyam village, 10°38'N, 76°22'E. northern Kerala state, India, elevation 50 meters. Holotype (unique): UMMZ 228131. •Valid as Monopterus roseni Bailey & Gans 1998 -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:33 [ref. 26040], Gopi 2002:139 [ref. 27553], Proudlove 2006:187 [ref. 28992], Britz et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34914]). Current status: Valid as Monopterus roseni Bailey & Gans 1998. Synbranchidae. Distribution: Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

saccogularis, Apterigia Basilewsky [S.] 1855:247, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Northern China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904]). •Not treated in Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477]. Current status: Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

spurius, Typhlobranchus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:537 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] American rivers [South America]. No types known. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

striatus, Pneumabranchus McClelland [J.] 1844:192, 204, 219, Pl. 13 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 5 (no. 18); ref. 2928] McClelland specimens: SMF 626 (2). Unneeded replacement name for Unibranchapertura cuchia Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus cuchia (Hamilton 1822). Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

subterraneus, Symbranchus Poey [F.] 2000:762, Pl. 426 (figs.3-5) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Genus should have been spelled Synbranchus. Synbranchidae.

tigrinus, Symbranchus Weyenbergh [H.] 1877:16, Pl. 1 [Actas de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias Exactas, Buenos Aires. v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 14248] Lakes near Santa Fe, Argentina. Syntypes: (several) MSNG. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:75 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

transversalis, Synbranchus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:524 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] "Guinea", West Africa. •Status uncertain -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094]). Synbranchidae.

vittatus, Synbranchus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:84, Pl. 44 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795 -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:55 [ref. 7094], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:594 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:32 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:54 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:74 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch 1795. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

xanthognathus, Synbranchus Richardson [J.] 1845:no p., Pl. 52 (fig. 7) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] Canton, China. No types known. Originally Synbranchus ? xanthognathus. Available from plate. Appeared as Monopterus? vel Synbranchus? xanthognathus in Richardson 1845:118 [ref. 20275]. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970 [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Monopterus albus (Zuiew 1793) -- (Rosen & Greenwood 1976:57 [ref. 7094], Menon 1999:279 [ref. 24904]). •Synonym of Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800 -- (Kottelat 2013:308 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Monopterus javanensis Lacepède 1800. Synbranchidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.