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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Syngnathidae: [ 743 ] records


abaster, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1827:182 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Probably Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:183 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:175 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:501 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:74 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:245, 247 [ref. 30404] as abastes on p. 24, Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547], Barbieri et al. 2015:98 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Gurkan & Innal 2018:241 [ref. 36182], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Özuluğ & Saç 2019:33 [ref. 36599]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Portugal. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

abboti, Syngnathus Girard [C. F.] 1858:346 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 971. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:211 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

abbreviatus, Doryrhamphus excisus Dawson [C. E.] 1981:9, Fig. 4 (middle) [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 44; ref. 5511] Strait of Jubal, Red Sea, 27°16'46"N, 33°46'25"E, depth 0-2.4 meters. Holotype: USNM 226446. Paratypes: BMNH 1915.10.25.3 (1); CAS 23510 (2); GCRL 17061-62 (1, 1); NMW 40277-78 (1, 1); RMNH 18389 (1); SMF 8124 (1); USNM 226447-52 (2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Dawson 1985:60 [ref. 6541], Randall et al. 1990:73 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:101 [ref. 22896], Thomson et al. 2000:65 [ref. 25640], Randall 2005:107 [ref. 28239], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Doryrhamphus abbreviatus Dawson 1981 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus abbreviatus Dawson 1981. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

abdominalis, Hippocampus Lesson [R. P.] 1827:127 [Bulletin des Sciences Naturelles et de Géologie (Férussac), Paris v. 11 (art. 92); ref. 17507] New Zealand. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6090 (1), 0000-9207 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:51-52 [ref. 19576]. Also described as new in Lesson 1828:411 [ref. 2775]. •Valid as Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson 1827 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:166 [ref. 24556], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1990:231 [ref. 16024], Paulin & Roberts 1992:65 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:97 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:447 [ref. 22532], Gomon 1997:246 [ref. 22842], Kuiter 1997:74 [ref. 25488], Lourie et al. 1999:69 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2001:322 [ref. 25900], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:125 [ref. 36858], Paxton et al. 2006:825 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:52 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1055 [ref. 34254], Lourie 2016:84 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Oxcean, southwestern Pacific: Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acicularis, Syngnathus Jenyns [L.] 1842:147, Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Valparaíso, Chile. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.28. •Valid as Syngnathus acicularis Jenyns 1842 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:102 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Leptonotus blainvilleanus (Eydoux & Gervais 1837) -- (Fritzsche 1980:190 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:41 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:112 [ref. 6541], Luzzatto & Estalles 2019:8 [ref. 36805]). Current status: Synonym of Leptonotus blainvilleanus (Eydoux & Gervais 1837). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aciculus, Syngnathus Delaporte [F.] in De la Pylaie 1835:528 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] Not available, no distinguishing features. From France, ne. Atlantic Ocean. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

aculeatus, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:61 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Egypt [in error], should be west coast of Africa. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1978.1.16.2. Appeared first as name only in Kaup 1853:234. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1979:467 [ref. 19285]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1984:157 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1986:286 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1990:661 [ref. 17542], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:578 [ref. 21590], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:581 [ref. 30079], Fritzsche 2016:2237 [ref. 34608]). •Valid as Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Wirtz et al. 2007:7, 28 [ref. 30263] as a species on p. 28, Kuiter 2009:274 [ref. 30404], Félix et al. 2016:D [4] [ref. 34346], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Skelton 2019:228 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

aculeatus, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:8 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] India. No types known. Based on "8. Solenostomus indicus, productiori rostro qvam sextus ..." of Klein 1744 (v. 4):26, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [ref. 30141]. •Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

acus, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:337 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.184 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:216-217 [ref. 13434]. •Valid as Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1985:183 [ref. 6541], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Zheng 1989:298 [ref. 21202], Dawson 1990:663 [ref. 17542], Liang in Pan et al. 1991:341 [ref. 23876], Chen et al. 1997:35 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:237 [ref. 26385], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Santos et al. 1997:74 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:65 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:146 [ref. 24106], Wang et al. 2001:197 [ref. 26566], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:141 [ref. 28072] with change in range, Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:75 [ref. 30517], Kuiter 2009:244 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547], Lourie 2016:147 [ref. 34505], Fritzsche 2016:2238 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Gurkan & Innal 2018:241 [ref. 36182], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

acusimilis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1873:380 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 18198] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.9.23.28-31 (4). •Valid as Syngnathus acusimilis Günther 1873 -- (Berg 1949:986 [ref. 20662], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Savvaitova 1998:113 [ref. 23594], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:184 [ref. 28183]). •Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:189 [ref. 6541], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Kuiter 2009:252 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: China and Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

aeolicus, Syngnathus ethon Di Caporiacco [L.] 1948:91 [23] [Bollettino di Pesca, Piscicoltura e Idrobiologia, Roma (n. s.) v. 26 (n.s. v. 3) (no. 1); ref. 18061] Naples, Messina, Palermo, southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MZUF 5682-85 (4), 5675-76 (2), 5677-81 (5). Type catalog: Vanni 1991:224 [ref. 20099]. On p. 23 of separate. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aequoreus, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:337 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Open sea. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:37 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1978:419 [ref. 8724], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:629 [ref. 13676], Santos et al. 1997:73 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:64 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:37 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:176 [ref. 26753], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Kuiter 2009:258 [ref. 30404], Møller et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31169], Mecklenburg et al. 2011:121 [ref. 31212], Parin et al. 2014:207 [ref. 33547], Bañón et al. 2016:321 [ref. 34397], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:172 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic and adjacent Arctic regions: Baltic Sea, North Sea, Barents and Greenland seas, south Greenland coast, eastern North Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

affinis, Lissocampus Whitley [G. P.] 1944:266 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] Bathurst Point, Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.1150-001. Paratypes: AMS IB.341 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:16 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Lissocampus runa (Whitley 1931) -- (Dawson 1977:612 [ref. 7047], Dawson 1985:118 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:457 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:833 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Lissocampus runa (Whitley 1931). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:163 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1854.7.3.2. Preoccupied by Syngnathus affinis Eichwald 1831, and Günther's name should not be used. Replaced by Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013. •Possibly the same as Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896) -- (Tolan 2008:93 [ref. 29889]). •Valid as Syngnathus affinis Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1982:90 [ref. 6764], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1061 [ref. 23897], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:245 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Syngnathus Eichwald [C. E. von] 1831:61 [Zoologia specialis quam expositis animalibus tum vivis Pars posterior [3]; ref. 5562] Black Sea at Odessa, Ukraine. No types known. •Uncertain in genus Syngnathus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

agassiz, Syngnathus Michahelles [C. W.] 1829:1013 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 9); ref. 17700] Trieste, Italy, Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

agnesae, Hippocampus Fowler [H. W.] 1907:429, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1377] Victoria, Australia. Holotype: ANSP 33123. Paratypes: ANSP 33162 (1, in jar with holotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:158 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Hippocampus bleekeri Fowler 1907 -- (Kuiter 2001:323 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:826 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:54 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson 1827 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:448 [ref. 22532], Lourie et al. 1999:69 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

aimei, Hippocampus Roule [L.] 1916:11, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 15066] Mekong River, near Khemmarat on the Laos - Thailand border [South China Sea]. Syntypes: MNHN B-1256 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:534 [ref. 19576]. Apparently should have been arnei, appeared as aimei as a typographical error -- (Kuiter 2009:98 [ref. 30404]). Locality questioned by Lourie et al. 1999:165 [ref. 23933]. •Synonym of Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richardson 1908 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:75 [ref. 23993]). •In the synonymy of Hippocampus arnei Roule 1916 -- (Kuiter 2009:98 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:121 [ref. 23993] one type specimen only, Lourie et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alatus, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:317, Fig. 25 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] East coast of Cape York, Queensland, 11°37'S, 142°56'E, depth 16-18 meters. Holotype: AMS I20771-102. Paratypes: AMS I.15557-077 (1); NTM S10959-001 (1), S11580-003 (1), S13267-004 (1); QM I.27965 (1), I.30556 (1); WAM P.28003-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Hippocampus alatus Kuiter 2001 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:825 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:100 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:199 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indonesia, Philippines to Papua New Guinea and Australia [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

albadorsum, Doryichthys retzii Fowler [H. W.] 1944:161, Figs. 10-11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu, New Hebrides. Holotype: ANSP 71351. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:158 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Microphis retzii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:167 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:134 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Lophocampus retzii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis retzii (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

albirostris, Corythoichthys Kaup [J. J.] (ex Heckel) 1856:25 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Bahia; Mexico. Syntypes: BMNH 1978.9.12.4 (1) Mexico, Mus. of Stuttgart (2?); NMW (1, not found in 1995). •Valid as Cosmocampus albirostris (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1982:121 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:125 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:94 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1053 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:228 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:189 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:235 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:170 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus albirostris (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

albomaculosus, Hippichthys Jenkins [A. P.] & Mailautoka [K.] 2010:112, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 16 (no. 3); ref. 30900] Lower Dreketi River, Vanua Levu, Fiji, 16°58'91.7"S, 178°90'75.5"E. Holotype: AMS I.45010-001. Paratypes: (should be 21) AMS I.45010-002 (6); USPS 5941 (7); WAM P.33059-001 (7). •Valid as Hippichthys albomaculosus Jenkins & Mailautoka 2010 -- (Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippichthys albomaculosus Jenkins & Mailautoka 2010. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vanua Levu Island, Fiji Islands. Habitat: freshwater.

algensis, Syngnathoides Fourmanoir [P.] 1955:210 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série A, Biologie Animale v. 9; ref. 12271] Dzaoudzi, Mayotte Island, Comoro Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Acentronura tentaculata Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1985:17 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Acentronura tentaculata Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

algeriensis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] (ex Playfair) 1870:164 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Confluence of Wed Cherif and Wed Bou-Hamdan, Province Constantine, 60 miles from sea, Algeria (fresh water). Syntypes: (at least 5) BMNH 1868.11.15.6 (1), 1869.1.29.17 (1). Also appeared as new (perhaps independently) in Playfair and Letourneux 1871:393 [ref. 18558]. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

algiricus, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:13 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Algiers, Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6084. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:52 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kuiter 2009:58 [ref. 30404]). •See Hippocampus reidi of Silveira 2014:324 [ref. 33493]. •Valid as Hippocampus algiricus Kaup 1856 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:71 [ref. 23993], Wirtz et al. 2007:7, 28 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Lourie 2016:114 [ref. 34505], Fritzsche 2016:2235 [ref. 34608], Lourie et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus algiricus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

alternans, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:162 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1395. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1985:183 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

altirostris, Syngnathus Ogilby [J. D.] 1890:55 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 18492] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: AMS I.385. Paralectotypes: AMS B.7063 (1). Lectotype selected by Whitley 1943:177 [ref. 4703]. •Synonym of Parasyngnathus penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1984:76 [ref. 21119]). •Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1985:100 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:824 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:278 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

altus, Phyllopteryx McCoy [F.] 1882:20 [Prodromus of the zoology of Victoria; figures and descriptions of the living species of all classes of the Victorial indigenous animals.; ref. 17756] Tasmania, Australia. No types known. Based on Pl. 14 in Günther 1865:327 [ref. 13948]. •Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804) -- (Dawson 1985:160 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:464 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

amakusensis, Hippichthys Tomiyama [I.] 1972:6, Fig. 3 [Publications from the Amakusa Marine Biological Laboratory Kyushu University v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 446] Aitsu, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT [ex Aitsu Mar. Biol. Sta., Kumamoto Univ.]. •Synonym of Festucalex erythraeus (Gilbert 1905) -- (Dawson 1977:629 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:70 [ref. 6541]). •Valid as Festucalex amakusensis (Tomiyama 1972) -- (Kuiter 2009:208 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex amakusensis (Tomiyama 1972). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

amplexus, Corythoichthys Dawson [C. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 1975:271, Figs. 6-7 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 88 (no. 25); ref. 7416] Beqa Lagoon, between Stuart and Yanuca Islands, Fiji Islands, depth 6.1 meters. Holotype: USNM 213479. Paratypes: ANSP 108972 (63), 108993 (1), 110017 (1), 110036 (4), 110050 (5), 110053 (5), 110058 (8); BPBM 15614 (2), 17949 (2), 18033 (4); GCRL 13358 (2), 13336-37 (1, 5), 13463 (6); USNM 213480 (2), 213510-11 (8, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Corythoichthys amplexus Dawson & Randall 1975 -- (Dawson 1977:303 [ref. 7048], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:38 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:414 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:72 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:99 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977] as amplex, Kuiter 1997:78 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:72 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2273 [ref. 24794], fNakabo 2000:525 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:154 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:525 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:105 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:815 [ref. 29073], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:188 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:188 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys amplexus Dawson & Randall 1975. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles east to Fiji and Samoa, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

analicarens, Syngnathus Duncker [G.] 1915:83 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Persian Gulf; Baluchistan; Mekran coast; Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1865.3.18.58-59 (2) Zanzibar, 1911.2.23.70 (1) Persian Gulf; ZSI F14295 (1), F14297 (1). •Valid as Bryx analicarens (Duncker 1915) -- (Dawson 1981:92 [ref. 21124], Dawson 1985:23 [ref. 6541], Randall 1995:99 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:132 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Kuiter 2009:285 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:121 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:48 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Bryx analicarens (Duncker 1915). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea, Western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar east to Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

andersonii, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1858:465 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 16960] Cocos-Keeling Islands, eastern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7227. Locality doubted by Dawson but regarded as correct by Allen & Smith-Vaniz 1994:2 [ref. 22386]. •Valid as Micrognathus andersonii (Bleeker 1858) -- (Dawson 1982:672 [ref. 5441], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:122 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:454 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:75 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:103 [ref. 22896], Randall et al. 1997:75 [ref. 25919], Senou & Yano 1999:2 [ref. 24392], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:529 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:529 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830] as andersoni, Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:45 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:111 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:834 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:234 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:87 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:207 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:124 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Micrognathus andersonii (Bleeker 1858). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Mariana and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

anguineus, Syngnathus Jenyns [L.] 1835:30 [A systematic catalogue of British vertebrate animals.; ref. 21620] No types known. Also appeared in Jenyns 1835:487 [ref. 18335]. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

anguisigola, Syngnathus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 113 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Lagoon of Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Available as above, brief description. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

anguisigulastrus, Syngnathus Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 113 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, name and short description but not treated as valid -- in the synonymy of Syngnathus rondeletti Delaroche 1809 [as condeletti]. Also not available from Ninni 1872:35 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

angustus, Hippocampus Günther [A.] 1870:200 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Freycinet Harbor, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1858.12.27.97-103 (7). •Valid as Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477] as angustatus, Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:72 [ref. 25488], Lourie et al. 1999:73 [ref. 23993], Paulus 1999:2269 [ref. 24794], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Kuiter 2001:335 [ref. 25900], Choo & Liew 2003:271 [ref. 26841], Paxton et al. 2006:825 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:96 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:88 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: Shark Bay to Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

annandalei, Microphis Hora [S. L.] 1924:472, Fig. 1 [Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 6 (pt 9); ref. 15450] Near edge of the lake at Lampam, Patelung, Talé [Thale] Sap, Thailand. Holotype: ZSI F10377/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:140 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:369 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1981:5 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:56 [ref. 6541], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

annulatus, Ichthyocampus Macleay [W.] 1878:364, Pl. 10 (fig. 6) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.26288-001 [ex MAMU F.262] (2); IA 1556 (1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Paxton et al. 2006:844 [ref. 29073], Larson et al. 2013:78 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

annulatus, Scyphius Risso [A.] 1827:187, Pl. 15 (fig. 45) [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Genus spelled Syphius on plate caption (p. 480). •Synonym of Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

anonymus, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Bibron) 1870:561 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in the synonymy of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 and apparently not subsequently validated. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

ansorgii, Syngnathus Boulenger [G. A.] 1910:559 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 6 (no. 36); ref. 577] Quanza River at Dondo, Angola. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1911.6.1.129. •Valid as Enneacampus ansorgii (Boulenger 1910) -- (Dawson 1981:469 [ref. 1071], Dawson 1986:281 [ref. 6201], Lévêque et al. 1989:121 [ref. 26480], Dawson 1990:658 [ref. 17542], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:577 [ref. 21590], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:577 [ref. 30079], Fritzsche 2016:2234 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Skelton 2019:228, 237 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Enneacampus ansorgii (Boulenger 1910). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: West Africa: Gambia south to Angola. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

antecedens, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 2000:850, Pl. 495 (fig. 3) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

antiquorum, Hippocampus Leach [W. E.] in Leach & Nodder 1814:104 [Zoological miscellany; being descriptions of new, or interesting animals v. 1-3; ref. 2738] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Appeared as Hippocampus antiquus in Risso 1827:183 [ref. 3757]. •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1990:660 [ref. 17542], Lourie et al. 1999:99 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:58 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

antiquus, Hippocampus Risso [A.] 1827:183 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] No locality. No types known. Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of Hippocampus antiquorum Leach 1814. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Lourie et al. 1999:99 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:58 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

arctum, Siphostoma Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:137 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas Bay, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 39639. •Valid as Bryx arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Fritzsche 1980:195 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:130 [ref. 9277]). •Valid as Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Dawson 1985:48 [ref. 6541], Allen & Robertson 1994:97 [ref. 22193], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:292 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:287 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:102 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:235 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888]). •Valid as Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889), subspecies arctus -- (Thomson et al. 2000:67 [ref. 25640]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: northern California to Peru. Habitat: marine.

argentatus, Syngnathus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:120 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Black Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus argentatus Pallas 1814 -- (Kuiter 2009:249 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662], Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Oruç & Engin 2018:1 [ref. 35874]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argulus, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:278 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 21 (pts 2-3); ref. 13448] Streams of St. Johanna, Anjoana Island, Comoro Islands. Syntypes: (2) ZMB 6232 (1). Replacement name for Syngnathus argus Peters 1852, preoccupied by Richardson 1840. Commented on in Peters 1855:465 [ref. 3449], but explicit replacement found only here. •Valid as Microphis argulus (Peters 1855) -- (Dawson 1984:125 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:130 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:285 [ref. 6201], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Senou & Hosokawa 1995:2 [ref. 24351], Senou et al. 1995:2 [ref. 24599], Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934], Fricke 1999:152 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794] as angulus, Nakabo 2000:527 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Keith et al. 2002:98 [ref. 31473], Nakabo 2002:527 [ref. 26001], Fricke 2004:47 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:271 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Coelonotus argulus (Peters 1855) -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:121 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Coelonotus argulus (Peters 1855). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Madagascar and Mauritius east to Marquesas Islands. Freshwater, transitional water, marine. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argus, Syngnathus Richardson [J.] 1840:29 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt 8, no. 87); ref. 3733] Exact locality unknown [probably Tasmania, Australia]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1392. Also described in Richardson 1844:183, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [ref. 20295]. •Valid as Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840) [sometimes as Stigmatophora] -- (Dawson 1982:578 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:176 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:93 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:468 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:76 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073], Browne & Smith 2007:5 [ref. 29428], Kuiter 2008:474 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:286 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1060 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, central and southern New South Wales (endemic to southern Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

argus, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1852:685 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1852; ref. 18539] Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands. Syntypes: (2) ZMB 6232 (1). Also in Peters 1868:106, Pl. 20 (fig. 4) [ref. 3440]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus argus Richardson 1840, replaced by Syngnathus argulus Peters 1855. •Synonym of Coelonotus argulus (Peters 1855) -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Coelonotus argulus (Peters 1855). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argyrostictus, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1856:33 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3849. Appeared first as name only in Kaup 1853:231. •Synonym of Parasyngnathus penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1981:90 [ref. 21124], Dawson 1984:75 [ref. 21119]). •Valid as Parasyngnathus argyrostictus (Kaup 1856) -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1985:100 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:278 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aristotelis, Acus Valmont de Bomare [J. C.] 1791:3 [Dictionnaire raisonné universel d'histoire naturelle, contenant l'histoire des animaux, ... v. 8; ref. 4508] Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 89). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

armillatus, Festucalex Prokofiev [A. M.] 2016:623, Fig. 1 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 56 (no. 5); ref. 34850] Hainan Island, Sanya (southern part of island), China. Holotype: ZIN 56093. Paratypes: ZIN. From English only. •Valid as Festucalex armillatus Prokofiev 2016. Current status: Valid as Festucalex armillatus Prokofiev 2016. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Hainan Island, China. Habitat: marine.

arnei, Hippocampus Roule [L.] 1916:383 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 22 (no. 7); ref. 20276] Mekong River, near Khemmarat on the Laos - Thailand border [South China Sea]. Syntypes: (2) identified by Lourie et al. (1999:165) as 2 separate species. Hippocampus arnei is a corrected name for Hippocampus aimei Roule, changed due to a typographical error in the original description [ref. 15066]. •Valid as Hippocampus arnei Roule 1916 -- (Kuiter 2009:98 [ref. 30404]). •Not available, possible a joke played on Roule or on the collector -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). •In the synonymy of Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richardson 1908 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:75 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:16 [ref. 34632] in part). •Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34632] in part). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

arnoldorum, Syngnathus Curtiss [A.] 1938:45 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Vaitapiha River, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

arundinaceus, Syngnathus Girard [C. F.] 1858:346 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] Coast of California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 972. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:211 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ascendens, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 1876:375 [179] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 8 Nov. 1876); ref. 14211] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 179 of separate. •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

ascendens, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 2000:851, Pl. 496 (fig. 2) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

asper, Syngnathus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:516 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] India. No types known. Based on "8. Solenostomus indicus, productiori rostro qvam sextus ..." of Klein 1744 (v. 4):26, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [ref. 30141]. Unnecessary replacement name for Syngnathus aculeatus Walbaum 1792. •Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

asperrimus, Solenognathus Philippi [R. A.] 1896:384 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile 93-95; ref. 3465] China Sea. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (1) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Solegnathus hardwickii (Gray 1830) -- (Dawson 1982:144 [ref. 5442], Dawson 1985:171 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Solegnathus hardwickii (Gray 1830). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

aterrimus, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:14, Pl. 9 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1241); ref. 2510] Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 6516. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6737 (3), USNM 49811 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Hippocampus aterrimus Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Sheiko 1983:18 [ref. 37041], Kim & Lee 1995:77 [ref. 22284]). •Synonym of Hippocampus mohnikei Bleeker 1853 -- (Kuiter 2009:115 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

atrichus, Hippocampus De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:528 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] France, northeastern Atlantic. No distinguishing features, not available. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

auliscus, Siphostoma Swain [J.] 1882:310 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 283); ref. 14300] Santa Barbara and San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 26807 (2, missing). Based on Siphostoma dimidiatum of Jordan & Gilbert 1880, not Gill. •Valid as Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882) -- (Fritzsche 1980:199 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:130 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:184 [ref. 6541], Swift et al. 1993:131 [ref. 22379], Allen & Robertson 1994:97 [ref. 22193], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:294 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:102 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:229 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:67 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:254 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:457 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aurolineatus, Doryrhamphus Randall [J. E.] & Earle [J. L.] 1994:283, Fig. 1; Pl. 1 [Fauna of Saudi Arabia v. 14; ref. 21643] Small cave, east side of Masirah Island, Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 11 meters. Holotype: BPBM 36180. Paratypes: BPBM 36320 (1). •Valid as Doryrhamphus aurolineatus Randall & Earle 1994 -- (Randall 1995:101 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus aurolineatus Randall & Earle 1994. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

auronitens, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:59 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3850. Appeared first in Kaup 1853:234 as name only and not available. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1979:467 [ref. 19285]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:152 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:138 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

australe, Acentronura Waite [E. R.] & Hale [H. M.] 1921:317, Fig. 53 [Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 4569] St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia. Holotype: SAMA F719. Paratypes: SAMA F720 (1). Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Valid as Acentronura australe Waite & Hale 1921 -- (Dawson 1984:157 [ref. 5276], Dawson 1985:18 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:412 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:443 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Stewart 2015:1053 [ref. 34254]). •Valid as Idiotropiscis australis (Waite & Hale 1921) [often seen as australe] -- (Kuiter 2004:163 [ref. 27782], Paxton et al. 2006:831 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:460 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:147 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Idiotropiscis australis (Waite & Hale 1921). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

bairdianus, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:574 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6112 (1), B-2756 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:49 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1982:104 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

baldwini, Dunckerocampus Herald [E. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1972:128, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 11); ref. 2097] Southeast of Pokai Bay, Waianae coast, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 70 feet. Holotype: CAS 24734. Paratypes: AMS 15607-001 (1); BMNH 1970.1.26.1 (1); BPBM 7783 (2), 11940-42 (1, 2, 1); CAS 14137-38 (1, 5), 14979 (1), 24735 (1); LACM 32126-1 (1); SMF 11426 (1); USNM 204683 (1). •Valid as Doryrhamphus baldwini (Herald & Randall 1972) -- (Dawson 1985:65 [ref. 6541], Mundy 2005:318 [ref. 28379]). •Valid as Dunckerocampus baldwini Herald & Randall 1972 -- (Kuiter 1998:81 [ref. 23586], Allen & Kuiter 2004:5 [ref. 28071], Randall 2007:161 [ref. 30952], Kuiter 2009:178 [ref. 30404] Allen & Erdmann 2012:193 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Dunckerocampus baldwini Herald & Randall 1972. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), Indonesia and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

balli, Corythoichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1925:24 [Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum No. 22; ref. 15538] Waikiki Reef, Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 3414. Paratypes: ?BPBM 10537 [ex BPBM 3414] (2), USNM 109377 (1). •Valid as Cosmocampus balli (Fowler 1925) -- (Dawson 1985:49 [ref. 6541], Mundy 2005:318 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:160 [ref. 30952], Kuiter 2009:237 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus balli (Fowler 1925). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

banneri, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1972:135, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 11); ref. 2097] About 1/2 mile off harbor of Ishigaki City, Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Islands, western North Pacific, depth 20-35 feet. Holotype: BPBM 8695. Paratypes: CAS 14375 (1). •Valid as Cosmocampus banneri (Herald & Randall 1972) -- (Dawson 1985:51 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:447 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:19 [ref. 13251], Ho et al. 1993:6 [ref. 22789], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:100 [ref. 22896], Senou & Ono 1998:6 [ref. 24383], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:149 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:523 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:523 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:19 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:106 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:817 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:239 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:191 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus banneri (Herald & Randall 1972). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Comores, Seychelles and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marshall Islands and Fiji and Tonga, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

bannwarthi, Ichthyocampus Duncker [G.] 1915:93 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°16'46"N, 33°46'25"E, depth 0-2.4 meters. Neotype: USNM 216292. Original types at NMH apparently lost; neotype selected by Dawson 1977:618 [ref. 7047]. •Valid as Lissocampus bannwarthi (Duncker 1915) -- (Dawson 1977:616 [ref. 7047], Dor 1984:78 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:115 [ref. 6541], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Kuiter 2009:219 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Lissocampus bannwarthi (Duncker 1915). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

barbarae, Siphostoma Swain [J.] in Swain & Meek 1884:238 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 428); ref. 14404] Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 31253. Based on Siphostoma bairdianum of Swain 1882:311 [ref. 14300] (not Syngnathus bairdianus Duméril). •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:211 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbarus, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:337 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ocean. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:37 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 1999:37 [ref. 24101]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbouri, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1908:247, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 27(Doc. 640) (for 1907); ref. 2492] Cuyo, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 61683. Paratypes: CAS-SU 20205 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richardson 1908 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:75 [ref. 23993], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Choo & Liew 2004:412 [ref. 28042], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:126 [ref. 36858], Kuiter 2009:97 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:200 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Lourie 2016:90 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:16 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richardson 1908. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia. Habitat: marine.

bargibanti, Hippocampus Whitley [G. P.] 1970:294 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 94 (3) No. 421; ref. 19119] Nouméa, New Caledonia, depth 30 meters. Lectotype: AMS I.15418-001. Paralectotypes: AMS I.15418-002 (1). Whitley mentioned that the type was in the Australian Museum, but 2 specimens were involved from the same locality; Gomon 1997:249 [ref. 22842] designated a lectotype. •Valid as Hippocampus bargibanti Whitley 1970 -- (Gomon 1997:249 [ref. 22842], Randall et al. 1997:501 [ref. 25919], Lourie et al. 1999:77 [ref. 23993], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:158 [ref. 25191], Kuiter 2001:305 [ref. 25900], Horne 2001:245 [ref. 25696], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Lourie & Randall 2003:284 [ref. 27038], Kuiter 2003:116 [ref. 27123], Fricke 2004:33 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:110 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:825 [ref. 29073], Shao et al. 2008:245 [ref. 29952], Lourie & Kuiter 2008:54 [ref. 29944], Gomon & Kuiter 2009:38 [ref. 30036], Kuiter 2009:138 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Reijnen et al. 2011:2 [ref. 33436], Foster et al. 2012:56 [ref. 31765], Allen & Erdmann 2012:200 [ref. 31980], Laurie 2016:74 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:134 [ref. 35660], Short et al. 2018:46 [ref. 36055], Fricke et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus bargibanti Whitley 1970. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia and Indonesia east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

bassensis, Kimblaeus Dawson [C. E.] 1980:518, Figs. 1-2 [Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research v. 31 (no. 4); ref. 1070] Tasman Sea, 38°10'S, 148°11'30"E, Victoria, Australia, depth 56.7 meters. Holotype: NMV A644. Paratypes: NMV A645 (1). •Valid as Kimblaeus bassensis Dawson 1980 -- (Dawson 1985:108 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:454 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:832 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:462 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:226 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Kimblaeus bassensis Dawson 1980. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Habitat: marine.

belcheri, Ichthyocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:30, Pl. 5 (fig. 39) [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] China, western North Pacific. Lectotype: BMNH 1983.8.18.4 [ex BMNH 1977.4.22.5]. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1983.8.18.5 [ex BMNH 1977.4.22.6] (1). Lectotype selected by Dawson 1977:616 [ref. 1066]. •Valid as Phoxocampus belcheri (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1977:616 [ref. 1066], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dor 1984:79 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:156 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], as blecheri, Nakabo 2000:522 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:522 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:52 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:112 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:838 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:268 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:59 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:87 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:209 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:19 [ref. 35333], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883].). Current status: Valid as Phoxocampus belcheri (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Seychelles east to Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

benedetto, Corythoichthys Allen [G. R.] & Erdmann [M. V.] 2008:122, Figs. 1-4 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (nos 3-4); ref. 29478] Northwest entrance to Selat Iris, 3°53.757'S, 134°06.638'E, Triton Bay, Papua Barat Province, Indonesia, depth 14 meters. Holotype: NCIP 6321. Paratypes: USNM 214895 (1), 391917 (1); WAM P.32887-001 (2). •Valid as Corythoichthys benedetto Allen & Erdmann 2008 -- (Kuiter 2009:189 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:188 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615] with author as Allen, Fricke et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys benedetto Allen & Erdmann 2008. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Socotra; Myanmar east to Indonesia and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

bentuviae, Dunckerocampus Fowler [H. W.] & Steinitz [H.] 1956:273, Fig. 22 [Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel v. 5B (no. 3-4); ref. 1478] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: ANSP 72137. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. Originally as ben-tuviae. •Synonym of Dunckerocampus multiannulatus (Regan 1903), but a valid subspecies -- (Dor 1984:76 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Doryrhamphus multiannulatus (Regan 1903) -- (Dawson 1985:67 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:448 [ref. 5650]). •Synonym of Doryrhamphus multiannulatus (Regan 1903), but a valid subspecies -- (Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356]). Current status: Synonym of Dunckerocampus multiannulatus (Regan 1903). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

bentuviai, Siokunichthys Clark [E.] 1966:4, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries, Sea Fisheries Research Station Haifa No. 41; ref. 9025] Nocra, Dahlak Archipelago, Eritrea, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ E62-488a (apparently lost). Paratypes: CAS 23805 (2, now 1); GCRL 13873 [ex HUJ 9247] (2); HUJ 9247 (12, now 10), ?9424 (2), ?9425 (1), 10101-02 (15, 4), 10103 (1, missing); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 147 (1); USNM 197763 (4). Type catalog: Golani 2006:24 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Siokunichthys bentuviai Clark 1966 -- (Dawson 1983:57 [ref. 5351], Dor 1984:79 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:165 [ref. 6541], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Kuiter 2009:270 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:211 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Siokunichthys bentuviai Clark 1966. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden east to Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

bermudensis, Corythoichthys Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1932:113 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 13 (no. 5); ref. 9330] Nonsuch Island, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): USNM 170913 [ex NYZS 9326]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648]. •Synonym of Bryx dunckeri (Metzlaar 1919) -- (Dawson 1982:113 [ref. 6764], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:189 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Bryx dunckeri (Metzelaar 1919). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

bernsteini, Doryichthys Bleeker [P.] 1867:398, Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 2; ref. 17049] Halmahera, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7245. •Synonym of Oostethis manadensis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Microphis manadensis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:158 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:141 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis manadensis (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

biaculeatus, Syngnathus Bloch [M. E.] 1785:10, Pl. 121 (figs. 1-2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 1; ref. 4866] Indian Ocean. Syntypes: ZMB 4329 (2). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:146 [ref. 24282]. On p. 6 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 4 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785) -- (Dor 1984:80 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985: [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Suzuki & Uno 1992:2 [ref. 24139], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:74 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:501 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:154 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2276 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:532 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:168 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:532 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:34 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:56 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:112 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:320 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:843 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:155 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:59 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:212 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33932], Lourie 2016:155 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marshall Islands and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

bicarinatus, Doryrhamphus Dawson [C. E.] 1981:13, Figs. 8 (lower pair), 9b, 10 [Ichthyological Bulletin of the J. L. B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology No. 44; ref. 5511] Sodwana Bay, Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 12-13 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 10049. Paratypes: GCRL 17063-64 (1, 1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 74-82 (2), 516 (1), ?2478 (1), 9384 (1), 9937 (1). •Valid as Doryrhamphus bicarinatus Dawson 1981 -- (Dawson 1985:60 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:448 [ref. 5650], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:176 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus bicarinatus Dawson 1981. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa, East Africa and Madagascar east to Maldives. Habitat: marine.

bicoarctatus, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1857:99 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7237. •Valid as Yozia bicoarctata (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1981:94 [ref. 21124], Dor 1984:80 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:76 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:90 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:103 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:133 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:78 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:76 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:95 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:154 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2276 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:526 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:157 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:526 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495] as Trachyramphus, Fricke 2004:57 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:113 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:844 [ref. 29073], Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:210 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:212 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:78 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33932], Lourie 2016:148 [ref. 34505], Koeda et al. 2016:19 [ref. 35333], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:127 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East and South Africa, Madagascar, Comoros and Mascarenes east to Mariana Islands and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

bicuspis, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:13, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5884. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:52 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Hippocampus biscuspis Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1990:660 [ref. 17542], Kuiter 2009:108 [ref. 30404]). •Questionably a synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:164 [ref. 23993]). •Uncertain as Hippocampus species inquirenda -- (Lourie et al. 2016:45 [ref. 34632]). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic (if valid). Habitat: marine.

bikiniensis, Ichthyocampus Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:242 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Bikini lagoon, near middle, Marshall Islands, depth 0-60 feet. Holotype: USNM 140244. Paratypes: USNM 140243 (1). •Valid as Ichthyocampus bikiniensis Herald 1953 -- (Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyocampus bikiniensis Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bilineatus, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] (ex Heckel) 1856:56, 75, Pl. 1 (fig. 8) [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] ?Asia (Borneo on label). Holotype (unique): NMW 40150. Kaup specimens or possible holotype: BMNH (1). •Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1981:5 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:56 [ref. 6541], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

biocellatus, Coelonotus Günther [A.] 1870:188 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] East Indian Archipelago (?). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.11.17.37. •Synonym of Microphis argulus (Peters 1855) -- (Dawson 1984:126 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:130 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:285 [ref. 6201]). •Valid as Microphis biocellatus (Günther 1870) -- (Kuiter 2009:271 [ref. 30404]). •Valod as Coelonotus biocellatus Günther 1870 -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Coelonotus biocellatus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and southern Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

biocellatus, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:311, Fig. 15 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] Shark Bay, Kok Island to Quobba Point, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.9398. Paratypes: WAM P.9402 (1), P.14584 (1), P.28611-005 (1), P.30081-002 (1), P.30998-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Hippocampus biocellatus Kuiter 2001 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:825 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:126 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus planifrons Peters 1877 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:35 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus planifrons Peters 1877. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Australia [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

biserialis, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Gray) 1856:33 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] India or China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.5.12.1. •Synonym of Parasyngnathus penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1984:76 [ref. 21119]). •Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1985:100 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:278 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

blainvilleanus, Syngnathus Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Gervais [F. L. P.] 1837:3, Pl. 17 [Magasin de Zoologie 1837 (year 7); ref. 17471] Oceania. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6050. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:49 [ref. 19576]. Also appeared as new in Eydoux & Gervais 1839, v. 5, p. 79, Pl. 32 [ref. 17472]. Leptonotus blainvillii Kaup 1856:46 [ref. 2575] is an unjustified emendation. •Valid as Leptonotus blainvilleanus (Eydoux & Gervais 1837) -- (Fritzsche 1980:190 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:41 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:112 [ref. 6541], Pequeño 1989:55 [ref. 14125], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:101 [ref. 24555], Pequeño 1999:172 [ref. 24566], Pequeño 2000:87 [ref. 25224], Kuiter 2009:220 [ref. 30404], Nión et al. 2016:44 [ref. 35565], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Luzzatto & Estalles 2019:8 [ref. 36805]). Current status: Valid as Leptonotus blainvilleanus (Eydoux & Gervais 1837). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Chile, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bleekeri, Hippocampus Fowler [H. W.] 1907:426, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1377] Victoria, Australia. Holotype: ANSP 33122 (in 2 pieces). Paratypes: ANSP 33184-87 (6, 1 with head missing, in jar with holotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Hippocampus bleekeri Fowler 1907 -- (Kuiter 2001:323 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:826 [ref. 29073] dated 1908, Kuiter 2008:454 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:54 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson 1827 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:448 [ref. 22532], Lourie et al. 1999:69 [ref. 23993], Lourie 2016:84 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia (if valid). Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Microphis Day [F.] 1865:265, Fig. [The fishes of Malabar; ref. 1074] River at Cochin, India. No types known. Day specimens: ZSI F2623 (1), F7163 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:158 [ref. 23762]. See Dawson 1978:149 [ref. 7026] for remarks on types. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1979:471 [ref. 19285]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:153 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:138 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

blochii, Syngnathoides Bleeker [P.] 1851:259 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 331] Banda Neira, Banda Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5) SMNS 10640 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:20 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:62 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785) -- (Dawson 1985:181 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 2006:843 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

boaja, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1850:16 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16884] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: SMNS 24578 (lost). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.343 (1), SMNS 10640 (1), MNHN 0000-6057 (1), NMV A851 (1), RMNH 7241 (4), ZMA 115986 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:21 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:62 [ref. 29864]. Holotype treated by Eschneyer; locality questioned. •Valid as Microphis boaja (Bleeker 1850) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:184 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Doryichthys boaja (Bleeker 1850) -- (Dawson 1981:12 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:55 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:98 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:244 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:175 [ref. 22772], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Freyhof et al. 2000:96 [ref. 25184], Kottelat 2001:146 [ref. 25780], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:163 [ref. 28284], Kuiter 2009:281 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Doryichthys boaja (Bleeker 1850). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia: Thailand to Vietnam, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Stigmatophora Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:203 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne markets, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: ?MNHN A-1435 (10) Yarra R. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:50 [ref. 19576]. Regarded as name only and in the synonymy of Stigmatopora nigra Kaup 1856 by Dawson 1980:288 [ref. 21122] and Dawson 1985:178 [ref. 6541], but the specimens were compared to the species on the previous page, as "...several similar to the others, but with enormous globular eyes...." and perhaps should be regarded as available. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Synonym of Stigmatopora nigra Kaup 1856 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:469 [ref. 22532] as Stigmatophora, Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora nigra Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boothae, Micrognathus Whitley [G. P.] 1964:162, Fig. 3 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 26 (no. 5); ref. 3772] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.5992. •Valid as Halicampus boothae (Whitley 1964) -- (Dawson 1985:79 [ref. 6541], Francis & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 20996], Senou & Aizawa 1993:4 [ref. 24329], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:530 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:530 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:233, 554 [ref. 26218], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:28 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:108 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:820 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:265 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus boothae (Whitley 1964). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: eastern Australia and Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

borboniensis, Hippocampus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:520 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9206. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:53 [ref. 19576]. Based on specimens and literature source. •Synonym of Hippocampus whitei Bleeker 1855 -- (Fricke 1999:152 [ref. 24106]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). •Valid as Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril 1870 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:79 [ref. 23993], Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:114 [ref. 30404] misspelled borboriensis, Lourie 2016:109 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:124 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus borboniensis Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: South Africa and Mozambique to Seychelles, Madagascar, Réunion (western Mascarenes) and Maldives. Habitat: marine.

boylei, Dunckerocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 1998:82, Figs. 1-3 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 23586] Flic-en-Flac, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, 20°12'S, 57°20'E, depth 20-95 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 056217. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 010090 (1), 051987 (1). •Valid as Doryrhamphus boylei (Kuiter 1998) -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Dunckerocampus boylei Kuiter 1998 -- (Allen & Kuiter 2004:5 [ref. 28071], Kuiter 2009:179 [ref. 30404], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:64 [ref. 35264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:193 [ref. 31980], Daly et al. 2018:4 [ref. 35897], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Dunckerocampus boylei Kuiter 1998. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Amirantes and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

brachycephalus, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 1868:444 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Lectotype: MCZ 11726. Paralectotypes: MCZ 54085 [ex MCZ11726] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:184 [ref. 22926] wrongly with a holotype and paratype. Lectotype selected by Dawson 1962:132 [ref. 6764]. •Valid as Cosmocampus brachycephalus (Poey 1868) -- (Dawson 1982:128 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:125 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:268 [ref. 24472], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:189 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:19 [ref. 28815], Kuiter 2009:236 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus brachycephalus (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brachyrhinus, Micrognathus Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:262, Fig. 39f [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Southern coast of Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3825, depth 75 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 118082. Paratypes: USNM 137269 (1). •Valid as Minyichthys brachyrhinus (Herald 1953) -- (Dawson 1985:143 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Mundy 2005:320 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:163 [ref. 30952], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Minyichthys brachyrhinus (Herald 1953). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sumatra (Indonesia) east to Hawaiian islands, south to Fiji. Habitat: marine.

brachyrhynchops, Doryichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1934:145, Figs. 119-120 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Chantaboon [Chantaburi], southeastern Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 59832 [with paratypes] or CAS-SU 39420 (1). Paratypes: ANSP 59833-47 (15). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. Dawson 1985:57 [ref. 6541] lists SU 39420 as presumptive holotype. •Synonym of Doryichthys martensii (Peters 1868) -- (Dawson 1981:10 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:57 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys martensii (Peters 1868). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

brachyrhynchus, Amphelikturus Parr [A. E.] 1930:32, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 4); ref. 3370] Crooked Island, Bahamas. Holotype: YPM 2532. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:26 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Amphelikturus dendriticus Barbour 1905 -- (Dawson 1982:11 [ref. 6764], Lourie 2016:155 [ref. 34505]). Current status: Synonym of Amphelikturus dendriticus (Barbour 1905). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

brachyrhynchus, Hippocampus Duncker [G.] 1914:295 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 10 (pt 5, art. 18); ref. 14148] India. Syntypes: ZSI F8508 (9), ?F8539/1 (1) Rambha Bay, F14299 (1) Mekran Coast. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:140 [ref. 20743]. •Valid as Hippocampus brachyrhynchus Duncker 1914 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:767 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:95 [ref. 23993]). •Questionable synonym of Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838 -- (Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

brachyrhynchus, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:42 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6133. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:46 [ref. 19576]. See Fricke 1999:147 [ref. 24106]. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1985:183 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brachysoma, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1855:327 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 348] Batu Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7250. •Valid as Choeroichthys brachysoma (Bleeker 1855) -- (Dawson 1976:43 [ref. 7375], Dor 1984:75 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:32 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:414 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:19 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1994:225 [ref. 21645], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:99 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:133 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:500 [ref. 25919], Senou & Ono 1998:4 [ref. 24383], Myers 1999:89 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:147 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:521 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:521 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:104 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:118 [ref. 28745], Paxton et al. 2006:814 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:228 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:57 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:187 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:75 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:67 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Choeroichthys brachysoma (Bleeker 1855). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Socotra east to Marshall and Society islands, north to Philippines, south to eastern Australia, Fiji and Samoa. Habitat: marine.

brachyurus, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1854:16 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 6); ref. 16914] Jakarta, Panimbang, western Java; Priaman, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7249 (106 mm). Paralectotypes and/or Bleeker specimens: (4) BMNH 1867.11.28.358 (1) [Bleeker coll.], NMV 46422 (1), RMNH 7249 (2). Lectotype selected by Dawson 1979:469 [ref. 19285] but Roberts 1993:36 [ref. 21799] indicates that the species was based on a drawing left in Java. •Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1853) -- (Roberts 1993:36 [ref. 21799]). •Valid as Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854), subspecies brachyurus -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:450 [ref. 25598], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:527 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Allen et al. 2002:338 [ref. 25930], Keith et al. 2002:100 [ref. 31473], Nakabo 2002:527 [ref. 26001], Fricke 2004:48 [ref. 28269], Miller 2006:321 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Motomura et al. 2010:87 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Microphis (Oostethus) brachyurus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Koeda et al. 2016:19 [ref. 35333]). •Valid as Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1979:467 [ref. 19285], Lee et al. 1980:567 [ref. 22416], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:128 [ref. 23100], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Bussing 1998:257 [ref. 24179], Keith et al. 1999:96 [ref. 24548], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34492]). •Valid as Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:152 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:138 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442], Pethiyagoda 1991:199 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:770 [ref. 20764], Allen 1991:108 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 1992:300 [ref. 21400], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Skelton 1993:355 [ref. 24071], Rainboth 1996:176 [ref. 22772], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1060 [ref. 23897], Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934] as brachyrus, Fricke 1999:152 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:232 [ref. 24550], Musick et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24959], Allen et al. 2000:88 [ref. 27467], Skelton 2001:355 [ref. 27406], Lim et al. 2002:80 [ref. 28310], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Paxton et al. 2006:835 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241] with subspecies, Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932] dated 1853, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Robins et al. 2018:240 [ref. 35886], Fricke et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka and India east to Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Pseudophallus Dawson [C. E.] 1974:406, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 87 (no. 36); ref. 7497] Rio Tocantins, Igarapé Inó, Faro de Panaquera, Pará, Brazil, 1°52'S, 49°10'W. Holotype: MZUSP 10278. Paratypes: GCRL 12755 (2); MZUSP 10279 (2), 10280 (1), 10627 (1); USNM 212058 (1). •Synonym of Pseudophallus mindii (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pseudophallus brasiliensis Dawson 1974 -- (Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Kuiter 2009:242 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Pseudophallus brasiliensis Dawson 1974. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brauni, Enchelyocampus Dawson [C. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1978:407, Figs. 6-7 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 1073] Off Tantabiddi Creek, North West Cape, Western Australia, 21°55'S, 113°56'E, depth 10 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25800-001. Paratypes: CAS 17789 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:15 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Bulbonaricus brauni (Dawson & Allen 1978) -- (Dawson 1983:569 [ref. 5351], Dawson 1985:25 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:413 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:89 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Suzuki et al. 2003:2 [ref. 26785], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Paxton et al. 2006:812 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:290 [ref. 30404], Ho & Lin 2014:28 [ref. 33575], Koeda & Fujii 2015:34 [ref. 35368], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Bulbonaricus brauni (Dawson & Allen 1978). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

brederi, Corythoichthys Parr [A. E.] 1930:30, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 3 (art. 4); ref. 3370] Cat Island, Bahamas. Holotype: YPM 2528. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:26 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Cosmocampus albirostris (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1982:122 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus albirostris (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

brevicaudata, Stigmatophora argus var. Lucas [A. H. S.] 1891:14 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (n. s.) v. 3; ref. 14501] Geelong River, Victoria, Australia. No types known. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840) -- (Dawson 1985:176 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevicaudum, Siphostoma Meek [S. E.] 1904:163, Fig. 51 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 5; ref. 2958] Boca del Río, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 4586. Paratypes: FMNH 4587 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), subspecies lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:476 [ref. 19285], Dawson 1982:17 [ref. 6764]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), subspecies lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:233 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

brevicaudus, Syngnathus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:48 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Swan River, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:844 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

breviceps, Hippocampus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:710 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Adelaide, South Australia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7082 (missing in 2001). •Valid as Hippocampus breviceps Peters 1869 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:97 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:448 [ref. 22532], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Kuiter 1997:72 [ref. 25488], Lourie et al. 1999:75 [ref. 23993], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Kuiter 2001:312 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:826 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:455 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:46 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:86 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus breviceps Peters 1869. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

breviceps, Siokunichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1963:525, Pl. 80 (figs. J-M) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 27; ref. 6516] Pinda, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 150. Paratypes: GCRL 15962 (1), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 932 (2), USNM 197703 (1). •Valid as Siokunichthys breviceps Smith 1963 -- (Dawson 1983:56 [ref. 5351], Dawson 1985:166 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:56 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:840 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:270 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:211 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Siokunichthys breviceps Smith 1963. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mozambique, east to Indonesia, Philippines and Great Barrier Reef (Australia). Habitat: marine.

brevicorpus, Micrognathus Fricke [R.] 2004:42, Fig. 20 [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie A (Biologie). No. 668; ref. 28269] Ile Sainte-Marie, 22°17'26"S, 166°27'36"E, Province Sud, Grande Terre, New Caledonia, depth 1-3 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2004-2030. Paratypes: AMS IO.18446-001 (1), IO-38050-004-5 (2); SMNS 21750 (2). Type catalog: Fricke 2005:62 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Micrognathus brevicorpus Fricke 2004 -- (Kuiter 2009:234 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Micrognathus brevicorpus Fricke 2004. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

brevidorsalis, Doryrhamphus de Beaufort [L. F.] 1913:103 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 19; ref. 14940] Stream near Kajeli, Buru Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109184. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:80 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Microphis brevidorsalis (de Beaufort 1913) -- (Dawson 1984:170 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:133 [ref. 6541], Allen 1991:108 [ref. 21090], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Fricke 2004:49 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:271 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Lophocampus brevidorsalis (de Beaufort 1913) -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Lophocampus brevidorsalis (de Beaufort 1913). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to western Caroline Islands and Fiji, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

breviperula, Acentronura Fraser-Brunner [A.] & Whitley [G. P.] 1949:148, Fig. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 13010] Mabuiag, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1890.1.14.51. •Synonym of Acentronura tentaculata Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1985:17 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:412 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:812 [ref. 29073]). •Valid as Acentronura breviperula Fraser-Brunner & Whitley 1949 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830] as brevipercula, Fricke 2004:8 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:144 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:374 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:185 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:44 [ref. 33932], Lourie 2016:155 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:91 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Acentronura breviperula Fraser-Brunner & Whitley 1949. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: East Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Hippocampus Schinz [H. R.] 1822:262 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: ZMMU P-676. Name appeared as Hyppocampus brevirostris. Also in Cuvier 1829 based on brief description and citation to "Will. J. 25, f. 5." Not here regarded as a replacement name, but a new name based on literature sources, including Syngnathus hippocampus of Bloch. Neotype designated by Vasil'eva 2007:325 [ref. 29769]. The neotype designations by Vasil'eva for hippocampus and brevirostris are regarded as disrupting stability for the eastern Atlantic seahorses -- involving nominal species (hippocampus, guttulatus, brevirostris and antiquorum) with their very complex underlying ancient literature references. It is suggested here that the International Commission should be petitioned to set aside Vasil'eva's neotypes and select new ones to fix hippocampus as the available name for the short-snouted species and to fix guttulatuslong-snouted species, and to suppress brevirostris as being an unused name. •Objective synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget 1968:1057 [ref. 26392]). •Valid as Hippocampus brevirostris Schinz 1822 -- (Vasil'eva 2007:325 [ref. 29769], Kuiter 2009:64 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1990:660 [ref. 17542], Lourie et al. 1999:99 [ref. 23993], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:68 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:36 [ref. 36649], Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevirostris, Syngnathus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:144 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 902. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.11.9.60 (1), SMF 901 (1), SMF 4909-13 (5). •Valid as Micrognathus brevirostris (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1982:661 [ref. 5441], Dor 1984:79 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:123 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Randall 2005:111 [ref. 28239] with subspecies, Paxton et al. 2006:834 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:233 [ref. 30404], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Micrognathus brevirostris (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Hemprich & Ehrenberg) 1856:37 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Trieste, Italy, Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: ZMB 4335 (2). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus brevirostris Rüppell 1838. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Syngnathus Girard [C. F.] 1854:156 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: USNM 969 (orig. 1 in ledger, now 3). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus brevirostris Rüppell 1838, replaced by Syngnathus dimidiatus Gill 1862:284. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:210 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

briggsii, Histiogamphelus McCulloch [A. R.] 1914:30, Fig. 4 [Australian Zoologist v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2939] Wineglass Bay, east coast of Tasmania, Australia, depth 11 fathoms. Holotype (unique): TMH D141/13022 [ex D79]. Type catalog: Andrews 1971:2 [ref. 31471] with genus as Histogamphelus, Andrews 1992:111 [ref. 22689]. •Valid as Histiogamphelus briggsii McCulloch 1914 -- (Dawson 1984:106 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:102 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:84 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:450 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:830 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:457 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:224 [ref. 30404] as briggsi, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Histiogamphelus briggsii McCulloch 1914. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and eastern South Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brocki, Micrognathus Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:263, Figs. 39g, 40 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon in Amen Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, depth 30 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 140235. •Valid as Halicampus brocki (Herald 1953) -- (Dawson 1985:80 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:418 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:74 [ref. 15987], Senou & Aizawa 1993:5 [ref. 24323], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:74 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:530 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:530 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Fricke 2004:28 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:821 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:262 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242] Allen & Erdmann 2012:196 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:76 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34709], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus brocki (Herald 1953). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Indonesia east to Marshall Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

brucei, Bulbonaricus Dawson [C. E.] 1984:569, Figs. 5-6 [Copeia 1984 (no. 3); ref. 5275] Central lagoon at Pangani, Maziwi Islands, Tanzania, about 5°05'S, 39°07'E, depth 1 meter. Holotype: SMF 15521. Paratypes: GCRL 16973 (2), SMF 18119 (3). •Valid as Bulbonaricus brucei Dawson 1984 -- (Dawson 1985:26 [ref. 6541], Suzuki et al. 2003:4 [ref. 26785], Kuiter 2009:290 [ref. 30404], Ho & Lin 2014:25 [ref. 33575], Koeda & Fujii 2015:33 [ref. 35368], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Bulbonaricus brucei Dawson 1984. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Tanzania. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Hippocampus Bean [T. H.] 1906:32 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 19; ref. 15640] Long Bird Island, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): FMNH 5954. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:46 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:190 [ref. 25013], Kuiter 2009:72 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

bucculentus, Syngnathus Rathke [H.] 1836:27 [317], Pl. 2 (figs. 9-10) [Mémoires présentés à l'Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg par divers savaus et lus dans ses assemblées. Mémoires des savaus étrangers v. 3; ref. 18611] Sevastopol and Feodosiya [Feodosia], Ukraine. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662], Savvaitova 1998:114 [ref. 23594]). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

budi, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1856:77 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (7) RMNH 7236 [?7238] (3). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.349 (1). •Synonym of Microphis leiaspis (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1985:132 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:285 [ref. 6201]). •Synonymy of Coelonotus leiaspis (Bleeker 1854) -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Synonym of Coelonotus leiaspis (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caba, Trachyrhamphus Seale [A.] 1910:503 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Balayan Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 2324 (apparently destroyed). •Synonym of Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1985:84 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

caballus, Syngnathus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:378, 390 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:318, 323 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot 1853. •Synonym of Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot 1853 -- (Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

caldwelli, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1972:133, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 11); ref. 2097] Anakena Cove, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 4.6 meters. Holotype: LACM 6560-3. Paratypes: UBC 65440 (1), 65449 (2); BPBM 6596 (1), 10856 (2); CAS 13922 (1), 24202 (2); LACM 6560-41 (2); USNM 203409 (1). •Synonym of Parasyngnathus howensis Whitley 1948 -- (Fritzsche 1981 [ref. 21286]). •Synonym of Cosmocampus howensis (Whitley 1948) -- (Dawson 1985:52 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:235 [ref. 30404]). •Valid as Cosmocampus caldwelli (Herald & Randall 1972) -- (J. Randall, July 2013). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus caldwelli (Herald & Randall 1972). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

californiensis, Doryrhamphus Gill [T. N.] 1862:284 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1667] Cabo San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Fritzsche 1980:188 lists SU 19255 as holotype, but that is incorrect; the type is apparently lost or at least is not at CAS. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus melanopleura (Bleeker 1858) -- (Fritzsche 1980:188 [ref. 1511]). •Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:5 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:60 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

californiensis, Syngnathus Storer [D. H.] 1845:73 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 2 (1845-1848); ref. 18837] California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Non-type: MNHN A-3203 [ex USNM] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:48 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845 -- (Fritzsche 1980:205 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:130 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:185 [ref. 6541], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus californiensis Storer 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California to southern Baja California. Habitat: marine.

camelopardalis, Hippocampus Bianconi [G. G.] 1854:68 [Rendiconto delle Sessioni dell'Accademia delle Scienze dell'Instituto dei Bologna 1853-1854 (for 11 May 1854); ref. 17949] Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. but see BMNH 1920.12.6.2. Name also appeared in Bianconi 1854:223 [ref. 295] and Bianconi 1855:145 [ref. 26452] with figure. •Valid as Hippocampus camelopardalis Bianconi 1854 -- (Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Lourie et al. 1999:83 [ref. 23993], Fricke 1999:151 [ref. 24106] as cameleopardalis, Kuiter 2009:121 [ref. 30404] dated 1855, Lourie 2016:102 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:124 [ref. 35805], Short et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus camelopardalis Bianconi 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: South Africa and Mozambique to Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes). Habitat: marine.

capensis, Hippocampus Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:11, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Marine Investigations in South Africa No. 8; ref. 14723] Knysna Harbor, Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.12.17.3. •Valid as Hippocampus capensis Boulenger 1900 -- (Dawson 1986:453 [ref. 5650], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Lourie et al. 1999:85 [ref. 23993], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:140 [ref. 28072], Kuiter 2009:119 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:116 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:19 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus capensis Boulenger 1900. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern and southwestern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Siphostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Not available, name only. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

carce, Syngnathus Hamilton [F.] 1822:13, 362 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Tide-way of Ganges River, India. Neotype: BMNH 1889.2.1.4077 (99.5 mm SL). Neotype designated by Dawson 1977:603 [ref. 1066]; called invalid by Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989].. •Valid as Ichthyocampus carce (Hamilton 1822) -- (Dawson 1977:602 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:107 [ref. 6541], Ataur Rahman 1989:36 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:768 [ref. 20764], Liang in Pan et al. 1991:343 [ref. 23876], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:176 [ref. 22772], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:50 [ref. 31338], Kuiter 2009:280 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Suresh et al. 2018:169 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyocampus carce (Hamilton 1822). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Sulawesi (Indonesia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caretta, Syngnathus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1880:419 [95] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (1. Abth.) (nos 3-4); ref. 2624] Queens Cliff, 38°16'S, 144°40'E, Port Phillip, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): SMNS 1810. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:18 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:63 [ref. 29864]. On p. 95 of separate. •Synonym of Syngnathus curtirostris Castelnau 1872 -- (Dawson 1978:292 [ref. 8940]). •Synonym of Pugnaso curtirostris (Castelnau 1872) -- (Dawson 1984:96 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:163 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:465 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:840 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Pugnaso curtirostris (Castelnau 1872). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caribbaeus, Syngnathus Dawson [C. E.] 1979:672, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 92 (no. 4); ref. 1069] Fox Bay, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 79703. Paratypes: FMNH 8302 [ex USNM 79669] (1, not found), 8304 (1), 8305 (1), 8306-07 (1, 1); GCRL 1956 (1), 14541 (1), 15524-25 (2, 1); USNM 79697 (1), 79701 (2). •Valid as Syngnathus caribbaeus Dawson 1979 -- (Dawson 1982:108 [ref. 6764], Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:201 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:272 [ref. 24472], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:232 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:36 [ref. 33341], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus caribbaeus Dawson 1979. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

carinatum, Siphostoma Gilbert [C. H.] 1892:547 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 880); ref. 1626] Gulf of California, Mexico, 31°31'45"N, 114°19'W, Albatross. Lectotype: CAS-SU 240. Paralectotypes: MCZ 35941 [ex USNM 48250] (1); CAS-SU 67670 [ex CAS-SU 240] (3); USNM 48250 (4), 125028 (2), 127139 (2). Lectotype selected by Fritzsche 1980:202 [ref. 1511]. •Valid as Syngnathus carinatus (Gilbert 1892) -- (Fritzsche 1980:202 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:185 [ref. 6541], Thomson et al. 2000:67 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus carinatus (Gilbert 1892). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

carinirostris, Urocampus Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:200 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne markets, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: ?MNHN A-1435 (10) Yarra R. •Valid as Urocampus carinirostris Castelnau 1872 -- (Dawson 1980:838 [ref. 6909], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:195 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:92 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:471 [ref. 22532], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:520 [ref. 25086], Sakai et al. 2001:92 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:520 [ref. 26001], Paxton et al. 2006:845 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:477 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:282 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Urocampus carinirostris Castelnau 1872. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Tasmania and eastern Australia to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Syngnathus Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1456 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] Name in synonymy of Syngnathus pelagicus, not available. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

caroliniana, Siphostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Not available, name only. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

caspius, Syngnathus Eichwald [C. E. von] 1831:61 [Zoologia specialis quam expositis animalibus tum vivis Pars posterior [3]; ref. 5562] Balkhan Bay, Caspian Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Also appeared as new in Eichward 1838:106 [ref. 34622]. •Synonym of Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831, but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Savvaitova 1998:114 [ref. 23594]). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). •Valid as Syngnathus caspius Eichwald 1831 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus caspius Eichwald 1831. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Caspian Sea basin, Eurasia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

casscsio, Hippocampus Zhang [Y.-H.], Qin [G.], Wang [X.] & Lin [Q.] 2016:385, Figs. 1, 2a [Zootaxa 4170 (no. 2); ref. 34762] Beihai, Beibu Bay, China (approximately 21°20'N, 109°02'E), depth 15 meters. Holotype: SCSMBC 007414. Paratypes: SCSMBC. •Valid as Hippocampus casscsio Zhang, Qin, Wang & Lin 2016. Current status: Valid as Hippocampus casscsio Zhang, Qin, Wang & Lin 2016. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

castelnaui, Leptoichthys Macleay [W.] 1881:295 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Victoria, South Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9281. Based on Leptoichthys fistularius of Castelnau 1873 [ref. 758]. •Synonym of Leptoichthys fistularius Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:110 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:455 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:832 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Leptoichthys fistularius Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

caudalis, Lissocampus Waite [E. R.] & Hale [H. M.] 1921:306, Fig. 46 [Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 4569] Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Holotype: SAMA F701. Paratypes: SAMA F702 (1). Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Valid as Lissocampus caudalis Waite & Hale 1921 -- (Dawson 1977:601 [ref. 7047], Dawson 1985:116 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:91 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:456 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:76 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:833 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:464 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:217 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Lissocampus caudalis Waite & Hale 1921. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Tasmania, Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

caudatus, Microphis Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:276 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 3442] Freshwater stream in Loquilócun, Samar Island, Philippines; Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) ZMB 6646 (1), ?6686 (1). •Synonym of Microphis retzii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:166 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:134 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Lophocampus retzii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis retzii (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

caudocarinatus, Doryichthys Weber [M.] 1907:229 [Süsswasserfische von Neu-Guinea v. 5 (Zool.) pt 2; ref. 4599] Tawarin River, northern Irian Jaya [Papua, Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112676. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:80 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Microphis caudocarinatus (Weber 1907) -- (Dawson 1984:174 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:133 [ref. 6541], Allen 1991:108 [ref. 21090], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Kuiter 2009:274 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Microphis caudocarinatus (Weber 1907). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Papua, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

caulleryi, Acanthognathus Chabanaud [P.] 1929:166, Fig. 1 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 54 (for 12 Mar. 1929); ref. 15887] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1929-0009. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:42 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Dawson 1985:67 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus (Bleeker 1853). Current status: Synonym of Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus (Bleeker 1853). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

cayennensis, Syngnathus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1882:176 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 6; ref. 3894] Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4247. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:43-44 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), subspecies lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:476 [ref. 19285], Dawson 1982:17 [ref. 6764]). •Synonym of Microphus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853) -- (authors). •Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cayorum, Corythroichthys Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1898:128, Pl. 7 (fig. 7) [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 17 (art. 5) (for 1897); ref. 1281] Near Crawfish Bar, Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 48784. Paratypes: USFC 526 (1, ? now at USNM), CAS-SU 6313 (1), USNM 127138 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Cosmocampus brachycephalus (Poey 1868) -- (Dawson 1982:128 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus brachycephalus (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

ceylonensis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:168 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Sri Lanka and Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1849.7.27.92 (1, dry) Sri Lanka, 1868.5.3.63 (1, not found). •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus longirostris Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1984:176 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:193 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus longirostris Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

chapmani, Dunckerocampus caulleryi Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:250 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Rocky ledge on Ducos Peninsula, Nouméa, New Caledonia. Holotype: CAS 19942. Paratypes: CAS-SU 16118 (2). •Valid as Doryrhamphus chapmani (Herald 1953) -- (Dawson 1985:66 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794]). •Valid as Dunckerocampus chapmani Herald 1953 -- (Kuiter 1998:81 [ref. 23586], Fricke 2004:22 [ref. 28269], Allen & Kuiter 2004:5 [ref. 28071], Kuiter 2009:181 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Dunckerocampus chapmani Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

chihiroe, Syngnathus Matsunuma [M.] 2017:386, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4232 (no. 3); ref. 35141] Hirase Shoal, southwest of Yakushima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan (East China Sea), 30°02'N, 130°03'E, depth 160-162 meters. Holotype (unique): NSMT-P 106296. •Valid as Syngnathus chihiroe Matsunuma 2017. Current status: Valid as Syngnathus chihiroe Matsunuma 2017. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Yakushima Island, East China Sea. Habitat: marine.

chilensis, Acmonotus Philippi [R. A.] 1896:383 [Anales de la Universidad de Chile 93-95; ref. 3465] Pellahue, Chile. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Leptonotus blainvilleanus (Eydoux & Gervais 1837) -- (Fritzsche 1980:190 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:41 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:112 [ref. 6541], Luzzatto & Estalles 2019:8 [ref. 36805]). Current status: Synonym of Leptonotus blainvilleanus (Eydoux & Gervais 1837). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chinensis, Hippocampus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:249 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Oriental seas, Beijing [Peking], China. No types at ZIN. Appeared as "Hippocampus Chinensis (Syngnathus Hippocampus Linn.)..." so probably can be regarded as a replacement name. •Valid as Hippocampus chinensis Basilewsky 1855 -- (Kuiter 2009:114 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: coasts of mainland China. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:167 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Not available; name on specimens (BMNH 1848.3.16.117) mentioned under Syngnathus serratus. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

chokderi, Doryichthys Ataur Rahman [A. K.] 1976:47, Figs. 1-3 [Bangladesh Journal of Zoology v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 7387] Bay of Bengal, River Dakatia, Bangladesh. No types known. •Valid as Doryichthys chokderi Ataur Rahman 1976 -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:39 [ref. 24860], Ataur Rahman 2003:53 [ref. 31338]). •Synonym of Microphis cuncalus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Dawson 1984:148 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:136 [ref. 6541], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:771 [ref. 20764], Kuiter 2009:274 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis cuncalus (Hamilton 1822). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

chorda, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:3 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Baltic Sea. No types known. Based on Solenostomus lumbrici formis nostras ...of Klein 1744:27, pl. 5, fig. 5 [ref. 30141], a pre-Linnaean name. •Synonymy of Nerophis lumbriciformis (Jenyns 1835). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis lumbriciformis (Jenyns 1835). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

chorda, Syngnathus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:516 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Based on Syngnathus chorda Walbaum 1792, but not explicity mentioned. •Objective synonym of Syngnathus chorda Walbaum 1792. •Synonym of Nerophis lumbriciformis (Jenyns 1835). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis lumbriciformis (Jenyns 1835). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

cilo, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:7 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] India orientalis [East Indies]. No types known. Unused senior synonym of Syngnathus bicoarctatus Bleeker 1857. Based on Solenostomas Indiæ orientalis ... of Klein 1744, p. 25, pl. 4, fig. 1 [ref. 30141], a pre-Linnaean name. •In the synonymy of Trachyrhamphus bicoractatus (Bleeker 1857). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoractatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

cinctus, Choeroichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1976:48, Figs. 5-6 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 89 (no. 3); ref. 7375] About 150 meters offshore, Latuhalat Island, Namalatu, Molucca Strait, Indonesia, about 3°47'S, 128°06'E, depth 11-18.3 meters. Holotype: USNM 214567. Paratypes: BPBM 18610 (1), USNM 210061 (1). •Valid as Choeroichthys cinctus Dawson 1976 -- (Dawson 1985:33 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:414 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:105 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:814 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:229 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:187 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Choeroichthys cinctus Dawson 1976. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Samoa, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

cinctus, Syngnathus Ramsay [E. P.] 1882:111 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 18594] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Neotype: AMS I.19107-001 [ex AMS IB.556]. Neotype designated by Dawson 1977:626 [ref. 1066]; syntypes AMS A.12897 (2, lost). •Valid as Festucalex cinctus (Ramsay 1882) -- (Dawson 1977:624 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:70 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:88 [ref. 23929], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:80 [ref. 25488], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Fricke 2004:27 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:819 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:206 [ref. 30404], Larson et al. 2013:75 [ref. 32988], Allen & Erdmann 2015:51 [ref. 33644], Prokofiev 2016:624 [ref. 34850], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex cinctus (Ramsay 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: northern and eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

clarionensis, Bryx (Bryx) Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:198, Fig. 7A [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] Clarion Island, Revillagigedo Islands, off western Mexico. Holotype: SIO 74-116 [ex UCLA W55-136]. Paratypes: GCRL 15754 [ex SIO 74-116] (1), SIO 74-116 (7, 1 c&s). •Valid as Bryx clarionensis Fritzsche 1980 -- (Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). •Synonym of Bryx veleronis Herald 1940 -- (Dawson 1985:24 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Bryx veleronis Herald 1940. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Revillagigedo Islands [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

coccineus, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] 1940:57 [Report Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-1938 v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 2095] Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands, depth 3 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 101688. Paratypes: LACM 20113 [ex AHF 7] (1); CAS-SU 34340 (1); USNM 92120 (1), 101690 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:62 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Bryx coccineus (Herald 1940) -- (Fritzsche 1980:196 [ref. 1511]). •Synonym of Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1985:49 [ref. 6541], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:287 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:67 [ref. 25640], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957]). •Valid as Cosmocampus coccineus (Herald 1940) -- (Kuiter 2009:238 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus coccineus (Herald 1940). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

coelorhynchus, Urocampus Günther [A.] 1873:103 [7] [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 6423] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.4.3.74-75 (2), 1873.4.3.210 (1). On p. 7 of separate. •Synonym of Urocampus carinirostris Castelnau 1872 -- (Dawson 1980:838 [ref. 6909], Dawson 1985:195 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:471 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:845 [ref. 29073]). •Probably valid as Urocampus coelorhynchus Günther 1873, needs investigation -- (Kuiter 2009:282 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Urocampus carinirostris Castelnau 1872. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

colemani, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2003:113, Figs. 1-4 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 55; ref. 27123] Near Erscott's Hole, lagoon, Lord Howe Island, about 32°32.950'S, 159°05.080'E, depth 5 meters. Holotype: AMS I41181-001. Paratypes: AMS I41181-002 (1). •Valid as Hippocampus colemani Kuiter 2003 -- (Fricke 2004:39 [ref. 28269], Lourie & Kuiter 2008:54 [ref. 29944], Gomon & Kuiter 2009:41 [ref. 30036], Kuiter 2009:135 [ref. 30404], Reijnen et al. 2011:2 [ref. 33436], Allen & Erdmann 2012:201 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:76 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36055]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus colemani Kuiter 2003. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Lord Howe Island. ? Papua New Guinea and Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

comes, Hippocampus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1371 [389], Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.6.17.9 [ex 1860.3.19.532]. On p. 389 of separate. See Fricke 1999:146 [ref. 24106]. •Valid as Hippocampus comes Cantor 1849 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:87 [ref. 23993], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Choo & Liew 2003:271 [ref. 26841], Choo & Liew 2004:412 [ref. 28042], Kuiter 2009:106 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:201 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:92 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus comes Cantor 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: East Andaman Sea to Malacca Strait, Singapore to Lesser Sunda islands (Indonesia) to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

compitalis, Yozia Whitley [G. P.] 1950:238 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 4712] Pyrmont, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.1665. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:844 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

compressus, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) 1856:61 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, name first mentioned in the synonymy of Hemithylacus leiaspis of Kaup and apparently not subsequently validated. Also in Kaup 1856:27 [ref. 2575]. •Questionably in the synonymy of Microphis argulus (Peters 1855) or Microphis leiaspis (Bleeker 1853) -- (Dawson 1984:125 [ref. 5879]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

conspicillatus, Halicampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:22 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not an available name; account applies to Halicampus grayi Kaup which was included in synonymy. MNHN records list MNHN 6025 as a syntype from Australia. •In the synonymy of Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856 [by ICZN Opinion 53] -- (Dawson 1985:84 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

conspicillatus, Syngnathus Jenyns [L.] 1842:147, Pl. 27 (fig. 4) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.27. •Synonym of Corythoichthys flavofasciatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1977:306 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:39 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 2006:815 [ref. 29073]). •Valid as Corythoichthys conspicillatus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Fricke 2004:12 [ref. 28269], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:192 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys conspicillatus (Jenyns 1842). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Queensland (Australia) and Papua New Guinea east to Austral Islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

contiguus, Doryichthys Kottelat [M.] 2000:78, Fig. 70 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Confluence of Nam Leuk and Nam Ngang [error doe Gnong] 18°22'04"N, 103°05'27"E, Vientiane Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45395. Paratypes: CMK 12612 (2), 13258 (24), 15094 (2); LARRI uncat. (8); NRM 44905 (10); ZRC 45396 (10). •Valid as Doryichthys contiguus Kottelat 2000 -- (Kottelat 2001:146 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:47 [ref. 33971], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Doryichthys contiguus Kottelat 2000. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

cooki, Doryrhamphus melanopleura Weed [A. C.] & Woods [L. P.] in Herald in Schultz et al. 1953:249 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Aitutaki Island, Cook Islands. Holotype: FMNH 16220. Paratypes: FMNH 16221 (1); USNM 116089 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:33 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:6 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:60 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

coquerelii, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:575 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Madagascar; Indian seas [incorrect, probably Atlantic]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6114 (2) Madagascar, 0000-2653 (1) Indian seas, Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 - (Dawson 1982:104 [ref. 6764], Fricke et al. 2018:120 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

corallina, Nerophis Cocco [A.] 1846:750 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano Settima Riunione, Napoli; ref. 26448] Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

coronatus, Hippocampus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:274, Pl. 120 (fig. 7) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1543 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH ? D1541-42 (2, stuffed), ? D1544 (1, stuffed), 3924 (1) not this species [ref. 35660:125]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:196 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Hippocampus coronatus Temminck & Schlegel 1850 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Kim & Lee 1995:76 [ref. 22284], Gomon 1997:246 [ref. 22842], Lourie et al. 1999:89 [ref. 23993], Nakabo 2000:536 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:24 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:199 [ref. 26566] dated 1847, Nakabo 2002:536 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:233, 554 [ref. 26218], Kuiter 2009:129 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:106 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:119, 135 [ref. 35660]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus coronatus Temminck & Schlegel 1850. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and South Korea. Habitat: marine.

corrugatus, Syngnathus Weber [M.] 1913:112, Fig. 38 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Beol, Karkelang Islands, E. Indies, Siboga station 131. Holotype (unique): ZMA 100337 (apparently lost). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:80 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870) -- (Dawson 1977 [ref. 21121], Dawson 1978:400 [ref. 7025], Dawson 1985:21 [ref. 6541], Suzuki et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26565], Paxton et al. 2006:812 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

costatus, Leptonotus Waite [E. R.] & Hale [H. M.] 1921:301, Fig. 43 [Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 4569] Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Holotype: SAMA F693. Paratypes: (several) SAMA F694 (1). Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Valid as Kaupus costatus (Waite & Hale 1921) -- (Dawson 1984:98 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:107 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:87 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:453 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:832 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:461 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:221 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Kaupus costatus (Waite & Hale 1921). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia. Habitat: marine.

crenulatus, Syngnathus Weber [M.] 1913:109, Fig. 35 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Binongka Island, south of Sulawesi, Indonesia, Siboga station 220. Syntypes: ZMA 112627 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:80 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Dawson 1977:328 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:40 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

crinigerum, Siphostoma Bean [T. H.] & Dresel [H. G.] 1884:99 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 2; ref. 16051] Pensacola, northwestern Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 33173. Paralectotypes: USNM 218815 [ex USNM 33173] (1). Lectotype selected by Dawson 1982:34 [ref. 6764]. •Valid as Micrognathus criniger (Bean & Dresel 1884) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:127 [ref. 23100]). •Valid as Anarchopterus criniger (Bean & Dresel 1884) -- (Dawson 1982:34 [ref. 6764], Boschung 1992:94 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1051 [ref. 23897], Musick et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24959], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:240 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Anarchopterus criniger (Bean & Dresel 1884). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina and Bahamas to Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

crinitus, Syngnathus Jenyns [L.] 1842:148, Pl. 27 (fig. 5) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.29. •Valid as Syngnathus crinitus Jenyns 1842 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Micrognathus crinitus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Dawson 1978:14 [ref. 8939] with locality notes, Dawson 1982:26 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:128 [ref. 23100], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103]). •Valid as Halicampus crinitus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Guimarães 1999:7 [ref. 24280], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621] as crinitis, Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:263 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus crinitus (Jenyns 1842). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

cristatoserrato, Typhlus rostro Kaup [J. J.] 1856:23 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Originally as cristato-serrato. Not available, museum name mentioned in synonymy of Trachyrhamphus serratus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

cristatus, Ichthyocampus McCulloch [A. R.] & Waite [E. R.] 1918:40, Fig. 26 [Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 2950] Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Holotype (unique): SAMA F569 (dry). Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Valid as Stipecampus cristatus (McCulloch & Waite 1918) -- (Dawson 1977:647 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:179 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:85 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:470 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:843 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:476 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:225 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:146 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Stipecampus cristatus (McCulloch & Waite 1918). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Victoria and South Australia and Tasmania. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cristatus, Leptoichthys Macleay [W.] 1881:296 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16286-001 [ex MAMU F256A]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Histiogamphelus cristatus (Macleay 1881) -- (Dawson 1984:106 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:102 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:451 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:830 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:458 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:224 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Histiogamphelus cristatus (Macleay 1881). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

cruentus, Microphis Dawson [C. E.] & Fourmanoir [P.] 1981:114, Figs. 1-2 [Micronesica v. 17 (nos 1-2); ref. 8614] Dumbéa River, about 8 kilometers from mouth, New Caledonia, depth 2-3 meters, elevation 8 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1980-1533. Paratypes: AMS I.21895-001 (1); BPBM 26381 (1); CAS 19928 (11), 19930-31 (3, 3); MNHN 1887-0373 (1); GCRL 17000-02 (1, 3, 2); USNM 224025 (1). •Valid as Microphis cruentus Dawson & Fourmanoir 1981 -- (Dawson 1984:151 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:135 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:57 [ref. 25191], Fricke 2004:50 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:274 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Microphis cruentus Dawson & Fourmanoir 1981. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater.

cultrirostris, Scyphius Michahelles [C. W.] 1830:252 [Isis (Oken) v. 23 (no. 3) (art. 2); ref. 17701] Trieste, Italy, Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

cultrirostris, Trachyrhamphus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:710 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Thailand. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7093. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus serratus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Dawson 1984:169 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:193 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus serratus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

cuncalus, Syngnathus Hamilton [F.] 1822:12, 362 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Estuaries near Calcutta, India. No types known. •Valid as Doryichthys cuncalus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:37 [ref. 24860]). •Valid as Microphis cuncalus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Dawson 1984:147 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:136 [ref. 6541], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:770 [ref. 20764], Arunachalam et al. 1998:129 [ref. 24986], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:50 [ref. 26359], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Ataur Rahman 2003:52 [ref. 31338], Kuiter 2009:274 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Microphis cuncalus (Hamilton 1822). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

curtirostris, Syngnathus Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:243 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Adelaide, St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0982. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Pugnaso curtirostris (Castelnau 1872) -- (Dawson 1984:95 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:163 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:89 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:465 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:472 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:213 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Pugnaso curtirostris (Castelnau 1872). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia (Jurien Bay southward), South Australia, western Victoria, Tasmania. Habitat: brackish, marine.

curvicuspis, Hippocampus Fricke [R.] 2004:34, Fig. 17 [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie A (Biologie). No. 668; ref. 28269] Nouméa, 22°16'S, 166°26'E, Grande Terre, New Caledonia. Holotype: AMS IB.4464. Paratypes: AMS IB.4155 (1). Plus non-type material. •Questionably valid, or a synonym of Hippocampus hendriki Kuiter 2001 -- (Kuiter 2009:18, 89 [ref. 30404]). •Valid as Hippocampus curvicuspis Fricke 2004 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34632] in part). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus curvicuspis Fricke 2004. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

cuvieri, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:38 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Catwyk, North Sea; Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: RMNH, MNHN. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cyanospilos, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1854:114 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 16924] Banda Neira, Banda Islands, Indonesia [Banda Sea, western Pacific]. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7228. •Valid as Syngnathus cyanospilus Bleeker 1854 -- (Wu & Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:199 [ref. 26639]). •Valid as Hippichthys cyanospilos [sometimes as cyanospilus] (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1978:150 [ref. 7026], Dor 1984:77 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:97 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:452 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:451 [ref. 25598], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:102 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:133 [ref. 23922], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:524 [ref. 25086], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:55 [ref. 25480], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:166 [ref. 27511] as cyanospilus, Sakai et al. 2001:90 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:524 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:109 [ref. 28239] as cyanospilus, Paxton et al. 2006:823 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:279 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:59 [ref. 30463], Jenkins & Mailautoka 2010:114 [ref. 30900], Allen & Erdmann 2012:199 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:76 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Palau and Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dactyliophorus, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1853:506 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 336] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1981.5.22.3 (1), RMNH 7247 (2). •Valid as Doryrhamphus dactyliophorus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Dawson 1985:67 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:448 [ref. 5650], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:416 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Kuiter 1997:82 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:73 [ref. 25919], Paulus 1999:2274 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:528 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:156 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Nakabo 2002:528 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:34 [ref. 27510], Paxton et al. 2006:818 [ref. 29073], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:64 [ref. 35264]). •Valid as Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Dor 1984:76 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Kuiter 1998:81 [ref. 23586], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495] as Dunkerocampus, Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:24 [ref. 28269], Allen & Kuiter 2004:5 [ref. 28071], Randall 2005:107 [ref. 28239], Kuiter 2009:180 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:194 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:75 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33932], Lourie 2016:141 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Dunckerocampus dactyliophorus (Bleeker 1853). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

dahli, Hippocampus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:17 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 9 (pt 1); ref. 3285] Moreton Bay, Noosa, southern Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.788. Paratypes: QM (missing). •Synonym of Hippocampus planifrons Peters 1877. •Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:125 [ref. 23993]). •Valid as Hippocampus dahli Ogilby 1908 -- (Kuiter 2001:308 [ref. 25900], Horne 2001:245 [ref. 25696], Paxton et al. 2006:826 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:124 [ref. 30404], Larson et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32988], Lourie et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34632], Short et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus dahli Ogilby 1908. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern and eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

darrosanus, Syngnathus Dawson [C. E.] & Randall [J. E.] 1975:269, Figs. 4-5 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 88 (no. 25); ref. 7416] Off eastern side of D'Arros Island, Amirante Isles, depth 0-2.1 meters. Holotype: ANSP 128815. Paratypes: GCRL 13302 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Cosmocampus darrosanus (Dawson & Randall 1975) -- (Dawson 1985:52 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:416 [ref. 12442], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Paxton et al. 2006:817 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:239 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:122 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus darrosanus (Dawson & Randall 1975). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar east to Mariana Islands. Habitat: marine.

davaoensis, Ichthyocampus Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:242, Fig. 37 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Davao Gulf, 6°44'N, 125°46'E, Mindanao Island, Philippines, surface. Holotype (unique): USNM 112295. •Valid as Bulbonaricus davaoensis (Herald 1953) -- (Dawson 1984:567 [ref. 5275], Dawson 1985:26 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:413 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Suzuki et al. 2003:2 [ref. 26785], Paxton et al. 2006:813 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:290 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:187 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Ho & Lin 2014:26 [ref. 33575], Koeda & Fujii 2015:33 [ref. 35368], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Bulbonaricus davaoensis (Herald 1953). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa; Indonesia east to Philippines and Fiji, north to Taiwan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

dawsoni, Micrognathus (Micrognathus) Herald [E. S.] 1969:1, Fig. 1 [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 73; ref. 7816] Fish Bay, St. John, Virgin Islands, depth 5 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 203148. •Valid as Syngnathus dawsoni (Herald 1969) -- (Dawson 1982:101 [ref. 6764], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus dawsoni (Herald 1969). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

deanei, Hippocampus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1861:243 [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10 [for 1858]; ref. 1149] Sierra Leone. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1711. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:52 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot 1853 -- (Dawson 1990:660 [ref. 17542]). •Synonym of Hippocampus bicuspis Kaup 1856 -- (Kuiter 2009:108 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus algiricus Kaup 1856 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:71 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus algiricus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

debelius, Hippocampus Gomon [M. F.] & Kuiter [R. H.] 2009:41, Figs. 3c-5 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 30036] Hurghada, Erg Camel, 27°56'47"N, 33°35'43"E, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): NMV A 29864-001. •Valid as Hippocampus debelius Gomon & Kuiter 2009 -- (Kuiter 2009:90 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:132 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus debelius Gomon & Kuiter 2009. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

dekayi, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:569 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Nova Scotia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-4842. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:48 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:77 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

delalandi, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Bribron) 1856:45 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Cape of Good Hope and Cape seas, South Africa. Syntypes: ZMB 4358 (now 1); MNHN 0000-6139 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576] with a holotype. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1985:182 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

delalandi, Typhlus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:45 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, museum name mentioned in passing; published in an available way as Syngnathus delalandi Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

dendriticum, Siphostoma Barbour [T.] 1905:115, Pl. 1 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 46 (no. 7); ref. 15336] Off Ireland Island, Bermuda, depth about 7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29057. •Valid as Acentronura dendritica (Barbour 1905) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:125 [ref. 23100], McAllister 1990:134 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:94 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1050 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:188 [ref. 25013], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Dennis et al. 2004:73 [ref. 31601], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Amphelikturus dendriticus (Barbour 1905) -- (Dawson 1982:11 [ref. 6764], Scott & Scott 1988:349 [ref. 25518], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Kuiter 2009:147 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Amphelikturus dendriticus (Barbour 1905). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

denise, Hippocampus Lourie [S. A.] & Randall [J. E.] 2003:286, Figs. 2, 4a, 4b, 5, 6-10 [Zoological Studies v. 42 (no. 2); ref. 27038] Banta Island, Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, 8°24'S, 119°17'E, depth 26 meters. Holotype: MZB 10920. Paratypes: BPBM 38955 (3); MZB 10921 (1); USNM 368872-73 (1, 3), 370526 (1). Name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Hippocampus denise Lourie & Randall 2003 -- (Lourie & Kuiter 2008:54 [ref. 29944], Gomon & Kuiter 2009:41 [ref. 30036], Kuiter 2009:140 [ref. 30404], Reijnen et al. 2011:2 [ref. 33436], Foster et al. 2012:55 [ref. 31765], Allen & Erdmann 2012:203 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:78 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus denise Lourie & Randall 2003. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Marshall Islands and Solomon Islands, south to northern Australia and Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

deocata, Syngnathus Hamilton [F.] 1822:14, 363 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Tista, Kuwarlayi and other rivers of Puraniya or Mithila in northern Bengal or Bahar, India. No types known. Spelled deokhata and deokpata in early literature. •Valid as Microphis deocata (Hamilton 1822) -- (Dawson 1984:144 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:136 [ref. 6541], Ataur Rahman 1989:37 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:771 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:271 [ref. 24904], Ataur Rahman 2003:51 [ref. 31338], Kuiter 2009:275 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Microphis deocata (Hamilton 1822). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: India and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

deokhatoides, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1854:17 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 6); ref. 16914] Palembang, eastern Sumatra, Indonesia; Pontianak, western Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: (4) BMNH 1867.11.28.356 (1), RMNH 7242 (2), ZMA 115989 (1). Original as deokhatoïdes. •Valid as Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1981:4 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:56 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:98 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:244 [ref. 23210], Kottelat 1998:109 [ref. 23436], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Kottelat 2000:78 [ref. 25040], Grinang & Lim 2004:291 [ref. 28551], Kuiter 2009:281 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Sulaiman et al. 2018:35 [ref. 35802], Ng et al. 2019:532 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Sumatra (Indonesia), Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

depressiuscula, Stigmatophora Macleay [W.] 1881:299 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16289-001 (ex MAMU F280). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840) -- (Dawson 1982:579 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:176 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:468 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

desjardini, Typhlus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:26 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, museum name on specimen from Réunion I. treated in synonymy of Corythoichthys fasciatus; brief characterization but not treated as valid. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

dewysea, Phyllopteryx Stiller [J.], Wilson [N. G.] & Rouse [G. W.] 2015:7, Figs. 2, 3c [Royal Society Open Science; ref. 33688] Recherche Archipelago, east of Middle Island, Marine Futures Survey 2007, Western Australia, 34°01.589′S, 123°21.55′E to 34°01.30′S, 123°21.42′E, depth 51 meters. Holotype: WAM P.33223.002. Paratypes: CSIRO ANCF C2269 and 70 (2), WAM P.660 (1). •Valid as Phyllopteryx dewysea Stiller, Wilson & Rouse 2015 -- (Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Rouse et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35131]). Current status: Valid as Phyllopteryx dewysea Stiller, Wilson & Rouse 2015. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

diacanthus, Ichthyocampus Schultz [L. P.] 1943:75, Pl. 8 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Reef at Alofau, Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Holotype (unique): USNM 116091. •Valid as Phoxocampus diacanthus (Schultz 1943) -- (Dawson 1977:620 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:156 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Senou et al. 1998:2 [ref. 24382], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:522 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:522 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:53 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:112 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:838 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:268 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:88 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:210 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Phoxocampus diacanthus (Schultz 1943). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Sri Lanka, Malaysia to the Philippines, south the Fiji, Tonga, Micronesia and the Great Berrier Reef (Australia). Habitat: marine.

dimidiatus, Syngnathus Gill [T. N.] 1862:284 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1667] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Syntypes: (3). Replacement name for Syngnathus brevirostris Girard 1854, preoccupied by Syngnathus brevirostris Rüppell 1838. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:211 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

djarong, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1853:22 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 6); ref. 16914] Panimbang, western Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7232. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.346 (1). •Valid as Syngnathus djarong Bleeker 1853 -- (Liang in Pan et al. 1991:342 [ref. 23876]). •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dorbignyi, Typhlus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:59 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, name mentioned in passing in synonymy; originally Typhlus D'orbignyi. •In the synonymy of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), subspecies lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:476 [ref. 19285], Dawson 1982:17 [ref. 6764]). •In the synonymy of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1853). •In the synonymy of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Current status: Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

dumerili, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:60 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6212. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:43 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), subspecies lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1982:17 [ref. 6764]). •Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Current status: Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dumerilii, Nerophis Steindachner [F.] 1868:120 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 5 (no. 14) (for 22 May 1867); ref. 20463] Mumbai, India. Syntypes: (6) not found at NMW in 1995. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1868:1002 [p. 38 of separate] [ref. 14081]. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

dumerilii, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Moreau) 1870:556 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Côte du Hâvre, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6108 (2, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson 1855 -- (Wheeler 1973:275 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

dunckeri, Doryichthys Prashad [B.] & Mukerji [D. D.] 1929:222, Pl. 10 (fig. 4) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 31 (pt 3); ref. 3558] Namkwang chaung, Kamaing, Myitkyina District, Upper Myanmar. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11018/1 (now in 3 pieces). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:140 [ref. 20743]. Originally as dünckeri. •Valid as Microphis dunckeri (Prashad & Mukerji 1929) -- (Dawson 1984:150 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:136 [ref. 6541], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:772 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Microphis dunckeri (Prashad & Mukerji 1929). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

dunckeri, Micrognathus Chabanaud [P.] 1929:170, Figs. 2-3 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 54 (for 12 Mar. 1929); ref. 15887] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1929-0008. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:46 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Halicampus dunckeri (Chabanaud 1929) -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:83 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:451 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:418 [ref. 12442], Senou & Aizawa 1993:4 [ref. 24329], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2275 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:530 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:530 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:29 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:108 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:821 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:263 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:196 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:76 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus dunckeri (Chabanaud 1929). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines and Papua New Guinea, south to northern Australia. Red Sea populations may belong to a separate, endemic species (Kuiter 2009:263 [ref. 30404]). Habitat: marine.

dunckeri, Solegnathus Whitley [G. P.] 1927:294, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 15 (no. 5); ref. 4662] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS I.14336. •Valid as Solegnathus dunckeri Whitley 1927 -- (Dawson 1982:155 [ref. 5442], Dawson 1985:171 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:429 [ref. 12442], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Paxton et al. 2006:840 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:152 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Solegnathus dunckeri Whitley 1927. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: eastern Australia, Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

dunckeri, Syngnathus Metzelaar [J.] 1919:28, Fig. 9 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Curaçao; Bonaire; St. Eustatius; St. Martin Island. Syntypes: BMNH 1920.1.8.18 (1), CAS-SU 23319 (2), ZMA 113100-01 (2, 9). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:81 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Syngnathus dunckeri Metzelaar 1919 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:125 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:271 [ref. 24472], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Bryx dunckeri (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Dawson 1982:112 [ref. 6764], Scott & Scott 1988:349 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:134 [ref. 14674], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:188 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:284 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Bryx dunckeri (Metzelaar 1919). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Typhlus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:64 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing. Also as name only in Kaup 1853:234 (not investigated). •In the synonymy of Microphis cuncalus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Dawson 1984:147 [ref. 5879], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis cuncalus (Hamilton 1822). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

ecuadorensis, Hippocampus Fowler [H. W.] 1922:446, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 73 (for 1921); ref. 15310] Bahia, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): ANSP 24198. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Hippocampus ingens Girard 1858 -- (Fritzsche 1980:186 [ref. 1511], Lourie et al. 1999:103 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:84 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:29 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus ingens Girard 1858. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

edmondsoni, Ichthyocampus Pietschmann [V.] 1928:298, Fig. 3 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 65 (no. 27); ref. 15874] Waikiki Reef, Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): BPBM 3467 (poor condition). Also appeared in Pietschmann 1930:9, fig. 3 [ref. 16122]. •Valid as Halicampus edmondsoni (Pietschmann 1928) -- (Dawson 1985:84 [ref. 6541], Mundy 2005:319 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:162 [ref. 30952], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus edmondsoni (Pietschmann 1928). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

eigenmanni, Siphostoma Wilson [C.] 1916:60 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1/2); ref. 12398] Rio Vermelho, near Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 56857 [ex CM 5672]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:88 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:79 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), subspecies lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:476 [ref. 19285], Dawson 1982:18 [ref. 6764]). •Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elcapitanense, Siphostoma Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] in Meek 1914:119 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 10); ref. 2961] El Capitan, Panama; Jesus Maria and Turrubales, Costa Rica. Holotype: USNM 81735. Paratypes: FMNH 7901 (1), 7916 (1), 8291-92 (1, 1); USNM 79687-90 (1, 1, 1, 1), 108645 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Pseudophallus elcapitanensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1914) -- (Dawson 1982:53 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:161 [ref. 6541], Bussing 1987:163 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:253 [ref. 24179], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061], Kuiter 2009:241 [ref. 30404], Angulo et al. 2013:998 [ref. 33194], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Pseudophallus elcapitanensis (Meek & Hildebrand 1914). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Pacific coast drainages: Costa Rica and Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Doryichthys Steindachner [F.] 1901:459, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft v. 25; ref. 14769] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Halicampus nitidus (Günther 1873) -- (Dawson 1985:90 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus nitidus (Günther 1873). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Nannocampus Smith [J. L. B.] 1953:516, Fig. 355a [The sea fishes of southern Africa. Revised enlarged edition; ref. 19760] Xora River mouth northwards, southern Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 156 (1), 644-645 (17, 4). •Valid as Nannocampus elegans Smith 1953 -- (Dawson 1979:492 [ref. 1068], Dawson 1985:150 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Kuiter 2009:259 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Nannocampus elegans Smith 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: eastern South Africa to Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

elerae, Corythroichthys Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:57, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 55908. Paratypes: ANSP 33252 (1); CAS 33313 [ex IU 3898] (1); FMNH 5895 (1); MCZ 32190 [?32190] (1); Mus. in Manila (1); CAS-SU 20001 (1); USNM 55921 (1), 126383 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:28 [ref. 12367]. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Dawson 1977:328 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:40 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

elevatus, Doryichthys Hutton [F. W.] 1872:68 [Fishes of New Zealand (Hutton); ref. 2287] Wellington Harbor, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): presumed lost. Type catalog: Russell 1996:225 [ref. 22562]. •Valid as Leptonotus elevatus (Hutton 1872) -- (Dawson 1980:286 [ref. 21122], Dawson 1985:113 [ref. 6541], Paulin et al. 1989:166 [ref. 24556], Paulin & Roberts 1992:68 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 2009:220 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1056 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Luzzatto & Estalles 2019:1 [ref. 36805]). Current status: Valid as Leptonotus elevatus (Hutton 1872). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Hippocampus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:144 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4536. Kuiter's 2001:330 [ref. 25900] reasons for reversing the selection of subelongatus over elongatus by Lourie et al. 1999 is not supported by the Code. See Kuiter 2001:330 [ref. 25900] for discussion of type. •Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442]). •Wrongly valid as Hippocampus elongatus Castelanu 1873 -- (Kuiter 2001:330 [ref. 25900]). •Synonym of Hippocampus subelongatus Castelnau 1873 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:123 [ref. 23993], Paxton et al. 2006:828 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:94 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:41 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus subelongatus Castelnau 1873. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Phillopteryx Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:243 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0728 (1), A-0834 (1), A-0835 (2), 0000-9227 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:45 [ref. 19576]. Original genus should have been spelled Phyllopteryx. •Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804) -- (Dawson 1985:160 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:464 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Siokunichthys Herre [A. W. C. T.] (ex Herald) 1953:212 [United States Fish and Wildlife Service Research Report No. 20; ref. 5594] Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Siokunichthys herrei Herald 1953 -- (Dawson 1983:51 [ref. 5351]). Current status: Synonym of Siokunichthys herrei Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

elucens, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 1868:443 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus elucens Poey 1868 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:269 [ref. 24472]). •Valid as Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868) -- (Dawson 1982:132 [ref. 6764], Boschung 1992:94 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1054 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:228 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:189 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192] dated 1810, Smith et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:236 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

ensenadae, Corythroichthys Silvester [C. F.] 1915:215 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 14; ref. 4027] Bunch coral off Ballenes Point, Puerto Rico, Caribbean Sea. Holotype (unique): PU 3084. Also published and figured as new in Silvester 1918:21, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [ref. 15257]. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Valid as Micrognathus ensenadae (Silvester 1915) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:127 [ref. 23100], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1059 [ref. 23897]). •Synonym of Micrognathus crinitus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Dawson 1982:28 [ref. 6764], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013]). •Valid as Halicampus ensenadae (Silvester 1915) -- (Kuiter 2009:262 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Halicampus crinitus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Guimarães 1999:7 [ref. 24280]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus crinitus (Jenyns 1842). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

epinnulatus, Apterygocampus Weber [M.] 1913:116, Fig. 42 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Gesser Island, off southern Ceram, Indonesia, Siboga station 172. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112621. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:79 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Apterygocampus epinnulatus Weber 1913 -- (Dawson & Allen 1978:402 [ref. 1073], Dawson 1985:20 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2012:186 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Apterygocampus epinnulatus Weber 1913. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

eques, Phyllopteryx Günther [A.] 1865:327, Pl. 15 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865 (pt 1) (art. 8) (for 11 Apr. 1865); ref. 13948] Spencer Gulf, Port Lincoln, South Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1865.5.13.2 (dry). •Valid as Phycodurus eques (Günther 1865) -- (Dawson 1985:158 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:96 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:463 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:74 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:838 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:470 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:164 [ref. 30404], Stiller et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33688], Orlando et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33686], Lourie 2016:150 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Phycodurus eques (Günther 1865). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia, western Victoria. Habitat: marine.

equus, Gasterosteus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 181:7 [ref. 17319], apparently an unpublished work. Authorship from Graells 1887:141 [ref. 30438]. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:181 [ref. 30438]. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

equus, Gasterosteus Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Gasterosteus equus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857:24 [ref. 17320]. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

erectus, Hippocampus Perry [G.] 1810:Unnumbered p. 177, Pl. 45 [Ichthyology. In: Arcana; or The Museum of Natural History v. 1; ref. 12255] Florida, USA. Old locality: American Seas, Mexico, West Indies. Neotype: USNM 223087. Original not seen. Published Dec. 1810. Neotype designated by Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]. •Valid as Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Smith 1986:418 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:124 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:633 [ref. 9166], Scott & Scott 1988:349 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:135 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:275 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:95 [ref. 23239], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Murdy et al. 1997:138 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1056 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Lourie et al. 1999:83 [ref. 23993], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:235 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:189 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:322 [ref. 26158], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1224 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Piacentino & Luzzatto 2004:344 [ref. 28610], Kuiter 2009:72 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Silveira et al. 2014:320 [ref. 33493], Lourie 2016:128 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632], Nión et al. 2016:44 [ref. 35565], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Spier et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and ? eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

erinaceus, Hippocampus Günther [A.] 1870:206 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] No locality [possibly northeastern Australia]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1385. •Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:73 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2001:335 [ref. 25900], Kuiter 2009:96 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

erugatus, Micrognathus Herald [E. S.] & Dawson [C. E.] 1974:27, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 87 (no. 4); ref. 7504] About 1 kilometer south of Arembepe, about 12°45'S, 38°10'W, Bahia, Brazil, 0-1.3 meters. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 9408. •Valid as Micrognathus erugatus Herald & Dawson 1974 -- (Dawson 1982:685 [ref. 5441], Dawson 1982:31 [ref. 6764], Cervigón 1991:274 [ref. 24472], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], enezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Kuiter 2009:234 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Micrognathus erugatus Herald & Dawson 1974. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

erythraeensis, Yozia bicoarctata Dollfus [R.-P.] & Petit [G.] 1938:500 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 10 (no. 5); ref. 17137] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1960-0576. •Synonym of Yozia bicoarctata (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dor 1984:80 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

erythraeus, Ichthyocampus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:613, Fig. 238 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Off the south coast of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3847, depth 23-24 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51548. •Valid as Festucalex erythraeus (Gilbert 1905) -- (Dawson 1977:629 [ref. 1066], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:448 [ref. 5650], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:521 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:521 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Fricke 2004:27 [ref. 28269], Mundy 2005:319 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:161 [ref. 30952], Kuiter 2009:208 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2015:51 [ref. 33644], Prokofiev 2016:624 [ref. 34850], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex erythraeus (Gilbert 1905). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

ethon, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1827:182 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Probably Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

euchrous, Syngnathus Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:208, Fig. 12A [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] Bahia Todos Santos, Baja California, Mexico, 31°52'N, 116°38'W, depth 0.3-1.5 meters. Holotype: SIO H47-68. Paratypes: CAS 27405 (11); GCRL 15757 [ex SIO H47-158] (22); SIO H47-68 (86), H48-319 (16). Described as a new species and subspecies. •Valid as Syngnathus euchrous Fritzsche 1980 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:130 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:185 [ref. 6541], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus euchrous Fritzsche 1980. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) to Baja California, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

europaeus, Hippocampus Ginsburg [I.] 1933:561 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 23 (no. 12); ref. 16490] La Rochelle, France, Bay of Biscay, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype: USNM 28544. Paratypes: (8) USNM 93217 (2). •Valid as Hippocampus europaeus Ginsburg 1933 -- (Kuiter 2009:66 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:630 [ref. 13676], Lourie et al. 1999:99 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

excisus, Doryrhamphus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:54, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Locality unknown. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-6211 (1 of 2). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6211 (1 of 2) Massawa, ZMB 4386 (1) Red Sea. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:45 [ref. 19576]. Appeared first as name only in Kaup 1855:233 [ref. 2571]. Lectotype selected by Dawson 1981:7 [ref. 5511], not originating from Red Sea. •Valid as Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:4 [ref. 5511], Dor 1984:76 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:85 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:61 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:448 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:416 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:19 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:73 [ref. 15987], Randall & Earle 1994:285 [ref. 21643], Allen & Robertson 1994:97 [ref. 22193], Randall 1995:101 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:133 [ref. 23922], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:284 [ref. 24023], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:92 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:149 [ref. 24106], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:156 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:107 [ref. 28239], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35805]). •Valid as Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup, subspecies excisus Kaup 1856 -- (Randall et al. 1997:73 [ref. 25919], Paulus 1999:2275 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:528 [ref. 25086], Thomson et al. 2000:62 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:528 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576] as Doryrhampus, Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Mundy 2005:318 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:818 [ref. 29073], Randall 2007:161 [ref. 30952], Kuiter 2009:172 [ref. 30404], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Sokotra, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Mexico, north to Ryukyu, Ogasawara and Hawaiian islands, south to Western Australia and southern Great Barrier Reef (Queensland). Habitat: marine.

exile, Siphostoma Osburn [R. C.] & Nichols [J. T.] 1916:153, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 35 (art. 16); ref. 15062] West San Benito Island, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 87543 [ex AMNH 5203]. Paratypes: AMNH 5588 (5). •Valid as Syngnathus exilis (Osburn & Nichols 1916) -- (Fritzsche 1980:204 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:131 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:186 [ref. 6541], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus exilis (Osburn & Nichols 1916). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) to Baja California, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

exilis, Nerophis aequoreus var. Holt [E. W. L.] & Byrne [L. W.] 1906:18 [Fisheries, Ireland, Scientific Investigations 1905, v. 2; ref. 15660] Porcupine Bay; west coast of Ireland; Bay of Biscay. Syntypes: (several): whereabouts unknown. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

extensus, Microphis Snyder [J. O.] 1911:525 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 40 (no. 1836); ref. 4152] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: USNM 68226. Paratypes: CAS-SU 21418 (2), USNM 74537 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:6 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:60 [ref. 6541]). •Valid as Doryrhamphus extensus (Snyder 1911) -- (Kuiter 2009:174 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus extensus (Snyder 1911). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Taiwan to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

falkensteini, Doryichthys Reichenow [A.] 1878:92 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1878 (for 19 Mar. 1878); ref. 18614] Loango Coast, French Equitorial Africa. Syntypes: (2) ZMB 10489 (1). •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854), subspecies aculaetus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:473 [ref. 19285]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854), subspecies aculeatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1986:286 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1990:661 [ref. 17542]). •Synonym of Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Current status: Synonym of Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciata, Siphostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Not available, name only. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

fasciatus, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:3 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Japan. Name not available, no distinguishing features. Appeared first in Kaup 1853:228 [ref. 2569] without distinguishing features. •No distinguishing features within Hippocampus, status unknown (Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Unknown. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

fasciatus, Solenognathus Günther [A.] 1880:30, Pl. 14 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Off Twofold Bay, New South Wales, Australia, depth 120 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.462. •Synonym of Solegnathus spinosissimus (Günther 1870) -- (Dawson 1982:150 [ref. 5442], Dawson 1985:173 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:429 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:467 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:841 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Solegnathus spinosissimus (Günther 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Syngnathus Gray [J. E.] 1830:no page number, Pl. 89 (fig. 2) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] "Ambryna" [? Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia]. Published about 6 Oct. 1830. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus fasciatus Risso 1810. •Apparently in the synonymy of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851). Current status: Synonym of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Syngnathus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:319, Pl. 54 (fig. 174) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. Holotype or syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus fasciatus Risso 1810. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1810:70, Pl. 4 (fig. 8) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fascicularis, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Heckel) 1856:15 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Mexico. Holotype (unique): NMW 75524 (missing). •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:235 [ref. 24550], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciculatus, Corythoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1853:231 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 19 (pt. 1); ref. 2569] Not available, name only from Java; spelled fasciolatus by Kaup 1856:27. •In the synonymy of Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870) -- (Dawson 1978:338 [ref. 7025]). Current status: Synonym of Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

fasciolatus, Corythoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:27 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Holotype (unique): ?MNHN 0000-6023. Name first published in synonymy but subsequently made available back to Kaup by Duméril's (1870:561 [ref. 1147]) description of Syngnathus fasciolatus. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

fasciolatus, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:561 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6023. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:46 [ref. 19576]. Based on specimen described by Kaup 1856:27, but in that work Kaup had Corythoichthys fasciolatus in synonymy; author perhaps is Kaup 1856 validated back to that name in synonymy by Duméril. •Valid as Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870) -- (Dawson 1977 [ref. 21121], Dawson 1985:21 [ref. 6541], Allen & Kuiter 1995:76 [ref. 21613], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Suzuki et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26565], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Paxton et al. 2006:812 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:230 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:57 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:186 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:44 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:91 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Andaman Islands and Myanmar east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, south to Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

fatiloquus, Campichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1943:176, Fig. 7 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 2); ref. 4703] Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.340. •Valid as Lissocampus fatiloquus (Whitley 1943) -- (Dawson 1985:116 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:833 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:219 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Lissocampus fatiloquus (Whitley 1943). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

ferrugineus, Syngnathus Michahelles [C. W.] 1829:1013 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 9); ref. 17700] Ragusa, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus variegatus Pallas 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus variegatus Pallas 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

filamentosus, Hippocampus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:507 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] "Latinization of Hippocampe filamenteaux Cloquet, Dict. Sci. Nat., Levrault. Atlas, Poiss., 1821, pl. 7". Not available, name in the synonymy of Hippocampus ramulosus Leach 1814. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). •In the synonymy of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

filum, Ichthyocampus Günther [A.] 1870:178 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Bay of Islands, New Zealand. Lectotype: BMNH 1983.8.18.1. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1983.3.18.2-3 (2) Freycinet's Harbour, Western Australia. Lectotype selected by Dawson 1977:611 [ref. 7047]. •Valid as Lissocampus filum (Günther 1870) -- (Dawson 1977:609 [ref. 7047], Dawson 1980:283 [ref. 21122], Dawson 1985:117 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:165 [ref. 24556], Paulin & Roberts 1992:66 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 2009:218 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1058 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Lissocampus filum (Günther 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

fisheri, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:169 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Kailua, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50625. Paratypes: BPBM 1687 (1), FMNH 3946 (1), MCZ (1, never received), CAS-SU 7450 (3), USNM 126534 [ex USBF 1058/USFC 2700] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:46 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hippocampus fisheri Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:93 [ref. 23993], Mundy 2005:319 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:162 [ref. 30952], Kuiter 2009:92 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:118 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:25 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus fisheri Jordan & Evermann 1903. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

fistularius, Leptoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1853:233 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 19 (pt. 1); ref. 2569] King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6029. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:42 [ref. 19576]. Also in Kaup 1856:52 [ref. 2575]. •Valid as Leptoichthys fistularius Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:110 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:93 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:455 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:80 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:832 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:463 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:226 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Leptoichthys fistularius Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Southern Australia: Victoria to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

fistularius, Typhlus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:52 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, name mentioned in passing; published in an available way as Leptoichthys fistularis Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

fistulatus, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:456 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 7935] Puerto Cabello, Venezuela, Holotype (unique): ZMB 4348. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

flagellum, Syngnathus Otto [A. W.] 1821:6 [Conspectus animalium quorundam maritimorum; ref. 4987] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

flavescens, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:35 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Tripoli, Libya, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3851 (apparently lost). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flavirostris, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 2000:850, Pl. 495 (fig. 4) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

flavirostris, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 1876:374 [178] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 8 Nov. 1876); ref. 14211] Havana, Cuba. No types known. On p. 178 of separate. •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

flavofasciatus, Syngnathus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:144 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] El -Tor, north of Sharm el Sheikh, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, depth 0-9.1 meters. Neotype: USNM 214919. No types originally (based on a drawing); neotype designated by Dawson 1977:309 [ref. 7048]. •Valid as Corythoichthys flavofasciatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1977:306 [ref. 7048], Dor 1984:75 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:39 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:19 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:100 [ref. 22896], Randall et al. 1997:500 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:147 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2273 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:525 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:525 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:69 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3318 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:105 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:815 [ref. 29073], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Fricke et al. 2009:36 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:192 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:122 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:48 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys flavofasciatus (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, Réunion, Mauritius and Rodrigues (Mascarenes) east to Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

flindersi, Corythoichthys Scott [T. D.] 1957:182, Fig. 2 [Transactions Royal Society of South Australia v. 80; ref. 3997] Pelican Lagoon, Kangaroo Island, South Australia, 35°49'S, 137°47'E. Holotype: SAMA F2922. Paratypes: CAS 20750 (1). Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449] mentions "2 specimens in spirit" in SAMA F2922. •Synonym of Vanacampus vercoi (White & Hale 1921) -- (Dawson 1984:81 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:200 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:433 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:475 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:846 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Vanacampus vercoi (Waite & Hale 1921). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

floridae, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:263 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola Bay, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: MCZ 35958 [ex USNM 30826]. Paralectotypes: CAS-SU 407 (3); ?USNM 30773 (9), 30826 (5), 119832 [ex USNM 30826] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Herald 1965:369 [ref. 9215]. •Valid as Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:57 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:95 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:139 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1062 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:230 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

fluviatilis, Dorichthys Duncker [G.] 1904:188, Pl. 2 (figs. 10, 10a) [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 21; ref. 5560] Kuala Lampur, Selangor, Malaysia. Syntypes: BMNH 1905.5.6.17-18 [ex SSMKL] (2); ZMH 8561-8562. Type catalog: Alfred 1963:166 [ref. 20555]. •Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1985:56 [ref. 6541], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

fluviatilis, Syngnathus van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:329 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 21); ref. 5105] Not available, no distinguishing features; from rivers near Batavia [Jakarta], Java. Also in van Hasselt 1824:91 [ref. 5104]. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

fluviatilis, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1852:685 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1852; ref. 18539] Tette [Tete], Zambezi River, Mozambique. Syntypes: ZMB 6233 (1). Syngnathus zambezensis Peters 1855 is an unneeded replacement. •Valid as Microphis fluviatilis (Peters 1852) -- (Dawson 1984:137 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:128 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:454 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201], Skelton 1993:354 [ref. 24071], Skelton 2001:354 [ref. 27406], Seegers et al. 2003:42 [ref. 28087], Kuiter 2009:273 [ref. 30404], Marshall 2011:262 [ref. 31755], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:124 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Microphis fluviatilis (Peters 1852). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: South and East Africa to Madagascar. Freshwater, transitional water, marine. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fluviatilis, Syngnathus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Kaup 1856:57 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in synonymy of Doryichthys hasselti. See Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]. •In the synonymy of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854) -- (Roberts 1993:36 [ref. 21799], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

fluviatilis, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] (ex van Hasselt) 1854:18 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 6); ref. 16914] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. Type information: Roberts 1993:36 [ref. 21799]. Based on unpublished van Hasselt illustration; see Alfred 1964 [ref. 20753]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus fluviatilis Peters 1852. •Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1985:56 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1993:36 [ref. 21799], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys deokhatoides (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

foliaceus, Hippocampus Richardson [J.] 1843:28 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science v. 12 (12th meeting [1842]); ref. 12502] Not available, no distinguishing features, from New Holland. •In the synonymy of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073], Lourie et al. 2016:46 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

foliatus, Hippocampus Perry [G.] 1810:2 unnumbered p., Pl. XVIII [Ichthyology. In: Arcana; or The Museum of Natural History v. 1; ref. 12255] Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Original not seen. Based on Hippocampus foliatus (Shaw 1804) but unstated (R. Petit, pers. comm. 9/19/2003). Published 1 May 1810. •Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073], Lourie et al. 2016:46 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

foliatus, Syngnathus Shaw [G.] 1804:456, Pl. 180 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804) -- (Dawson 1985:160 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:464 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

folletti, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] 1942:126 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 13205] Flores Island, Montevideo, Uruguay. Holotype: USNM 39144. Paratypes: USNM 86172 (1), 119829 (1). •Valid as Syngnathus folletti Herald 1942 -- (Dawson 1982:95 [ref. 6764], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Kuiter 2009:253 [ref. 30404], Nión et al. 2016:44 [ref. 35565], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus folletti Herald 1942. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: southern Brazil south to northern Argentina. Habitat: marine.

fowleri, Penetopteryx Whitley [G. P.] 1933:65 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 4677] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.781. •Synonym of Penetopteryx taeniocephalus Lunel 1881 -- (Dawson & Allen 1978:396 [ref. 1073], Dawson 1985:154 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Penetopteryx taeniocephalus Lunel 1881. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

fucicola, Syngnathus Bennett [E. T.] 1832:5 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1832 (pt 2); ref. 16788] Atlantic. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

fuscus, Hippocampus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:143, Pl. 33 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 876 (1), 4914 (1). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). •Valid as Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838 -- (Dor 1984:78 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Lourie et al. 1999:95 [ref. 23993], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:124 [ref. 36858], Fricke et al. 2007:73 [ref. 29533], Kuiter 2009:67 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:119 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:167 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Syngnathus Storer [D. H.] 1839:504 [162] [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] Nahant, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): lost (not MCZ 36046). •Valid as Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:350 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:134 [ref. 14674], Dawson 1982:76 [ref. 6764], Murdy et al. 1997:140 [ref. 23144], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:192 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:324 [ref. 26158], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:253 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic: Canada to Florida. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fusiformis, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:9 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

galei, Ichthyocampus Duncker [G.] 1909:240 [Syngnathidae. In: Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens v. 2 (no. 15); ref. 14370] Point Peron, about 55 kilometers south of Perth, Western Australia, depth 0-7.6 meters. Neotype: USNM 216313. Other material: GCRL 14907, 15553; WAM P.1149, P.25346-014. Type catalog: Not treated by Moore et al. 2008 [ref. 30117]. Neotype designated by Dawson 1977:645 [ref. 1066]. •Valid as Campichthys galei (Duncker 1909) -- (Dawson 1977:644 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:28 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:413 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:444 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:813 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:451 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:232 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Campichthys galei (Duncker 1909). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

gallinaceus, Histiogamphelus Hale [H. M.] 1941:10, Fig. [The South Australian Naturalist. Journal of the Field Naturalists Section of the Royal Society of South Australia. v. 21 (no. 2); ref. 13013] Outer harbor, St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia. Holotype (unique): SAMA F2227 [not F2057]. Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Synonym of Histiogamphelus cristatus (Macleay 1881) -- (Dawson 1984:108 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:102 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:451 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:830 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Histiogamphelus cristatus (Macleay 1881). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

ganzirriensis, Syngnathus abaster var. D'Ancona [U.] 1934:53 [Memoria, Comitato Talassografico Italiano No. 210; ref. 15918] Lake Ganzirri, Messina, Sicily, Italy. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190] as ganzirrensis, Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201] as ganzirrensis, Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gastrotaenia, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1853:713 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 16833] Wahai, Ceram, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5) ?BMNH 1867.11.28.347 (1), ?MNHN 0000-6023 [ex RMNH] (1), RMNH 7230 (probably 3 of 5). •Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1978:142 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gazella, Hippichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1947:148 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4708] Broome, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.2871-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:15 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Parasyngnathus penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1984:76 [ref. 21119]). •Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1985:100 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:824 [ref. 29073], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

germani, Atelurus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:584 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Cochinchine [? southern Vietnam]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6024. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:51 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Acentronura gracilissima (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Dawson 1985:17 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Acentronura gracilissima (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

gibbsi, Festucalex Dawson [C. E.] 1977:633, Figs. 11 (middle), 12 (bottom) [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 27 (no. 4); ref. 1066] Queensland, Australia, 14°36'48"S, 145°27'42"E, depth 22 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1975.10.9.7. Paratypes: BMNH 1975.10.9.8 (1). Other material: ANSP 134699 (1). •Valid as Festucalex gibbsi Dawson 1977 -- (Dawson 1985:71 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Fricke 2004:27 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:819 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:206 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:195 [ref. 31980], Allen & Erdmann 2015:51 [ref. 33644], Fricke 2015:3 [ref. 33807], Prokofiev 2016:623 [ref. 34850], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex gibbsi Dawson 1977. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Queensland (Australia) and West Papua (Indonesia), Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Hippocampus Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Girard) 1870:503 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Not available, name only -- (Lourie et al. 1999:166 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). Name attributed to Girard, but no such name found in Girard references. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

gigas, Nannocampichthys Hora [S. L.] & Mukerji [D. D.] 1936:23, Fig. 2 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 38 (pt 1); ref. 2217] Maungmagan, Tavoy District, Lower Myanmar, 14°30'N, 97°50'E. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11870/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:141 [ref. 20743] as Nannocapichthys. See Das 2003:369 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dawson 1978:419 [ref. 8724]). Current status: Synonym of Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

glauerti, Phycodurus Whitley [G. P.] 1939:268 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 20 (no. 4); ref. 4698] Rottnest Island, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.7596 (dry). •Synonym of Phycodurus eques (Günther 1865) -- (Dawson 1985:158 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:463 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:838 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Phycodurus eques (Günther 1865). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

gohari, Phanerotokeus Duncker [G.] 1940:85, Figs. 1-3 [Publications of the Marine Biological Station Al-Ghardaqa (Red Sea) No. 3; ref. 1157] [Al-Ghardaqa] Hurghada, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: (8) apparently lost. •Synonym of Halicampus macrorhynchus Bamber 1915 -- (Dor 1984:77 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:85 [ref. 6541], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus macrorhynchus Bamber 1915. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

goudoti, Typhlus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:27, 61 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Also as name only in Kaup 1853:234. Not available, name in synonymy; Kaup (p. 27) accepts goudoti for the specific name but (p. 61) does not treat it as valid. •In the synonym of Coelonotus leiaspis (Bleeker 1854) -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989] with author as Kaup). Current status: Synonym of Coelonotus leiaspis (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

goudotii, Hemimarsupium Kaup [J. J.] 1853:234 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 19 (pt. 1); ref. 2569] Java (Indonesia), Madagascar. Not available, appeared as name only without diagnosis or description. Based on two different species of Coelonotus Peters 1855. •Uncertain in Coelonotus Peters 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

goudotii, Typhlus Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Bibron) 1870:599 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in the synonymy of Hemithylacus leiaspis Kaup and apparently not subsequently validated. Based on Hemimarsupium goudotii Kaup 1853. •In the synonymy of Microphis leiaspis (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:130 [ref. 5879], in part). •In the synonymy of Coelonotus leiaspis (Bleeker 1854) -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). •Uncertain in Coelonotus Peters 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

graciliformis, Hippocampus McCulloch [A. R.] 1911:29, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Biological Results Endeavour [v. 1] (pt 1); ref. 2936] Near Bass Strait, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS E.429. •Synonym of Hippocampus bleekeri Fowler 1907 -- (Kuiter 2001:323 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:826 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson 1827 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:448 [ref. 22532], Lourie et al. 1999:69 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:13 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus abdominalis Lesson 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Gastrotokeus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1872:44 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 38 (pt. 1); ref. 2623] Port Phillip, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: SMNS 1809 (4). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:18 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:62 [ref. 29864]. Correct spelling of original genus is Gasterotokeus. •Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840) -- (Dawson 1982:579 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:176 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:468 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilis, Hippocampus Gill [T. N.] 1862:282 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1667] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM (missing). •Synonym of Hippocampus ingens Girard 1858 -- (Fritzsche 1980:186 [ref. 1511], Lourie et al. 1999:103 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:29 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus ingens Girard 1858. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Stigmatophora Macleay [W.] 1881:299 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Tasmania, Australia. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Gastrotokeus gracilis Klunzinger 1872 when both are in Stigmatopora. Correct spelling of original genus is Stigmatopora. •Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840) -- (Dawson 1982:579 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:176 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilis, Syngnathus Steindachner [F.] 1901:458, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft v. 25; ref. 14769] Ternate, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1978:142 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:99 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilissimus, Hippocampus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:274, Pl. 120 (fig. 6) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3927a. Paralectotypes: RMNH 24703 [ex RMNH 3927] (5). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:196 [ref. 12876]. Spelled gracillimus in index (p. 322) and on Plate 120; first reviser not researched. •Valid as Acentronura gracilissima (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:17 [ref. 6541], Senou et al. 1994:2 [ref. 24335], Myers 1999:89 [ref. 23965], Lourie et al. 1999:168 [ref. 23993], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:533 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:533 [ref. 26001], Kuiter 2009:143 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:155 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Acentronura gracilissima (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and China. Habitat: marine.

grandiceps, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:336, Fig. 52 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] Western Booby Island, Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland, 10°44'S, 141°53'E, depth 10 meters. Holotype: NTM S13273-019. Paratypes: AMS I.15557-075 (3); NTM S13274-007 (3); QM I.12287 (1), I.26319 (1), I.30583 (1). •Valid as Hippocampus grandiceps Kuiter 2001 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:826 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:95 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870 -- (Lourie 2016:88 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: eastern Gulf of Carpentaria (if valid). Habitat: marine.

grayi, Corythoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1853:231 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 19 (pt. 1); ref. 2569] Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

grayi, Halicampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:22 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] India and Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1981.5.22.2 (1) India, MNHN 0000-6025 (1) Australia. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:51 [ref. 19576]. As name only in Kaup 1853:231 [ref. 2569]. Also involves Halicampus conspicillatus of Kaup; see Opinion 53. •Valid as Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:84 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:418 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Randall et al. 1997:500 [ref. 25919], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:531 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:531 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Paxton et al. 2006:821 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:266 [ref. 30404], Ohta & Motomura 2010:57 [ref. 31557], Allen & Erdmann 2012:196 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:76 [ref. 32988] dated 1853 and 1856, Yoshida et al. 2013:70 [ref. 34464], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Gulf of Aden and Sri Lanka east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

griseolineatus, Syngnathus Ayres [W. O.] 1854:14 [The Pacific [newspaper] v. 3 and 4 (thru no. 6); ref. 157] Presumably near San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Possible type: ANSP 835 (many small pieces). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. Originally as griseo-lineatus. Appeared first as above on 27 Oct.; then in Ayres 1854:14 [ref. 18923]. •Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:210 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:336 [ref. 25968], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guentheri, Solenognathus Duncker [G.] 1915:65 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1844.2.15.76 (dry). Original as Güntheri. •Synonym of Solegnathus lettiensis Bleeker 1860 -- (Dawson 1982:148 [ref. 5442], Dawson 1985:173 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:429 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:841 [ref. 29073]). •Valid as Solegnathus guentheri Duncker 1915 -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:185 [ref. 27969] as guntheri, Kuiter 2009:153 [ref. 30404]) Current status: Valid as Solegnathus guentheri Duncker 1915. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Urocampus Duncker [G.] 1909:242, Fig. 1 [Syngnathidae. In: Die Fauna Südwest-Australiens v. 2 (no. 15); ref. 14370] Useless Inlet, Shark Bay, Western Australia, depth 0.75-2 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH (destroyed). •Synonym of Urocampus carinirostris Castelnau 1872 -- (Dawson 1980:838 [ref. 6909], Dawson 1985:195 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:471 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:845 [ref. 29073]). •Probably valid as Urocampus guentheri Duncker 1909, needs investigation -- (Kuiter 2009:282 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Urocampus carinirostris Castelnau 1872. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guttulatus, Hippocampus Cuvier [G.] 1829:363 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Nice, France [old locality: Mediterranean Sea]. Neotype: MNHN 2016-0023. Based on brief description and citation to "Will. J. 25, f. 3." See comments under Hippocampus brevirostris on types and status of eastern Atlantic seahorses. Neotype designated by Lourie et al. 2016:26 [ref. 34632]. •Synonym of Hippocampus ramulosus Leach 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:279 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:631 [ref. 13676]). •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Vasil'eva 2007:72 [ref. 30517], Kuiter 2009:58 [ref. 30404], Parin et al. 2014:207 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:97 [ref. 23993], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:68 [ref. 26753], Choo & Liew 2003:271 [ref. 26841], Fricke et al. 2007:73 [ref. 29533], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:36 [ref. 36649], Lourie 2016:126 [ref. 34505], Fritzsche 2016:2236 [ref. 34608], Lourie et al. 2016:26 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Woodall et al. 2017:8 [ref. 36468], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Portugal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

haema, Hippocampus Han [S.-Y.], Kim [J.-K.], Kai [Y.] & Senou [H.] 2017:129, Figs. 3A-E, 4A, 5A-B, 6A, 6D [ZooKeys No. 712; ref. 35660] Namcheon Harbor, Namcheon I-dong, Suyeong-gu, Busan, Korea, 35°08'16"N, 129°06'51"E. Holotype: PKU 9641. Paratypes: FAKU, KAUM, KPM-NI, NIBR, PKU, RMNH.PISC.D. •Valid as Hippocampus haema Han, Kim, Kai & Senou 2017 -- (Yoshigou 2019:199 [ref. 36714]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus haema Han, Kim, Kai & Senou 2017. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

haematopterus, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1851:258 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 331] Banda Neira [Banda Islands, Indonesia, Banda Sea]. Lectotype: RMNH 27442. Paralectotypes (possible 2) and Bleeker specimens: ?BMNH 1867.11.28.344 (1), ?1887.1.20.4 (1); RMNH 7235 (3 within size range), 27442 (1 or more of 3). Lectotype selected by Dawson 1977:330 [ref. 7048]. •Valid as Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Dawson 1977:327 [ref. 7048], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:40 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12442], Randall 1995:100 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:78 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:148 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2273 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:525 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:154 [ref. 25191], Sakai et al. 2001:90 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:525 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:33 [ref. 27510], Fricke 2004:13 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:816 [ref. 29073], Shao et al. 2008:245 [ref. 29952], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Fricke et al. 2009:36 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:197 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:189 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:75 [ref. 32988], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:122 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Aldabra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Palau, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Vanuatu, north to southern Japan and Taiwan, south to northwestern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

hardwickii, Syngnathus Gray [J. E.] 1830:no page number, Pl. 89 (fig. 3) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] China. Holotype: BMNH 1981.6.22.1 (dry). Published about 6 Oct. 1830. See Dawson 1982:145 [ref. 5442] for information on type and locality. Original genus misspelled. •Valid as Solegnathus hardwickii (Gray 1830) -- (Dawson 1982:142 [ref. 5442], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:171 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:429 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:34 [ref. 26476], Fricke 1999:153 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:532 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:532 [ref. 26001], Paxton et al. 2006:841 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:151 [ref. 30404], Larson et al. 2013:78 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Solegnathus hardwickii (Gray 1830). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mauritius (Mascarenes); South China Sea north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

hasselti, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:57 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Java, Indonesia; Tahiti. Syntypes: RMNH 3852 (1) Java. Replacement name for Syngnathus brachyurus Bleeker 1854, regarded by Kaup as inappropriate -- (Dawson 1985:138 [ref. 6541]; see also Alfred 1963:158 [ref. 20753]). •Objective synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

heckeli, Nerophis Kaup [J. J.] 1856:66 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Bogota, Colombia. Holotype (unique): NMW (not found). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

helfrichii, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1855:428 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16849] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.348 (1), RMNH 7232 (129 mm SL specimen of 2). •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hendriki, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:333, Fig. 48 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] Cape York, 10°39'S, 142°30'E, depth 16-18 meters. Holotype: AMS I.20923-002. Paratypes: AMS IA.6752 (1); CSIRO H 3639-03 (?); QM I.15837 (1), I.11772 (2). •Valid as Hippocampus hendriki Kuiter 2001 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:827 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:95 [ref. 30404], Larson et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870 -- (Lourie 2016:88 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

heptagonus, Hippichthys Bleeker [P.] 1849:15 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Indonesia. Neotype: RMNH 7234. Neotype designated by Dawson 1978:140 [ref. 7026]. •Valid as Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1986:452 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:452 [ref. 25598], Allen 1991:107 [ref. 21090], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:765 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Allen et al. 2000:87 [ref. 27467], Nakabo 2000:524 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Allen et al. 2002:336 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:524 [ref. 26001], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:141 [ref. 28072], Paxton et al. 2006:823 [ref. 29073], Allen et al. 2008:106 [ref. 30265], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Jenkins & Mailautoka 2010:114 [ref. 30900], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:71 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa east to Solomon Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

heptagonus, Hippocampus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Unneeded replacement of Syngnathus hippocampus Linnaeus 1758. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:37 [ref. 3595]. Spelled pentagonus by Ginsburg 1937:530 [ref. 1801]. •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Lourie et al. 1999:99 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

heptagonus, Typhle Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Unneeded new name for Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

heraldi, Bryx (Simocampus) Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:193, Fig. 5C [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] Isla San Félix, Chile, depth 9-12 meters. Holotype: SIO 65-626. Paratypes: GCRL 15755 [ex SIO 65-645] (1); SIO 65-624 (1), 65-626 (2), 65-634 (1), 65-655 (1). •Synonym of Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1985:49 [ref. 6541], Pequeño 1989:55 [ref. 14125], Thomson et al. 2000:67 [ref. 25640]). •Valid as Bryx heraldi Fritzsche 1980 -- (Pequeño 1997:82 [ref. 23536], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906]). •Valid as Cosmocampus heraldi (Fritzsche 1980) -- (Kuiter 2009:235 [ref. 30404], Dyer & Westneat 2010:602 [ref. 31446], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus heraldi (Fritzsche 1980). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

heraldi, Dorichthys Menon [A. G. K.] in Menon & Yazdani 1968:140 [Records of the Zoological Survey of India v. 61 (pts 1-2) [1963]; ref. 20743] Ponnayar River, about 5 miles northwest of Cuddalore O.T., South Arcot District, Madras, India. Holotype: ZSI F1893/2. Appeared in list of types as "In press" without distinguishing features; evidently never published; not available. •Nomen nudum as Dorichthys -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

herrei, Siokunichthys Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:254, Fig. 38 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] North end of Siokun Bay, northwestern Zamboanga Peninsula, 7°43'24"N, 122°04'42"E, Mindanao, Philippines, at surface over 20 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 112296. Paratypes: CAS 5910 (orig. 7, now 5); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 146 [ex USNM 112297] (1); SAMA F3841 [ex CAS 5910] (1); USNM 112298 (2), 164345 (1). Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. First appeared as name only in Herre 1953:212 [ref. 5594]. •Valid as Siokunichthys herrei Herald 1953 -- (Dor 1984:79 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1983:51 [ref. 5351], Dawson 1985:166 [ref. 6541], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:53 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:270 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:211 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Siokunichthys herrei Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines. Habitat: marine.

heterosoma, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1851:441 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16897] Sambas, western Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) ?BMNH 1867.11.28.345 (1), RMNH 7240 (2 of 3). •Valid as Doryichthys heterosoma (Bleeker 1851) -- (Dawson 1981:14 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:57 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:98 [ref. 23448], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Tan & Lim 2004:110 [ref. 27716], Kuiter 2009:281 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Doryichthys heterosoma (Bleeker 1851). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Indonesia: Kalimantan and Natunas Islands. Habitat: freshwater.

hexagonus, Tiphle Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Unneeded new name for Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:36 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hildebrandi, Hippocampus Ginsburg [I.] 1933:562 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 23 (no. 12); ref. 16490] Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 82063. Paratypes: USNM 82037 (1), 82039 (1). •Synonym of Hippocampus ingens Girard 1858 -- (Fritzsche 1980:186 [ref. 1511], Lourie et al. 1999:103 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:29 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus ingens Girard 1858. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

hildebrandi, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] 1965:366 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 32 (no. 12); ref. 9215] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 117251. Paratypes: USNM 73235 (1), 73239 (1), 109826 (1), 134312 (1). •Valid as Syngnathus hildebrandi Herald 1965 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100]). •Valid as Cosmocampus hildebrandi (Herald 1965) -- (Dawson 1982:139 [ref. 6764], Boschung 1992:95 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1055 [ref. 23897], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:237 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus hildebrandi (Herald 1965). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

hilonis, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:169 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50626. •Valid as Hippocampus hilonis Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Kuiter 2009:109 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Mundy 2005:320 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:163 [ref. 30952], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Pacific: Hawaiian Islands [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

hippocampus, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:338 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Spain/Portugal, eastern Atlantic. Neotype: BMNH 1872.2.6.3. Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:42 [ref. 20705]. Neotype selected by Vasil'eva 2007:325 [ref. 29769]. See comments on the neotype under the account of brevirostris. Neotype by Vasil'eva is suppressed - ZMMU P-21676 [ref. 34632]. •Valid as Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:278 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:630 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1990:660 [ref. 17542], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Santos et al. 1997:74 [ref. 23531], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:68 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:325 [ref. 29769], Kuiter 2009:58 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:36 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:207 [ref. 33547], Lourie 2016:129 [ref. 34505], Fritzsche 2016:2236 [ref. 34608], Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Woodall et al. 2017:8 [ref. 36468], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Senegal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

histrix, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:17, Pl. 2 (fig. 5) [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Japan. Syntypes: MNHN A-0906 (1), RMNH (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:52 [ref. 19576]. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Kaup 1853:229 [ref. 2569]. Emended to hystrix apparently first by Günther 1870:206 [ref. 1995]. •Valid as Hippocampus histrix Kaup 1856 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:36 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:78 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1986:453 [ref. 5650], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477] as hystrix, Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Kim & Lee 1995:76 [ref. 22284], Randall 1995:103 [ref. 22896], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Lourie et al. 1999:244 [ref. 23766], Myers 1999:89 [ref. 23965], Lourie et al. 1999:101 [ref. 23993], Fricke 1999:151 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2272 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:534 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Kuiter 2001:333 [ref. 25900], Nakabo 2002:534 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:233, 555 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Choo & Liew 2004:412 [ref. 28042], Fricke 2004:36 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:110 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:319 [ref. 28379], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:126 [ref. 36858], Randall 2007:162 [ref. 30952], Kuiter 2009:88 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:64 [ref. 35264], Lourie 2016:94 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:28 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:134 [ref. 35660], Short et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus histrix Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

horai, Hippocampus Duncker [G.] 1925:475, Fig. [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 27 (pt 6); ref. 15584] Andaman Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11836. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:140 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

horridus, Hypselognathus Dawson [C. E.] & Glover [C. J. M.] 1982:403, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 95 (no. 2); ref. 5444] Off Anxious Bay, Great Australian Bight, South Australia, depth 30 fathoms. Holotype: SAMA F4676. Paratypes: GCRL 18057 (1), SAMA F4681 (1). •Valid as Hypselognathus horridus Dawson & Glover 1982 -- (Dawson 1985:104 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:451 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:831 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:459 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:227 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hypselognathus horridus Dawson & Glover 1982. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia. Habitat: marine.

howensis, Parasyngnathus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:77 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.5473. •Valid as Parasyngnathus howensis Whitley 1948 -- (Fritzsche 1981 [ref. 21286]). •Valid as Cosmocampus howensis (Whitley 1948) -- (Dawson 1985:52 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:416 [ref. 12442], ?Pequeño 1989:55 [ref. 14125] as howensi, Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:10 [ref. 25829], Paxton et al. 2006:817 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:235 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1054 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus howensis (Whitley 1948). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southern Pacific: New South Wales (Australia) to Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

hubbsi, Syngnathus floridae Herald [E. S.] 1965:368 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 32 (no. 12); ref. 9215] Lower York River, Virginia, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 91321. Paratypes: CAS 24295 [ex USNM] (2); USNM 133053 (orig. 33, now 31), 218351 (1). •Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:59 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

hudsonius, Hippocampus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:322, Pl. 53 (fig. 171) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186], Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:235 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:190 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Silveira et al. 2014:320 [ref. 33493], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

hunnii, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1860:70 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 2); ref. 375] Tandjong, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7231. Type catalog: Dawson 1985:99 [ref. 6541]. •Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1978:142 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:99 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hymenolomus, Syngnathus Richardson [J.] 1845:52, Pl. 30 (figs. 11-13) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Harbors of Falkland Islands. Syntypes: (several). See Hymenolomus richardsoni. •Uncertain as Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Current status: Uncertain as Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ignoratus, Microphis Vaillant [L. L.] 1902:40, Figs. 1-2 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 24 (note 1); ref. 4490] Mouth of Mandai [Raoen, Raun] River, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 7855 (2). •Synonym of Doryichthys martensii (Peters 1868) -- (Dawson 1981:10 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:57 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys martensii (Peters 1868). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

independencia, Syngnathus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:153, Fig. 34 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Independencia Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 127853. Paratypes: Gov't of Peru (1), USNM 127854 (now 2). •Synonym of Bryx (simocampus) coccineus (Herald 1940) -- (Fritzsche 1980:196 [ref. 1511]). •Synonym of Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Dawson 1985:49 [ref. 6541]). •Probably a synonym of Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889) -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:102 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus arctus (Jenkins & Evermann 1889). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

inflator, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:9 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Not available, name only. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

ingens, Hippocampus Girard [C. F.] 1858:342 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 982. Paralectotypes: MCZ 35914 [ex USNM 982] (1), UMMZ 118063 (1), USNM 214485 [ex USNM 982] (2). Lectotype selected by Fritzsche 1980:185 [ref. 1511]. •Valid as Hippocampus ingens Girard 1858 -- (Fritzsche 1980:185 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:129 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:55 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:98 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:80 [ref. 23101], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:293 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:285 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:101 [ref. 24555], Lourie et al. 1999:103 [ref. 23993], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:236 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:67 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:84 [ref. 30404], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Lourie 2016:120 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:29 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus ingens Girard 1858. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to Chile, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

insulae, Syngnathus Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:215, Fig. 12D [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] Caleta Malpómene, cove at southern end of Guadalupe Island, Mexico, depth 22-50 meters. Holotype: SIO 63-169. Paratypes: GCRL 15756 [ex SIO H50-28] (2); SIO H46-143 (2), H46-144 (1), H50-31 (1), 54-214 (2), 63-169 (32), 63-188 (1). •Valid as Syngnathus insulae Fritzsche 1980 -- (Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:254 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus insulae Fritzsche 1980. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Isla Guadalupe, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

insularis, Corythoichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1977:324, Figs. 16-17 [Copeia 1977 (no. 2); ref. 7048] Off eastern end of D'Arros Island, Amirante Islands, Seychelles, Indian Ocean, depth 21.3-30.5 meters. Holotype: ANSP 110061. Paratypes: ANSP 134026-27 (8, 1); CAS 33056 (1), 33160 (1), 34473 (13); GCRL 14459-60 (1, 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Corythoichthys insularis Dawson 1977 -- (Dawson 1985:41 [ref. 6541], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:204 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys insularis Dawson 1977. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean including Maldives. Habitat: marine.

insularis, Doryichthys Hora [S. L.] in Annandale & Hora 1925:38, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 27 (pt 2); ref. 15527] Birchgunge, southern Andaman Islands. Syntypes: (6) ?ZSI F10705/1 (5). Additional material: F10706/1 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:140 [ref. 20743], Dawson 1985:140 [ref. 6541]. See Das 2003:369 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Oostethus insularis (Hora 1925) -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Microphis insularis (Hora 1925) -- (Dawson 1984:162 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:140 [ref. 6541], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:772 [ref. 20764], Kuiter 2009:275 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Microphis insularis (Hora 1925). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Andaman Islands. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Trachyrhamphus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:24, 74 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] China or Japan. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6039 (damaged). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:50 [ref. 19576]. Type information: Dawson 1985:193 [ref. 6541]. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus longirostris Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1984:176 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:193 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus longirostris Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

intestinalis, Syngnatus Ramsay [E. P.] 1881:494 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 18592] Duke of York Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands. Lectotype: AMS A.8871 [not I.8871]. Paralectotypes (questionable): AMS A.8833-35 (1 ea.) A.8840-70 (1 ea.), A.8872-81 (1 ea.); BMNH 1887.1.20.4 (1); QM I.434 (2). Genus should have been spelled Syngnathus. Lectotype selected by Dawson 1977:315 [ref. 7048] as AMS I.8871. •Valid as Corythoichthys intestinalis (Ramsay 1881) -- (Dawson 1977:306 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:42 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:72 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:78 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:72 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:154 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:14 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:106 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:816 [ref. 29073], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:202 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:189 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Lourie 2016:142 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys intestinalis (Ramsay 1881). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines east to Samoa, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

inusitatus, Minyichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1983:774, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1983 (no. 3); ref. 8356] Western Caribbean Sea, north of Panama, 13°07'N, 78°23'W to 13°18'N, 78°21'W, depth 100-109 meters. Holotype: MCZ 57623. Additional material ("presumably conspecific"): GCRL 18859 (1). •Valid as Minyichthys inusitatus Dawson 1983 -- (Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Kuiter 2009:231 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Minyichthys inusitatus Dawson 1983. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

investigatoris, Syngnathus Hora [S. L.] 1926:461, Pl. 11 (fig. 4) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 27 (pt 6); ref. 2207] Mergui Harbor, Myanmar, depth 6 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F10723/1 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:141 [ref. 20743], Dawson 1985:53 [ref. 6541]. See Das 2003:369 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Syngnathus investigatoris Hora 1926 -- (Dawson 1981:87 [ref. 21124]). •Valid as Cosmocampus investigatoris (Hora 1926) -- (Dawson 1985:53 [ref. 6541], Randall 1995:101 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:133 [ref. 23922], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Kuiter 2009:238 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:191 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus investigatoris (Hora 1926). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf to Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

isigakius, Corythroichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:7, Pl. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1241); ref. 2510] Ishigaki Island, Yaeyama Islands, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 6519. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6736 (11), USNM 49835 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60 [ref. 12291]. Spelled ishigakius by Snyder 1912. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Dawson 1977:328 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:40 [ref. 6541]). •Valid as Corythoichthys isigakius Jordan & Schneider 1901 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:193 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys isigakius Jordan & Snyder 1901. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

jacksoni, Pristidoryrhamphus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:159, Figs. 8-9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71350. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus negrosensis Herre 1934 -- (Dawson 1981:15 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:64 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus negrosensis Herre 1934. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

jagorii, Microphis Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:280 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 3442] Loquilócun, Samar Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6647. •Valid as Oostethus jagorii (Peters 1868) -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Microphis jagorii Peters 1868 -- (Dawson 1984:164 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:140 [ref. 6541], Yoshino & Yochigou 1998:200 [ref. 23391], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:527 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:527 [ref. 26001], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]) Current status: Valid as Microphis jagorii Peters 1868. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Philippines and Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

janssi, Dentirostrum Herald [E. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1972:124, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 11); ref. 2097] Koror Island, Palau Islands, 7°19'28"N, 134°30'12"E, depth 0-15.2 meters. Holotype: CAS 14139. Paratypes: AMS 16144-001 (orig 3, now 2); ANSP 119933 (1); BPBM 11937-39 (2, 1, 1), ?13968 (1); CAS 14140-42 (1, 1, 1), 14143-47 (3, 1, 2, 1, 3), 14148 (3, c&s), 14149-53 (2, 1, 1, 1, 1); LACM 32123-1 (1); SMF 11425 (1); USNM 206654 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Doryrhamphus janssi (Herald & Randall 1972) -- (Dawson 1981:19 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:62 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:416 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:74 [ref. 15987], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:82 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:74 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:92 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:34 [ref. 27510], Paxton et al. 2006:818 [ref. 29073], Shao et al. 2008:245 [ref. 29952], Kuiter 2009:177 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:58 [ref. 30463], Allen & Erdmann 2012:192 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus janssi (Herald & Randall 1972). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Andaman Sea east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Gulf of Thailand and Taiwan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

japapigu, Hippocampus Short [G.], Smith [R.], Motomura [H.], Harasti [D.] & Hamilton [H.] 2018:30, Figs. 1-5, 7A, 8A, 9 [ZooKeys No. 779; ref. 36055] Off Imasaki, Okago, Hachijo-jima Island, Izu Islands, Japan, 33°08'48"N, 139°44'37"E, depth 10 meters. Holotype: UW 157506. Paratypes: KAUM-I, UW. •Valid as Hippocampus japapigu Short, Smith, Motomura, Harasti & Hamilton 2018. Current status: Valid as Hippocampus japapigu Short, Smith, Motomura, Harasti & Hamilton 2018. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Izu Islands, subtropical southeast Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Doryrhamphus melanopleura Araga [C.] & Yoshino [T.] in Masuda, Araga & Yoshino 1975:183, Pl. 25 (fig. C) [Coastal fishes of southern Japan; ref. 2902] Rocky reefs near the mouth of Tanabe Bay, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 62218 [ex SMBL 75050]. Paratypes: FAKU 62219-20 [ex SMBL 68011-12] (1, 1), 62221-22 [ex SMBL 65030-31] (2). Correct spelling of original genus is Doryrhamphus. •Valid as Doryrhamphus japonicus Araga & Yoshino 1975 -- (Dawson 1981:10 [ref. 5511], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:62 [ref. 6541], Nakabo 2000:528 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Nakabo 2002:528 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kuiter 2009:175 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2015:17 [ref. 34709], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus japonicus Araga & Yoshino 1975. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea northward to Japan. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:7 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Nagasaki, seas of Japan. Syntypes: RMNH D.1540 (1, stuffed), 3915 (5). Appeared first without distinguishing features in Kaup 1853:228 [ref. 2569]. Specimen catalog numbers changed on 4 Feb. 2013. •Valid as Hippocampus japonicus Kaup 1856 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Kim & Lee 1995:76 [ref. 22284], Cheng & Zhou 1997:238 [ref. 26385], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:9 [ref. 24670], Shimizu 2001:24 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Wang et al. 2001:198 [ref. 26566], Youn 2002:233, 555 [ref. 26218] as Kaup 1853, Kuiter 2009:130 [ref. 30404], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Hippocampus mohnikei Bleeker 1853 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:244 [ref. 23766], Lourie et al. 1999:115 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:33 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus mohnikei Bleeker 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan Sea [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

jaumei, Syngnathus Howell Rivero [L.] 1936:58 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 12257] Off the beach at Guanabo, east of Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 34038. Paratypes: MCZ 34039 (4). •Synonym of Bryx dunckeri (Metzelaar 1919) -- (Dawson 1982:114 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Bryx dunckeri (Metzelaar 1919). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

jayakari, Hippocampus Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:51, Fig. [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 6 (no. 31); ref. 14719] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1900.5.23.1. •Appears to be a synonym of Hippocampus histrix Kaup 1853 -- (Randall 1995:103 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Hippocampus jayakari Boulenger 1900 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:105 [ref. 23993], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:110 [ref. 28239], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:124 [ref. 36858], Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:86 [ref. 30404], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:64 [ref. 35264], Jawad et al. 2011:147 [ref. 31521], Lourie 2016:96 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:29 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus jayakari Boulenger 1900. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles, Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes) east to Maldives. Habitat: marine.

jonesii, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1874:455 [8] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 14 (no. 84) (art. 55); ref. 5753] Bermuda. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1874.10.31.32. •Synonym of Micrognathus crinitus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Dawson 1982:26 [ref. 6764], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013]). •Synonym of Halicampus crinitus (Jenyns 1842). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus crinitus (Jenyns 1842). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

jouani, Microphis Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:592 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] New Caledonia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1519. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:43 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:153 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:138 [ref. 6541], Fricke 2004:48 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1979:467 [ref. 19285], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

jubatus, Hippocampus De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:529 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] No locality. No types known. Minimal description. France, ne. Atlantic Ocean. Treated as nomen nudum by Lourie et al. 1999:169 [ref. 23993]. •Unidentifiable within Hippocampus -- (Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). •In the synonymy of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

jugumus, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:306, Fig. 9 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] Lord Howe Island, off New South Wales, 31°31'S, 159°05'E. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.2424. •Valid as Hippocampus jugumus Kuiter 2001 -- (Fricke 2004:36, 39 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:93 [ref. 30404], Randall & Lourie 2009:21 [ref. 30536], Lourie 2016:133 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:30 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus jugumus Kuiter 2001. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Lord Howe Island, Australia and ? northern New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

juillerati, Doryichthis Rochebrune [A. T. de] 1880:168 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 3790] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2622. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:43 [ref. 19576]. Original genus is correctly Doryichthys. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854), subspecies aculaetus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:473 [ref. 19285]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854), subspecies aculeatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1986:286 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1990:661 [ref. 17542], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:578 [ref. 21590]). •Synonym of Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Current status: Synonym of Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

jullieni, Syngnathus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:338 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 2 [1874]; ref. 3873] Cochinchine [? southern Vietnam]. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-8527. Paralectotypes: MNHN B-2974 [ex MNHN 0000-8527] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:43 [ref. 19576]. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440]. •Synonym of Doryichthys boaja (Bleeker 1850) -- (Dawson 1981:12 [ref. 5527], Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440], Dawson 1985:55 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2001:146 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys boaja (Bleeker 1850). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

kampeni, Ichthyocampus Weber [M.] 1913:114, Fig. 40 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] New Guinea. Lectotype: ZMA 112599. Paralectotypes: ZMA 112596-98 (1, 4, 1), 112600 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:80 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Herald in Schultz et al. 1953:237 [ref. 3975]; see Dawson 1977:620 [ref. 1066] for a discussion. •Synonym of Phoxocampus tetrophthalmus (Bleeker 1858) -- (Dawson 1977:618 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:156 [ref. 6541]). •Valid as Phoxocampus kampeni (Weber 1913) -- (Kuiter 2009:268 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:210 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Phoxocampus kampeni (Weber 1913). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

kampylotrachelos, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1854:107 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 16939] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7257. •Valid as Hippocampus kampylotrachelos Bleeker 1854 -- (Kuiter 2001:307 [ref. 25900], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Paxton et al. 2006:827 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:122 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:125 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:42 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southern Indonesia [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

kaupi, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1863:24, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3874. •Valid as Enneacampus kaupi (Bleeker 1863) -- (Dawson 1981:475 [ref. 1071], Dawson 1986:281 [ref. 6201], Lévêque et al. 1989:121 [ref. 26480], Dawson 1990:659 [ref. 17542], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:576 [ref. 21590], Snoeks & Vreven 2007:577 [ref. 30079], Fritzsche 2016:2235 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Skelton 2019:237 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Enneacampus kaupi (Bleeker 1863). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: West-central Africa. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

kaupii, Hippocampus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:516 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Gold Coast, West Africa. Holotype (unique): RMNH 1547. Replacement name for Hippocampus punctulatus Kaup 1856, preoccupied by Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot 1853. •Synonym of Hippocampus bicuspis Kaup 1856 -- (Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus algiricus Kaup 1856 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:71 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus algiricus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

kellersi, Parabelonichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1943:58, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 14 (pt 2); ref. 1441] Jaro River, Panay Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 108466. Paratypes: USNM 108468 (2), 119443 (1). •Synonym of Microphis mento (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:140 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:192 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Belonichthys mento (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Belonichthys mento (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

kelloggi, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:14, Pl. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1241); ref. 2510] Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6521. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Youn 2002:555 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Hippocampus kelloggi Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:37 [ref. 19754], Chen et al. 1997:35 [ref. 26476], Lourie et al. 1999:244 [ref. 23766], Lourie et al. 1999:103 [ref. 23993], Nakabo 2000:535 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:535 [ref. 26001], Choo & Liew 2003:273 [ref. 26841], Choo & Liew 2004:411 [ref. 28042], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:124 [ref. 36858], Kuiter 2009:116 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Jawad et al. 2011:147 [ref. 31521], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2015:28 [ref. 34319], Lourie 2016:110 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:134 [ref. 35660], Short et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus kelloggi Jordan & Snyder 1901. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines to southern Japan, south to eastern Australia; western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

kincaidi, Hippocampus Townsend [C. H.] & Barbour [T.] 1906:305, Figured [Bulletin of the New York Zoological Society No. 23; ref. 15718] Bermuda. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29127. •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:190 [ref. 25013], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

koilomatodon, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1858:10, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 9); ref. 16963] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.353 (1), RMNH 7226 (1). •Synonym of Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1985:84 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

kuda, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1852:82 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16832] Singapore. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 5167 (1 of several), BMNH 1867.11.28.360 (1). Bleeker specimens: NMV 46227-28 (2). Misspelled cudua and kudua by authors -- (Whitley & Allen 1958:39 [ref. 21838]). •Valid as Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Dor 1984:78 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1986:453 [ref. 5650], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:453 [ref. 25598], Randall et al. 1990:75 [ref. 15987], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:218 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Kim & Lee 1995:76 [ref. 22284], Randall 1995:104 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:184 [ref. 27969], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:133 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:74 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:75 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], Lourie et al. 1999:244 [ref. 23766], Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Myers 1999:89 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:151 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2272 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:535 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:158 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:56 [ref. 25480], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Horne 2001:245 [ref. 25696], Nakabo 2002:535 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:233, 555 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Choo & Liew 2003:271 [ref. 26841], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:34 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Choo & Liew 2004:411 [ref. 28042], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:140 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:110 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:320 [ref. 28379], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:125 [ref. 36858], Kuiter 2009:110 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:87 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:64 [ref. 35264], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Lourie 2016:122 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:134 [ref. 35660], Jawad et al. 2018:102 [ref. 36262] as H. kuda s.l.). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Maldives east to western Indonesia and China. Habitat: brackish, marine.

kuhlii, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:34, 74 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6138 [ex RMNH] (1), RMNH (7, not found). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:46 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1978:150 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:97 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Kuiter 2009:279 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854) -- (Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kulbickii, Festucalex Fricke [R.] 2004:25, Fig. 12 [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie A (Biologie). No. 668; ref. 28269] Grande Rade, 22°14'04"N, 166°24'01"E, New Caledonia, depth 2 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2004-2023. Paratypes: AMS IO.38050-003 (1); IRDNC uncat. (1); SMNS 21755 (1), 21764 (1), 21770 (1), 21774 (1), 21777 (1), 21779 (1), 21780 (1), 21781 (1), 21791 (1), 21792 (1); USNM 378952 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Fricke 2005:61 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Festucalex kulbickii Fricke 2004 -- (Kuiter 2009:207 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:195 [ref. 31980], Allen & Erdmann 2015:51 [ref. 33644], Fricke et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33932], Prokofiev 2016:623 [ref. 34850], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:94 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex kulbickii Fricke 2004. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: West Papua (Indonesia), Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

laevicaudatus, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Heckel) 1856:16, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] North America. Holotype (unique): NMW 75535. •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

larsonae, Acentronura (Idiotropiscis) Dawson [C. E.] 1984:156, Figs. 1-2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 31 (no. 2); ref. 5276] Alpha Island, Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia, about 20°26'S, 115°37'E, depth about 3 meters. Holotype: NTM S.10805-001. Paratypes: GCRL 21518 (1). •Valid as Acentronura larsonae Dawson 1984 -- (Dawson 1985:18 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:412 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Idiotropiscis larsonae (Dawson 1984) -- (Kuiter 2004:163 [ref. 27782], Paxton et al. 2006:831 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:147 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Idiotropiscis larsonae (Dawson 1984). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Australia, Australia: Monte Bello Islands. Habitat: marine.

latispinosus, Choeroichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1978:414, Figs. 1-2 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 8724] Reef-front slope, South Murion Island, Western Australia, depth 8 meters. Holotype (unique): WAM P.25815-024. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:15 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Choeroichthys latispinosus Dawson 1978 -- (Dawson 1985:33 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:414 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:814 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:228 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Choeroichthys latispinosus Dawson 1978. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

leiaspis, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1854:20 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 6); ref. 16914] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 7252 (1). •Valid as Microphis leiaspis (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:130 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:132 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:285 [ref. 6201], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:450 [ref. 25598], Allen 1991:109 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:100 [ref. 23448], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:527 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Allen et al. 2000:89 [ref. 27467], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:527 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Fricke 2004:51 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:272 [ref. 30404], Yonezawa et al. 2010:252 [ref. 30902], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Coelonotus leiaspis (Bleeker 1854) -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:85 [ref. 6441], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Coelonotus leiaspis (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lenis, Hippocampus De Vis [C. W.] 1908 Not available, name only. From Kuiter 2001:308, 309 [ref. 25900]; unpublished museum name, based on specimen label of QM I.788, which later became the holotype of Hippocampus dahli Ogilby 1908. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus dahli Ogilby 1908 -- (Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus dahli Ogilby 1908. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

leptorhynchus, Syngnathus Girard [C. F.] 1854:156 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 970. Non-types: MNHN A-3273 [ex USNM] (1); ?UMMZ 64416 (1), ?66044 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:48 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854 -- (Fritzsche 1980:210 [ref. 1511], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:131 [ref. 9277], Dawson 1985:187 [ref. 6541], Matarese et al. 1989:264 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:134 [ref. 14674], Swift et al. 1993:131 [ref. 22379], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:295 [ref. 24545], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:336 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:255 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:29 [ref. 34694], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Kells et al. 2016:124 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus leptorhynchus Girard 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: southern Alaska to Baja California, Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lettiensis, Solenognathus Bleeker [P.] 1860:3 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 6); ref. 14031] Letti Island, Banda Sea, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7254 (poor condition). Originally as lettiënsis; original genus should have been Solegnathus. •Valid as Solegnathus lettiensis Bleeker 1860 -- (Dawson 1982:148 [ref. 5442], Okamura in Okamura et al. 1985:427, 649 [ref. 8056], Dawson 1985:173 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:429 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:841 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:153 [ref. 30404], Larson et al. 2013:78 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Solegnathus lettiensis Bleeker 1860. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Banda Sea (Indonesia); Western Australia (North West Cape south to Albany). Habitat: marine.

lichtensteinii, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:8 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Locality not stated (probably from the Red Sea? or Japan). Syntypes: (3) ZMB 4317 (2). •Valid as Hippocampus lichtensteinii Kaup 1856 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:111 [ref. 23993], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Kuiter 2009:128 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Uncertain as Hippocampus species inquirenda -- (Lourie et al. 2016:45 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus lichtensteinii Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan?. Habitat: marine.

lindemanensis, Campichthys tryoni Whitley [G. P.] 1948:78 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Lindeman Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.6134. Paratypes: AMS IB.1909-10 (2, 2). •Synonym of Mannarichthys pictus (Duncker 1915) -- (Dawson 1977:608 [ref. 1066]). •Synonym of Nannocampus pictus (Duncker 1915) -- (Dawson 1985:149 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Nannocampus lindemanensis (Whitley 1948) -- (Paxton et al. 2006:837 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:259 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Nannocampus lindemanensis (Whitley 1948). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

linea, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 1876:374 [178] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 8 Nov. 1876); ref. 14211] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: (2). On p. 178 of separate. •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:59 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Veracruz, Mexico. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-6213. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-2318 (2), 0000-6208 (2), B-2903 [ex MNHN 0000-6213] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:42-43 [ref. 19576]. See also Syngnathus lineatus Valenciennes in Kaup. Original localities: Bahia, Brazil; Mexico; Guadeloupe, West Indies. Lectotype selected by Dawson 1979:478 [ref. 19285]. •Valid as Oostethus lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Marín 2000:71 [ref. 26252]). •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1979:476 [ref. 19285], Lee et al. 1980:567 [ref. 22416], Dawson 1982:17 [ref. 6764], Cervigón 1991:273 [ref. 24472], Bussing 1998:257 [ref. 24179], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1984:158 [ref. 5879], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1060 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:233 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013], Schiwok & Bork 2002:34 [ref. 25833], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:36 [ref. 33341]). •Valid as Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061], Kuiter 2009:275 [ref. 30404], Phillip et al. 2013:21 [ref. 32896], Angulo et al. 2013:998 [ref. 33194], Melo et al. 2016:377 [ref. 35317], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: North, Central and South America and Caribbean islands; Mexico to Brazil [subspecies lineatus or species lineatus when treated as valid]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineatus, Syngnathus Valenciennes [A.] in Kaup 1853:234 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 19 (pt. 1); ref. 2569] Not available, name only; name later adopted for Doryichthys lineatus Kaup 1856; see that account. •Treated as a synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Boschung 1992:95 [ref. 23239], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:134 [ref. 22947]). •In the synonymy of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Current status: Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

littoralis, Scyphius Risso [A.] 1827:188 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Probably Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longicephalus, Syngnathus phelgon Nikitin [S. A.] & Natradze [A. G.] 1946:170 Batumi, Georgia. Taken from "Fauna of Russia" 2014:210 [ref. 33547]. •Synonym of Syngnathus schmidti Popov 1928 -- (Parin et al. 2014:210 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus schmidti Popov 1928. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

longirostris, Hippocampus Schinz [H. R.] (ex Willughby) 1822:262 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Original spelling as Hyppocampus longirostris; appeared in footnote. Based on Hippocampus non aculeatus incisuris raris of Willughby 1686:Pl. I.25, fig. 4 [ref. 30164]. •Synonym of Hippocampus ramulosus Leach 1814, but a valid subspecies -- (Daget 1968:1057, 1059 [ref. 26392]). •Synonym of Hippocampus ramulosus Leach 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:279 [ref. 7190], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:26 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longirostris, Stigmatophora Hutton [F. W.] 1872:69 [Fishes of New Zealand (Hutton); ref. 2287] Wellington harbor, New Zealand. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.4.26.9 [es New Zealand Inst.] (2). Type catalog: Russell 1996:225-226 [ref. 22562]. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Synonym of Stigmatopora macropterygia Duméril 1870 -- (Dawson 1980:288 [ref. 21122], Dawson 1982:594 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:177 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora macropterygia Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Syngnathus Cuvier [G.] 1829:363 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] "les deux Indies." Available from footnote as, "Syng. longirostris, Will., J. 25, f. 4." Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

longirostris, Trachyrhamphus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:24, 74 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] China, western North Pacific. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1981.5.22.1 (1), second syntype lost. Lectotype selected by Dawson 1979:469 [ref. 19285], but Roberts 1993:36 [ref. 21799] indicates that the species was based on a drawing left in Java. •Valid as Trachyrhamphus longirostris Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1984:176 [ref. 5291], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:193 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:80 [ref. 25488], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:526 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:526 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:29 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Paxton et al. 2006:844 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:211 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:212 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:78 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:72 [ref. 34464], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Trachyrhamphus longirostris Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines, north to Japan and China, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

louisianae, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:160 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.8.16.25. •Valid as Syngnathus louisianae Günther 1870 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:127 [ref. 23100], Dawson 1982:70 [ref. 6764], Boschung 1992:96 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:139 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1063 [ref. 23897], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:230 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:192 [ref. 25013], Ross et al. 2001:388 [ref. 25978], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:254 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus louisianae Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and Gulf of Mexico to Jamaica. Habitat: marine.

lucasi, Phyllopteryx Whitley [G. P.] 1931:102, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 4673] Middleton Beach, Albany, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.4119. •Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804) -- (Dawson 1985:160 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:464 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

lumbriciformis, Syngnathus Jenyns [L.] 1835:488 [A manual of British vertebrate animals; ref. 18335] Cornwall, England. Holotype: Cambridge University. Based on literature sources. •Valid as Nerophis lumbriciformis (Jenyns 1835) -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:632 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1990:662 [ref. 17542], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:176 [ref. 26753], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Kuiter 2009:242 [ref. 30404], Fritzsche 2016:2238 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Nerophis lumbriciformis (Jenyns 1835). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, eastern North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lumbricoides, Syngnathus Maugé [A. L.] 1981:61, Fig. 1 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 8574] Iftay, southwestern coast of Madagascar. Holotype: MNHN 1979-0677. Paratypes: BMNH 1883.5.24.85 (1), MNHN 1979-0678 (2). •Synonym of Syngnathus darrosanus Dawson & Randall 1975 -- (Dawson 1985:52 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Cosmocampus darrosanus (Dawson & Randall 1975). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus darrosanus (Dawson & Randall 1975). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

lumnitzeri, Idiotropiscis Kuiter [R. H.] 2004:164, Figs. 1-2 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27782] Henrietta Head, La Perouse, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 34°00'S, 151°15'E, depth 22 meters. Holotype: AMS I.38660-001. Paratypes: AMS I.41409-001 (1), NMV A24724 (1). •Valid as Idiotropiscis lumnitzeri Kuiter 2004 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:832 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:148 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Idiotropiscis lumnitzeri Kuiter 2004. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.

luzonica, Bombonia Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1927:275, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-2) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 2103] Lake Taal, between Ambulong and Talisay, Batangas Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP (presumed destroyed). Paratypes: ?BMNH 1933.3.11.205-207 (3); BSMP (probably 29) presumed destroyed. •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

luzonica, Syngnathus djarong Aurich [H.] 1935:98, Pl. 1 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 112 (nos 5/6); ref. 13871] Taal Lake, central Luzon Island, Philippines. Syntypes: (11) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

macgregori, Doryrhamphus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1908:246, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 27(Doc. 640) (for 1907); ref. 2492] Calayan, Babuyan Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 20202. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Choeroichthys sculptus (Günther 1870) -- (Dawson 1976:53 [ref. 7375], Dawson 1985:34 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:229 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Choeroichthys sculptus (Günther 1870). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

macrobrachium, Syngnathus Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:207, Fig. 10A [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] Huasco, Chile, 28°28'S, 71°14'W. Holotype: USNM 176501. Paratypes: Estacíon de Biología Marina, Chile 10108-9 (2); IMARPE uncat. (2, 10); SIO 72-168 (2); UCLA W58-116 (3), W59-49 (1); USNM 213485 (4). •Valid as Syngnathus macrobrachium Fritzsche 1980 -- (Dawson 1985:188 [ref. 6541], Pequeño 1989:55 [ref. 14125], Kuiter 2009:254 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus macrobrachium Fritzsche 1980. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru and Chile. Habitat: marine.

macrophthalmus, Syngnathus Duncker [G.] 1915:85 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1869.6.21.8. •Valid as Syngnathus macrophthalmus Duncker 1915 -- (Dor 1984:80 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:188 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1992:32 [ref. 20074], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Kuiter 2009:257 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus macrophthalmus Duncker 1915. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

macropterus, Doryichthys Poll [M.] 1953:250, Fig. 101 [Résultats Scientifiques. Expédition Océanographique Belge dans les Eaux Côtières Africaines de l'Atlantique Sud (1948-1949). Bruxelles. v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12713] Atlantic, about 35 miles west of Ambrizette, 7°16'S, 12°17'E, at surface. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 196. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:24 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:38 [ref. 21528] as marcopterus. •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854), subspecies aculeatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1986:286 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1990:661 [ref. 17542], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:578 [ref. 21590]). •Synonmy of Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Current status: Synonym of Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

macropterygia, Stigmatophora Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:583 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Oceania. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6054. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:50 [ref. 19576]. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Valid as Stigmatopora macropterygia Duméril 1870 -- (Dawson 1980:288 [ref. 21122], Dawson 1982:594 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:177 [ref. 6541], Paulin et al. 1989:166 [ref. 24556], Paulin & Roberts 1992:67 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 2009:289 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1061 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Stigmatopora macropterygia Duméril 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

macrorhynchus, Halicampus Bamber [R. C.] 1915:480, Pl. 46 (fig. 4) [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 31 (no. 210); ref. 172] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1915.10.25.2. •Valid as Halicampus macrorhynchus Bamber 1915 -- (Dor 1984:77 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:85 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:418 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:74 [ref. 15987], Senou et al. 1993:4 [ref. 24331], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356] with author as "Banner," Randall et al. 1997:74 [ref. 25919], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:531 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:531 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:108 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:821 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:260 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:197 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:143 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus macrorhynchus Bamber 1915. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines and Fiji, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Histiogamphelus Hale [H. M.] 1939:2, Pl. (bottom) [The South Australian Naturalist. Journal of the Field Naturalists Section of the Royal Society of South Australia. v. 19 (no. 4); ref. 13012] Aldinga Bay, St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia. Holotype (unique): SAMA F2039. Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Synonym of Histiogamphelus cristatus (Macleay 1881) -- (Dawson 1984:108 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:102 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:451 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:830 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Histiogamphelus cristatus (Macleay 1881). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Ichthyocampus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:353, Pl. 17 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] [Erub] [= Darnley] Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16287-001 [ex MAMU F261]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:206 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442] once as bioarctatus, Paxton et al. 2006:844 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Nerophis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:37, 57, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Spelled maculatus on plate and p. 37, maculata on p. 57. •Valid as Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:633 [ref. 13676], Ahnelt 1991:50 [ref. 19120], Santos et al. 1997:74 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:65 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kuiter 2009:243 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Azores. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maeoticus, Syngnathus nigrolineatus Slastenenko [E. P.] 1938:174 [Annales scientifiques de l'Université de Jassy v. 25 (pt 2, no. 1); ref. 18722] Sea of Azov; lower reaches of Don River, lakes of the Danube delta in Romania. No types at ZIN. Also appeared in Slastenenki 1938:174 [ref. 18722] but not available, no distingusihing features. •Synonym of Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

magdamoi, Micrognathus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1932:141 [Copeia 1932 (no. 3); ref. 10976] Dumaguete, Oriental Negros, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 27716. Paratypes: CAS-SU 69829 [ex CAS-SU 27716] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Halicampus dunckeri (Chabanaud 1929) -- (Dawson 1985:83 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus dunckeri (Chabanaud 1929). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

major, Syngnathus Swainson [W.] 1839:333 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Yarr. ii. 325 -- which is Yarrell 1835-36:325 [ref. 4812]. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

makaxi, Syngnathus scovelli Herald [E. S.] & Dawson [C. E.] 1972:781 [Copeia 1972 (no. 4); ref. 17349] Laguna Makax, Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo, Mexico, depth 0-1.6 meters. Holotype: USNM 206235. Paratypes: AMNH 30222 (4); ANSP 117432 (4); CAS 13617 (22); FMNH 70761 (4); GCRL 3015 (7), 3690 (2), 6521 (23); IBUNAM-P 335 (4); LACM 31993-1 (4); MCZ 48476 (4); UF 229690 [ex UMML 29690] (4); UMMZ 197690 (4); USNM 206236 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Syngnathus makaxi Herald & Dawson 1972 -- (Dawson 1982:93 [ref. 6764], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:255 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus makaxi Herald & Dawson 1972. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Isla Mujeres, Mexico, Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

malus, Choeroichthys suillus Whitley [G. P.] 1954:25 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1952-53; ref. 4721] Masthead Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.7154. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus negrosensis Herre 1934, but a valid subspecies -- (Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Dawson 1981:19 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:64 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:818 [ref. 29073]). •Valid as Doryrhamphus malus (Whitley 1954) -- (Kuiter 2009:176 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus malus (Whitley 1954). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Australia: Queensland. Habitat: marine.

manadensis, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1856:79 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7256. •Valid as Hippocampus manadensis Bleeker 1856 -- (Kuiter 2009:125 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:203 [ref. 31980]). •Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:125 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:42 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Sulawesi, Indonesia [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

manadensis, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1856:78 (6, 29) [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.11.28.357 (1) Manado, RMNH 7248 (4). •Valid as Microphis manadensis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:158 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:141 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442], Allen 1991:109 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:100 [ref. 23448], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Paxton et al. 2006:835 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:272 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Oostethus manadensis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Microphis manadensis (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, north to Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mannulus, Hippocampus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1370 [388], Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.530-531 (2, dry). On p. 388 of separate. •Questionable synonym of Hippocampus comes Cantor 1849 -- (Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:125 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:42 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

margaritifer, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:457 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 7935] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: ZMB 5035 (1), 6224 (1). •Valid as Vanacampus margaritifer (Peters 1868) -- (Dawson 1984:83 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:197 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:88 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:472 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:78 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:845 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:478 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:214 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Vanacampus margaritifer (Peters 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

marginalis, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Heckel) 1856:15 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Mexico. Holotype (unique): NMW 89899. •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:235 [ref. 24550], Kuiter 2009:18 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

marinus, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Hasselquist) 1792:6 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Locality not stated. Not available from Walbaum, name in synonymy of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Based on Hasselquist 1762:446 [ref. 18250], a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

marinus, Syngnatus Hasselquist [F.] 1762:446 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Locality not stated. Not available, published in a rejected work (ICZN, Opinion 57). Original spelling 'Syngnatvs marinvs' due to historical typeset, equals Syngnatus marinus. Based on Hasselquist 1757:405 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). See also Syngnathus marinus Walbaum 1792. Original genus should have been Syngnathus. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

marmoreus, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 1876:374 [178] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 8 Nov. 1876); ref. 14211] Havana, Cuba. No types known. On p. 178 of separate. •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

marquesensis, Halicampus Dawson [C. E.] 1984:4, Figs. 2-3 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 34; ref. 8232] Southern end of Vaitahu Bay, Tahuata, Marquesas Islands, depth 115 feet. Holotype: BPBM 11936. Paratypes: BPBM 10857 (1), CAS 13977 (1), GCRL 20902 (1). •Valid as Halicampus marquesensis Dawson 1984 -- (Dawson 1985:88 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Earle 2000:10 [ref. 25806], Randall 2005:108 [ref. 28239], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus marquesensis Dawson 1984. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

martensii, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:459 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 7935] Pulo-Matjan [Pulau Majan], Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6789. •Valid as Doryichthys martensii (Peters 1868) -- (Dawson 1981:10 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:57 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Lim et al. 1990:48 [ref. 16753], Kottelat et al. 1993:98 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:245 [ref. 23210], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:164 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:192 [ref. 28285], Kuiter 2009:281 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Ng et al. 2019:532 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Doryichthys martensii (Peters 1868). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Thailand, Sumatra (Indonesia), Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

martini, Syngnathus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1936:358, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Philippine Journal of Science v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 5609] Western Atlantic. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 30973. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:62 [ref. 12291]. Locality not Manila Bay, Philippines, but Atlantic Ocean (see Herald in Schultz et al. 1953:232 [ref. 3975]). •Synonym of Syngnathus peckianus Storer 1839 (or S. fuscus Storer) -- (Herald in Schultz et al. 1953:232 [ref. 3975] as marteni). •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:78 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

martinicensis, Nerophis Kaup [J. J.] (ex Bibron) 1856:67 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6071 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:41-42 [ref. 19576]. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

martinicensis, Syngnathus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:67 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Name mentioned in synonymy; published in an available way as Nerophis martinicensis Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

mataafae, Corythroichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:213, Fig. 19 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Coral reefs off Mulinu'u, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype (unique): USNM 51724. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Valid as Halicampus mataafae (Jordan & Seale 1906) -- (Dawson 1985:89 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:451 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:19 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:101 [ref. 22896], Randall et al. 1997:501 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:150 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:29 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:109 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:822 [ref. 29073], Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:267 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:197 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus mataafae (Jordan & Seale 1906). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Madagascar east to Palau and Fiji, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Queensland (Australia). Freshwater, transitional water, marine. Habitat: marine.

matterni, Corythroichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1918:11, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype: ANSP 47484. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

maximus, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:7 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. •Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maxweberi, Syngnathus (Parasyngnathus) Whitley [G. P.] 1933:66 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 4677] Saleh Bay, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112623. Replacement name for Syngnathus punctatus Weber 1913, preoccupied by Syngnathus punctatus Rafinesque 1810. •Valid as Cosmocampus maxweberi (Whitley 1933) -- (Dawson 1980:221 [ref. 21123], Dor 1984:76 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:53 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:416 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:107 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:817 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:238 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:190 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus maxweberi (Whitley 1933). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to Marshall Islands and Samoa. Habitat: marine.

mayottae, Microphis Fourmanoir [P.] 1955:210 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série A, Biologie Animale v. 9; ref. 12271] Dzaoudzi, Mayotte Island, Comoro Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1985:60 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

mckayi, Siphostoma Swain [J.] & Meek [S. E.] 1884:239 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 428); ref. 14404] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: CAS-SU 1894 (138.5 mm female) missing. Paralectotypes: (6) CAS-SU 1894 (3 of 4, missing), USNM 34989 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Herald 1965:369 [ref. 9215]. •Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:57 [ref. 6764], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:231 [ref. 24550] as mackayi, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013] as mackayi). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

melanesiae, Yozia bicoarctata Fowler [H. W.] 1945:61, Figs. 3-4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 13142] Saipan Island, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71587. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

melanopleura, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1858:464 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 16960] Nova Selma [Cocos-Keeling Islands, eastern Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7251. •Valid as Syngnathus melanopleura Bleeker 1858 -- (Fritzsche 1980:189 [ref. 1511]). •Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:4 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:60 [ref. 6541], Randall et al. 1990:73 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:101 [ref. 22896], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:285 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:65 [ref. 25640], Randall 2005:107 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:318 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:818 [ref. 29073], Randall 2007:160 [ref. 30952]). •Valid as Doryrhamphus melanopleura (Bleeker 1858) -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:20 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:173 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:192 [ref. 31980], Fricke 2015:2 [ref. 33807], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus melanopleura (Bleeker 1858). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan, south to Great Barrier Reef (Australia) New Caledonia, Tonga, and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

melanospilos, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1854:505 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5165 (1 of 4). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.362 (1), RMNH 5165 (3 of 4). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). •Synonym of Hippocampus taeniopterus Bleeker 1852 -- (Kuiter 2001:314 [ref. 25900], Kuiter 2009:112 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus taeniopterus Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mento, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1856:75 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.351 (1), RMNH 7243 (1). •Valid as Microphis mento (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:139 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:129 [ref. 6541], Allen 1991:109 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:100 [ref. 23448], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Kuiter 2009:271 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Belonichthys mento (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:301 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Belonichthys mento (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific and northern Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

meraculus, Histiogamphelus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:271 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 3); ref. 4709] City Beach, near Perth, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.1215-001(originally dry). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:15 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Mitotichthys meraculus (Whitley 1948) -- (Dawson 1984:104 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:145 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:836 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:223 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Mitotichthys meraculus (Whitley 1948). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Australia: Flinders Bay to Perth, Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

microchirus, Syngnathus Moreau [É.] 1891:188 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 16 (no. 6); ref. 21621] Pinetto Lake, Bastia, Corsica, France. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

microcoronatus, Hippocampus hippocampus Slastenenko [E. P.] 1938:175 [Annales scientifiques de l'Université de Jassy v. 25 (pt 2, no. 1); ref. 18722] Black Sea and Sea of Azov. No types at ZIN. Unneeded new name for Hippocampus microstephanus Slastenenko 1937. •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parin et al. 2014:207 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:97 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:26 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea and Sea of Azov (if valid). Habitat: brackish, marine.

micrognathus, Syngnathus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Kaup 1856:27 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, name in the synonymy of Hemithylacus leiaspis Kaup and apparently not subsequently validated. Name also mentioned in passing under Corythoichthys gastrotaenia Kaup. •Questionably in the synonymy of Microphis argulus (Peters 1855) or Microphis leiaspis (Bleeker 1853) -- (Dawson 1984:125 [ref. 5879]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae.

micronotopterus, Syngnathus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:42, Fig. 14 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Canimo Island near Daet Point, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 94082. Paratypes: USNM 94083-87 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 99007 (1). •Valid as Micrognathus micronotopterus (Fowler 1938) -- (Dawson 1982:679 [ref. 5441], Dawson 1985:124 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794] as micronopterus, Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:46 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:835 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:234 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:208 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:78 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Micrognathus micronotopterus (Fowler 1938). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific, and southeastern Indian Ocean: Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and northwestern and north Australia. Habitat: marine.

micropterus, Syngnathus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Kaup 1856:61 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, name first mentioned in the synonymy of Hemithylacus leiaspis of Kaup and apparently not subsequently validated. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

microstephanus, Hippocampus hippocampus Slastenenko [E. P.] 1937:81 [Archives of Zoological Museum, Moscow State University v. 4; ref. 21851] Black Sea. Syntypes: none found at ZIN. •Synonym of Hippocampus ramulosus Leach 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:279 [ref. 7190]). •Possibly valid (as Hippocampus microstephanus Slastenenko 1937) -- (Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parin et al. 2014:207 [ref. 33547]). •Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:97 [ref. 23993], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:68 [ref. 26753], Lourie et al. 2016:26 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

milbertianus, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:573 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ?MNHN 0000-6109. Based on Syngnathus fasciatus of Kaup 1856:45. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:77 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

millepunctatus, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:60 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Madagascar, southwestern Indian Ocean. Neotype: MNHN 1901-0011. Neotype designated by Dawson 1979:473 [ref. 19285]; original localities included Madagascar and Réunion. Appeared previously as nomen nudum in Kaup 1853:234 [ref. 2569]. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1979:471 [ref. 19285]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1984:156 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:286 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1985:139 [ref. 6541], Reinthal & Stiassny 1997:354 [ref. 22780], Fricke 1999:152 [ref. 24106], Keith et al. 1999:96 [ref. 24548]). •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Microphis millepunctatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:273 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:124 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Microphis millepunctatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa and East Africa east to Madagascar, Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes). Freshwater, transitional water, marine. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

mindii, Syngnathus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:261, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Brackish creek near Mindi, Canal Zone, Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81770. •Valid as Pseudophallus mindii (Meek & Hildebrand 1923) -- (Villa 1982:151 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:164 [ref. 22927], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:136 [ref. 22947], Bussing 1998:255 [ref. 24179], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Kuiter 2009:241 [ref. 30404], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Phillip et al. 2013:21 [ref. 32896], Angulo et al. 2013:998 [ref. 33194] as mindi, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Pseudophallus mindii (Meek & Hildebrand 1923). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: South and Central America and Caribbean islands: Hondura and Nicaragua to Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

minotaur, Hippocampus Gomon [M. F.] 1997:246, Figs. 1, 2a, 3a-2 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 56 (no. 1); ref. 22842] Off Eden, New South Wales, Australia, depth 35-40 fathoms (64-73 meters). Holotype: NMV A192. Paratypes: AMS IA.3509 (1), IA.3560 (1), NMV A14161 (1). •Valid as Hippocampus minotaur Gomon 1997 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:113 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2001:304 [ref. 25900], Lourie & Randall 2003:284 [ref. 27038], Paxton et al. 2006:827 [ref. 29073], Lourie & Kuiter 2008:54 [ref. 29944], Kuiter 2008:456 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:141 [ref. 30404], Foster & Gomon 2010:61 [ref. 30956], Lourie 2016:136 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:33 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus minotaur Gomon 1997. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: New South Wales and Victoria. Habitat: marine.

miurum, Siphostoma Swan [J.] & Meek [S. E.] in Jordan 1886:225 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 565); ref. 14462] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under Siphostoma mackayi. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

modestus, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:166 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Locality given as: ? Vanuatu; ? South America. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1847.5.14.39 (1) S. America, 1860.7.18.63 (dry). •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868) -- (Dawson 1982:132 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

modestus, Syngnathus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:209 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 13259] Noble Island, Queensland, Australia [but probably in error]. Holotype: MNHN A-0983. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus modestus Günther 1870, replaced by Corythoichthys sauvagei Whitley 1929. •Synonym of Syngnathus poecilolaemus Peters 1868 -- (Dawson 1978:292 [ref. 8940]). •Synonym of Vanacampus poecilolaemus (Peters 1868) -- (Dawson 1985:200 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:474 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:846 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Vanacampus poecilolaemus (Peters 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mohnikei, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1853:16, Fig. 2 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 16922] Kaminoseki Island, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7259 (1 of 3). Appeared first without distinguishing features in Bleeker 1853:55 [ref. 340]. Variously spelled monickei, monckei, monikei, etc. by authors (Whitley & Allen 1958:39 [ref. 21838]). •Valid as Hippocampus mohnikei Bleeker 1853 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:244 [ref. 23766], Lourie et al. 1999:115 [ref. 23993], Nakabo 2000:534 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Kanou & Kohno 2001:361 [ref. 25792], Nakabo 2002:534 [ref. 26001], Kuiter 2009:115 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:107 [ref. 34505] dated 1854, Lourie et al. 2016:33 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:134 [ref. 35660]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus mohnikei Bleeker 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: India east to South China Sea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

mollisoni, Syngnathus Scott [E. O. G.] 1955:131, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania v. 89; ref. 12472] Off Bivouac Bay, Tasman Peninsula, southeastern Tasmania, Australia, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): QVM 1954:5:0002 (missing in 1974 and 1997). Type information: Green 1974:4 [ref. 19267]. •Valid as Mitotichthys mollisoni (Scott 1955) -- (Dawson 1984:104 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:146 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:86 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:459 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:836 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:467 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:222 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Mitotichthys mollisoni (Scott 1955). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: Victoria and Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

moluccensis, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1852:305 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) whereaabouts unknown. •Valid as Hippocampus moluccensis Bleeker 1852 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kuiter 2009:102 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:203 [ref. 31980]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Indonesia (if valid). Habitat: marine.

montebelloensis, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:326, Fig. 36 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] Off Trimoulle Island, Monte Bello Islands, Western Australia, 20°24'S, 115°34'E. Holotype: NTM S10804. Paratypes: WAM P.29078-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Hippocampus montebelloensis Kuiter 2001 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:827 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:126 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus zebra Whitley 1964 -- (Lourie 2016:138 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:44 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus zebra Whitley 1964. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Australia, Australia: Exmouth Gulf to Dampier Archipelago (if valid). Habitat: marine.

mossambica, Acentronura Smith [J. L. B.] 1963:522, Pl. 76 (figs. F-G) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 27; ref. 6516] Inhaca, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 139. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 136 (1), 931 (orig. 5, now 4); GCRL 15961 [ex RUSI] (1). •Synonym of Acentronura tentaculata Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1985:17 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:447 [ref. 5650]). •Valid as Acentronura mossambica Smith 1963 -- (Kuiter 2009:145 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:155 [ref. 34505], Fricke et al. 2018:120 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Acentronura mossambica Smith 1963. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Madagascar and Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

mossambicus, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:465 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Lumbo, Mozambique. Holotype (unique): ZMB 6235. Also described as new in Peters 1855:277 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1978:150 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1986:452 [ref. 5650], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1985:97 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Kuiter 2009:279 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

multiannularis, Hippocampus guttulatus Ginsburg [I.] 1937:540, Figs. 56-57 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 83 (no. 2997); ref. 1801] Bay of Biscay, France, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype: UMMZ 111747. Paratypes: UMMZ 111748 (15), USNM 117545 [ex UMMZ 111748] (2). Additional material: 1 doubtfully referred. •Synonym of Hippocampus ramulosus Leach 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:279 [ref. 7190]). •Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus but a valid subspecies as described -- (Piacentino & Luzzatto 2004:344 [ref. 28610]). •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:97 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:26 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

multiannularis, Hippocampus kuda Raj [B. S.] 1941:156 [Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 13151] Madras coast, India. Syntypes: Madras Aquarium (probably not preserved). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Hippocampus guttulatus multiannularis Ginsburg 1937. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

multiannulatus, Doryichthys Regan [C. T.] 1903:413, Pl. 13 (fig. 3) [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 3620] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MHNG 665.51. Type catalog: Mahnert 1976:473 [ref. 21535], Weber 1998:12 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Doryrhamphus multiannulatus (Regan 1903) -- (Dawson 1985:67 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:448 [ref. 5650], Winterbottom et al. 1989:19 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Fricke 1999:150 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Satapoomin 2009:58 [ref. 30463] in subgenus Dunckerocampus). •Valid as Dunckerocampus multiannulatus (Regan 1903) -- (Dor 1984:76 [ref. 29757], Kuiter 1998:81 [ref. 23586], Allen & Kuiter 2004:5 [ref. 28071], Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:183 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:194 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Dunckerocampus multiannulatus (Regan 1903). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Sokotra, Seychelles and western Mascarenes to Andaman Sea east to Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

multispinus, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:331, Fig. 45 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] Arafura Sea, Northern Territory, Australia, 10°49'S, 135°07'E, depth 54 meters. Holotype: NTM S12955-009. Paratypes: CSIRO B 3594 (?); NTM S12611-012 (1), S13917-001 (1), S13257-001 (1), S13326-003 (1), S13974-006 (1), S13541-001 (1). •Valid as Hippocampus multispinus Kuiter 2001 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:827 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:96 [ref. 30404], Larson et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870 -- (Lourie 2016:88 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:15 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus angustus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea (if valid). Habitat: marine.

muraena, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:40 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] North coast of Africa. Syntypes: BMNH (many), MNHN 0000-6122 (4 or 2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:44 [ref. 19576]. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

myersi, Micrognathus (Minyichthys) Herald [E. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1972:137, Figs. 5-6 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 39 (no. 11); ref. 2097] Northwestern Cocos Island, Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific, depth 70-100 feet. Holotype: CAS 13918. Paratypes: BPBM 8759 (1). •Valid as Minyichthys myersi (Herald & Randall 1972) -- (Dawson 1985:143 [ref. 6541], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Randall et al. 2002:156 [ref. 26192], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:111 [ref. 28239], Kuiter 2009:231 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:209 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Minyichthys myersi (Herald & Randall 1972). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Cargados Carajos (western Indian Ocean); southern and eastern Indonesia and Philippines east to Society Islands, south to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

naia, Dunckerocampus Allen [G. R.] & Kuiter [R. H.] 2004:2, Figs. 1-3, 5 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 28071] Maytag Reef, Bligh Water, Lomaiviti Group, Fiji, 17°16.75'S, 178°27.54'E, depth 23 meters. Holotype: WAM P.32334-004. Paratypes: WAM P.32462-001 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Dunckerocampus naia Allen & Kuiter 2004 -- (Kuiter 2009:181 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:194 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Doryrhamphus (Dunckerocampus) naia Allen & Kuiter 2004 -- (Koeda et al. 2016:19 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Dunckerocampus naia Allen & Kuiter 2004. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Soloman Islands, Fiji, Mariana Islands and Japan. Habitat: marine.

nanus, Campichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1977:641, Fig. 16 (upper pair) [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 27 (no. 4); ref. 1066] Pinda, Mozambique. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 4663. Other material: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 861 (1). •Valid as Campichthys nanus Dawson 1977 -- (Dawson 1985:29 [ref. 6541], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Shao et al. 2008:245 [ref. 29952], Kuiter 2009:232 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Campichthys nanus Dawson 1977. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique; western North Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

nanus, Nannocampus Rosén [N.] 1911:50, Pl. 1 (fig. 4a-b) [Lunds Universitets Årsskrift. N. F. v. 7 (Afd. 2 no. 5); ref. 14867] Mastic Point, Andros Island, Bahamas. Syntypes: (5) ZMUL uncat. (1), USNM 113615 (1). •Valid as Penetopteryx nanus (Rosén 1911) -- (Dawson & Allen 1978:399 [ref. 1073], Dawson 1982:14 [ref. 6764], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Penetopteryx nanus (Rosén 1911). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

nanus, Urocampus Günther [A.] 1870:179 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Manchuria, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1863.1.22.2. •Valid as Urocampus nanus Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1980:832 [ref. 6909], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:197 [ref. 6541], Nakabo 2000:520 [ref. 25086], Shimizu 2001:24 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:520 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:233, 556 [ref. 26218], Kuiter 2009:283 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Urocampus nanus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

narinosa, Stigmatopora Browne [R. K.] & Smith [K.] 2007:2, Figs. 2-5 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 64; ref. 29428] Edithburg Pool, 35°05'S, 137°45'E, South Australia, depth 2 meters. Holotype: SAMA F10190. Paratypes: SAMA F10186 (1), F10194 (2), F10195 (1); NMV A29230-001 (4), A29231-001 (5). Plus addtional non-type material. •Valid as Stigmatopora narinosa Browne & Smith 2007 -- (Kuiter 2008:475 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:287 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Stigmatopora narinosa Browne & Smith 2007. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia. Habitat: marine.

naso, Solegnathus robustus Whitley [G. P.] 1941:17 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 4701] Fish market in Auckland, New Zealand. Holotype (unique): AMS I.14837. •Synonym of Solegnathus spinosissimus (Günther 1870) -- (Dawson 1985:173 [ref. 6541], Gomon et al. 1994:467 [ref. 22532]). •Valid as Solegnathus naso Whitley 1941 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:841 [ref. 29073] on Kuiter under spinosissimus, Kuiter 2009:154 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Solegnathus naso Whitley 1941. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Hippocampus von Bonde [C.] 1923:9, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 193, depth 28 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:95 [ref. 23993]). •Valid as Hippocampus natalensis von Bonde 1923 -- (Kuiter 2009:120 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Dawson 1986:453 [ref. 5650], Lourie et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Africa: Kwa-Zulu-Natal (South Africa) to Mozambique (if valid). Habitat: marine.

natans, Micrognathus Dawson [C. E.] 1982:682, Figs. 12-13 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 95 (no. 4); ref. 5441] Beqa Island, Fiji Islands. Holotype: AMS I.20390-012. Paratypes: AMS I.19762-039 (1), I.20909-001 (1), I.20951-007 (1), I.21760-001 (7), I.21761-001 (1), I.22540-001 (1); GCRL 18136-37 (4, 7), 18237-38 (1, 5); USNM 133055 (1), 230673-74 (1, 1); ZMUC P39668-77 (10), P39678-99 (22?), P39700-02 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Micrognathus natans Dawson 1982 -- (Dawson 1985:125 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:46 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:835 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:234 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:208 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Micrognathus natans Dawson 1982. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean), Indonesia, Philippines, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), New Caledonia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

negrosensis, Doryrhamphus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1934:28 [Notes on fishes in the Zoological Museum of Stanford University. 1. The fishes of the Herre Philippine expedition of 1931.; ref. 2108] Tide pool near Dumaguete, Oriental Negros, Philippines. Holotype: CAS-SU 25503 (45 mm SL). Paratypes: CAS-SU 69776 [ex CAS-SU 25503] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. Appeared first as name only in Herre 1933:7 [ref. 21453]. •Valid as Doryrhamphus negrosensis Herre 1934 -- (Dawson 1981:10 [ref. 5511], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:64 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Kuiter 2009:177 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:193 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Doryrhamphus negrosensis Herre 1934, subspecies negrosensis Herre 1934 -- (Nakabo 2000:528 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:528 [ref. 26001], Paxton et al. 2006:818 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Valid as Doryrhamphus negrosensis Herre 1934. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Eastern Indonesia and Philippines east to Palau and Mariana Islands, Hawaiian Islands, south to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

nesiotes, Syngnathus mackayi Herald [E. S.] 1942:128 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 13205] Nonsuch Island, Bermuda. Holotype: USNM 170915 [ex NYZS 8919]. Paratypes: FMNH 5340-41 (1, 1), 5342-43 (2), 5347-49 (1, 1, 1), 5351 (1); CAS-SU 36484-85 (1, 1); USNM 170916-20 (1, 1, 2, 3, 1). Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:58 [ref. 6764], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:192 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus floridae (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Stigmatophora Kaup [J. J.] 1856:53 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Tasmania, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6055 (2, 1 lost). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:49-50 [ref. 19576]. Appeared as Stigmatopora niger as name only and not available in Kaup 1853:233 [ref. 2569]; in Stigmatophora as above. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Valid as Stigmatopora nigra Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1982:588 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1980:288 [ref. 21122], Dawson 1985:178 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Paulin & Roberts 1992:62 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:94 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:469 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:76 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073], Browne & Smith 2007:5 [ref. 29428], Kuiter 2008:475 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:288 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:102 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Stigmatopora nigra Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Australia, north to Port Denison (Western Australia) and Mooloolaba (Queensland); North Island to Marlborough Sounds and Chatham Islands (New Zealand). Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigripectus, Corythoichthys Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:275, Fig. 41b [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon 100 yards offshore of Argi Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, depth 25-40 feet. Holotype: USNM 140230. Paratypes: USNM 140231 (6). •Valid as Corythoichthys nigripectus Herald 1953 -- (Dawson 1977:318 [ref. 7048], Dor 1984:75 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:44 [ref. 6541], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2274 [ref. 24794], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:16 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:106 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:205 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys nigripectus Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea; western Pacific: Eastern Indonesia east to Marshall and Society islands. Red Sea populations may represent undescribed species (Kuiter 2009:205 [ref. 30404]). Habitat: marine.

nigrolineatus, Siokunichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1983:58, Figs. 3-5 [Pacific Science v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 5351] Belang-belang Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, depth 20 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1982.6.17.59. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.6.17.60 (1); GCRL 18829 (1), 19192 (1); USNM 236539 (1). •Valid as Siokunichthys nigrolineatus Dawson 1983 -- (Dawson 1985:167 [ref. 6541], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kuiter 2009:269 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:212 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:145 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Siokunichthys nigrolineatus Dawson 1983. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

nigrolineatus, Syngnathus Eichwald [C. E. von] 1831:61 [Zoologia specialis quam expositis animalibus tum vivis Pars posterior [3]; ref. 5562] Black Sea near Odessa, Ukraine. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Also appeared as new in Eichward 1838:106 [ref. 34622]. •Valid as Syngnathus nigrolineatus Eichwald 1831 -- (Berg 1949:982 [ref. 20662], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Savvaitova 1998:114 [ref. 23594], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:46 [ref. 26178]). •Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Coad 1995:27 [ref. 23608], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:501 [ref. 29996], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus abaster Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nitidus, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1873:103 [7] [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 6423] Bowen, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1873.4.3.76-77 (2), ?1873.4.3.212 (1). On p. 7 of separate. •Valid as Halicampus nitidus (Günther 1873) -- (Dawson 1985:90 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442] with a holotype, Randall et al. 1990:75 [ref. 15987], Senou & Aizawa 1993:4 [ref. 24323], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:75 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:530 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:530 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:30 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:109 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:822 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:267 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:198 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus nitidus (Günther 1873). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Indian Region east to Indonesia, Fiji, Philippines, Papua New Guinea to Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

nocturna, Heraldia Paxton [J. R.] 1975:441, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 15); ref. 3395] Watson's Bay, Sydney Harbor, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.17328-001. Paratypes: AMS I.16516-001 (1), I.17033-008 (1), I.17112-003 (1), I.17328-002 (1), I.17641-001 (1), I.17642-001 (1), I.18075-001 (1); BMNH 1975.2.19.1 (1); BPBM 18034 (1); CAS 32366-67 (1, 1); QM I.12920 (1); WAM P.25167-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:15 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:16 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Heraldia nocturna Paxton 1975 -- (Dawson 1985:96 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:84 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:446 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:80 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:822 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:453 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:186 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Heraldia nocturna Paxton 1975. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Australia: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

noeli, Siphostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:18 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Not available, name only. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

norae, Syngnathus Waite [E. R.] 1910:25 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute Part 1 (1910); ref. 4565] Stewart Island to Pegasus Bay, New Zealand, 20-54 fathoms. Syntypes: (several) CMC F1635 (1). Type catalog: Freeman & Tunnicliffe 1997:8 [ref. 22860]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Waite 1911:173, Pl. 27 (fig. 1) [ref. 14826]. •Valid as Leptonotus norae (Waite 1910) -- (Dawson 1980:286 [ref. 21122], Dawson 1985:113 [ref. 6541], Paulin et al. 1989:166 [ref. 24556], Paulin & Roberts 1992:63 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 2009:220 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1057 [ref. 34254], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Luzzatto & Estalles 2019:1 [ref. 36805]). Current status: Valid as Leptonotus norae (Waite 1910). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

novaehebudorum, Hippocampus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:162, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71352. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. Originally as novae-hebudorum. •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). •Synonym of Hippocampus taeniopterus Bleeker 1852 -- (Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus taeniopterus Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

novaehollandiae, Hippocampus Steindachner [F.] 1866:474 [51], Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 53; ref. 4210] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (4) NMW 59312 (3). On p. 51 of separate. Originally as novae Hollandiae n. sp.?. Did not appear in abstract, Steindachner 1866 [ref. 20460]. •Synonym of Hippocampus whitei Bleeker 1855 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:449 [ref. 22532], Lourie et al. 1999:127 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2001:327 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:829 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:43 [ref. 34632], Short et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus whitei Bleeker 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

nox, Ichthyocampus Snyder [J. O.] 1909:598 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 36 (no. 1688); ref. 4151] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 62945. •Synonym of Phoxocampus belcheri (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1977:615 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:156 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Phoxocampus belcheri (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

nuda, Bhanotia Dawson [C. E.] 1978:403, Figs. 1, 3, 5 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 91 (no. 2); ref. 7025] Off southeastern part of Arakabesan Island, Palau Islands, 7°20'51"N, 134°38'01"E, depth 0-1.8 meters. Holotype: CAS 40169. Paratypes: CAS 38740 (18), 39739 (8), 39741-42 (4, 7); GCRL 15731 (4), 15732 (3); USNM 207444 (14). Type catalog: Dawson 1985:22 [ref. 6541]. •Valid as Bhanotia nuda Dawson 1978 -- (Dawson 1985:22 [ref. 6541], Allen & Kuiter 1995:76 [ref. 21613], Myers 1999:89 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Suzuki et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26565], Kuiter 2009:230 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:186 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Bhanotia nuda Dawson 1978. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Papua (Indonesia) and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

obscurus, Hippocampus Hemprich [F. W.] & Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Kaup 1856:10 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, museum name mentioned in passing under Hippocampus ramulosus. See Lourie et al. 1999:171 [ref. 23993]. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838. Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

obscurus, Hippocampus Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Klunzinger 1871:653 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Red Sea. Not available, name mentioned in synonymy of Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838 -- (Dor 1984:78 [ref. 29757], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus fuscus Rüppell 1838. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

obsoletus, Typhlus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:40 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in synonymy; Syngnathus obsoletus is a museum name mentioned at the same time. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

obtusus, Hippocampus Ginsburg [I.] 1933:562 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 23 (no. 12); ref. 16490] Off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, U.S.A., Albatross. Holotype (unique): USNM 84527. •Synonym of Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg 1933 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:117 [ref. 23993], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:190 [ref. 25013], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Silveira et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33493], Lourie et al. 2016:37 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg 1933. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Corythoichthys Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:267, fig. 41a [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Purvis Bay, Florida Island, Solomon Islands. Holotype: CAS 20029. Paratypes: CAS 19932-36 (1, 1, 1, 1, 2); CAS-SU 15432 (2); USNM 152018 (1). •Valid as Corythoichthys ocellatus Herald 1953 -- (Dawson 1977:316 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:44 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1997:500 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:155 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:17 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:106 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:816 [ref. 29073], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:199 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:190 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys ocellatus Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea east to Samoa, south to eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Doryichthys Duncker [G.] 1910:28, Pl. (fig. A) [Spolia Zeylanica v. 7 (pt 25); ref. 14841] Sri Lanka. Syntypes: (17) ?ZSI F10073/1 (1) Ganjain near Valvello; other syntypes apparently lost. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:140 [ref. 20743]. Original types: Colombo Mus. (1), ZMB 11559 (6) and 11560 (9 or 10). •Valid as Microphis ocellatus (Duncker 1910) -- (Dawson 1984:172 [ref. 5879] with remarks on types, Dawson 1985:134 [ref. 6541], Pethiyagoda 1991:201 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:773 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:100 [ref. 23448], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404], Miesen et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34492], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Lophocampus ocellatus (Duncker 1910) -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Lophocampus ocellatus (Duncker 1910). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Sri Lanka to western Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellatus, Microphis Snyder [J. O.] 1909:598 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 36 (no. 1688); ref. 4151] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: USNM 62946. Paratypes: CAS-SU 21133 (1), USNM 74536 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Choeroichthys sculptus (Günther 1870) -- (Dawson 1976:53 [ref. 7375], Dawson 1985:34 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:229 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Choeroichthys sculptus (Günther 1870). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

olivacea, Stigmatophora Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:244 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] St. Vincent Gulf (Adelaide), South Australia. Holotype (?): MNHN A-0738. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840) -- (Dawson 1982:579 [ref. 5443], Dawson 1985:176 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:430 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:468 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora argus (Richardson 1840). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

olivaceus, Nerophis Berg [L. S.] 1933:752 [Les poissons des eaux douces de l'U.R.S.S. Part 2; ref. 279] Original not seen. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

ollotropis, Syngnathus euchrous Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:209, Fig. 12B [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] 1.2 kilometer east of Cabo Tortolo, Bahía Tortugas, Baja California, Mexico, 27°38'53"N, 114°51'46"W, depth 1 meter. Holotype: SIO H48-53. Paratypes: GCRL 15758 [ex SIO H48-51] (15); SIO H47-112 (1), H48-53 (35), H48-55 (47), 54-131 (1); CAS-SU 19260 (1). •Synonym of Syngnathus euchrous Fritzsche 1980 -- (Dawson 1985:185 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus euchrous Fritzsche 1980. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

olssoni, Syngnathus Johnels [A. G.] 1954:399, Fig. 18 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 12650] Creeks from the Farida and Alikiama swamps, Gambia River, western Africa. Holotype: NRM 11151. Paratypes: (5) NRM 38533 [ex NRM 11151] (3), 39203 (1). •Synonym of Enneacampus ansorgii (Boulenger 1910) -- (Dawson 1986:281 [ref. 6201], Lévêque et al. 1989:121 [ref. 26480], Dawson 1990:659 [ref. 17542], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:577 [ref. 21590]). Current status: Synonym of Enneacampus ansorgii (Boulenger 1910). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ophidion, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:337 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.185 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:216 [ref. 13434] with surviving syntype not conspecific with species usually called ophidion. •Valid as Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:978 [ref. 20662], Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:633 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1990:663 [ref. 17542], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Savvaitova 1998:113 [ref. 23594], Fricke 1999:37 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:183 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:175 [ref. 28369], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:73 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:243 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Lourie 2016:140 [ref. 34505], Fritzsche 2016:2238 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, Azov Sea, northeastern Atlantic: Norway south to Morocco, including Madeira. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

ophidium, Nematosoma Eichwald [C. E. von] 1831:60 [Zoologia specialis quam expositis animalibus tum vivis Pars posterior [3]; ref. 5562] Mediterranean Sea; Black Sea near Odessa, Ukraine. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orae, Histiogamphelus briggsii Whitley [G. P.] 1950:238 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 4712] Thompson's Bay, Coogee, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.84. •Synonym of Histiogamphelus briggsii McCulloch 1914 -- (Dawson 1984:106 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:102 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:450 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:830 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Histiogamphelus briggsii McCulloch 1914. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

palmstruchii, Syngnathus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:54, Fig. 3 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Bohuslän Archipelago, Sweden. No types known. •Synonym of Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kullander 2016:115 [ref. 33147]). Current status: Synonym of Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

papacinus, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1810:69, Pl. 4 (fig. 7) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice; Villefranche, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis maculatus Rafinesque 1810. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

papuensis, Ichthyocampus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1880:228 [18] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 3888] Havre Dorey, New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2333. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:45 [ref. 19576]. On p. 18 of separate. •Synonym of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Dawson 1977:328 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:40 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Corythoichthys haematopterus (Bleeker 1851). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

paradoxus, Hippocampus Foster [R.] & Gomon [M. F.] 2010:62, Figs. 1, 2A, 3 [Zootaxa No. 2613; ref. 30956] Southwest of Esperance, Western Australia, approximately 34°29'S, 121°32'E, depth 102 meters. Holotype (unique): SAMA F10490. •Valid as Hippocampus paradoxus Foster & Gomon 2010 -- (Lourie 2016:137 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:34 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus paradoxus Foster & Gomon 2010. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: South-western Australia (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

parvicarinatus, Syngnathus Dawson [C. E.] 1978:288, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1978 (no. 2); ref. 8940] Mudflat, Dinah Beach inlet, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, depth to 5 cm. Holotype: WAM P.25801-001. Paratypes: AMNH 35963 (8), AMS I.20563-001 [ex AMNH 35963] (2), GCRL 15644 (2), USNM 217594 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:16 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Parasyngnathus parvicarinatus (Dawson 1978) -- (Dawson 1984:79 [ref. 21119]). •Valid as Hippichthys parvicarinatus (Dawson 1978) -- (Dawson 1985:100 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:824 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:280 [ref. 30404], Jenkins & Mailautoka 2010:114 [ref. 30900], Larson et al. 2013:76 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippichthys parvicarinatus (Dawson 1978). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

parviceps, Syngnathus Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:475 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 18603] Clarence River, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.191. •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:823 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

patagonicus, Hippocampus Piacentino [G. L. M.] & Luzzatto [D. C.] 2004:340, Figs. 2-3, 5 [Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales n.s. v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 28610] Río Negro, San Antonio Oeste Bahía, 40°45'S, 64°55'W, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 8806. Paratypes: MACN 8807 (1), 8808 (1), 8809 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hippocampus patagonicus Piacentino & Luzzatto 2004 -- (Kuiter 2009:70 [ref. 30404], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Silveira et al. 2014:323 [ref. 33493], Lourie 2016:130 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:35 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus patagonicus Piacentino & Luzzatto 2004. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

pauciradiata, Bhanotia Allen [G. R.] & Kuiter [R. H.] 1995:75, Figs. 1-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 21 (nos 3-4) [1994]; ref. 21613] Off Wailiti, Maumere Bay, Flores Island, Indonesia, about 8°35'S, 122°11'E, depth 10-12 meters. Holotype (unique): NCIP 6088. •Valid as Bhanotia pauciradiata Allen & Kuiter 1995 -- (Suzuki et al. 2002:4 [ref. 26565], Allen & Adrim 2003:27 [ref. 26830], Kuiter 2009:230 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:187 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Bhanotia pauciradiata Allen & Kuiter 1995. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indonesia: Flores [holotype]. Habitat: marine.

paulus, Doryrhamphus Fritzsche [R. A.] 1980:189, Fig. 4B [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 42 (no. 6); ref. 1511] About 100 meters southeast of "Humpback Cove", Isla Socorro, Revilla Gigedo [Revillagigedo] Islands, off western Mexico, depth 6-12 meters. Holotype: SIO 72-67. Paratypes: CAS 13699 (9); GCRL 15753 [ex SIO 58-143] (1); LACM 31781-2 (3), 31782-12 (5); SIO 72-67 (6), 74-155 (2); CAS-SU 36442 (1), 67255 (1). •Valid as Doryrhamphus paulus Fritzsche 1980 -- (Kuiter 2009:176 [ref. 30404], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923]). •Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856, but a valid subspecies paulus -- (Dawson 1981:10 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:61 [ref. 6541], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:285 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:65 [ref. 25640], Randall 2005:107 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:161 [ref. 30952] with comment, Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

pawneei, Ichthyocampus Herald [E. S.] 1950:269 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 40 (no. 8); ref. 12956] Green Cay, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): YPM 3327. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:26 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Mannarichthys pawneei (Herald 1950) -- (Dawson 1977:612 [ref. 1066]). •Synonym of Penetopteryx nanus (Rosén 1911) -- (Dawson 1982:14 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Penetopteryx nanus (Rosén 1911). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

paxtoni, Corythoichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1977:335, Figs. 20-21 [Copeia 1977 (no. 2); ref. 7048] One Tree Island, Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, depth 0.6-1.8 meters. Holotype: AMS I.18598-001. Paratypes: AMNH 33907 (1), 33929 (2), 33948 (1), 33958 (1); AMS 15617-001 (2), 15686-005 (2), I.18246-001 (1), I.18595-001 (3), I.18596-001 (2), I.18597-001 (1); ANSP (8, 3 lots); BPBM 14442 (5); CAS 13729 (1), 13845 (1); GCRL (7, 5 lots); LACM 33723-75 (4); USNM 214978-80 (1, 5, 5, 20), 214983-84 (2, 2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:159 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Corythoichthys paxtoni Dawson 1977 -- (Dawson 1985:45 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Fricke 2004:18 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:816 [ref. 29073], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:202 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys paxtoni Dawson 1977. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Great Barrier Reef (eastern Australia), and Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

peckianus, Syngnathus Storer [D. H.] 1839:506 [163], Pl. 6 [Pl. 1] (fig. 2) [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] Holmes Hole, Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 163 and Pl. 1 (fig. 2) of separate. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:77 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186], Scott & Scott 1988:352 [ref. 25518]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

peckii, Syngnathus Storer [D. H.] 1839:3, 163 [Boston Journal of Natural History v. 2 (nos 3-4) (art. 12); ref. 4278] Mentioned in footnote of separate, but not in journal, as being the original name chosen for Syngnathus peckianus; later changed to peckianus, but the name peckii remained in introductory text on p. 3. From Nahant, Massachusetts, U.S.A. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:76 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

pelagicus, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:337 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] No types known. Based on a description by Osbeck (1757). •Valid as Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1982:103 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:127 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:352 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:135 [ref. 14674], Dawson 1990:663 [ref. 17542], Boschung 1992:96 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1064 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:192 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:127 [ref. 36858], Kuiter 2009:252 [ref. 30404], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Fritzsche 2016:2239 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Marceniuk et al. 2017:39 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pelagicus, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1810:63 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758, replaced by Syngnathus pyrois Risso 1827. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pellegrini, Syngnathus Fowler [H. W.] 1919:265, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 56 (no. 2294); ref. 15209] ? Western North Atlantic [errouneously stated as Gabon, West Africa]. Holotype: ANSP 975. Paratypes: ANSP 976 (1), 977 (1), 978 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1981:465 [ref. 1071], Dawson 1982:78 [ref. 6764]). •Valid as Syngnathus pellegrini Fowler 1919 -- (Arruda 1997:65 [ref. 24952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pellucidus, Osphyolax Cope [E. D.] 1876:450, Pl. 25 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 27 (for 1875); ref. 936] Open Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ANSP 860. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

penicillus, Syngnathus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1368 [386] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.526. On p. 386 of separate. •Valid as Parasyngnathus penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1984:75 [ref. 21119]). •Valid as Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1985:100 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:451 [ref. 25598], Allen 1991:107 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:102 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:133 [ref. 23922], Takahashi et al. 1997:44 [ref. 24971], Sato et al. 1998:39 [ref. 24972], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:524 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Shimizu 2001:24 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen et al. 2002:337 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:524 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Paxton et al. 2006:824 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:278 [ref. 30404], Jenkins & Mailautoka 2010:114 [ref. 30900], Larson et al. 2013:76 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932] with Bleeker as author, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pentagonus, Hippocampus Ginsburg [I.] 1937:530 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 83 (no. 2997); ref. 1801] Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of Hippocampus heptagonus Rafinesque 1810. Name was given as Hippocampus pentagonus Rafinesque. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632] with author as Rafinesque 1810). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

periscelis, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:8 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Batavia and Germany. No types known. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

perlatus, Syngnathus Lay [G. T.] & Bennett [E. T.] 1839:68, Pl. 21 (fig. 1) [The zoology of Captain Beechey's voyage; ref. 2730] Loo-Choo, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): Zoological Society London. •Questionably a synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perserrata, Maroubra Whitley [G. P.] 1948:74, Fig. 3 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Maroubra Beach, near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.12659. •Valid as Maroubra perserrata Whitley 1948 -- (Dawson 1985:119 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:90 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:458 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:80 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:834 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:466 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:185 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Maroubra perserrata Whitley 1948. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland to southern Australia and to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

pessuliferus, Dunckerocampus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:41, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Sulade Island (E), vicinity of Siasi, Sulu Archipelago, 5°46'40"N, 120°48'50"E, Albatross station D.5146, depth 24 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 93501. •Valid as Doryrhamphus pessuliferus (Fowler 1938) -- (Dawson 1985:68 [ref. 6541], Winterbottom 1987 [ref. 6776], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Paulus 1999:2275 [ref. 24794], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Paxton et al. 2006:819 [ref. 29073]). •Valid as Dunckerocampus pessuliferus Fowler 1938 -- (Kuiter 1998:81 [ref. 23586], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Allen & Kuiter 2004:4 [ref. 28071], Kuiter 2009:182 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:195 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Dunckerocampus pessuliferus Fowler 1938. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific, southeastern Indian Ocean: Indonesia, northwestern Australia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

petersii, Hemithylacus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:600 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Puerto Montt, Chile. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7142. •Synonym of Leptonotus blainvilleanus (Eydoux & Gervais 1837) -- (Fritzsche 1980:190 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1982:41 [ref. 6764], Dawson 1985:112 [ref. 6541], Luzzatto & Estalles 2019:8 [ref. 36805]). Current status: Synonym of Leptonotus blainvilleanus (Eydoux & Gervais 1837). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

philippinus, Doryichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1918:13, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype: ANSP 47485. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:154 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:138 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1979:467 [ref. 19285], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

philippinus, Ichthyocampus Fowler [H. W.] 1938:43 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Tinakta Island, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, 5°12'40"N, 119°55'10"E, Albatross station D.5160, depth 12 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 94080. •Synonym of Festucalex erythraeus (Gilbert 1905) -- (Dawson 1977:629 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:70 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Festucalex erythraeus (Gilbert 1905). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

phillipi, Syngnathus Lucas [A. H. S.] 1891:12 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria (n. s.) v. 3; ref. 14501] Port Phillip Heads, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: (4). •Valid as Vanacampus phillipi (Lucas 1891) -- (Dawson 1984:88 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:198 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:89 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:473 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:76 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:845 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:478 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:215 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:149 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Vanacampus phillipi (Lucas 1891). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

phlegon, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1827:181, Pl. 15 (fig. 41) [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Galicia, Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. •Mention as Syngnathus phlegon Risso 1827 -- (Dor 1984:80 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Syngnathus phlegon Risso 1827 -- (Wheeler 1973:275 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:636 [ref. 13676], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26753] dated 1826, Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kuiter 2009:245 [ref. 30404], Bañon et al. 2010:14 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus phlegon Risso 1827. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: adjacent coasts of Portugal and Morocco. Habitat: marine.

picturatus, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 1876:374 [178] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 8 Nov. 1876); ref. 14211] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 178 of separate. •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

pictus, Ichthyocampus Duncker [G.] 1915:95 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Gulf of Mannar, western Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1892.5.28.3. •Valid as Mannarichthys pictus (Duncker 1915) -- (Dawson 1977:608 [ref. 1066]). •Valid as Nannocampus pictus (Duncker 1915) -- (Dawson 1985:149 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:456 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Fricke 1999:153 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:259 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Nannocampus pictus (Duncker 1915). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa and Mascarenes east to Queensland (Australia) (south to 24°30'S), north to Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

pictus, Syngnathus Hemprich [F. W.] & Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Kaup 1856:25 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, museum name mentioned in passing in synonymy of Corythoichthys fasciatus; specimen is ZMB 4334. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

pipulus, Syngnathus Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1932:115 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 13 (no. 5); ref. 9330] The Reach, Bermuda. Holotype (unique): USNM 170914 [ex NYZS 25152]. Type catalog: Mead 1958:134 [ref. 20648]. •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868) -- (Dawson 1982:133 [ref. 6764], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:189 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

planifrons, Hippocampus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:851 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] "Naturalists Channel", northwestern Australia, depth 10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9387. •Questionably a synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:171 [ref. 23993]). •Valid as Hippocampus planifrons Peters 1877 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Paulus 1999:2269 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Kuiter 2001:310 [ref. 25900], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:827 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:126 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:103 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:35 [ref. 34632], Short et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus planifrons Peters 1877. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Australia, Australia: Shark Bay to Exmouth. Habitat: marine.

platygnathus, Syngnathus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Kaup 1856:30 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under Ichthyocampus carce. •In the synonymy of Ichthyocampus carce (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ichthyocampus carce (Hamilton 1822). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

platyrhynchus, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:571 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN (apparently lost). •Synonym of Microphis argulus (Peters 1855) -- (Dawson 1984:126 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:130 [ref. 6541]). •Valid as Microphis platyrhynchus (Duméril 1870) -- (Kuiter 2009:271 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Microphis platyrhynchus (Duméril 1870). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pleurostictus, Microphis Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:278 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 3442] Batu [Bato] Lake and Yassot Creek, Luzon Island, Philippines. Syntypes: ZMB 6633 (8, in 2 bottles), 6634 (?) Batu, 6692 (2) Yassot; BMNH 1868.7.10.1 (5); MNHN 0000-6036 (3). •Valid as Oostethus pleurostictus (Peters 168) -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Microphis pleurostictus Peters 1868 -- (Dawson 1984:161 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:141 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Microphis pleurostictus Peters 1868. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: freshwater.

pleurotaenia, Doryichthys Günther [A.] 1880:62, Pl. 26 (fig. D) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Off Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 18 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.587. •Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1981:5 [ref. 5511], Dawson 1985:60 [ref. 6541], Mundy 2005:318 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Doryrhamphus excisus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

poecilolaemus, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:458 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 7935] Adelaide, South Australia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5316. •Valid as Vanacampus poecilolaemus (Peters 1868) -- (Dawson 1984:93 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:200 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:89 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:474 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:846 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:479 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:215 [ref. 30404] dated 1869, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Vanacampus poecilolaemus (Peters 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

poeyi, Hippocampus Howell Rivero [L.] 1934:32, Fig. [Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural v. 8 (no. 6); ref. 3767] Havana, Cuba, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype (unique): MCZ 33913. •Synonym of Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg 1933 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:117 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Silveira et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33493], Lourie et al. 2016:37 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg 1933. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

poeyi, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2443] Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

polyacanthus, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1856:77 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 7246 (2). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.359 (1). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:152 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:138 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:276 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1979:467 [ref. 19285], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

polynotatus, Corythoichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1977:331, Figs. 20-21 [Copeia 1977 (no. 2); ref. 7048] Koror Island, Palau Islands, western Pacific, 7°20'13"N, 134°28'14"E. Holotype: CAS 34476. Paratypes: BMNH 1933.3.11.199-200 (2); CAS 30349 (7), 30354 (4), 34475 (3), 34477 (3); CAS-SU 27647 (6), 68064 (13), 68063 [not 68083] (10); FMNH 47472 (4); GCRL 14474 (2), 14475 (2); UMMZ 100366 (6); USNM 154630 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:28 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Corythoichthys polynotatus Dawson 1977 -- (Dawson 1985:46 [ref. 6541], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:203 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:190 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys polynotatus Dawson 1977. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Bali and Flore (Indonesia), Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), Palau. Habitat: marine.

polyprion, Solegnathus Bleeker [P.] 1853:25 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 6); ref. 16914] China. Syntypes: RMNS 2770 (2). •Synonym of Solegnathus hardwickii (Gray 1830) -- (Dawson 1982:143 [ref. 5442], Dawson 1985:171 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Solegnathus hardwickii (Gray 1830). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

polytaenia, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1854:338 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 343] Larantuka, Flores Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens or possible holotype: BMNH 1867.11.28.361 (1) Flores. •Valid as Hippocampus polytaenia Bleeker 1854 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kuiter 2009:104 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:204 [ref. 31980]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indonesia: Flores Sea, possibly adjacent areas [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

ponticerianus, Ichthyocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:31, 74 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Syntypes: MNHN (6) Puducherry, RMNH 3861 (1) Macassar, ZMB 4359 (2) Assam. Based on manuscript name of Bibron. Perhaps best regarded as an unneeded replacement name for (and objective synonym of) Syngnathus heptagonus Bleeker 1849, heptagonus regarded as inappropriate by Kaup. Dawson treats with separate availability and different types. •Objective synonym of Syngnathus heptagonus Bleeker 1849. •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ponticerianus, Typhlus Bibron [G.] in Kaup 1856:31 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Name in synonymy, but species name was used by Kaup as Ichthyocampus ponticerianus. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

ponticus, Syngnathus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:118 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Black Sea and Azov Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pontohi, Hippocampus Lourie [S. A.] & Kuiter [R. H.] 2008:59, Figs. 1A, 2A, 3A [Zootaxa No. 1963; ref. 29944] Lekuan II, Bunaken, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, 1°36'05"N, 124°45'56"E, depth 16 meters. Holotype: MZB 13593. Paratypes: MZB 13596 (1), 13597 (1). Plus 2 specimens tentatively included. •Valid as Hippocampus pontohi Lourie & Kuiter 2008 -- (Gomon & Kuiter 2009:41 [ref. 30036], Kuiter 2009:134 [ref. 30404], Reijnen et al. 2011:2 [ref. 33436], Allen & Erdmann 2012:204 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:80 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:36 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2018:36 [ref. 36055]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus pontohi Lourie & Kuiter 2008. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia to Papua New Guinea, Ryukyu Islands, Solomon Islands and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

pristipeltis, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:58 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): NMW. •Questionably a synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1984:152 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:138 [ref. 6541]). •Questionably a synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1979:467 [ref. 19285], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

procerus, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:328, Fig. 40 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] 5-11 kilometers nw Hervey Bay, Fairway Buoy, Queensland, 24°S, 152'E. Holotype: AMS E.2914. Paratypes: AMS I.492 (1), I.12554 (1), IA.4205 (1), IB.1011 (1); QM I.2208 (1), I.8792 (1), I.11000 (7), I.13012 (1), I.29963 (1), I.30772 (2). •Valid as Hippocampus procerus Kuiter 2001 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:828 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:44 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus whitei Bleeker 1855 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:43 [ref. 34632], Short et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus whitei Bleeker 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

profundus, Corythoichthys Herald [E. S.] 1965:364 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 32 (no. 12); ref. 9215] About 90 miles off Melbourne, Florida, 27°56'N, 79°05'W, U.S.A., depth 100 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 198096. •Valid as Cosmocampus profundus (Herald 1965) -- (Dawson 1982:125 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:125 [ref. 23100], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:239 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus profundus (Herald 1965). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

prolixus, Festucalex Dawson [C. E.] 1984:371, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 30 (no. 4); ref. 5290] Sulu Sea, 7°22'N, 121°16'E, Dana station 3685 III, depth 0-100 meters over 4825 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P39741. Paratypes: GCRL 20921-22 (1, 1); ZMUC P39742-44 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Festucalex prolixus Dawson 1984 -- (Dawson 1985:72 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Fricke 2004:27 [ref. 28269], Allen & Erdmann 2015:51 [ref. 33644], Prokofiev 2016:624 [ref. 34850], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex prolixus Dawson 1984. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pulchellus, Syngnathus Boulenger [G. A.] 1915:88, Fig. 74 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa v. 3; ref. 584] Gabon and Cameroon. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.6.8.20 (1) Cameroon, 1888.12.13.41 (1, dry) Gabon. •Synonym of Enneacampus ansorgii (Boulenger 1910) -- (Dawson 1981:469 [ref. 1071], Dawson 1986:281 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1990:659 [ref. 17542], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:577 [ref. 21590]). Current status: Synonym of Enneacampus ansorgii (Boulenger 1910). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pullus, Corythroichthys Smith [H. M.] & Seale [A.] 1906:75, fig'd [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 19; ref. 4059] Rio Grande, Cotabato Province, Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55621. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

punctata, Yozia Kamohara [T.] 1952:1, Fig. 2 [Research Reports of Kôchi University v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 12779] Mimase fish market, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): BSKU 1776. Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:2-3 [ref. 19282]. •Valid as Halicampus punctatus (Kamohara 1952) -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:92 [ref. 6541], Nakabo 2000:531 [ref. 25086], Takata & Sasaki 2001:315 [ref. 25550], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:531 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:423 [ref. 28370], Kuiter 2009:266 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus punctatus (Kamohara 1952). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: southern Japan and Okinawa. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Syngnathus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:37, 57 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

punctatus, Syngnathus Weber [M.] 1913:113, Fig. 39 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Saleh Bay, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, Siboga station 313, depth 36 meters. Holotype: ZMA 112623. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:81 [ref. 19236]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus punctatus Rafinesque 1810, replaced by Syngnathus (Parasyngnathus) maxweberi Whitley 1933. •Synonym of Cosmocampus maxweberi (Whitley 1933) -- (Dawson 1980:221 [ref. 21123], Paxton et al. 1989:416 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:817 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus maxweberi (Whitley 1933). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

punctipinnis, Dermatostethus Gill [T. N.] 1862:283 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 1667] San Diego, California, U.S.A. [apparently in error]. Lectotype: USNM 8128. Paralectotypes: (3) USNM 214484 [ex USNM 8128] (2). Genus misspelled Dermatosthus once. Lectotype selected by Fritzsche 1980:185 [ref. 1511]. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fritzsche 1980;185 [ref. 1511]), Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctulatus, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:14, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Gold Coast, West Africa. Holotype (unique): RMNH 1547. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot 1853, replaced by Hippocampus kaupii Duméril 1870. •Synonym of Hippocampus algiricus Kaup 1856 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:71 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus algiricus Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Hippocampus Guichenot [A.] 1853:174, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Sagra, R. de la, Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de l'Ile de Cuba; ref. 18164] Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6092 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:52 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot 1853 -- (Dawson 1990:660 [ref. 17542], Afonso et al. 1999:71 [ref. 25466]). •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:235 [ref. 24550], Piacentino & Luzzatto 2004:339 [ref. 28610], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Silveira et al. 2014:320 [ref. 33493], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia (if valid). Habitat: marine.

pusillus, Hippocampus Fricke [R.] 2004:37, Fig. 18 [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie A (Biologie). No. 668; ref. 28269] Lifou Island, Baie du Santal, west of Récif Shelter, off Pointe Lefèvre, 20°53'55"S, 167°01'47"E, Loyalty Islands, 75-120 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2004-2029. Paratypes: MNHN 2002-3234 (1), SMNS 23384 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 2005:62 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Hippocampus pusillus Fricke 2004 -- (Kuiter 2009:93 [ref. 30404], Randall & Lourie 2009:21 [ref. 30536], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Lourie 2016:134 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:37 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus pusillus Fricke 2004. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Loyalty Islands and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

pustulatus, Syngnathus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:54, Fig. 1 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Bohuslän Archipelago, Sweden. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kullander 2016:115 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pygmaeus, Micrognathus Fritzsche [R. A.] 1981:771, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 94 (no. 3); ref. 8600] Lagoon 1-2 kilometers east of Papeete, Taone, Tahiti, Society Islands, depth about 3 meters. Holotype: USNM 207933. Paratypes: USNM 215775 (1). •Synonym of Micrognathus brevirostris (Rüppell 1838) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:425 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Micrognathus brevirostris (Rüppell 1838), but a valid subspecies -- (Dawson 1982:668 [ref. 5441], Dawson 1985:123 [ref. 6541], Senou & Yano 1999:2 [ref. 24392], Myers 1999:94 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:529 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:529 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495]). •Valid as Micrognathus pygmaeus Fritzsche 1981 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:47 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:834 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:233 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:208 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Micrognathus pygmaeus Fritzsche 1981. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands to Marshall and Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

pyrois, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1827:180 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Replacement name for Syngnathus pelagicus Risso 1810, preoccupied by Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

queenslandicus, Hippocampus Horne [M. L.] 2001:244, Fig. 1 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25696] Off John Brewer Reef, 18°37'S, 147°03'E, Great Barrier Reef, depth 50 meters. Holotype: QM I24445. Paratypes: AMS I.40832-001 (1), I.40833-001 (1); NMV A21578-79 (1, 4); QM 124446 (1). •Valid as Hippocampus queenslandicus Horne 2001 -- (Kuiter 2001:319 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:828 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:104 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 -- (Lourie 2016:112 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia (if valid). Habitat: marine.

quinquarius, Corythroichthys Snyder [J. O.] 1911:526 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 40 (no. 1836); ref. 4152] Tanegashima, Osumi Island, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 68227. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Parasyngnathus penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1984:76 [ref. 21119]). •Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849) -- (Dawson 1985:100 [ref. 6541], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys penicillus (Cantor 1849). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

raji, Hippocampus Whitley [G. P.] 1955:44 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1953-54; ref. 4724] India. No types known. New name for Hippocampus kuda multiannularis Raj 1945, Proc. Indian Sci. Congress v. 27 (no. 3), p. 156. •Valid as Hippocampus raji Whitley 1955 -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:173 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404] with question, Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ramulosus, Hippocampus Leach [W. E.] in Leach & Nodder 1814:105, Pl. 47 (color) [Zoological miscellany; being descriptions of new, or interesting animals v. 1-3; ref. 2738] Locality not known, probably Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1982.6.17.41. •Valid as Hippocampus ramulosus Leach 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:279 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:631 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1990:660 [ref. 17542], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Santos et al. 1997:74 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:65 [ref. 24952]). •In the synonymy of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:68 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:36 [ref. 36649]). •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404]). •Hippocampus species inquirenda -- (Lourie et al. 2016:45 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] 1965:373 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 32 (no. 12); ref. 9215] South side of Venados Island, about 28 kilometers west-southwest of Cumaná, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 198903. Non-types: UF 221864 [ex UMML 21864] (1), USNM 164831 (2), ?MOBR-EDIMAR-P-2576 (1). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:113 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Syngnathus randalli Herald 1965 -- (Dawson 1982:115 [ref. 6764], Cervigón 1991:237 [ref. 24472]). •Valid as Bryx randalli (Herald 1965) -- (Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27621], Kuiter 2009:285 [ref. 30404], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Bryx randalli (Herald 1965). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

regulus, Hippocampus Ginsburg [I.] 1933:563 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 23 (no. 12); ref. 16490] Harbor Island, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 92950. Paratypes: (several). •Valid as Hippocampus regulus Ginsburg 1933 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:236 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Hippocampus zosterae Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:131 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:45 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus zosterae Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

reidi, Hippocampus Ginsburg [I.] 1933:561 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 23 (no. 12); ref. 16490] St. George, Grenada, British West Indies. Holotype: USNM 86590. Paratypes: (several) USNM 223673 (1). •Valid as Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg 1933 -- (Shimizu in Uyeno et al. 1983:202 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:124 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:277 [ref. 24472], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1057 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Lourie et al. 1999:117 [ref. 23993], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:190 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:104 [ref. 26784], Dias & Rosa 2003:165 [ref. 26948], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1224 [ref. 27044], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:18 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:74 [ref. 30404], Oliveira et al. 2010:373 [ref. 30935], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341], Silveira et al. 2014:322 [ref. 33493], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Lourie 2016:124 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:37 [ref. 34632], Nión et al. 2016:44 [ref. 35565] with author as Guinsburg, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Pinault et al. 2019:394 [ref. 36448], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg 1933. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (USA) south to southern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

retropinnis, Cosmocampus Dawson [C. E.] 1982:135, Figs. 1, 2 (top) [Zoologica Scripta v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 5440] Northeastern Atlantic, 18°22'N, 18°14'W, Dana station 4007, depth estimated 0-35 meters over 2425 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P39646. Paratypes: GCRL 17056-57 (1, 1); USNM 225317 (1); ZMUC P39644-45 (1, 1), P39647-49 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Cosmocampus retropinnis Dawson 1982 -- (Dawson 1990:658 [ref. 17542], Kuiter 2009:238 [ref. 30404], Fritzsche 2016:2234 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Cosmocampus retropinnis Dawson 1982. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

retzii, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1856:76 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: (37) BMNH 1867.11.28.350 (2), ?NMV 46624-25 (2), RMNH 7236 (some of 30), ZMA 115996 (1). •Valid as Lophocampus retzii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34492]). •Valid as Microphis retzii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:166 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:134 [ref. 6541], Allen 1991:109 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:100 [ref. 23448], Yoshino & Yochigou 1998:202 [ref. 23391], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:527 [ref. 25086], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:527 [ref. 26001], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:196 [ref. 28107], Fricke 2004:51 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:272 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Microphis retzii (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Pohnpei (Micronesia) and Samoa, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rhynchaenus, Syngnathus Michahelles [C. W.] 1829:1014 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 9); ref. 17700] Ragusa, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

rhynchomacer, Hippocampus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:519 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] "Mer des Indies" [=China]; Singapore; China; Cochin. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5987 -- 5991 (1, 2, 1, 1, 3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:53 [ref. 19576]. Based on specimens and literature source. •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

richardsonii, Hymenolomus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:607 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Non-types: MNHN 0000-4448 (2), 0000-5429 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:42 [ref. 19576]. An unneeded substitute name for Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845 apparently proposed to avoid Strickland tautonomy. •Synonym of Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus hymenolomus Richardson 1845. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

rikuzenius, Urocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:10, Pl. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1241); ref. 2510] Matsushima Bay, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6520. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:62 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Urocampus nanus Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1980:832 [ref. 6909], Dawson 1985:197 [ref. 6541], Youn 2002:556 [ref. 26218]). Current status: Synonym of Urocampus nanus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ringens, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1905:119 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 1) (1903); ref. 2451] Not an original description. Referred to in description of Hippocampus hilonis, but not described. Apparently a misspelling of Hippocampus ingens (Girard 1859). •In the synonymy of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

rivalis, Syngnathus spicifer var. Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1868:276 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1868; ref. 3442] Basey River, Samar; Tacloban, Leyte, Philippines. Syntypes: ZMB 732 (1), 6631 (1). •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

robensis, Histiogamphelus maculatus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:76 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Near Robe, southeastern South Australia. Holotype (unique): SAMA F2611. Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Synonym of Histiogamphelus briggsii McCulloch 1914 -- (Dawson 1984:106 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:102 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:450 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:830 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Histiogamphelus briggsii McCulloch 1914. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

robertsi, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Rutter [C. L.] 1897:97 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 49; ref. 10644] Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 4988. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868) -- (Dawson 1982:133 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

robustus, Solegnathus McCulloch [A. R.] 1911:28, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Biological Results Endeavour [v. 1] (pt 1); ref. 2936] Off Flinders Island, 134°30'E, South Australia, 37 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS E.945. •Valid as Solegnathus robustus McCulloch 1911 -- (Dawson 1982:153 [ref. 5442], Dawson 1985:173 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:429 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:466 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:841 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:473 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:153 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Solegnathus robustus McCulloch 1911. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: South Australia, Australia. Habitat: marine.

rocaberti, Hemithylacus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:600 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Manila, Philippines. Syntypes: MNHN A-1701 (1), 2085 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:44 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Microphis mento (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:139 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:192 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Belonichthys mento (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:301 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Belonichthys mento (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rondeletii, Hippocampus Yarrell [W.] (ex Willughby) 1841:452 [A History of British fishes. Second edition. v. 2; ref. 17751] Based on 'Hippocampus Rondel.' of Willughby 1686:Pl. I.25, fig. 3 [ref. 30164]. •Not available, name in synonymy -- (Lourie et al. 1999:173 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404]). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

rondeletii, Syngnathus Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:324 [38], Pl. 21 (fig. 5) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Baleares Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN. On p. 38 and Pl. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rosaceus, Hippocampus Risso [A.] 1827:184 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Hippocampus ramulosus Leach 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:279 [ref. 7190], Lourie et al. 1999:95 [ref. 23933]). •Status uncertain -- (Lourie et al. 1999:173 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:46 [ref. 34632] as nomen nudum). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

rosamondae, Hippocampus Borodin [N. A.] 1928:16, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Pilon, Cuba. Syntypes: VMM 316 (2) (now at AMNH). •Synonym of Hippocampus zosterae Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:131 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:45 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus zosterae Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

rostellatus, Syngnathus Nilsson [S.] 1855:687 [Skandinavisk fauna; ref. 3205] Sweden. Syntypes: ZMB 4915 (2). •Valid as Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson 1855 -- (Wheeler 1973:275 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:636 [ref. 13676], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:74 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Kuiter 2009:246 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus rostellatus Nilsson 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea, North Sea, eastern North Atlantic: North Sea to Bay of Biscay. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rostratus, Histiogamphelus Waite [E. R.] & Hale [H. M.] 1921:303, Fig. 44 [Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 4569] Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Holotype: SAMA F696. Paratypes: (5) SAMA (1, juvenile, deteriorated and destroyed). Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Valid as Hypselognathus rostratus (Waite & Hale 1921) -- (Dawson 1985:105 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:423 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:86 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:452 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:831 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:459 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:227 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hypselognathus rostratus (Waite & Hale 1921). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: Victoria and South Australia. Habitat: marine.

rotundatus, Syngnathus Michahelles [C. W.] 1829:1014 [Isis (Oken) v. 22 (no. 9); ref. 17700] Trieste, Italy, Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rousseau, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:40 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6125 (dry, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:48 [ref. 19576]. Name only, not available. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1982:104 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus pelagicus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Nannocampus Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:757 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 10 (pt 4); ref. 18598] Off Shark Reef, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS B.9199. •Valid as Notiocampus ruber (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886) -- (Dawson 1979:483 [ref. 1068], Dawson 1985:153 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:92 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:461 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:837 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:469 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:216 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Notiocampus ruber (Ramsay & Ogilby 1886). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia. Habitat: marine.

rubescens, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1810:66 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:274 [ref. 7190], Dawson 1985:183 [ref. 6541], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:635 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1990:663 [ref. 17542], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26753], Kuiter 2009:244 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rufus, Festucalex Allen [G. R.] & Erdmann [M. V.] 2015:48, Figs. 1-5 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 21 (no. 1); ref. 33644] Cheri's Reef dive site, about 5.5 km west of Nuakata Island, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea, 10°18.023'S. 150°57.177'E, depth 18-20 meters. Holotype: WAM P.33884-001. Paratypes: WAM, USNM. . •Valid as Festucalex rufus Allen & Erdmann 2015 -- (Prokofiev 2016:624 [ref. 34850]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex rufus Allen & Erdmann 2015. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

rumengani, Kyonemichthys Gomon [M. F.] 2007:27, Figs. 1-3 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 29396] Lembah Straits, Sulawesi, Indonesia, depth 16.5-18 meters. Holotype (unique): NMV A29573-001. •Valid as Kyonemichthys rumengani Gomon 2007 -- (Kuiter 2009:146 [ref. 30404], Bogorodsky et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31559], Allen & Erdmann 2012:207 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Kyonemichthys rumengani Gomon 2007. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: eastern Indonesia and Papua New Guinea north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

runa, Festucalex (Campichthys) Whitley [G. P.] 1931:313 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Long Bay, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Lectotype: AMS I.9020 (82.5 mm SL). Paralectotypes: AMS I.9020 (1). Based on Ichthyocampus filum described and figured by McCulloch 1909:318, Pl. 90 (fig. 1). Lectotype selected by Dawson 1977:615 [ref. 7047]. •Valid as Lissocampus runa (Whitley 1931) -- (Dawson 1977:612 [ref. 7047], Dawson 1985:118 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:424 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:91 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:457 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:76 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:833 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:465 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:218 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Lissocampus runa (Whitley 1931). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Queensland to southern Australia and to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

safina, Syngnathus Paulus [T.] 1992:28, Figs. 1-2, 5, 7-8 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 72 (nos 1/3) [1991]; ref. 20074] Gulf of Aqaba, Jordan, about 17 kilometers south of Aqaba, Red Sea, 29°25'54"N, 34°58'26"E. Holotype: SMF 23924. Paratypes: SMF 23925 (1). •Valid as Syngnathus safina Paulus 1992 -- (Kuiter 2009:257 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:52 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus safina Paulus 1992. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

samaraiensis, Yozia compitalis Kähsbauer [P.] 1970:157 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 74; ref. 7618] Wharf at Samarai Island, southeastern tip of Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

sanctipauli, Belonichthys Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:45, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale (Paris) v. 8; ref. 14281] St. Paul Island, southern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Originally as Sancti Pauli. •Synonym of Microphis fluviatilis (Peters 1852) -- (Dawson 1984:138 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:128 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis fluviatilis (Peters 1852). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

satomiae, Hippocampus Lourie [S. A.] & Kuiter [R. H.] 2008:64, Figs. 1C, 2C, 3C [Zootaxa No. 1963; ref. 29944] Derawan Island, Kalimantan, Indonesia, 2°17.690'N, 118°15.692'E, depth 10-18 meters. Holotype: NMV A25420-001. Paratypes: NMV A25420-002 (1). Plus non-type specimen observations. •Valid as Hippocampus satomiae Lourie & Kuiter 2008 -- (Gomon & Kuiter 2009:41 [ref. 30036], Kuiter 2009:136 [ref. 30404], Reijnen et al. 2011:2 [ref. 33436], Allen & Erdmann 2012:205 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:82 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:38 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36055]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus satomiae Lourie & Kuiter 2008. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indonesia, Borneo and Malaysia. Habitat: marine.

sauvagei, Corythoichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1929:117 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 17 (no. 3); ref. 4665] Noble Island, Horwick Group. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0983. Replacement name for Syngnathus modestus Sauvage 1879, preoccupied by Syngnathus modestus Günther 1870. •Synonym of Syngnathus poecilolaemus Peters 1868 -- (Dawson 1978:292 [ref. 8940]). •Synonym of Vanacampus poecilolaemus (Peters 1868) -- (Dawson 1984:94 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:200 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:432 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:474 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:846 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Vanacampus poecilolaemus (Peters 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scalaris, Ichthyocampus Günther [A.] 1870:177 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Freycinet Harbor, Australia. Lectotype: BMNH 1858.12.27.53-56 (largest, dry). Paralectotypes: (potentially 4) BMNH 1858.12.27.53-56 (2, dry), ?BMNH 1858.12.27.73 (1). Lectotype selected by Dawson 1977:628 [ref. 1066]. •Valid as Festucalex scalaris (Günther 1870) -- (Dawson 1977:626 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:72 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:819 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:207 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2015:51 [ref. 33644], Prokofiev 2016:624 [ref. 34850], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex scalaris (Günther 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

schlegeli, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1853:232 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 19 (pt. 1); ref. 2569] Japan and China. Holotype (unique): RMNH. Non-type specimens: BMNH (1), MNHN 0000-6110 (2) China. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:47 [ref. 19576]. Appeared in 1953, not 2575:46, 75. The original description states that the description of the original specimen was a specimen belonging to the Leiden Museum. Schlegel says he has seen dried Chinese examples, and these are regarded as additional non-type material (Eddy Derijst and James Maclaine assisted WNE in this interpretation). •Valid as Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:189 [ref. 6541], Kim 1997:394 [ref. 24032], Nakabo 2000:523 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:57 [ref. 25480], Shimizu 2001:24 [ref. 25799], Kim & Park 2002:316 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:523 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:233, 555 [ref. 26218], Hagiwara 2003:37 [ref. 27188], Kuiter 2009:252 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547] dated 1856, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138], Matsunuma 2017:395 [ref. 35141]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: China to southern Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

schmidti, Paramicrophis Klausewitz [W.] 1955:326, Figs. 1a-c [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 36 (no. 5/6); ref. 2611] Mumbai, India. Holotype: SMF 3570 [actual 3743]. Paratypes: (25) CAS 14038 (2), GCRL 16248 (?), SMF 3571 (25, ?now 21). •Synonym of Microphis cuncalus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Dawson 1984:148 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:136 [ref. 6541], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:770 [ref. 20764], Kuiter 2009:274 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis cuncalus (Hamilton 1822). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

schmidti, Syngnathus Popov [A. M.] 1928:391, Fig. [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 28 (for 1927); ref. 15817] Off Caucasian, Crimean, Romanien and Bulgarian coasts of the Black Sea. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1929.8.7.13 [ex ZIN] (1); ZIN 21011-14 (2, 1, 1, 1), 21018 (2), 21035-37 (6+, 6, 1), 21091 (1), 21183 (1), 21639-43 (6+, 1, 1, 2, 1). •Valid as Syngnathus schmidti Popov 1928 [date changed 5 Feb. 1928] -- (Wheeler 1973:275 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:637 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26753] dated 1928, Fricke et al. 2007:75 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:75 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:250 [ref. 30404], Parin et al. 2014:210 [ref. 33547], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus schmidti Popov 1928. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea, Sea of Azov, and Sea of Marmara. Habitat: brackish.

schultzi, Corythoichthys Herald [E. S.] in Schultz et al. 1953:271, Fig. 42 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] 100 yards offshore in lagoon, Arji Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 6.1-12.2 meters. Holotype: USNM 140233. Paratypes: USNM 140234 (4), 140240-41 (1, 1), 141198 (1). •Valid as Corythoichthys schultzi Herald 1953 -- (Dawson 1977:319 [ref. 7048], Dor 1984:76 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:87 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:46 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:415 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:19 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:73 [ref. 15987], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:74 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:73 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:90 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:148 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2274 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:525 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:155 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:525 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:33 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Fricke 2004:18 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:106 [ref. 28239], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:127 [ref. 36858], Paxton et al. 2006:816 [ref. 29073], Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Fricke et al. 2009:37 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:200 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:58 [ref. 30463], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:190 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706] as cf. schultzi, Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:49 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys schultzi Herald 1953. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comores and western Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Tonga, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

scovelli, Siphostoma Evermann [B. W.] & Kendall [W. C.] 1896:113 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 18 (no. 1043); ref. 14580] Shamrock Point, Corpus Christi, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 47300. Paralectotypes: USNM 218366 [ex USNM 47300] (1); plus mention of a total of 130 specimens: CAS-SU 5470 (4), 8613 (3); USNM 69367 (11). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61-62 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype selected by Dawson 1982:83 [ref. 6764]. •Valid as Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896) -- (Lee et al. 1980:568 [ref. 22416], Dawson 1982:83 [ref. 6764], Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:270 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:96 [ref. 23239], Warren et al. 1994:133 [ref. 25557], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:136 [ref. 22947], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1065 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:231 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Ross et al. 2001:388 [ref. 25978], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:592 [ref. 27061], Menezes & Moura in Menezes et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:417 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Kuiter 2009:256 [ref. 30404], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], Page & Burr 2011:465 [ref. 31215], Martin et al. 2013:376 [ref. 36668], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:998 [ref. 33194], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:242 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico to Brazil; Central and South America; usually in nearshore marine habitats; some records from freshwater: Belize, Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, U.S.A., and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sculptus, Doryichthys Günther [A.] 1870:185 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Fiji Islands [South Pacific]. Lectotype: BMNH 1858.12.27.106. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1858.12.27.107 (1). Lectotype selected by Dawson 1976:56 [ref. 7375]. •Valid as Choeroichthys sculptus (Günther 1870) -- (Dawson 1976:53 [ref. 7375], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:34 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:447 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:414 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:19 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:72 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:72 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:89 [ref. 23965], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794] as sculpatus, Nakabo 2000:521 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:603 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:521 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:617 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:105 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:814 [ref. 29073], Fricke et al. 2009:36 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:229 [ref. 30404], Motomura et al. 2010:86 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:188 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:45 [ref. 33932], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:121 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Choeroichthys sculptus (Günther 1870). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: East Africa, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Line Islands, Society Islands and Gambier Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

sealei, Corythroichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan & Seale 1906:213, Fig. 18 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51722. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8724 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Corythoichthys flavofasciatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1977:306 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:39 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Corythoichthys flavofasciatus (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

semifasciatus, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:162 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Unjustified emendation of Leptonotus semistriatus Kaup 1856; because "The bands are transvers (fasciae), and not longitudinal (striate)." •Junior objective synonym of Mitotichthys semistriatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Dawson 1985:146 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 2006:836 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Mitotichthys semistriatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

semispinosus, Hippocampus Kuiter [R. H.] 2001:320, Fig. 29 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 53; ref. 25900] East Alas Strait, Indonesia, 8°20'S, 116°50'E, depth 40-60 meters. Holotype: NTM S10749-006. Paratypes: NTM S11920-002 (1). •Valid as Hippocampus semispinosus Kuiter 2001 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:39 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:828 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:100 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:205 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). •Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Timor Sea region, Northern Territorry, Australia [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

semistriatus, Leptonotus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:48 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Southern Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1980.9.11 [or 17].1. Appeared first as name only in Kaup 1853:233 [ref. 2569]. •Valid as Mitotichthys semistriatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:101 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:146 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:85 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:460 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:836 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:468 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:223 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Mitotichthys semistriatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: Victoria and Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

sentus, Minyichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1982:137, Figs. 2 (middle), 3 [Zoologica Scripta v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 5440] Eastern Atlantic, 36°17'N, 1°55'W, Dana station 4030, estimated depth 0-120 meters over 1900 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P39642. Paratypes: GCRL 17055 (1), ZMUC P39643 (1). •Valid as Minyichthys sentus Dawson 1982 -- (Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:631 [ref. 13676], Dawson 1990:662 [ref. 17542], Kuiter 2009:231 [ref. 30404], Fritzsche 2016:2237 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Minyichthys sentus Dawson 1982. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

serialis, Doryichthys Günther [A.] 1884:30, Pl. 3 (fig. B) [Reptilia, Batrachia, and Pisces 1884; ref. 14389] Port Molle, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1881.10.12.29 (1), 1881.10.12.82 (1). •Synonym of Choeroichthys brachysoma (Bleeker 1855) -- (Dawson 1976:43 [ref. 7375], Dawson 1985:32 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:414 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:814 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Choeroichthys brachysoma (Bleeker 1855). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: marine.

serratus, Syngnathus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:272, Pl. 120 (fig. 4) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3847a. Paralectotypes: ?RMNH D1627 (1, stuffed), 3847b-d (3). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:194 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Trachyrhamphus serratus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Dawson 1984:169 [ref. 5291], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:193 [ref. 6541], Nakabo 2000:526 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Shimizu 2001:24 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:526 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:233, 555 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:24 [ref. 27712] with author as Schlegel, Kuiter 2009:209 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Trachyrhamphus serratus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

serrulifer, Corythoichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1938:136, Pl. 8 (figs. 16-17) [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 2; ref. 1428] Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: ANSP 68372. Paratypes: ANSP 68373-77 (5), 68378-79 (2, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Corythoichthys flavofasciatus (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1977:306 [ref. 7048], Dawson 1985:39 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Corythoichthys flavofasciatus (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

severnsi, Hippocampus Lourie [S. A.] & Kuiter [R. H.] 2008:61, Figs. 2B, 3B, 4B [Zootaxa No. 1963; ref. 29944] Between Alung Banua and Cela Point, Bunaken, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, 1°37'07" to 1°36'47"N, 124°45'30" to 124°46'03", depth 15.2 meters. Holotype: MZB 13594. Paratypes: MZB 13595 (1), NMV A24980-001 (1). Plus non-type specimens represented by localities but apparently only observed. •Valid as Hippocampus severnsi Lourie & Kuiter 2008 -- (Gomon & Kuiter 2009:41 [ref. 30036], Kuiter 2009:134 [ref. 30404], Reijnen et al. 2011:2 [ref. 33436]). •Synonym of Hippocampus pontohi Lourie & Kuiter 2008 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:204 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:80 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:36 [ref. 34632], Short et al. 2018:41 [ref. 36055]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus pontohi Lourie & Kuiter 2008. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

sewelli, Bhanotia Hora [S. L.] 1926:465, Pl. 11 (fig. 5) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 27 (pt 6); ref. 2207] Coral reef, at South Point of Outram Island, Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI F10690/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:139-140 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:369 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870) -- (Dawson 1978:400 [ref. 7025], Dawson 1985:21 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

sexmaculatus, Hippocampus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Schlegel) 1856:15 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Brief description occurs in account of Hippocampus mannulus. Treated as a nomen nudum by Lourie et al. 1999:173 [ref. 23993] but there is a brief description; regarded as a name published in synonymy and not treated as valid when proposed. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

sibbaldi, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:6 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Scotland. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus aequoreus Linnaeus 1758 -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). •Synonym of Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Entelurus aequoreus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sierra, Doryrhamphus Nichols [J. T.] 1915:142, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 34 (art. 7); ref. 15004] Mouth of the Loiza River, east of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Holotype: AMNH 4840. Paratypes: AMNH 4841 (11). •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), subspecies lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:476 [ref. 19285], Dawson 1982:18 [ref. 6764]). •Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

sinaloae, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1896:268 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 6; ref. 12310] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype: CAS-SU 2945. Paratypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.322 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:62 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882) -- (Fritzsche 1980:201 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:184 [ref. 6541], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:230 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sindonis, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:17, Pl. 11 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1241); ref. 2510] Totomi Bay, Hamamatsu, Totomi, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 47930. •Valid as Hippocampus sindonis Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Lourie et al. 1999:119 [ref. 23993], Nakabo 2000:536 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:536 [ref. 26001], Kuiter 2009:131 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:108 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:39 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:127, 134 [ref. 35660]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus sindonis Jordan & Snyder 1901. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Choeroichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1976:51, Figs. 5, 7 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 89 (no. 3); ref. 7375] Inhaca, Mozambique. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 3744. Paratypes: GCRL 13848 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 3775 (8), 4238 (1); USNM 214566 (2). •Regarded as a synonym of Choeroichthys brachysoma (Bleeker, 1855) -- (Kuiter 2009:229 [ref. 30404]). •Valid as Choeroichthys smithi Dawson 1976 -- (Dawson 1985:34 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:447 [ref. 5650], Fricke et al. 2013:252 [ref. 32706], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Choeroichthys smithi Dawson 1976. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

smithii, Microphis (Doryichthys) Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:599 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Old Calabar River, West Africa. Holotype: BMNH uncat. Based on Dorichthys sp. Smith 1867 [ref. 20421]. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1854), subspecies aculeatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:473 [ref. 19285], Dawson 1986:286 [ref. 6201], Dawson 1990:661 [ref. 17542]). •Synonym of Microphis brachyurus (Bleeker 1854), subspecies aculeatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:578 [ref. 21590]). •Synonymy of Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Current status: Synonym of Microphis aculeatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

soldatovi, Syngnathus schlegeli Lindberg [G. U.] in Soldatov & Lindberg 1930:79, Fig. 22 [Izvestiia Tikhookeanskogo nauchnogo instituta rybnogo khoziaistva [Bulletins of the Pacific Science Institute] v. 5; ref. 4164] Peter the Great Bay, Russia. Syntypes: ZIN 12611-12 (10, 11), 13115 (1). •Synonym of Syngnathus acusimilis Günther 1873 -- (Berg 1949:986 [ref. 20662]). •Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853 -- (Dawson 1985:189 [ref. 6541], Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:209 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

solenostomus, Syngnathus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:516 (584) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Name changed from salenostomus in corregenda (p. 584). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

southwelli, Urocampus Duncker [G.] 1910:30, Pl. (figs. B-C) [Spolia Zeylanica v. 7 (pt 25); ref. 14841] Marichchukkaddi Bay, Sri Lanka, depth 2.25 fathoms. Syntypes: CMS (2, apparently lost). •Valid as Siokunichthys southwelli (Duncker 1910) -- (Dawson 1983:61 [ref. 5351], Dawson 1985:167 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Fricke 2004:55 [ref. 28269], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Siokunichthys southwelli (Duncker 1910). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Sri Lanka and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

spaniaspis, Doryichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1907:10, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 606) (for 1906); ref. 2498] Cavite, Luzon Island, Cavite Province, Philippines. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 9240. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60-61 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1978:151 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:97 [ref. 6541] as cyanospilus, Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201] as cyanospilus, Kuiter 2009:279 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

spicifer, Syngnathus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:143, Pl. 33 (fig. 4) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] El-Tor, Sinai coast, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, ca. 28°14'N, 33°36'E. Lectotype: SMF 937. Non-types: SMF 4908 (1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:77 [ref. 29757] but Rüppell 1838 mentioned only one specimen. •Valid as Syngnathus spicifer Rüppell 1838 -- (Wu & Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:199 [ref. 26639] dated 1840, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:229 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1978:142 [ref. 7026], Dor 1984:77 [ref. 29757], Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:452 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:452 [ref. 25598], Allen 1991:107 [ref. 21090], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:766 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Rainboth 1996:176 [ref. 22772], Kottelat et al. 1993:99 [ref. 23448], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794] as spezifer, Nakabo 2000:524 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sakai et al. 2001:91 [ref. 25693], Allen et al. 2002:337 [ref. 25930], Nakabo 2002:524 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:618 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:10 [ref. 27624], Tan & Lim 2004:110 [ref. 27716], Seegers et al. 2003:41 [ref. 28087], Fricke 2004:31 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:109 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:824 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:278 [ref. 30404], Jenkins & Mailautoka 2010:114 [ref. 30900], Motomura et al. 2010:87 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:123 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Sokotra, Seychelles, Comoros and Madagascar east to Caroline and Mariana Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinachioides, Doryichthys Duncker [G.] 1915:52 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Sepic River (Kaiserin Augusta River), New Guinea. Holotype (unique): ZMH 11555 (apparently destroyed). •Valid as Microphis spinachioides (Duncker 1915) -- (Dawson 1984:139 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:129 [ref. 6541], Allen & Coates 1990:78 [ref. 25561], Allen 1991:110 [ref. 21090], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Kuiter 2009:273 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Microphis spinachioides (Duncker 1915). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

spinicaudatus, Corythoichthys Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:16 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 9 (pt 1); ref. 3285] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM (lost). •Status uncertain, genus Micrognathus -- (Paxton et al. 1989:433 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:846 [ref. 29073]). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

spinirostris, Micrognathus Dawson [C. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1981:65, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia v. 64 (pt 2); ref. 8615] Off Tantabiddi Creek, North West Cape, Western Australia, 21°55'S, 113°15'E, depth 10 meters. Holotype: WAM P.26479-001. Paratypes: GCRL 16801 (1). Other material: ANSP 142643 (1), BPBM 18718 (1), USNM 220882 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:16 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:17 [ref. 30117] •Valid as Halicampus spinirostris (Dawson & Allen 1981) -- (Dawson 1985:92 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:148 [ref. 24620], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:31 [ref. 28269], Randall 2005:109 [ref. 28239], Paxton et al. 2006:822 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:264 [ref. 30404], Satapoomin 2009:59 [ref. 30463], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Matsunuma et al. 2013:158 [ref. 33260], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus spinirostris (Dawson & Allen 1981). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Sri Lanka east to American Samoa, north to Thailand and southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

spinosissimus, Hippocampus Weber [M.] 1913:120, Fig. 44 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Sapeh Strait, Indonesia, Siboga station 49, depth 70 meters. Syntypes: ZMA 104655 [or 104665] (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:80 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Lourie et al. 1999:231 [ref. 23766], Lourie et al. 1999:121 [ref. 23993], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Horne 2001:245 [ref. 25696], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Kuiter 2001:330 [ref. 25900], Choo & Liew 2003:271 [ref. 26841], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715] as spinossisimus, Choo & Liew 2004:411 [ref. 28042], Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:126 [ref. 36858], Kuiter 2009:105 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:205 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Lourie 2016:112 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:40 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2019:121 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus spinosissimus Weber 1913. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific (Indonesia to Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinosissimus, Solenognathus Günther [A.] 1870:195 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Tasmania, Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.11.29.55-56 (2). Original genus should have been Solegnathus. •Valid as Solegnathus spinosissimus (Günther 1870) -- (Dawson 1980:284 [ref. 21122], Dawson 1982:150 [ref. 5442], Dawson 1985:173 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:429 [ref. 12442], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1990:232 [ref. 16024], Kuiter 1993:94 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:466 [ref. 22532], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Paxton et al. 2006:841 [ref. 29073] with naso not a synonym, Kuiter 2008:473 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:154 [ref. 30404], Stewart 2015:1059 [ref. 34254], Lourie 2016:153 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Solegnathus spinosissimus (Günther 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern and eastern Australia: southern Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

spinosus, Doryichthys Kaup [J. J.] (ex Schlegel) 1856:57 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Java; Borneo; Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: (many) BMNH, MNHN, ?RMNH 3846 (2). Type catalog: Dawson 1985:55 [ref. 6541]. •Synonym of Doryichthys boaja (Bleeker 1850) -- (Dawson 1981:12 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:55 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:87 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys boaja (Bleeker 1850). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

spinosus, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1820:245 [Journal de Physique, de Chimie et d'Histoire Naturelle v. 91; ref. 18636] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

springeri, Syngnathus Herald [E. S.] 1942:125 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 13205] Lemon Bay, Englewood, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: CAS-SU 36460. Paratypes: ANSP 15753 (1); USNM 25628 (1), 100453 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Syngnathus springeri Herald 1942 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:126 [ref. 23100], McAllister 1990:135 [ref. 14674], Dawson 1982:67 [ref. 6764], Scott & Scott 1988:352 [ref. 25518], Boschung 1992:96 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1066 [ref. 23897], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:255 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus springeri Herald 1942. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

squarrosus, Syngnathus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:8 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

starksii, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Culver [G. B.] in Jordan 1895:416, Pl. 30 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Río Presidio near Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: CAS-SU 67185 [ex CAS-SU 2686]. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.321 (1), CAS-SU 2686 (4), USNM 47425 (1), ZMB 14058-59 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:62 [ref. 12291], Dawson 1985:162 [ref. 6541] with lectotype as SU 67185. Lectotype established (as figured specimen, SU 2686) in caption to Pl. 120, p. 3259 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]. •Valid as Pseudophallus starksii (Jordan 1895) -- (Dawson 1982:45 [ref. 6764], Villa 1982:151 [ref. 36708], Dawson 1985:162 [ref. 6541], Bussing 1987:165 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:257 [ref. 24179] as starksi, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:234 [ref. 24550] as starksi, Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:322 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2007:36 [ref. 30398], Kuiter 2009:241 [ref. 30404], Matamoros et al. 2009:16 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:998 [ref. 33194] as sterksi, McMahan et al. 2013:448 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Barriga S. 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:310 [ref. 34894], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Pseudophallus starksii (Jordan & Culver 1895). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Pacific coastal rivers: Gulf of California to Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

stictorhynchus, Doryichthys Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:34 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1552 [ex AFAQ 1741]. •Synonym of Microphis manadensis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:158 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:141 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Paxton et al. 2006:836 [ref. 29073]). •Synonym of Oostethus manadensis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:306 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis manadensis (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

striatus, Siokunichthys Fricke [R.] 2004:54, Fig. 27 [Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie A (Biologie). No. 668; ref. 28269] Sêche Croissant Reef, 22°20'00"S, 166°22'18"E, Grande Terre, New Caledonia, depth 2 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 2004-2035 [ex SMNS 21748]. Type catalog: Fricke 2005:62 [ref. 29864]. •Valid as Siokunichthys striatus Fricke 2004 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Siokunichthys striatus Fricke 2004. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

stylifer, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:265 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. (stomach content). Holotype (unique): USNM 30876. •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:190 [ref. 25013], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

subbooko, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1853:80 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Vizagapatam, India. Based on "Gorahpoo subbookoo Russ. No. 30" which is Russell 1803:9, Pl. 30 [ref. 13862]. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus serratus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Dawson 1984:169 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:193 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus serratus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

subcoronatus, Hippocampus Günther [A.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:139, Pl. 20 (fig. 4) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar Tanzania; Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.3.7.399 (1). •Synonym of Hippocampus camelopardalis Bianconi 1854 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:83 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus camelopardalis Bianconi 1854. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

subelongatus, Hippocampus Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:145 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4535. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:53 [ref. 19576]. None of the reasons cited by Kuiter 2001:330 [ref. 25900] to change the subsequent selection of Lourie et al. 1999, selecting subelongatus over elongatus are valid; Kuiter's reasons are not supported by the Code -- there is no such thing as page preference for example, or because subelongatus is a derivative of elongatus. Type follows discussion in Kuiter 2001:330 [ref. 25900]. •Wrongly as a synonym of Hippocampus elongatus Castelnau 1873 -- (Kuiter 2001:330 [ref. 25900]). •Valid as Hippocampus subelongatus Castelnau 1873 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:123 [ref. 23993], Paxton et al. 2006:828 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:94 [ref. 30404], Laurie 2016:98 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:41 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus subelongatus Castelnau 1873. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

subosseus, Nannocampus Günther [A.] 1870:178 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Freycinet Harbor, Western Australia: Point Dempster to Shark Bay. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.12.27.57. •Valid as Nannocampus subosseus Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1979:488 [ref. 1068], Dawson 1985:151 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:427 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:837 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:259 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Nannocampus subosseus Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

suezensis, Hippocampus Duncker [G.] 1940:86 [Publications of the Marine Biological Station Al-Ghardaqa (Red Sea) No. 3; ref. 1157] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (2) MBSH (apparently lost), ZMH (apparently lost). •Synonym of Hippocampus kelloggi Jordan & Snyder 1901 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:103 [ref. 23993] with question, Mehanna & Al-Mahdawi 2006:124 [ref. 36858], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). •Valid as Hippocampus suezensis Duncker 1940 -- (Dor 1984:78 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:20 [ref. 25356], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Kuiter 2009:118 [ref. 30404], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:64 [ref. 35264], Jawad et al. 2011:147 [ref. 31521], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:51 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:68 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus suezensis Duncker 1940. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Sokotra and Oman east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

suillus, Choeroichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1951:393, Fig. 2 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 4715] Port Denison, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.1806. •Valid as Choeroichthys suillus Whitley 1951 -- (Dawson 1976:43 [ref. 7375], Dawson 1985:35 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:414 [ref. 12442], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:815 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:229 [ref. 30404], Larson et al. 2013:75 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Choeroichthys suillus Whitley 1951. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Northern Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

sundaicus, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1853:21 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 6); ref. 16914] Anjer, western Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

superciliaris, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1880:30 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia, depth 4-6 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1879.5.14.463. •Synonym of Filicampus tigris (Castelnau 1879) -- (Dawson 1985:73 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:446 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:820 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Filicampus tigris (Castelnau 1879). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

suvensis, Micrognathus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:396 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Suva Harbor, Viti Levu Island, Fiji Islands. Holotype: FMNH 17229. Paratypes: CAS-SU 24432 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:57 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1978:142 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:99 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Fricke 2004:31 [ref. 28269], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniocephalus, Penetopteryx Lunel [G.] 1881:275, Unnum. Pl. (figs. 1-1e) [Mémoires de la Société de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Genève v. 27 (pt 2); ref. 2849] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MHNG 843.48 (3), MNHN 1890-0049 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:49 [ref. 19576], Mahnert 1976:474 [ref. 21535]. •Valid as Penetopteryx taeniocephalus Lunel 1881 -- (Dawson & Allen 1978:396 [ref. 1073], Dawson 1980:223 [ref. 21123], Dawson 1985:154 [ref. 6541], Fricke 1999:153 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Allen & Erdmann 2012:209 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Fricke et al. 2018:126 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Penetopteryx taeniocephalus Lunel 1881. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Christmas Island (Line Islands). Habitat: marine.

taeniolatus, Syngnatus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1804:203, 211, Pl. 58 (fig. 3) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 12515] Bass Strait, Australia. No types known. •Valid as Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804) -- (Dawson 1985:160 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:428 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:95 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:463 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:74 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:839 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:471 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:158 [ref. 30404], Stiller et al. 2015:7 [ref. 33688], Lourie 2016:152 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Lacepède 1804). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

taenionotus, Syngnathus Canestrini [G.] 1871:1062 [Atti del Regio Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti (ser. 3) v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 21164] Venice, Italy, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: MSNG 14038 (3), MZUF 5667 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:312 [ref. 10351], Vanni 1991:224 [ref. 20099], Nocita & Vanni 1998:68 [ref. 36144]. Also appeared in Canestrini 1872:142, Pl. 3 [ref. 14130]. •Valid as Syngnathus taenionotus Canestrini 1871 -- (Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:637 [ref. 13676], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Kuiter 2009:245 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus taenionotus Canestrini 1871. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea endemic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniophora, Haliichthys Gray [J. E.] 1859:39, Pl. 7 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1859 (pt 1); ref. 1887] Freycinet Harbor, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1858.12.27.76. •Valid as Haliichthys taeniophorus Gray 1859 -- (Dawson 1985:94 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:419 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967] as taeniophora, Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:822 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:156 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:198 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:76 [ref. 32988], Lourie 2016:144 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Haliichthys taeniophorus Gray 1859. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

taeniops, Hippocampus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:501, Pl. 7 (upper left fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27469 [not 27409]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniopterus, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1852:306 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). •Valid as Hippocampus taeniopterus Bleeker 1852 -- (Horne 2001:245 [ref. 25696], Kuiter 2001:314 [ref. 25900], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Fricke 2004:42 [ref. 28269], Paxton et al. 2006:828 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:112 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:376 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:206 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:47 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus taeniopterus Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia and Papua New Guinea east to Fiji, south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniopterus, Syngnathus Lacepède [B. G. E.] in Desmarest 1835:Pl. 43 Not found yet; possibly 2nd ed. of Naturgeschichte der Fische (2 vols), Paris 1833-35; or Oevres du Compte Lacepede vols. 5-11 by Lamouroux and Desmarest 1824-32. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

takakurae, Hippocampus Tanaka [S.] 1916:423, Pl. 115 (fig. 341) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 24; ref. 14939] Hojo, Chiba Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT (lost). The spelling takakuae is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an 'e' (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012] -- we suggest using takakurae when the species is treated as valid. •Valid as Hippocampus takakurae Tanaka 1916 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:89 [ref. 6441], Gomon 1997:246 [ref. 22842] as tatakurae, Kuiter 2009:123 [ref. 30404] as takakurai). •Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814 -- (Kim & Lee 1995:74 [ref. 22284], Lourie et al. 1999:125 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:42 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: South China Sea to Japan [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

tanakae, Corythroichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1906:696, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1462); ref. 10666] Tanegashima, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 9358 [not USNM 53271]. Paratypes: (7) USNM 53271 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60 [ref. 12291]. Type information: Springer & Eschmeyer 1974:567 [ref. 21415], Dawson 1985:122 [ref. 6541]. The spelling tanakae is acceptable; early workers almost certainly Latinized the name first, and then added an 'e' (Art. 31.1.1) [WNE, 12 Mar. 2012] -- we suggest using tanakae if the species is trated as valid. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Micrognathus andersonii (Bleeker 1858) -- (Dawson 1982:672 [ref. 5441], Dawson 1985:122 [ref. 6541], Kuiter 2009:234 [ref. 30404] as tanakai and second author as Starcks). Current status: Synonym of Micrognathus andersonii (Bleeker 1858). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

tapeinosoma, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1854:376 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 13961] Anjer, western Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7229. •Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838) -- (Dawson 1978:142 [ref. 7026], Dor 1984:77 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:283 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:50 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tectus, Micrognathus Dawson [C. E.] 1978:15, Fig. 2 [Copeia 1978 (no. 1); ref. 8939] 0.4 kilometers north-northwest of Alligator Reef Light, Monroe County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 216592. Paratypes: ANSP 94593 (1), GCRL 15262 (1), UF 219322 [ex UMML 19322] (3), USNM 117240 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Micrognathus tectus Dawson 1978 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:127 [ref. 23100]). •Valid as Anarchopterus tectus (Dawson 1978) -- (Dawson 1982:38 [ref. 6764], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1053 [ref. 23897], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:240 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:35 [ref. 33341], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Anarchopterus tectus (Dawson 1978). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

temminckii, Syngnathus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:36 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Syntypes: RMNH 3876 (2, apparently lost). Type catalog: Dawson 1985:182 [ref. 6541]. •Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Dawson 1985:182 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). •Valid as Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856 -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:141 [ref. 28072], Kuiter 2009:252 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus temminckii Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Namibia to South Africa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tentaculata, Acentronura Günther [A.] 1870:516 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1869.6.21.7. •Valid as Acentronura tentaculata Günther 1870 -- (Dor 1984:75 [ref. 29757], Dawson 1985:17 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:447 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:412 [ref. 12442], Senou et al. 1994:2 [ref. 24335], Goren & Dor 1994:19 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:99 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:132 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:74 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:499 [ref. 25919], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:533 [ref. 25086], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Nakabo 2002:533 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Paxton et al. 2006:812 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:142 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:155 [ref. 34505], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Golani & Fricke 2018:48 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Acentronura tentaculata Günther 1870. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

tenuirostris, Syngnathus Rathke [H.] 1836:23 [313], Pl. 2 (figs. 11-12) [Mémoires présentés à l'Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg par divers savaus et lus dans ses assemblées. Mémoires des savaus étrangers v. 3; ref. 18611] Crimea coast, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus tenuirostris Rathke 1836 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:637 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:75 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:76 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:251 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:210 [ref. 33547], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615] dated 1837, Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus tenuirostris Rathke 1836. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea and northern Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tenuirostris, Syngnathus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:273, Pl. 120 (fig. 5) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:195 [ref. 12876]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Syngnathus tenuirostris Rathke 1837. •Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853 -- (Kottelat 2013:307 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:59 [ref. 35138]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus schlegeli Kaup 1853. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

tenuis, Microphis Blyth [E.] 1858:272 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 476] Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:766 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:304 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Hippichthys spicifer (Rüppell 1838). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tenuis, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 1868:444 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. No types. Evidently subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Microphis tenuis Blyth 1858, replaced by Siphostoma poeyi Jordan & Evermann 1896:766 [ref. 2443]. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

teres, Scyphius Rathke [H.] 1836:29 [319] [Mémoires présentés à l'Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg par divers savaus et lus dans ses assemblées. Mémoires des savaus étrangers v. 3; ref. 18611] Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine. No types known. Genus spelled Scyphicus on p. 319 but corrected to Scyphius on p. 773. •Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies teres -- (Savvaitova 1998:113 [ref. 23594]). •Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Berg 1949:978 [ref. 20662], Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:208 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tetragonous, Syngnathus Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:28 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] Not available, no description, from New York [as "is probably our little sea-horse"]. •In the synonymy of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

tetragonus, Syngnathus Thunberg [C. P.] 1776:301, Pl. 4 (figs. 1-2) [Physiographiska Sälskapets Handlingar v. 1 (pt. 4); ref. 17910] Java, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785) -- (Dawson 1985:181 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

tetrophthalmus, Syngnathus Bleeker [P.] 1858:467 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 16960] Nova Selma, Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ?RMNH 18388 [ex RMNH 7227]. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.365 (1), RMNH 7227 (1). •Valid as Phoxocampus tetrophthalmus (Bleeker 1858) -- (Dawson 1977:618 [ref. 1066] with remarks on types, Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:88 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:156 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Nakabo 2000:522 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:522 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kuiter 2009:268 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:210 [ref. 31980], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Phoxocampus tetrophthalmus (Bleeker 1858). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific; Cocos-Keeling Islands to Indonesia and the Philippines. Habitat: marine.

texanua, Syngnathus Gilbert [C. R.] in Page et al. 2013:216, No figure [ ref. 32708] Proposed as a new name for Syngnathus affinis, preoccupied by Syngnathus affinis endemic to the Black Sea. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896) -- (Tolan 2008:93 [ref. 29889]). •We do not accept this species as valid (Eschmeyer 2013). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

texanus, Syngnathus Gilbert [C. R.] In Page, Espinosa-Pérez, Findley, Gilbert, Lea, Mandrak et al. 2013:216 [ ref. 32708] Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1854.7.3.2. Replacement name for Syngnathus affinis Günther 1870, preoccupied by Syngnathus affinis Eichwald 1831. •Possibly the same as Syngnathus scovelli (Evermann & Kendall 1896) -- (Tolan 2008:93 [ref. 29889]). •Valid as Syngnathus affinis Günther 1870 -- (Dawson 1982:90 [ref. 6764], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1061 [ref. 23897], Musick et al. 2000:14 [ref. 24959], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1222 [ref. 27044], Nelson et al. 2004:112 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:245 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). •Valid as Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013 -- (Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus texanus Gilbert 2013. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

tiedemanni, Syngnathi Leuckart [F. S.] in Carus 1893:535 [Vertebrata. 1. Class. Pisces. In: Prodromus faunae Mediterraneae sive descriptio animalium maris Mediterranei... v. 2; ref. 17975] Not available, name mentioned in passing under Nerophis lumbriciformis. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

tigris, Syngnathus Castelnau [F. L.] 1879:397 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 764] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN A-1218 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:50-51 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Filicampus tigris (Castelnau 1879) -- (Dawson 1985:73 [ref. 6541], Allen & Swainston 1988:46 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:417 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:87 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:445 [ref. 22532], Allen 1997:72 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:80 [ref. 25488], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:820 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:452 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:212 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Filicampus tigris (Castelnau 1879). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Queensland to South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

titicacaensis, Hippocampus Anonymous 2003 Appeared as a name in a legend in Aqua Geõgraphica 2003 (June), issue 14, p. 211, top left figure. Apparently a museum name (Museum Tiwanaku, Bolivia) and not available. Also appeared on the back cover of Aqua, 2002, v. 5 (no. 4) where it is suggested that it is the only freshwater seahorse -- supposedly collected in Lake Titicaca in 1943 by the archeologist Arthur Posnansky. •Questionably valid as Hippocampus titicacaensis Anonymous -- (Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404] dated 1943). Current status: Unknown. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

torrei, Siphostoma Nichols [J. T.] 1912:183, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 31 (art. 18); ref. 14853] Matanzas, Río San Juan, Cuba. Holotype (unique): AMNH 3359. •Synonym of Oostethus brachyurus (Bleeker 1853), subspecies lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1979:476 [ref. 19285], Dawson 1982:17 [ref. 6764]). •Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:591 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis lineatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

torrentius, Microphis Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:215, Fig. 22 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Vaivase River, near Vailele, east of Apia, Upolu Island, Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51725. Paratypes: USNM 61171 (2). •Synonym of Microphis retzii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:166 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:134 [ref. 6541]). •Synonym of Lophocampus retzii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Kottelat 2013:305 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis retzii (Bleeker 1856). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

townsendi, Ichthyocampus Duncker [G.] 1915:96 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Makran coast and Maldives, Persian Gulf. Syntypes: BMNH 1897.10.6.7 (1) Makran Coast, BMNH 1901.12.31.145 (1) Maldives. •Synonym of Festucalex erythraeus (Gilbert 1905) -- (Dawson 1977:629 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:70 [ref. 6541]). •Valid as Festucalex townsendi (Duncker 1915) -- (Kuiter 2009:208 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex townsendi (Duncker 1915). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean including Maldives. Habitat: marine.

trachypoma, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1884:30 [Reptilia, Batrachia, and Pisces 1884; ref. 14389] Prince of Wales Island and Thursday Island, Torres Strait, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1881.10.12.70 (1), 1882.3.31.3 (1). •Synonym of Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856 -- (Dawson 1985:84 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:418 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:821 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Halicampus grayi Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

trachyrhynchus, Syngnathus Günther [A.] 1870:167 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Not available, name on specimens mentioned under Syngnathus serratus Temminck & Schlegel 1850. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

triacanthos, Balistes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Based on Balistes triacantos of Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:10 [ref. 17319]. Also appeared in Graells 1887:184 [ref.30438] as triacantos. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

triacantos, Balistes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:10 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. Also appeared in Graells 1887:184 [ref. 30438]. See also Balistes triacanthos Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857:24 [ref. 17320]. •In the synonymy of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus acus Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

tricarinatus, Campichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1977:641, Fig. 14 (bottom) [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 27 (no. 4); ref. 1066] Baleine Bank, northwestern Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1892.1.14.45. •Valid as Campichthys tricarinatus Dawson 1977 -- (Dawson 1985:29 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:413 [ref. 12442], Larson & Williams 1997:351 [ref. 23967], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Hutchins 2001:26 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:813 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:232 [ref. 30404], Larson et al. 2013:75 [ref. 32988], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Campichthys tricarinatus Dawson 1977. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

trimaculatus, Hippocampus Leach [W. E.] in Leach & Nodder 1814:104 [Zoological miscellany; being descriptions of new, or interesting animals v. 1-3; ref. 2738] Indian and Chinese seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1982.6.17.42 (1), .43 (1), .44-45 (2), .46-47 (2). Kuiter 2009:122 [ref. 30404] considers Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach in Leach & Nodder 1814 as unidentifiable, and splits the complex into H. kampylotrachelos Bleeker 1854, H. takakurae Tanaka 1916, H. dahli Ogilby 1908, H. manadensis Bleeker 1856, H. biocellatus Kuiter 2001, H. planifrons Peters 1877, H. montebelloensis Kuiter 2001 and H. zebra Whitley 1964. We believe that the frequently used name Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814 should be retained for one of these species, but that action requires examination of the syntype series, revision of the complex and fixation of a lectotype for H. trimaculatus Leach 1814. •Undetermined (within genus Hippocampus) -- (Kuiter 2009:19, 122 [ref. 30404]). •Valid as Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814 -- (Dawson 1986:453 [ref. 5650], Kim & Lee 1995 [ref. 22284], Gomon 1997:246 [ref. 22842], Larson & Williams 1997:352 [ref. 23967], Lourie et al. 1999:244 [ref. 23766], Lourie et al. 1999:125 [ref. 23993], Nakabo 2000:535 [ref. 25086], Randall & Lim in Randall & Lim 2000:604 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:56 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:535 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:233, 555 [ref. 26218], Choo & Liew 2003:271 [ref. 26841], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S102 [ref. 27377], Choo & Liew 2004:411 [ref. 28042], Randall 2005:111 [ref. 28239], Yoshida et al. 2013:71 [ref. 34464], Lourie 2016:104 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:42 [ref. 34632], Zhang et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34762], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Han et al. 2017:134 [ref. 35660]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus trimaculatus Leach 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tristis, Hippocampus Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:197 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne market, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN A-4537 and 4538 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:53 [ref. 19576]. •Probably a synonym of Hippocampus whitei Bleeker 1855 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:42 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:449 [ref. 22532]). •Valid as Hippocampus tristis Castelnau 1872 -- (Kuiter 2001:316 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:829 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:107 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:109 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:31 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus kuda Bleeker 1852. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: South Australia. Habitat: marine.

tristriatus, Leptonotus Fowler [H. W.] 1922:444, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 73 (for 1921); ref. 15310] Fiji Islands (questionable; probably from Victoria, Australia). Holotype: ANSP 33136 (in 5 pieces, very poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Mitotichthys semistriatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:102 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:146 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:461 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:836 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Mitotichthys semistriatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

tryoni, Ichthyocampus Ogilby [J. D.] 1890:56 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 18492] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.494. •Valid as Campichthys tryoni (Ogilby 1890) -- (Dawson 1977:638 [ref. 1066], Dawson 1985:29 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:413 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:444 [ref. 22532], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Paxton et al. 2006:813 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:452 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:232 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Campichthys tryoni (Ogilby 1890). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia; one specimen from South Australia. Habitat: marine.

tuberculatus, Hippocampus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:48 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Swan River, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4539. •Valid as Hippocampus tuberculatus Castelnau 1875 -- (Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Kuiter 2001:313 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:829 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:51 [ref. 30404], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). •Synonym of Hippocampus breviceps Peters 1869 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:421 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:448 [ref. 22532], Lourie et al. 1999:81 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:18 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus breviceps Peters 1869. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tuckeri, Syngnathus Scott [E. O. G.] 1942:17, Pl. 5 [Records of the Queen Victoria Museum. v. 1; ref. 13220] Bridport, northern Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): QVM 1971:5:0028 [ex QVM type 66]. Type catalog: Green 1974:4 [ref. 19267]. •Valid as Syngnathus tuckeri Scott 1942 -- (Dawson 1978:417 [ref. 8724]). •Valid as Mitotichthys tuckeri (Scott 1942) -- (Dawson 1984:100 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:147 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:837 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:469 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:223 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Mitotichthys tuckeri (Scott 1942). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: Victoroia, Tasmania and eastern South Australia. Habitat: marine.

tweedliei, Syngnathus Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1923:259, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 215); ref. 2963] Chame Point, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 82088. •Synonym of Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882) -- (Fritzsche 1980:201 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:184 [ref. 6541], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:230 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus auliscus (Swain 1882). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

typhle, Syngnathus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:336 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. Syntypes: LS 49 (1, left half-skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1985:42 [ref. 20705] but possible type is not same as species usually called typhle (see Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Spelled Syngnanthus typhele by Berkenhout 1789:63 [ref. 12437]. •Valid as Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:980 [ref. 20662], Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:638 [ref. 13676], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26753], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:184 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:175 [ref. 28369], Fricke 2007:28 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:75 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:500 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:76 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:248 [ref. 30404], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:37 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:210 [ref. 33547], Fritzsche 2016:2239 [ref. 34608], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Oruç & Engin 2018:1 [ref. 35874], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara, eastern Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

typhloides, Syngnathus Bennett [E. T.] 1835:92 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1835 (pt 3); ref. 16793] Trebizond, Armenia. No types known. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

tyro, Hippocampus Randall [J. E.] & Lourie [S. A.] 2009:19, Figs. 1-2 [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin v. 10; ref. 30536] North end of Poivre Atoll, 5°44'S, 53°20'E, Amirantes, Seychelles, depth 43-48 meters, dredge. Holotype (unique): BPBM 35555. •Valid as Hippocampus tyro Randall & Lourie 2009 -- (Lourie 2016:135 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:43 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus tyro Randall & Lourie 2009. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

umbrosus, Syngnathus Poey [F.] 2000:850, Pl. 495 (fig. 2) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

uncinatus, Syngnathus Weber [M.] 1913:110, Fig. 36 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Reef at Banda, Indonesia, Siboga station 240. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112622. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:81 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870) -- (Dawson 1982 [ref. 21125], Dawson 1985:21 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Bhanotia fasciolata (Duméril 1870). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

unicolor, Stigmatophora Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:49 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Port Walcott, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0737. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:50 [ref. 19576]. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785) -- (Dawson 1985:181 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:431 [ref. 12442], Paxton et al. 2006:843 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathoides biaculeatus (Bloch 1785). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

uxorius, Bombonia Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:395 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Mouth of a small stream flowing into Majalibit Inlet, Waigeo Island, East Indies. Holotype: FMNH 17493. Paratypes: CAS-SU 25764 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849 -- (Dawson 1978:136 [ref. 7026], Dawson 1985:98 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:282 [ref. 6201], Kuiter 2009:277 [ref. 30404], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys heptagonus Bleeker 1849. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vaillantii, Caelonotus Juillerat [E.] 1880:176 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 4; ref. 18367] Madagascar. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-2359. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:44 [ref. 19576]. Genus should have been Coelonotus. •Synonym of Microphis leiaspis (Bleeker 1853) -- (Dawson 1984:131 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:132 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:285 [ref. 6201]). •Valid as Microphis vaillantii (Juillerat 1880) -- (Kuiter 2009:272 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2018:125 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Microphis vaillantii (Juillerat 1880). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Endemic to Madagascar. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

valencienni, Choeroichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:55, 75, Pl. 3 [not 2] (fig. 6) [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6037. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:44 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Choeroichthys brachysoma (Bleeker 1855) -- (Dawson 1976:43 [ref. 7375], Dawson 1985:32 [ref. 6541], Fricke 1999:147 [ref. 24106], Paxton et al. 2006:814 [ref. 29073]). •Valid as Choeroichthys valencienni Kaup 1856 -- (Fricke et al. 2009:36 [ref. 30213], Kuiter 2009:228 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2018:121 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:48 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Choeroichthys valencienni Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Western Indian Ocean: East Africa east to Amirantes, Madagascar and western Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

valentini, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1859:189 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 6 (art. 3); ref. 371] Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Available, based on "Valent., fig. 60 et 130" ('Koeda laoet jang hidjioe' and 'Koeda laoet jang koening' of Valentyn 1726:366, 388, figs 60, 130 [ref. 30358]). •Undetermined (within Hippocampus) -- (Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404]). •Treated as a nomen nudum -- (Lourie et al. 1999:175 [ref. 23993], Lourie et al. 2016:46 [ref. 34632]). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

variegatus, Syngnathus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:119 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Crimean coast, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. •Valid as Syngnathus variegatus Pallas 1814 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Dawson in Whitehead et al. 1986:638 [ref. 13676], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:68 [ref. 26753], Vasil'eva 2007:77 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Kuiter 2009:250 [ref. 30404], Parin et al. 2014:211 [ref. 33547], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus variegatus Pallas 1814. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Habitat: brackish.

variegatus, Syngnathus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Kaup 1856:34 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Not available, museum name mentioned in synonymy of Syngnathus kuhlii. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

veleronis, Bryx Herald [E. S.] 1940:55 [Report Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-1938 v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 2095] Cartago Bay, Isabela Island [Albemarle Island], Galápagos Islands, depth 15-20 fathoms. Holotype: LACM 20012 [ex AHF 6]. Paratypes: CAS 6789 (2), 90963 [ex CAS 6789] (2); LACM 20013 (13), 20040 (1), 21699 (3); CAS-SU 34341-42 (2, 3); USNM 101686 (1), 101689 (1), 101691 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Bryx veleronis Herald 1940 -- (Fritzsche 1980:197 [ref. 1511], Dawson 1985:24 [ref. 6541], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:283 [ref. 24023], Nelson et al. 2004:111 [ref. 27807], Kuiter 2009:284 [ref. 30404], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:113 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Bryx veleronis Herald 1940. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vercoi, Syngnathus Waite [E. R.] & Hale [H. M.] 1921:298, Fig. 41 [Records of the South Australian Museum (Adelaide) v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 4569] Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Holotype: SAMA F690. Paratypes: (several) SAMA F691 (18). Type catalog: Glover 1976:171 [ref. 19449]. •Valid as Vanacampus vercoi (Waite & Hale 1921) -- (Dawson 1984:81 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:200 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:433 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:475 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:76 [ref. 25488], Paxton et al. 2006:846 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2008:479 [ref. 30642], Kuiter 2009:216 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Vanacampus vercoi (Waite & Hale 1921). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia. Habitat: marine.

verreauxianus, Syngnathus Duméril [A. H. A.] 1870:573 [Histoire naturelle des poissons ou ichthyologie générale v. 2; ref. 1147] Tasmania, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6111. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:49 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Mitotichthys semistriatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Dawson 1984:101 [ref. 21119], Dawson 1985:146 [ref. 6541], Paxton et al. 1989:426 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:461 [ref. 22532], Paxton et al. 2006:836 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Mitotichthys semistriatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

villosus, Hippocampus Günther [A.] 1880:8, Pl. 1 (fig. D) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Off Bahia, Brazil, depth 7-20 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.464. •Valid as Hippocampus villosus Günther 1880 -- (Kuiter 2009:82 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810 -- (Lourie et al. 1999:91 [ref. 23993], Silveira et al. 2014:320 [ref. 33493], Lourie et al. 2016:24 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus erectus Perry 1810. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

vincentae, Leptonotus Luzzatto [D. C.] & Estalles [M. L.] 2019:3, Figs. 2-3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 95 (no. 2); ref. 36805] Banco Reparo, San Antonio Bay, Río Negro Province, Argentina, 40°45'59"S, 64°56'29"W, depth 1.0 - 1.5 meters. Holotype: MACN 12668. Paratypes: MACN, MMPEAA. •Valid as Leptonotus vincentae Luzzatto & Estalles 2019. Current status: Valid as Leptonotus vincentae Luzzatto & Estalles 2019. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: San Antonio Bay [Área Natural Protegida Bahía de San Antonio], northern Patagonia, Argentina. Habitat: marine.

violaceus, Scyphius Risso [A.] 1827:187 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Probably Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1973:277 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:167 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

virens, Syngnathus Billberg [G. J.] 1833:115, Fig. 2 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Bohuslän Archipelago, Sweden. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kullander 2016:115 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

viridescens, Syngnathus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:321, Pl. 54 (fig. 176) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Sing Sing, New York and Hudson River, U.S.A. Syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839 -- (Dawson 1982:77 [ref. 6764], Smith 1986:419 [ref. 22186]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus fuscus Storer 1839. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

viridis, Siphostoma Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:37, 56 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae.

viridis, Syngnathus Risso [A.] 1810:65 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Mer de Island Hospice, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758 -- (Wheeler 1973:276 [ref. 7190], Kottelat 1997:168 [ref. 22952]). Current status: Synonym of Syngnathus typhle Linnaeus 1758. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vittata, Nerophis Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:57 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Europe. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.185 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Unneeded new name for Syngnathus ophidion Linnaeus 1758 (from Palermo, Sicily). •Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Nerophis ophidion (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vittatus, Corythoichthys Kaup [J. J.] 1856:26 [Catalogue of lophobranchiate fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2575] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-6021. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:46 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Micrognathus crinitus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Dawson 1978:14 [ref. 8939], Dawson 1982:26 [ref. 6764], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:191 [ref. 25013]). •Synonym of Halicampus crinitus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Guimarães 1999:7 [ref. 24280]). •Valid as Halicampus vittatus (Kaup 1856) -- (Kuiter 2009:263 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus vittatus (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Hippocampus Cloquet [H.] 1821:178 (v. 21) [Dictionnaire des sciences Naturelles; ref. 852] Mediterranean Sea, L'Ocean, & Indian Ocean. An unneeded new name, based on literature sources, including Syngnathus hippocampus Linnaeus. •Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Lourie et al. 1999:99 [ref. 23993], Kuiter 2009:19 [ref. 30404], Lourie et al. 2016:27 [ref. 34632]). Current status: Synonym of Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus 1758). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

waitei, Corythroichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1906:212, Fig. 17 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 25 (for 1905); ref. 2497] Samoa. Holotype: USNM 51723 (female). Paratypes: CAS-SU 8725 (1), USNM 51723 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:60 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Corythoichthys. •Synonym of Corythoichthys intestinalis (Ramsay 1881) -- (Dawson 1977:310 [ref. 7048]). •Valid as Corythoichthys waitei Jordan & Seale 1906 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2008:122 [ref. 29478], Kuiter 2009:199 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Corythoichthys waitei Jordan & Seale 1906. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines east to Samoa, south to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

wakanourae, Yozia Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:8, Pl. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1241); ref. 2510] Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6517. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:62 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

walcotti, Syngnathus Nichols [J. T.] 1937:1 [American Museum Novitates No. 934; ref. 15292] St. John Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): AMNH 13685. •Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868) -- (Dawson 1982:134 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus elucens (Poey 1868). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

waleananus, Hippocampus Gomon [M. F.] & Kuiter [R. H.] 2009:38, Figs. 1-3a [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 30036] Walea Island, Togean Archipelago, Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MZB 13599. •Synonym of Hippocampus satomiae Lourie & Juiter 2008 -- (Lourie et al. 2016:38 [ref. 34632]). •Valid as Hippocampus waleananus Gomon & Kuiter 2009 -- (Kuiter 2009:137 [ref. 30404], Reijnen et al. 2011:2 [ref. 33436], Allen & Erdmann 2012:206 [ref. 31980], Miesen et al. 2016:88 [ref. 34492], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2018:42 [ref. 36055]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus waleananus Gomon & Kuiter 2009. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Togian Islands off Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

wardi, Parasyngnathus Whitley [G. P.] 1948:77 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 4710] Lindeman Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.1911. Paratypes: AMS IB.1912 (6, now 5). •Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1978:151 [ref. 7026], Paxton et al. 1989:420 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 2009:279 [ref. 30404]). •Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilus (Bleeker 1854) -- (Dawson 1985:97 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201], Paxton et al. 2006:823 [ref. 29073], Kottelat 2013:303 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hippichthys cyanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

wassi, Festucalex Dawson [C. E.] 1977:635, Figs. 11 (bottom), 13 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 27 (no. 4); ref. 1066] Tutuila Island, American Samoa. Holotype: BPBM 18716. Paratypes: BPBM 20325 (1), GCRL 14899 (1), USNM 216311 (1). •Valid as Festucalex wassi Dawson 1977 -- (Dawson 1985:73 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2270 [ref. 24794], Fricke 2004:28 [ref. 28269], Kuiter 2009:208 [ref. 30404], Fricke et al. 2011:375 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2015:51 [ref. 33644], Prokofiev 2016:624 [ref. 34850], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Festucalex wassi Dawson 1977. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

watermeyeri, Syngnathus Smith [J. L. B.] 1963:538, Pl. 82 (figs. G-H) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 27; ref. 6516] Bushmans River near Port Alfred, 33°50'S, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 124. Other specimens: (11) GCRL [ex SAIAB [formerly RUSI]] (2), NMW 75532 (1), RMNH 920 (orig. 13, now 11). •Valid as Syngnathus watermeyeri Smith 1963 -- (Dawson 1985:190 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:457 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:287 [ref. 6201], Whitfield 1995:152 [ref. 22144], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:141 [ref. 28072], Kuiter 2009:257 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Syngnathus watermeyeri Smith 1963. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

weberi, Nannocampus Duncker [G.] 1915:99 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 32; ref. 6567] Sumba Island, Malé Kuva Bay, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 104659. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:80 [ref. 19236]. Based on Nannocampus subosseus of Weber 1913:115, fig. 41 [ref. 4602]. •Valid as Nannocampus weberi Duncker 1915 -- (Dawson 1979:488 [ref. 1068], Dawson 1985:151 [ref. 6541], Paulus 1999:2271 [ref. 24794], Allen & Adrim 2003:28 [ref. 26830], Kuiter 2009:259 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 3 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Nannocampus weberi Duncker 1915. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean, southern Indonesia: Bali to Sumba. Habitat: marine.

whitei, Hippocampus Bleeker [P.] 1855:17 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 346] Sydney District, New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Appeared as "Hippocampus Whitei Blkr. = Hippocampu or Seahorse White" which is fig. 2, plate opposite p. 264 in White 1790 [ref. 4654]. Neotype as I.40831-018 [ref. 34632]. •Valid as Hippocampus whitei Bleeker 1855 -- (Dawson 1986:454 [ref. 5650], Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:98 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:449 [ref. 22532], Gomon 1997:248 [ref. 22842], Kuiter 1997:72 [ref. 25488], Lourie et al. 1999:127 [ref. 23993], Fricke 1999:152 [ref. 24106], Paulus 1999:2272 [ref. 24794], Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Kuiter 2001:327 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:829 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:42 [ref. 30404], Lourie 2016:100 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:43 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus whitei Bleeker 1855. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: East coast of Australia from Hervey Bay (Queensland) to St. Georges Basin (New South Wales). Habitat: marine.

yasudai, Maroubra Dawson [C. E.] 1983:397, Figs. 1-2 [Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory v. 28 (nos 5/6); ref. 17362] Western coast of Izu Oceanic Park, Shizuoka Prefecture, Honshu Island, Japan, depth about 30 meters. Holotype: FAKU 62216 [ex SMBL 81026]. Paratypes: FAKU 62217 [ex SMBL 81025] (1); URM P.0001 (1), P.0002 (1). •Valid as Maroubra yasudai Dawson 1983 -- (Araga in Masuda et al. 1984:86 [ref. 6441], Dawson 1985:121 [ref. 6541], Nakabo 2000:523 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:523 [ref. 26001], Kuiter 2009:184 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 4 [ref. 35615]). Current status: Valid as Maroubra yasudai Dawson 1983. Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Izu Peninsula, Japan. Habitat: marine.

yoshi, Siphostoma Snyder [J. O.] 1909:597 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 36 (no. 1688); ref. 4151] Tanegashima Island, Osumi Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 62944. •Synonym of Microphis leiaspis (Bleeker 1853) -- (Dawson 1984:131 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:132 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:285 [ref. 6201]). •Valid as Microphis yoshi (Snyder 1909) -- (Kuiter 2009:273 [ref. 30404]). Current status: Valid as Microphis yoshi (Snyder 1909). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: southern Japan including Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

zambezensis, Syngnathus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:465 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Tette [Tete], Zambezi River, Mozambique. Syntypes: ZMB 6233 (1). See also Peters 1855:278 [ref. 13448]. An unneeded replacement name for Syngnathus fluviatilis Peters 1852, not preoccupied by Kuhl & van Hasselt. •Synonym of Microphis fluviatilis (Peters 1852) -- (Dawson 1984:137 [ref. 5879], Dawson 1985:128 [ref. 6541], Dawson 1986:454 [ref. 5650], Dawson 1986:284 [ref. 6201]). Current status: Synonym of Microphis fluviatilis (Peters 1852). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

zanzibarensis, Syngnathus Günther [A.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:140, Pl. 20 (fig. 5) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1864.4.18.2-4 (3), 1868.5.30.29 (1). Type catalog: Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541]. •Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Dawson 1984:181 [ref. 5291], Dawson 1985:191 [ref. 6541]). Current status: Synonym of Trachyrhamphus bicoarctatus (Bleeker 1857). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

zatropis, Siphostoma Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:264 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 30865. •Synonym of Cosmocampus albirostris (Kaup 1882) -- (Dawson 1982:121 [ref. 6764]). Current status: Synonym of Cosmocampus albirostris (Kaup 1856). Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: marine.

zavorensis, Halicampus Dawson [C. E.] 1984:2, Figs. 1-2 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 34; ref. 8232] Zavora, 24°31'S, 35°13'E, Mozambique. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 12243. Paratypes: GCRL 20888 (1), ROM 40326 (1). •Valid as Halicampus zavorensis Dawson 1984 -- (Dawson 1986:451 [ref. 5650], Randall 1995:102 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S101 [ref. 27377], Kuiter 2009:266 [ref. 30404], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 1 [ref. 35615], Ali et al. 2018:316 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Halicampus zavorensis Dawson 1984. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South and East Africa to Oman. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Hippocampus Whitley [G. P.] 1964:164, Pl. 8 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 26 (no. 5); ref. 3772] Off Gillett Cay, Swain Reefs, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.6015. Paratypes: AMS IB.2819 (1). •Valid as Hippocampus zebra Whitley 1964 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:422 [ref. 12442], Gomon 1997:250 [ref. 22842], Lourie et al. 1999:129 [ref. 23993] with paratype not this species, Johnson 1999:726 [ref. 25471], Horne 2001:245 [ref. 25696], Kuiter 2001:325 [ref. 25900], Paxton et al. 2006:830 [ref. 29073], Kuiter 2009:127 [ref. 30404], Allen & Erdmann 2012:207 [ref. 31980], Lourie 2016:138 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:44 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Short et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36532]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus zebra Whitley 1964. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

zonatus, Syngnathus Károli [J.] 1882:185 [Természetrajzi Füzetek, Budapest v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1881); ref. 14295] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Syntypes: (3) MNSB 1543. •Synonym of Doryichthys boaja (Bleeker 1850) -- (Dawson 1981:12 [ref. 5527], Dawson 1985:55 [ref. 6541], Roberts 1989:159 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:302 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Doryichthys boaja (Bleeker 1850). Syngnathidae: Nerophinae. Habitat: freshwater.

zosterae, Hippocampus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:265 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Laguna Grande, Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: MNHN 1887-0515 (1) Pensacola, CAS-SU 1671 (2), USNM 30852 (2 or 1, not found in 1980). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:54 [ref. 19576], Böhlke 1953:61 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Hippocampus zosterae Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:124 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:95 [ref. 23239], Gomon 1997:246 [ref. 22842], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:1058 [ref. 23897], Lourie et al. 1999:131 [ref. 23993], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:236 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:190 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:13 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27754], Roe et al. 2002:903 [ref. 26504], Fritzsche & Vincent 2003:1225 [ref. 27044], Kuiter 2009:109 [ref. 30404], Page et al. 2013:114 [ref. 32708], Silveira et al. 2014:320 [ref. 33493], Lourie 2016:131 [ref. 34505], Lourie et al. 2016:45 [ref. 34632], Hamilton et al. 2016:Supplement 2 [ref. 35615], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Hippocampus zosterae Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.