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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Synodontidae: [ 158 ] records


acutus, Synodus Garman [S.] 1899:252 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Pacific coast of Panama, 7°40'N, 79°17'50"W, Albatross station 3387, depth 127 fathoms; 7°26'10", 79°53'50"W, station 3390. Syntypes: MCZ 28512 (2). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

albidus, Osmerus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:229, 235 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Carolinas, U.S.A. No types known. •A synodontid -- (McAllister 1963:42 [ref. 8075]). •Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

altipinnis, Saurus Günther [A.] 1864:397 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] China. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.3.18.118 (1, dry) coll. Richardson, BMNH 1851.12.27.350 (1) coll. Warwick. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

amaranthus, Synodus Waples [R. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1989:185, Figs. 1, 3 [Pacific Science v. 42 (nos 3-4) [1988]; ref. 9187] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ANSP 28133 [ex USFC 03265]. Paratypes: ANSP 28132 [ex USFC 03804] (1), 28134 [ex USFC 03809] (1); MCZ 64517 [ex USFC 03430 and ex MCZ 28962] (1). Additional material: BPBM 1734 [ex USFC] (1). •Synonym of Synodus dermatogenys Fowler 1912 -- (Mundy 2005:199 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:110 [ref. 30952], Randall 2009:402 [ref. 30454]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus dermatogenys Fowler 1912. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

anolis, Saurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:483 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN A-8611 (1, dry) Martinique, B-1022 (1) Martinique. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:6-7 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553] with author as Agassiz). Current status: Synonym of Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

argentea, Saurida Macleay [W.] 1881:220 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Endeavour River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16271-001 [exc MAMU F175] (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Saurida argentea Macleay 1881 -- (Russell 1999:1937 [ref. 24747], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Hoese et al. 2006:473 [ref. 29051], Larson et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2018:68 [ref. 35805], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:54 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Saurida argentea Macleay 1881. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar; Indonesia east to New Guinea, north to northern Vietnam and Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

argyrophanes, Saurus Richardson [J.] 1846:302 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Most probably China seas. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:209, Pl. 12b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Saurida undosquamis (Richardson 1848) -- (Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:408 [ref. 13675]). •Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Chen 2002:75 [ref. 26587], Kottelat 2013:271 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Saurus Johnson [J. Y.] 1863:41 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863 (pt 1) (art. 5) (for 13 Jan. 1863); ref. 5021] Madeira. Holotype: BMNH 1862.2.5.1. •Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885], Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:411 [ref. 13675], Edwards & Glass 1987:629 [ref. 9166], Sulak 1990:369 [ref. 15106], Wirtz et al. 2014:4 [ref. 33516]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

atrisignis, Trachinocephalus Prokofiev [A. M.] 2019:414, Figs. 1-2a,b [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 36808] Off Socotra Island, western Indian Ocean, 12°04' - 10'N, 53°09' - 14'E, depth 36 - 40 meters. Holotype: IOM 3580. Paratypes: IOM 3581 (2). •Valid as Trachinocephalus atrisignis Prokofiev 2019. Current status: Valid as Trachinocephalus atrisignis Prokofiev 2019. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

australis, Saurida Castelnau [F. L.] 1879:393 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 764] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:475 [ref. 29051], Kottelat 2013:271 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

badi, Saurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:314 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. Available from footnote as, "S. badi, Nob. (Badi motta), Russel., 172" [Badi mottah, Russell, 1803:Pl. 2]. •Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:271 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

badimottah, Saurus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:77 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Gulf of Suez. Syntypes: SMF 1056 (1), 3070-72 (3, dry), 5404-05 (2). •Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:271 [ref. 32989] ). Current status: Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

banfieldi, Xystodus Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:6 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Near Dunk Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.14. •Synonym of Synodus sageneus Waite 1905 -- (Cressey 1981:36 [ref. 5574], Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442], Hoese & Gates 2006:470 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus sageneus Waite 1905. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

binotatus, Synodus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:35, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef near southern end, Ennylabegan Island, Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 140801. Paratypes: FMNH 62589-60 [ex USNM 140807] (1), [ex USNM 140810] (1); USNM 140802-06 (1, 5, 1, 1, 2,), 140808-09 (4, 1), 140811-13 (8, 4, 5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Synodus binotatus Schultz 1953 -- (Cressey 1981:9 [ref. 5574], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Cressey 1986:271 [ref. 6289], Waples & Randall 1989:189 [ref. 9187], Paxton et al. 1989:237 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:13 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:49 [ref. 15987], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:271 [ref. 21953], Randall et al. 1997:49 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:64 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:93 [ref. 24106], Russell 1999:1940 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:356 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:126 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:60 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:356 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:613 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:116 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:63 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:200 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:468 [ref. 28997], Chen et al. 2007:149 [ref. 29121], Randall 2007:109 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:24 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:123 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:27 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:69 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:63 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Synodus binotatus Schultz 1953. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Hawaiian and Line islands, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

bondi, Synodus Fowler [H. W.] 1939:7, Figs. 5-6 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 35; ref. 1431] Kingston, Jamaica. Holotype: ANSP 68634. Paratypes: ANSP 68635 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Synodus bondi Foiwler 1939 -- (Frable et al. 2031:134 [ref. 32553]). Current status: Valid as Synodus bondi Fowler 1939. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Saurida Norman [J. R.] 1935:125, Fig. 14 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1935 (pt 1); ref. 13913] Cape Frio, Brazil, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1913.12.4.222. Paratypes: ZMA 113538 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:12-13 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Saurida brasiliensis Norman 1935 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:79 [ref. 23100], Sulak 1990:366 [ref. 15106], Cervigón 1991:153 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:70 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:446 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:583 [ref. 16204], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:607 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Figueiredo & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27192], Russell 2003:927 [ref. 27004], Nelson et al. 2004:87 [ref. 27807], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30983], Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2014:4 [ref. 33516], Russell 2016:1827 [ref. 34572], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Saurida brasiliensis Norman 1935. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [ref. 34572]. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Saurus Poey [F.] 1860:305 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 6895. Paratypes (?): MCZ 6896 (1), 6898-99 (1, 1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:175 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 6895 as holotype. •Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801) -- (Sulak 1990:370 [ref. 15106], Polanco Fernandez et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34512]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

capricornis, Synodus Cressey [R. F.] & Randall [J. E.] 1978:767, Figs. 1-3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 91 (no. 3); ref. 8941] Off Ahu Akapu, Easter Island [southeastern Pacific], depth 70 feet. Holotype: BPBM 6560. Paratypes: BPBM 6562 (1), 16860 (2); USNM 218461-62 (1, 1). •Valid as Synodus capricornis Cressey & Randall 1978 -- (Cressey 1981:11 [ref. 5574], Waples & Randall 1989:189 [ref. 9187], Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125], Russell 1999:1941 [ref. 24747], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Randall et al. 2002:155 [ref. 26192], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:63 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:200 [ref. 28379], Chen et al. 2007:151 [ref. 29121], Randall 2007:109 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Synodus capricornis Cressey & Randall 1978. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific, antitropical: Taiwan, Hawaiian Islands, Pitcairn, Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

caribbaeus, Saurida Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:14, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] North of Glovers Reef, Belize, depth 48 fathoms. Holotype: YPM 57. Paratypes: BMNH 1934.5.7.1 [ex YPM 110] (1), YPM 110 (orig. 5, now 1, c&s); two dissected and presumed destroyed. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:26 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Saurida caribbaea Breder 1927 -- (Ueyno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:166 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:79 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:70 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:446 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:608 [ref. 23897], Figueiredo & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27192], Russell 2003:927 [ref. 27004], Nelson et al. 2004:87 [ref. 27807], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30983], Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Saurida caribbaea Breder 1927. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

carinatus, Saurus van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:329 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar I Deel (no. 21); ref. 5105] Vizagapatam, India; Java, Indonesia. No types known. An available name based on Russel 1803, II, p. 56, pl. CLXXII (see Alfred 1961:83, Pl. 5 [ref. 20553], Kottelat 1987:369 [ref. 5962]). Appeared as Saurus coronatus in van Hasselt 1824:92 [ref. 5104]. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

cinereus, Synodus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1948:10, Fig. 5 [Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections v. 110 (no. 9); ref. 2162] Clarence Harbor, Bahamas. Holotype: USNM 53079. Paratypes: USNM 53078 (1). •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:410 [ref. 13675], Sulak 1990:368 [ref. 15106]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

cresseyi, Synodus Prokofiev [A. M.] 2008:424, Figs. 1, 2a-d [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 84 (no. 4); ref. 29560] Described as a "nom. n." for Synodus macrocephalus of Cressey 1981:27, figs. 21, 26b and 42. Based on Art. 72.4.2 the types (syntypes) are the specimens misidentified by Cressey, and not the specimens listed by Prokofiev. •In the synonymy of Synodus macrocephalus Cressey 1981 -- (Ho et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30761]). •Junior objective synonym of Synodus macrocephalus Cressey 1981. Current status: Synonym of Synodus macrocephalus Cressey 1981. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

cubanus, Synodus Poey [F.] 1876:185 [143] [Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, Madrid v. 5 (for 5 Apr. 1876); ref. 3510] Cuba. where abouts unknown. On p. 143 of separate. •Synonym of Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553] with author as Agassiz). Current status: Synonym of Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

depressus, Saurus Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:131 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila, Philippines. No types known. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

dermatogenys, Synodus Fowler [H. W.] 1912:566, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63 (for 1911); ref. 14954] Hawaiian Island. Holotype: ANSP 28130. Paratypes: ANSP 28131-34 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Cressey 1981:6 [ref. 5574]). •Valid as Synodus dermatogenys Fowler 1912 -- (Waples & Randall 1989:190 [ref. 9187], Randall et al. 1990:50 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:41 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:272 [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:79 [ref. 22896], Kuiter 1997:38 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:50 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:64 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:93 [ref. 24106], Russell 1999:1941 [ref. 24747], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:355 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:127 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:39 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:147 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:355 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:613 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:20 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:116 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:63 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:200 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:468 [ref. 28997], Chen et al. 2007:149 [ref. 29121], Randall 2007:110 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:24 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:37 [ref. 30426], Ho & Shao 2010:66 [ref. 31054], Motomura et al. 2010:76 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Hubert et al. 2012:5 [ref. 31846], Allen & Erdmann 2012:124 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33932], Francis & Duffy 2015:483 [ref. 36161], Koeda et al. 2016:11 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:69 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:35 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:56 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:63 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Synodus dermatogenys Fowler 1912. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Comores and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, south to northern Australia, Lord Howe Island, northern New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

dietrichi, Synodus Kotthaus [A.] 1967:72, Figs. 62-65 [Meteor Forschungsergebnisse. Reihe D, Biologie No. 1; ref. 2668] Off Somalia coast, 3°25'N, 47°14.8'E TO 3°23.8'N, 47°14'E, depth 38-37 meters. Holotype: ZMH 4904 [ex IOES 30a]. Paratypes: ZMH 4905-08 (?4). •Synonym of Synodus indicus (Day 1873) -- (Cressey 1981:21 [ref. 5574], Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus indicus (Day 1873). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

doaki, Synodus Russell [B. C.] & Cressey [R. F.] 1979:166, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 92 (no. 1); ref. 8790] Nursery Bay [35°30'S, 174°44'E], Port Knights Islands [off eastern Northland], New Zealand, depth 19 meters. Holotype: NMNZ 5676. Paratypes: AMS I.5338 (1), I.18351-001 (1), I.18773-001 (1); BPBM 14655 (1), 21057 (1); NMNZ 5677 (1), 5678 (1), 6168 (1); USNM 218793 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:8 [ref. 18942]. •Valid as Synodus doaki Russell & Cressey 1979 -- (Cressey 1981:12 [ref. 5574], Waples & Randall 1989:191 [ref. 9187], Paxton et al. 1989:237 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:109 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:50 [ref. 15987], Baranes & Golani 1993:303 [ref. 22372], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1997:50 [ref. 25919], Russell 1999:1941 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:356 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:356 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Mundy 2005:200 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:468 [ref. 28997], Chen et al. 2007:149 [ref. 29121], Randall 2007:110 [ref. 30952], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:61 [ref. 35264] with authorship as Cressey 1981, Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:109 [ref. 36167], Russell 2015:543 [ref. 34253]). Current status: Valid as Synodus doaki Russell & Cressey 1979. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to eastern Australia, Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia), New Zealand and Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

dominicensis, Synodus Fowler [H. W.] 1912:564, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63 (for 1911); ref. 14954] Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 15883. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Synodus poeyi Jordan 1887. Current status: Synonym of Synodus poeyi Jordan 1887. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

elegans, Saurus Gray [J. E.] in Günther 1864:398 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Not available, name listed in the synonymy of Saurus myops. Synodontidae: Synodontinae.

elongatus, Aulopus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:233, Pl. 105 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3235a. Paralectotypes: RMNH D1955 (1, stuffed), 3235b (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:172 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Saurida elongata (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Shindo & Yamada 1972:5 [ref. 571], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Yamaoka et al. 1989:208 [ref. 20456], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:147 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:17 [ref. 26476] as elongate, Cheng & Zhou 1997:95 [ref. 26385], Russell 1999:1937 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:353 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:37 [ref. 25480], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:37 [ref. 25480], Shimizu 2001:22 [ref. 25799], Wang et al. 2001:70 [ref. 26566], Chen 2002:80 [ref. 26587], Miyahara et al. 2002:37 [ref. 26146], Nakabo 2002:353 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:200, 533 [ref. 26218], Hoese et al. 2006:473 [ref. 29051], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:54 [ref. 36460], Yeo et al. 2018:207 [ref. 36438]). Current status: Valid as Saurida elongata (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: northern Vietnam and China north to Korea and Japan; eastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

englemani, Synodus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:41, Fig. 9 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon coral head, Kieschiechi Island, Rongelap Atoll, western Pacific, depth 20 feet. Holotype: USNM 140815. Paratypes: USNM 140816 (2), 152980-81 (1, 3), 202547 (1); UWCF (4). •Valid as Synodus englemani Schultz 1953 -- (Cressey 1981:14 [ref. 5574], Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Cressey 1986:272 [ref. 6289], Waples & Randall 1989:202 [ref. 9187], Paxton et al. 1989:238 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:109 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:13 [ref. 13251], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Fricke 1999:91 [ref. 24106], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Chen 2002:65 [ref. 26587]). •Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:273 [ref. 21953], Randall et al. 1990:51 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:79 [ref. 22896], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:64 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:202 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:470 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:114 [ref. 30952], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:61 [ref. 35264], Golani & Fricke 2018:35 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

erythraeus, Harpadon Klausewitz [W.] 1983:36, Figs. 2-6, 10 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 64 (nos 1/3); ref. 6011] Red Sea, 21°26.5'N, 38°38.3'E, depth 779-801 meters. Holotype: SMF 17720. Paratypes: SMF 17721-23 (1, 3, 2). •Valid as Harpadon erythraeus Klausewitz 1983 -- (Klausewitz 1994:466 [ref. 23564] as Harpodon, Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Ganga et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34160], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:34 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Harpadon erythraeus Klausewitz 1983. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

erythraeus, Saurus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:590 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 8058 (1). •Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803). Current status: Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

eso, Saurida Jordan [D. S.] & Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1907:520, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 32 (no. 1544); ref. 10631] Wakanoura, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan, Inland Sea, western North Pacific. Holotype: USNM 57847. Paratypes: CAS-SU 20161-62 (2, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:17 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Saurida elongata (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Chen 2002:80 [ref. 26587]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida elongata (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

evermanni, Synodus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:152 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific Coast of Colombia, depth 33 fathoms. Syntypes: USNM 41144 (1), 41219 (1), 41398 (1), 195912 [ex USNM 41144] (10). Holotype not established originally. •Valid as Synodus evermanni Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:72 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:54 [ref. 23101], Bussing & Lavenberg in Fischer et al. 1995:1627 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:298 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:171 [ref. 24555], Groce et al. 2001:153 [ref. 25754], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:253 [ref. 28944], Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Robertson et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35676], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Synodus evermanni Jordan & Bollman 1890. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

falcatus, Synodus Waples [R. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1989:191, Pls. 1f, 3c; Figs. 1, 4 [Pacific Science v. 42 (nos 3-4) [1988]; ref. 9187] Maro Reef, northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 25°24'N, 170°53'W, depth 88-95 meters. Holotype: BPBM 30960. Paratypes: ANSP 159462 (1); BPBM 15483 (1), 23899 (15), 23908 (5), 23923 (15), 23955 (8), 28942 (3); CAS 61346 (1); MCZ 28965 [ex USFC 03011] (1); USNM 280212 (1), 285271 (1), 55272 (3). Additional material: ANSP 93306 (1) BPBM 28938 (4); CAS 11311 (1). •Valid as Synodus falcatus Waples & Randall 1989 -- (Mundy 2005:201 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:111 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Synodus falcatus Waples & Randall 1989. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

fasciapelvicus, Synodus Randall [J. E.] 2009:404, Figs. 2-3 [Zoological Studies v. 48 (no.3); ref. 30454] Tanjung Luar fish market, Lombok, Indonesia. Holotype: BPBM 29790. Paratypes: BPBM 22134 (1), USNM 392265 (1). •Valid as Synodus fasciapelvicus Randall 2009. Current status: Valid as Synodus fasciapelvicus Randall 2009. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indonesia and the Philippines. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Osmerus Risso [A.] 1810:326 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0851 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1945:375 [ref. 21554], Bertin & Estève 1950:5-6 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885], Sulak 1990:367 [ref. 15106]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Synodus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:318, 321 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] North America. •Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

ferox, Saurida Ramsay [E. P.] 1883:177 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 1); ref. 14346] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS (accidently destroyed). Also appeared as name only in Ramsay 1883:54 [ref. 6592]. •Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:475 [ref. 29051], Kottelat 2013:271 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ferox, Saurus Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:197, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] No locality. Genus misprinted Saurux once on p. 197. •Status uncertain, genus Synodus -- (Waples & Randall 1989:204 [ref. 9187]). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

filamentosa, Saurida Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:88 [On some new fishes from the Queensland coast; ref. 3289] Off Cape Moreton, southern Queensland, Australia, depth 73 fathoms. Syntypes: (22) AMS I.12571 (1), QM I.1553 (1). •Valid as Saurida filamentosa Ogilby 1910 -- (Shindo & Yamada 1972:6 [ref. 571], Paxton et al. 1989:242 [ref. 12442], Chen et al. 1997:17 [ref. 26476], Russell 1999:1937 [ref. 24747], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Chen 2002:77 [ref. 26587], Hoese et al. 2006:473 [ref. 29051], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Saurida filamentosa Ogilby 1910. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

flamma, Saurida Waples [R. S.] 1982:225, Fig. 2 [Pacific Science v. 35 (no. 3) [1981]; ref. 8397] Kewalo basin, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 10 meters. Holotype: BPBM 25942. Paratypes: ANSP 146525 (5); BPBM 25943-47 (3, 1, 1, 1, 1); CAS 47761-63 (1, 1, 1); MNHN 1981-0614 to 0615 (1, 1); USNM 226489 (4). Additional material: CAS 47763 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Saurida flamma Waples 1982 -- (Russell 1999:1938 [ref. 24747], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Randall 2005:62 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:198 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:108 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Saurida flamma Waples 1982. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands, Johnston Atoll, Austral Islands, Rapa, Pitcairn. Habitat: marine.

foetens, Salmo Linnaeus [C.] 1766:513 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] South Carolina, 3°47'34.80"N, 79°39'46.80"N, depth 10 meters. Neotype: USNM 405413. Original spelling fötens. Based on multiple sources, including the 'Whiting' in a manuscript description by A. Garden [South Carolina], and the 'Saurus ex cinereo nigricans' of Catesby 1743:2, Pl. 2, fig. 2 (v. 2) [ref. 774] [(South) Carolina]. Neotype designated by Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553]. •Valid as Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Ueyno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:164 [ref. 14275], Smith 1986:399 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:80 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:149 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:70 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:446 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:583 [ref. 16204], Murdy et al. 1997:79 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:610 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:149 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:151 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Figueiredo & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:49 [ref. 27192], Russell 2003:928 [ref. 27004], Smith et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:33 [ref. 30983], Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553], Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fuscus, Synodus Tanaka [S.] 1917:38 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 340); ref. 17353] Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7472 (lost). A translation in English is in Jordan & Hubbs, Mem. Carnegie Mus., v.10 (no.2) p.154. •Valid as Synodus fuscus Tanaka 1917 -- (Cressey 1981:16 [ref. 5574], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Suzuki & Hosokawa 1997:2 [ref. 24370], Nakabo 2000:356 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Chen 2002:58 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:356 [ref. 26001], Chen et al. 2007:149 [ref. 29121], Motomura et al. 2010:76 [ref. 31256]). Current status: Valid as Synodus fuscus Tanaka 1917. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gauguini, Trachinocephalus Polanco Fernandez [A.], Acero P. [A.] & Betancur-R. [R.] 2016:[4] 1306, Fig. 1 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 89 (no. 2); ref. 34512] Hiva Oa Island, Marquesas Islands, 9°41'S, 139°3'W, depth 95-305 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2000-4531. Paratypes: MNHN, USNM. Not available from online version, 29 June 2016; available from printed version, Aug. 2016. •Valid as Trachinocephalus gauguini Polanco Fernandez, Acero P. & Betancur-R. 2016 -- (Wang et al. 2018:152 [ref. 36124], Fricke et al. 2019:65 [ref. 36673], Prokofiev 2019:414 [ref. 36808]). Current status: Valid as Trachinocephalus gauguini Polanco Fernandez, Acero P. & Betancur-R. 2016. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Pacific Ocean: New Ireland (Papua New Guinea); Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

gibbsi, Synodus Cressey [R. F.] 1981:18, Figs. 12-13 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 342; ref. 5574] Tanzania, 6°51'S, 39°54'E, depth 100 meters. Holotype: USNM 218389. Paratypes: USNM 217736-37 (4, 34); ZSI F7280/2 (1). •Valid as Synodus gibbsi Cressey 1981 -- (Ho et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34725]). Current status: Valid as Synodus gibbsi Cressey 1981. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

golanii, Saurida Russell [B. C.] 2011:22, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 3098; ref. 31610] Off Heinz Steinitz Marine Biology Laboratory, Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 14018. Paratypes: BPBM 31816 (1); HUJ 11427 (1), 11947 (1); MNHN 2011-0230 [ex HUJ 11880] (1); NTM 17095-001 (1); TAU [= SMNHTAU] P13778 (2). •Valid as Saurida golanii Russell 2011 -- (Russell 2015:445 [ref. 33739], Russell et al. 2015:565 [ref. 33799], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:34 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Saurida golanii Russell 2011. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

gracilis, Saurus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:224 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Hawaiian Islands; Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-7617 (1, "holotype"), B-1027 (1), B-1029 (1), B-2919 [ex MNHN B-1029] (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:7 [ref. 19576] with holotype. •Valid as Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Shindo & Yamada 1972:4 [ref. 571], Waples 1982:226 [ref. 8397], Dor 1984:46 [ref. 29757], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Cressey 1986:271 [ref. 6289], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Budnichenko 1989:241 [ref. 13371], Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:13 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:49 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 20996], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:270 [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:77 [ref. 22896], Suzuki et al. 1995:2 [ref. 24356], Kuiter 1997:38 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:49 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:64 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:91 [ref. 24106], Russell 1999:1938 [ref. 24747], Mishra et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:352 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:126 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:38 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:145 [ref. 27511], Sakai et al. 2001:89 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:71 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:352 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:613 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:19 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:115 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:62 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:199 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:474 [ref. 29051], Randall 2007:108 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:24 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:76 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:123 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:26 [ref. 33932], Russell 2015:445 [ref. 33739], Russell et al. 2015:565 [ref. 33799], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:11 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:68 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:34 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:63 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

grandisquamis, Saurida Günther [A.] 1864:400 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Louisiade Archipelago and Australia. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1850.7.20.92 (1) Australia, 1851.2.30.13 (1) Australia, BMNH 1856.9.11.28 (1) Louisiade Arch. •Synonym of Saurida undosquamis (Richardson 1848) -- (Nielsen 1973:162 [ref. 6885], Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757], Cressey 1986:271 [ref. 6289], Paxton et al. 1989:244 [ref. 12442], Chen 2002:73 [ref. 26587], Inoue & Nakabo 2006:384 [ref. 29238]). •Valid as Saurida grandisquamis Günther 1864 -- (Russell 1999:1938 [ref. 24747], Hoese et al. 2006:474 [ref. 29051], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2018:68 [ref. 35805], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Saurida grandisquamis Günther 1864. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar; northern Australia, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia); Louisiade Archipelago (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

griseus, Saurus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:188 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira. No types known. •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885], Sulak 1990:368 [ref. 15106], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:43 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:22 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:24 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

gronovianus, Gonorhynchus (Synodus) Swainson [W.] 1839:286 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Gro. Zoop. Pl. 7 (fig. 1) -- which is Gronovius 1763:Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [ref. 1910]. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

gronovii, Synodus Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:655 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. Based on Gronovius, Mus. Ichthyol. No. 155. •Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

hoshinonis, Synodus Tanaka [S.] 1917:38 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 340); ref. 17353] Hiro, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7476. •Valid as Synodus hoshinonis Tanaka 1917 -- (Cressey 1981:19 [ref. 5574], Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Cressey 1986:272 [ref. 6289], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:238 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:272 [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:16 [ref. 26476], Nakabo 2000:356 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:55 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:356 [ref. 26001], Hoese & Gates 2006:468 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:69 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:35 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Synodus hoshinonis Tanaka 1917. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to New Caledonia, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

houlti, Synodus McCulloch [A. R.] 1921:165, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 7; ref. 15318] Near the Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia, depth 25-30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): QM I.3543. •Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Cressey 1981:6 [ref. 5574], Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442]). •Valid as Synodus houlti McCulloch 1921 -- (Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Hoese & Gates 2006:468 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Valid as Synodus houlti McCulloch 1921. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hypozona, Goodella Ogilby [J. D.] 1897:250 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 22 (pt 2); ref. 3273] Beach near Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS ?I.3670. Paratypes: BMNH 1897.10.27.32 (1), QM I.859 (1) Maroubra, USNM 48826 (7). •Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442], Sulak 1990:370 [ref. 15106], Hoese & Gates 2006:471 [ref. 28997]). •Synonym of Trachinocephalus trachinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Polanco Fernandez et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34512]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinocephalus trachinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Saurus Day [F.] 1873:526 [The Journal of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology v. 11; ref. 17368] Madras, India [Indian Ocean]. Lectotype: ZSI F2337. Paralectotypes (2) and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7672 (1, non-type); RMNH 8817 (1), 2761 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:102 [ref. 20743] as holotype, Whitehead & Talwar 1976:154 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:298 [ref. 25110]. Type designated by Norman 1935:114 [ref. 13913] but see Cressey 1981:23 [ref. 5574] for discussion about types. •Valid as Synodus indicus (Day 1873) -- (Cressey 1981:21 [ref. 5574], Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757], Cressey 1986:272 [ref. 6289], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Budnichenko 1989:241 [ref. 13371], Paxton et al. 1989:238 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:272 [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Russell 1999:1942 [ref. 24747], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:57 [ref. 26587], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:115 [ref. 28072], Hoese & Gates 2006:468 [ref. 28997], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:170 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:70 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:35 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Synodus indicus (Day 1873). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Philippines, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Saurus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:81, Pl. 44 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Off northeastern Brazil, 0°01'48.00"S, 44°49°47.99"W, depth 62-64 meters. Neotype: USNM 398292. Neotype designated by Frable et al 2013:132 [ref. 32553]. •Valid as Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Uyeno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:163 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:80 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:146 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:70 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:446 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:583 [ref. 16204] with author as Spix, McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:611 [ref. 23897], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:149 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25466] with question, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:151 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Figueiredo & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Russell 2003:928 [ref. 27004], Smith et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263] with question, Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:33 [ref. 30983], Frable et al. 2013:131 [ref. 32553] with author Agassiz, Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:27 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Synodus intermedius (Spix & Agassiz 1829). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

isarankurai, Saurida Shindo [S.] & Yamada [U.] 1972:6 [No. 11], Fig. 7 [No. 12] [Uo (Japanese Society of Ichthyologists) Nos 11-12; ref. 571] Prachanbririkan Province, Gulf of Thailand, South China Sea. Holotype: ZUMT 52501. Paratypes: (48) ZUMT 54347-48 (1, 1). •Valid as Saurida isarankurai Shindo & Yamada 1972 -- (Waples 1982:224 [ref. 8397], Russell 1999:1939 [ref. 24747], Motomura et al. 2017:48 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Saurida isarankurai Shindo & Yamada 1972. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: South China Sea, Philippines and southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

isolatus, Synodus Randall [J. E.] 2009:407, Figs.4-5 [Zoological Studies v. 48 (no.3); ref. 30454] West side of Motu Tautara, Easter Island, depth 10 meters. Holotype: BPBM 39162. Paratypes: AMS I.44590-001 (1); ASIZP 69356 (1); BMNH 2008.1.8.1 (1); BPBM 31052 (1), 39163 (1), 39232 (2); LACM 56782-1 (1); USNM 392613 (1). •Valid as Synodus isolatus Randall 2009. Current status: Valid as Synodus isolatus Randall 2009. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

jaculum, Synodus Russell [B. C.] & Cressey [R. F.] 1979:169, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 92 (no. 1); ref. 8790] Granite Bluff, Lizard Island (14°40'S, 145°27'E), Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, depth 16 meters. Holotype: AMS I.19470-005. Paratypes: AMS I.17503-014 (2), I.17262-053 (1), I.18303-001 (1), I.18340-001 (1), I.18340-002 (2), I.19222-001 (4), I.19473-054 (2), I.19696-004 (1); USNM 217621 (2), 217640 (1), 217673 (1), 217748 (1), 217782 (1), 217794 (1). •Valid as Synodus jaculum Russell & Cressey 1979 -- (Cressey 1981:23 [ref. 5574], Cressey 1986:272 [ref. 6289], Paxton et al. 1989:238 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:13 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:50 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:42 [ref. 23929], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:272 [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:36 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:50 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:64 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:93 [ref. 24106], Russell 1999:1942 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:355 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:40 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:64 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:355 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:613 [ref. 27495], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:116 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:64 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:469 [ref. 28997], Chen et al. 2007:149 [ref. 29121], Motomura et al. 2010:76 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:124 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Fricke et al. 2018:70 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Synodus jaculum Russell & Cressey 1979. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Marquesas and Line islands, north to Izu Islands (Japan) and Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia, Chesterfield Islands, New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands. Habitat: marine.

janus, Synodus Waples [R. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1989:195, Figs. 1, 5 [Pacific Science v. 42 (nos 3-4) [1988]; ref. 9187] Hilo, Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 68883 [ex USFC 03830]. •Valid as Synodus janus Waples & Randall 1989 -- (Mundy 2005:201 [ref. 28379]). •Likely a synonym of Synodus falcatus Waples & Randall 1989 -- (Randall 2007:111 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus falcatus Waples & Randall 1989. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands (known only from holotype) [probably not valid]. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Cobitis Houttuyn [M.] 1782:337 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Japan. No types known. •Unidentifiable, in Synodus -- (Waples & Randall 1989:204 [ref. 9187]). •See Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

jenkinsi, Synodus Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:153 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia. Syntypes: USNM 41171 (1), 41409 (1). •Valid as Synodus jenkinsi Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:298 [ref. 24545]). •Synonym of Synodus scituliceps Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:202 [ref. 24023], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:161 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus scituliceps Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

kaianus, Saurus Günther [A.] 1880:50, Pl. 23 (fig. C) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Molucca Islands, Indonesia, Challenger station 192, depth 129 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.594. •Valid as Synodus kaianus (Günther 1880) -- (Cressey 1981:25 [ref. 5574], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:165, 344 [ref. 8057], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Waples & Randall 1989:197 [ref. 9187], Paxton et al. 1989:238 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Russell 1999:1942 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:357 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:300 [ref. 25995], Chen 2002:53 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:357 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:201 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:469 [ref. 28997], Randall 2007:111 [ref. 30952], Larson et al. 2013:47 [ref. 32988], Ho et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34725]). Current status: Valid as Synodus kaianus (Günther 1880). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: northwestern Australia; western Pacific: southern Japan to northern Australia, Fiji and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

lacerta, Salmosaurus Minding [J.] 1832:121 [Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte der Fische; ref. 3022] Apparently not an original description but the same as Saurus lacerta Risso 1827. Locality given as in warm-water seas of America and Europe and the Red Sea. Synodontidae: Synodontinae.

lacertinus, Synodus Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:55 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Acapulco, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 44300. •Valid as Synodus lacertinus Gilbert 1890 -- (Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:72 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:54 [ref. 23101], Bussing & Lavenberg in Fischer et al. 1995:1627 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:296 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:200 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:171 [ref. 24555], Groce et al. 2001:153 [ref. 25754], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:253 [ref. 28944], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:442 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Synodus lacertinus Gilbert 1890. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lemniscatus, Osmerus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:230, 236, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. •Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801) -- (Sulak 1990:370 [ref. 15106] as lemnisatus, Polanco Fernandez et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34512]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

lessepsianus, Saurida Russell [B. C.], Golani [D.] & Tikochinski [Y.] 2015:560, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 3956 (no. 4); ref. 33799] Red Sea, Israel. Holotype: HUJ 20397. Paratypes: HUJ, MNHN, NTM, SAIAB. Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid Saurida lessepsianus Russell, Golani & Tikochinski 2015 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:34 [ref. 36273], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Saurida lessepsianus Russell, Golani & Tikochinski 2015. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea migrant). Habitat: marine.

limbatus, Saurus Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:199, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] No locality. •Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801) -- (Sulak 1990:370 [ref. 15106], Mundy 2005:203 [ref. 28379], Polanco Fernandez et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34512]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

lobeli, Synodus Waples [R. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1989:198, Pls. 2 (fig. a), 3 (fig. d); Fig. 1 [Pacific Science v. 42 (nos 3-4) [1988]; ref. 9187] Off Kailua, Kona coast of Hawaii Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 32 meters. Holotype: BPBM 29293. Paratypes: AMS I.24995-001 (1); BMNH 1985.1.16.1 (1); BPBM 28869 (2), 30337 (9); CAS 56098 (1); MCZ 28962 [ex USFC 03010 and 03236] (2); MNHN 1985-0001 (1); NSMT-P 23888 (1); SIO 85-13 (1); USNM 268584 (1). •Valid as Synodus lobeli Waples & Randall 1989 -- (Senou et al. 1995:93 [ref. 22703], Randall 1998:6 [ref. 24086], Nakabo 2000:357 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:357 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:201 [ref. 28379], Chen et al. 2007:151 [ref. 29121] dated 1988, Randall 2007:112 [ref. 30952], Randall & Pyle 2008:657 [ref. 29852]). Current status: Valid as Synodus lobeli Waples & Randall 1989. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Ogasawara Islands, Marshall Islands, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

longimanus, Saurida Norman [J. R.] 1939:23, Fig. 5 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Gulf of Oman, station 75, depth 201 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1939.5.24.441. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.5.24.440 (1), 1939.5.24.442-444 (3). •Valid as Saurida longimanus Norman 1939 -- (Shindo & Yamada 1972:4 [ref. 571], Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:216 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:78 [ref. 22896], Russell 1999:1939 [ref. 24747], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:474 [ref. 29051], Inoue & Nakabo 2006:393 [ref. 29238], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:412 [ref. 33460], Russell 2015:445 [ref. 33739], Russell et al. 2015:565 [ref. 33799], Psomadakis et al. 2015:169 [ref. 34104], Golani & Fricke 2018:34 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Saurida longimanus Norman 1939. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa east to India. Habitat: marine.

longirostris, Saurus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:80, Pl. 43 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Brazil (?Salvador, Bahia). Potential syntypes: MHNN 793 (2), ?MNHN B-0977 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:146 [ref. 21784]). •Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766). Current status: Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lucioceps, Saurus Ayres [W. O.] 1855:66 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 159] San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Published Aug. 1855. •Valid as Synodus lucioceps (Ayres 1855) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:91 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:132 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:99 [ref. 14674], Bussing & Lavenberg in Fischer et al. 1995:1627 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:297 [ref. 24545], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:120 [ref. 25206], Groce et al. 2001:153 [ref. 25754], Richards & Engle 2001:181 [ref. 25759], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Pietsch & Orr 2015:24 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:106 [ref. 35888]). Current status: Valid as Synodus lucioceps (Ayres 1855). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

lucius, Saurus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:232, Pl. 106 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Shimabara, near Nagasaki, Japan. No types known. Based on a drawing and manuscript of Burger (Boeseman 1947:172 [ref. 12876]). •Status uncertain, in Synodus -- (Waples & Randall 1989:204 [ref. 9187]). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Synodus Cressey [R. F.] 1981:27, Figs. 21, 26b [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 342; ref. 5574] Somalia, 11°24'N, 51°35'E, depth 75-175 meters. Holotype: USNM 217776. Paratypes: USNM 217739 (6). Plus non-type material: USNM 217616 (1). Preoccupied by Synodus macrocephalus Lacepède 1803 (a cyprinid). Usage of S. macrocephalus, rather than the replacement name Synodus cresseyi Prokofiev 2008, preserved under Art. 23.9.6 in Ho et al. 2010:63 [ref. 30761]. •Valid as Synodus macrocephalus Cressey 1981 -- (Russell 1999:1943 [ref. 24747], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Ho et al. 2010:63 [ref. 30761], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Ho et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34725]). Current status: Valid as Synodus macrocephalus Cressey 1981. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean; southwestern Pacific (Chesterfield Islands). Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Saurida Tanaka [S.] 1917:39 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 340); ref. 17353] Tokyo market, Japan. Neotype: ZUMT 7478. Other specimens: ZUMT 7477 (1, lost), 7479 (1). The described specimen was lost; I recorded ZMUT 7478-79 as syntypes based on external information. Inoue & Nakabo 2006:391 [ref. 29238] did not accept that and named 7478 as the neotype. •Synonym of Saurida undosquamis (Richardson 1848) -- (Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:408 [ref. 13675]). •Valid as Saurida macrolepis Tanaka 1917 -- (Inoue & Nakabo 2006:389 [ref. 29238], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:61 [ref. 35264], Russell et al. 2015:566 [ref. 33799], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:55 [ref. 36460], Yeo et al. 2018:209 [ref. 36438], Eagderi et al. 2019:20 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Saurida macrolepis Tanaka 1917. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Persian Gulf east to Gulf of Thailand, north to southern Japan. Former records from Red Sea and Mediterranean based on S. lessepsianus. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Synodus Tanaka [S.] 1917:38 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 29 (no. 340); ref. 17353] Tokyo fish market, Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7473. Tanaka specimens: ZUMT 7474-75 (2), 7477 (1, missing), 7479-80 (2). •Valid as Synodus macrops Tanaka 1917 -- (Cressey 1981:29 [ref. 5574], Okamura in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:165, 345 [ref. 8057], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:238 [ref. 12442], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:151 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Russell 1999:1943 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:358 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:300 [ref. 25995], Chen 2002:54 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:358 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:200 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Gates 2006:469 [ref. 28997], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:61 [ref. 35264], Larson et al. 2013:47 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:170 [ref. 34104], Ho et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34725], Motomura et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Synodus macrops Tanaka 1917. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macrostigmus, Synodus Frable [B. W.], Luther [B. M.] & Baldwin [C. C.] in Frable, Baldwin, Luther & Weigt 2013:124, Figs. 2a, 3(A & B) [Fishery Bulletin v. 111 (2); ref. 32553] Off Pamana City, Florida, U.S.A., 29°16'59.95"N, 85°53'12.94"W, depth 71-73 meters. Holotype: UF 182810. Paratypes: UF 182811 (1), 182812 (5); USNM 358546 (1). Plus additional non-type specimens. •Valid as Synodus macrostigmus Frable, Luther & Baldwin 2013. Current status: Valid as Synodus macrostigmus Frable, Luther & Baldwin 2013. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina to Georgia, Florida and Gulf of Mexico west to Yucatan, Mexico. Habitat: marine.

marchenae, Synodus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:114, Fig. 25 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Marchena Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: USNM 120171. Paratypes: USNM 89740 (5), 101669-70 (1, 2), 127828 (1). •Synonym of Synodus lacertinus Gilbert 1890 -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:202 [ref. 24023]). •Valid as Synodus marchenae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:171 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Synodus marchenae Hildebrand 1946. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Tirus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:56, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:35 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885], Sulak 1990:367 [ref. 15106] as maromoratus, Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

mascarensis, Synodus Prokofiev [A. M.] 2008:430, Figs. 2o, 5. [Zoologicheskii Zhurnal v. 84 (no. 4); ref. 29560] Western Indian Ocean, 11°06'-11°05'N, 62°01'-62°04'E, depth 58-61 meters. Holotype: ZIN 54077. Paratypes: ZIN 54078 (1), IORAN 00266 (2). •Valid as Synodus mascarensis Prokofiev 2008 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:70 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Synodus mascarensis Prokofiev 2008. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mascarene Ridge to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

mediterranea, Laurida Swainson [W.] 1838:242, 246, Fig. 48 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Unneeded new name for Salmo saurus Linnaeus 1758 •Objective synonym of Salmo saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

melasma, Saurus Gruvel [A.] & Chabanaud [P.] (ex Dollfus) 1937:4 [Mémoires présentées à l'Institut d'Égypte N. S., v. 35; ref. 17405] Suez, Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea. Non-types: MNHN 1979-0688 (1). See Goren & Dor 1994: 12 [ref. 25356]. Current status: Uncertain as Synodus melasma (Gruvel & Chabanaud 1937). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

meleagrides, Saurus Valenciennes [A.] 1834:Pl. 11 (fig. 3) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Syntypes [incorrect]: MNHN 0000-3416 (3, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:7 [ref. 19576]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:10 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 11 was published in 1834; no types. •Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:411 [ref. 13675], Sulak 1990:369 [ref. 15106]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

meleagris, Saurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:484 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

mexicanus, Saurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:314 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Gulf of Mexico. No types known. •Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

microcephalus, Salmo (Triurus) Swainson [W.] 1839:288 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Russell, pl. 171 -- which is Russell 1803:Pl. 171 [ref. 13862]. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

microchir, Harpodon Günther [A.] 1878:487 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 1 (no. 6) (art. 56); ref. 18236] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1878.4.5.17. Original genus should have been Harpadon. •Valid as Harpadon microchir Günther 1878 -- (Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:62 [ref. 6441], Russell 1999:1936 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:351 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Chen 2002:82 [ref. 26587] dated 1877, Nakabo 2002:351 [ref. 26001], Ganga et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34160]). Current status: Valid as Harpadon microchir Günther 1878. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Saurida Wu [H.-W.] & Wang [K. F.] 1931:1, Fig. 1 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 16407] Chefoo, Shantung Province, China. Holotype: Mus. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China 2160. Paratypes: Mus. Biol. Lab. Sci. Soc. China 7653, 7733. •Synonym of Saurida elongata (Temminck & Schelgel 1846) -- (Chen 2002:80 [ref. 26587]). •Valid as Saurida microlepis Wu & Wang 1931 -- (Nakabo 2000:353 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:353 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:200, 534 [ref. 26218], Yeo et al. 2018:210 [ref. 36438]). Current status: Valid as Saurida microlepis Wu & Wang 1931. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Korea and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

micropectoralis, Saurida Shindo [S.] & Yamada [U.] 1972:11 [No. 11], Fig. 9 [No. 12] [Uo (Japanese Society of Ichthyologists) Nos 11-12; ref. 571] Prachanbkirikan Province, Gulf of Thailand, South China Sea. Holotype: ZUMT 52503. Paratypes: (32) ZUMT 54349 (1). •Valid as Saurida micropectoralis Shindo & Yamada 1972 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:216 [ref. 24016], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:277 [ref. 24014], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:147 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:348 [ref. 23967], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:240 [ref. 24754], Chen 2002:78 [ref. 26587], Miyahara et al. 2002:127 [ref. 26530]). Current status: Valid as Saurida micropectoralis Shindo & Yamada 1972. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microps, Laurida Swainson [W.] 1838:246, Fig. 49 [The natural history and classification of fishes, amphibians, & reptiles, or monocardian animals. v. 1; ref. 4302] America. No types known. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

microps, Salmo Lesueur [C. A.] 1825:48, Pl. 3 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 5024] East Indian Seas. •Synonym of Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Chen 2002:83 [ref. 26587], Kottelat 2013:270 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

milii, Saurus Bory de Saint-Vincent [J. B. G. M.] 1835:189 [Dictionnaire Classique d'Histoire Naturelle; ref. 3853] Shark Bay, Australia. No types Known. A plate appears as Pl. 104, fig. 2, in v. 17 in 1831. •Uncertain status in Saurida -- (Russell, pers. comm.15 Feb. 2014). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Info from Russell 2014. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Saurus Lesueur [C. A.] 1825:118, Pl. 5 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 17522] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1030 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:7 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Waples 1982:226 [ref. 8397], Fricke 1999:91 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

mormoririk, Saurus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:482 [204] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 204 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Saurus synodus; from Woodlark I., South Pacific. Synodontidae: Synodontinae.

mortenseni, Harpodon Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1933:221, Fig. [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 14 (pt 2); ref. 16424] Bali Sea, 8°36'S, 114°34'E, Indonesia, depth 300 meters. Syntypes: (4). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:29 [ref. 9588] remarks that if holotype was kept in Batavia, it is now lost, if kept in Copenhagen, it is now mixed with the four paratypes and the additional 14 specimens from the type locality. Original genus should have been Harpadon. •Valid as Harpadon mortenseni Hardenberg 1933 -- (Ganga et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34160]). Current status: Valid as Harpadon mortenseni Hardenberg 1933. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

mundyi, Synodus Randall [J. E.] 2009:410, Fig. 7 [Zoological Studies v. 48 (no.3); ref. 30454] Penguin Bank, Kaiwi Channel, Hawaiian Islands, depth 84 meters. Holotype: BPBM 28623. Paratypes: USNM 392810 (1). •Valid as Synodus mundyi Randall 2009. Current status: Valid as Synodus mundyi Randall 2009. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

myops, Salmo Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:421 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Saint Helena [southeastern Atlantic]. No types known. Non-types: ZMB 3774 (1) Carolina. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage); also represented by a painting, folio 232, at BMNH. •Valid as Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:35 [ref. 19754], Uyeno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:161 [ref. 14275], Dor 1984:48 [ref. 29757], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:167, 345 [ref. 8057], Cressey 1986:273 [ref. 6289], Robins & Ray 1986:81 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:630 [ref. 9166], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:190 [ref. 25518], Budnichenko 1989:241 [ref. 13371], Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:108 [ref. 24556], Sulak 1990:369 [ref. 15106], Randall et al. 1990:51 [ref. 15987], Cervigón 1991:151 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:71 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:447 [ref. 23827], Kuiter 1993:43 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:217 [ref. 24016], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:139 [ref. 25472], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:273 [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:80 [ref. 22896], Andreata & Séret 1996:583 [ref. 16204], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:152 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:124 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:17 [ref. 26476] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Kuiter 1997:36 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:51 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:22 [ref. 23611], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:614 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:95 [ref. 24106], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Russell 1999:1945 [ref. 24747], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:150 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:354 [ref. 25086] with author as Schneider, Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122] with author as Bloch & Schneider, Sadovy & Cornish 2000:42 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:151 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Shimizu 2001:22 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Chen 2002:68 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:354 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:200, 535 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Figueiredo & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Russell 2003:929 [ref. 27004], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:20 [ref. 27510], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:23 [ref. 27712] as Trachynocephalus, Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:65 [ref. 28239], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:203 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:471 [ref. 28997], Wirtz et al. 2007:26 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:114 [ref. 30952], Russell 2008:261 [ref. 30632], Fricke et al. 2009:25 [ref. 30213], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:33 [ref. 30983], Motomura et al. 2010:76 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:359 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:125 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:89 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972], Kottelat 2013:270 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:48 [ref. 34464], Yoshida et al. 2013:48 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:414 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33932], Wirtz et al. 2014:4 [ref. 33516], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:109 [ref. 36167], Pinheiro et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34324], Psomadakis et al. 2015:171 [ref. 34104], Russell 2015:546 [ref. 34253], Polanco Fernandez et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34512], Russell 2016:1828 [ref. 34572], Marceniuk et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35324], Motomura et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:71 [ref. 35805], Brown et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36444], Prokofiev 2019:414 [ref. 36808]). Current status: Valid as Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) south to Brazil; eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Gabon; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena and Ascension islands. Previously considered as circumglobal, distribution recently restricted [ref. 34512]. Habitat: marine.

nebulosa, Saurida Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:504, Pl. 648 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN B-1029 (also paratype of *S. gracilis*). Paralectotypes: MNHN B-1027 (2), B-1028 (now 2), B.1029 (? now 2), B-2918 [ex MNHN B-1028] (2), B-2919 [ex MNHN B-1029] (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:8 [ref. 19576]. Lectotype selected by Waples 1982:229 [ref. 5491]. •Synonym of Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:46 [ref. 29757], Fricke 1999:91 [ref. 24106] paralectotypes only, Chen 2002:71 [ref. 26587]). •Valid as Saurida nebulosa Valenciennes 1850 -- (Waples 1982:227 [ref. 8397], Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442], Kuiter 1993:43 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:277 [ref. 24014], Randall 1995:78 [ref. 22896], Suzuki et al. 1995:2 [ref. 24356], Kuiter 1997:38 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:496 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:64 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:92 [ref. 24106], Russell 1999:1939 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:352 [ref. 25086], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:146 [ref. 27511] dated 1849, Nakabo 2002:352 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:613 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:19 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624] with date 1849, Randall 2005:62 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:199 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:474 [ref. 29051], Randall 2007:109 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:24 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:36 [ref. 30426], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:123 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:27 [ref. 33932], Russell 2015:445 [ref. 33739], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:68 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Saurida nebulosa Valenciennes 1850. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Aldabra, Mascarenes and Maldives east to Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebulosus, Dentex Solander [D. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:506 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing under the description of Saurus nebulosa; species attributed to Valenciennes 1850. Synodontidae: Synodontinae.

nehareus, Saurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:495 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Not available, name mentioned in passing. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae.

nehereus, Osmerus Hamilton [F.] 1822:209, 380 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River mouths, India. No types known. Spelled neherius on p. 380. Originally "Osmerus?". •Valid as Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Fujii in Masuda et al. 1984:62 [ref. 6441], Ataur Rahman 1989:71 [ref. 24860], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:154 [ref. 27969] with author as Hamilton-Buchanan, Chen et al. 1997:18 [ref. 26476], Russell 1999:1936 [ref. 24747], Mishra et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25315], Nakabo 2000:351 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Chen 2002:83 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:351 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:200, 533 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Khan 2003:8 [ref. 27710], Ataur Rahman 2003:86 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:270 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:168 [ref. 34104], Ganga et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34160], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:53 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nicholsi, Synodus Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:13, Fig. 6 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] Royal Island, Eleuthera, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): YPM 56. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:26 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:411 [ref. 13675], Sulak 1990:369 [ref. 15106]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

nigrotaeniatus, Synodus Allen [G. R.], Erdmann [M. V.] & Peristiwady [T.] 2017:61, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 26; ref. 35278] Lembeh Strait, Aw Shucks dive site, North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia, 01°30.013'N, 125°14.573'E, depth 12 meters. Holotype: LBRC F-3773. Paratypes: LBRC, WAM. •Valid as Synodus nigrotaeniatus Allen, Erdmann & Peristiwady 2017. Current status: Valid as Synodus nigrotaeniatus Allen, Erdmann & Peristiwady 2017. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

normani, Saurida Longley [W. H.] 1935:87 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 34; ref. 13714] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth 60-100 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 107330. Paralectotypes: USNM 117256 (8). Lectotype selected by Longley & Hildebrand 1939: Fig. 1, p. 227 [ref. 2822]. •Valid as Saurida normani Longley 1935 -- (Ueyno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:165 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:79 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:154 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:70 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:446 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:609 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Russell 2003:927 [ref. 27004], Bunkley-Williams & Williams 2004:99 [ref. 27795], Nelson et al. 2004:87 [ref. 27807], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:31 [ref. 30983], Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:27 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Saurida normani Longley 1935. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

nudus, Harpadon Ganga [U.] & Thomas [J. P.] in Ganga, Thomas & Sukumaran 2016:2, Fig. 1, 2a, 3, 4, 5a [Indian Journal of Fisheries v. 62 (no. 4) (for 2015); ref. 34160] Arabian Sea, 19°53'N, 69°23'E, depth 371 meters. Holotype: GB.8.15.1.2. Paratypes: CMFR/PFD. •Valid as Harpadon nudus Ganga & Thomas 2016. Current status: Valid as Harpadon nudus Ganga & Thomas 2016. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Saurida Poey [F.] 2000:738, Pl. 415 (fig. 4) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Synodontidae: Synodontinae.

oculeus, Synodus Cressey [R. F.] 1981:30, Figs. 24-25, 26a [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 342; ref. 5574] Macclesfield Bank, South China Sea, 16°04' to 16°03'30"N, 114°42'30" to 114°39'E, depth 76.8-82.3 meters. Holotype: USNM 217612. Paratypes: USNM 217510 (1), 217611 (1), 217613 (2), 217738 (3), 222194 (1). •Valid as Synodus oculeus Cressey 1981 -- (Senou et al. 1995:94 [ref. 22703], Russell 1999:1943 [ref. 24747], Nakabo 2000:358 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:358 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Gates 2006:469 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2011:359 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:47 [ref. 32988], Ho et al. 2016:139 [ref. 34725], Motomura et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:70 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Synodus oculeus Cressey 1981. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to eastern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

ophiodon, Saurus Cuvier [G.] 1829:314 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] The Indies [Vizagapatam, India]. No types known. On "Vanna motta Russel, 171". •Synonym of Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:270 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

ophiodon, Saurus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:490 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Coromandel, Malabar, Ganges River mouth, Mumbai, Rangoon, China, Puducherry and Malacca, Malay Peninsula, Malaysia. Syntypes: MNHN B-1031 (2) Ganges River mouth, B-1032 (4) Mumbai, B-1033 (1, poor condition) Puducherry. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:8 [ref. 19576]. Not an original description. Not available, described by Cuvier 1829. •In the synonymy of Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Chen 2002:83 [ref. 26587] dated 1849). Current status: Synonym of Harpadon nehereus (Hamilton 1822). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae.

orientalis, Synodus Randall [J. E.] & Pyle [R. L.] 2008:659, Figs. 4-5 [Zoological Studies v. 47 (no. 5); ref. 29852] Off Hobihu, southwestern Taiwan, depth 80 meters. Holotype: ASIZP 64387. Paratypes: KPM-NI 00079 [ex YCM-P 27845] (1) Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:35 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Synodus orientalis Randall & Pyle 2008 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:35 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Valid as Synodus orientalis Randall & Pyle 2008. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Synodus Ho [H.-C.], Chen [J.-P.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2016:135, Figs. 1A-C, 2A, 3A, C, E, G, I [Zootaxa 4162 (no. 1); ref. 34725] Off Ke-tsu-liao, Kaohsiung, southwestern Taiwan, Taiwan Strait, depth about 100 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P 22438. Paratypes: ASIZP, BSKU, MNHN, NMMB. •Valid as Synodus pacificus Ho, Chen & Shao 2016. Current status: Valid as Synodus pacificus Ho, Chen & Shao 2016. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Taiwan, Philippines and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

parri, Saurida Norman [J. R.] 1935:126, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1935 (pt 1); ref. 13913] Off St. Paul de Loanda, Angola, depth 35-36 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1935.5.11.17-18 (larger of 2). Paratypes: BMNH 1935.5.11.17-18 (smaller of 2), 1935.5.11.19-28 (orig. 10); ZMA 113539 (1); YPM 3238 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:13 [ref. 19236], Moore & Boardman 1991:26 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Saurida brasiliensis Norman 1935 -- (Sulak 1990:367 [ref. 15106]). •Valid as Saurida parri Norman 1935 -- (Russell 2016:1827 [ref. 34572]). Current status: Valid as Saurida parri Norman 1935. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic and Ascension. Habitat: marine.

poeyi, Synodus Jordan [D. S.] 1887:526 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 593); ref. 2387] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 1887-0383 (1) Havana. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:7 [ref. 19576], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]. Based on Synodus intermedius of Poey 1875:143 [ref. 3509] and of Meek 1884:133 [ref. 10929] (not of Spix). •Valid as Synodus poeyi Jordan 1887 -- (Uyeno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:162 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:80 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:150 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:71 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:447 [ref. 23827], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:612 [ref. 23897], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Russell 2003:929 [ref. 27004], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:33 [ref. 30983], Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Faloh-Gandarilla et al. 2016:28 [ref. 35195]). Current status: Valid as Synodus poeyi Jordan 1887. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) to Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

pseudotumbil, Saurida Dutt [S.] & Sagar [J. V.] 1981:846, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy Part B Biological Sciences v. 47 (no. 6); ref. 8611] Visakhapatnam, India. Holotype: ZSI. Paratypes: (4). Other material: (60). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

pylei, Synodus Randall [J. E.] 2009:413, Fig. 8 [Zoological Studies v. 48 (no.3); ref. 30454] Off Suva Harbor, Viti Levu, Fiji, 18°09'51.18"S, 178°24'01.2"E, depth 90 meters. Holotype: BPBM 39913. Paratypes: USNM 391166 (1). •Valid as Synodus pylei Randall 2009. Current status: Valid as Synodus pylei Randall 2009. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Fiji. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Synodus Cressey [R. F.] 1981:33, Fig. 27 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 342; ref. 5574] Off Port Sudan, Sudan, Red Sea, depth 80 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BPBM 24807. •Valid as Synodus randalli Cressey 1981 -- (Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Randall 2009:402 [ref. 30454], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:61 [ref. 35264], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Fricke et al. 2018:70 [ref. 35805], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:35 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Synodus randalli Cressey 1981. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Esox Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:18 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:111 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

risso, Alpismaris Risso [A.] 1827:458 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Perhaps the same as Stolephorus risso Risso 1810 and not a new description. •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:410 [ref. 13675], Sulak 1990:368 [ref. 15106]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

risso, Stolephorus Risso [A.] 1810:342, Pl. 10 (fig. 36) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sulak 1990:367 [ref. 15106]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Coregonus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:244, 263, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] American coasts and near the tropics [Martinique Island, West Indies]. No types known. •Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rubromarmoratus, Synodus Russell [B. C.] & Cressey [R. F.] 1979:172, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 92 (no. 1); ref. 8790] Mrs. Watson's Bay, Lizard Island [14°40'S, 145°27'E], Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia, depth 15 meters. Holotype: AMS I.19450-027. Paratypes: AMS I.19450-024 (10), USNM 218792 (2). •Valid as Synodus rubromarmoratus Russell & Cressey 1979 -- (Cressey 1981:34 [ref. 5574], Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:51 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1997:38 [ref. 25488] as rubromarginatus, Randall et al. 1997:51 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:21 [ref. 23611], Randall 1998:6 [ref. 24086], Myers 1999:64 [ref. 23965], Russell 1999:1944 [ref. 24747], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:40 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:61 [ref. 26587], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:613 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:64 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:202 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:469 [ref. 28997], Chen et al. 2007:149 [ref. 29121], Randall 2007:112 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2011:359 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:124 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Synodus rubromarmoratus Russell & Cressey 1979. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Philippines and Papua New Guinea east to Hawaiian Islands, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

rubrotaeniata, Saurida Liénard [F.] in Sauvage 1891:482 [Histoire physique, naturelle et politique de Madagascar; ref. 14503] [Ile Maurice] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Based on 'Saurus à galon rouge' of Liénard 1839:41 [ref. 17536] and Liénard 1840:297 [ref. 30337]; description quoted from Liénard. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:95 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Fricke 1999:94 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

sageneus, Synodus Waite [E. R.] 1905:58, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 4562] Between Fremantle and Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.13254-001 [not P.25509-001]. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:8 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:6 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Synodus sageneus Waite 1905 -- (Cressey 1981:36 [ref. 5574], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:348 [ref. 23967], Russell 1999:1944 [ref. 24747], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Gates 2006:470 [ref. 28997], Larson et al. 2013:47 [ref. 32988], Allen et al. 2017:65 [ref. 35278]). Current status: Valid as Synodus sageneus Waite 1905. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: northern coast of Australia, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

salmoneus, Esox Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:442 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Smith 1986:399 [ref. 22186], Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sanguineus, Synodus Randall [J. E.] 2009:415, Fig. 9 [Zoological Studies v. 48 (no.3); ref. 30454] Manado Bay, Sulawesi, Indonesia, depth about 100 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 16683. •Valid as Synodus sanguineus Randall 2009. Current status: Valid as Synodus sanguineus Randall 2009. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

saurus, Salmo Linnaeus [C.] 1758:310 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Europe. No types known. •Valid as Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885], Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:410 [ref. 13675], Sulak 1990:367 [ref. 15106], Cervigón 1992:447 [ref. 23827], Santos et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:41 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:149 [ref. 25013], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:43 [ref. 26753], Russell 2003:929 [ref. 27004], Smith et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Golani 2005:22 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:58 [ref. 29533], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:36 [ref. 30983], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:24 [ref. 36649], Frable et al. 2013:141 [ref. 32553], Page et al. 2013:88 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:28 [ref. 33341], Russell 2016:1827 [ref. 34572], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:93 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic from ?Bermuda and Bahamas to Lesser Antilles; eastern Atlantic from Morocco, Madeira and Azores to Cape Verde Islands; Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Marmara. Habitat: marine.

scituliceps, Synodus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:344 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico.; Panama (Pacific). Syntypes: USNM 28392 (1, not found in 1980) Mazatlan, USNM 29449 (1, not found in 1980) Panama. •Valid as Synodus scituliceps Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Pequeño 1989:34 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:72 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:54 [ref. 23101], Bussing & Lavenberg in Fischer et al. 1995:1628 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:298 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:202 [ref. 24023], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:356 [ref. 23520], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:168 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:161 [ref. 24550], Groce et al. 2001:153 [ref. 25754], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:253 [ref. 28944], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:89 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:292 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Synodus scituliceps Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sechurae, Synodus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:111, Fig. 24 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Sechura Bay, Peru, 5°32'S, 81°07'W. Holotype: USNM 127829. Paratypes: USNM 41409 (1), 54506 (1), 79622 (2), 79624 (1). •Valid as Synodus sechurae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:73 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:54 [ref. 23101], Bussing & Lavenberg in Fischer et al. 1995:1628 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:298 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:171 [ref. 24555], Groce et al. 2001:153 [ref. 25754], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:254 [ref. 28944], Page et al. 2013:89 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Synodus sechurae Hildebrand 1946. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

sharpi, Synodus Fowler [H. W.] 1900:497, Pl. 19 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 52; ref. 14727] Hawaiian Islands. Lectotype: ANSP 16084. Paralectotypes: ANSP 16085-86 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Waples 1981:229 [ref. 5491]. •Synonym of Saurida nebulosa Valenciennes 1850 -- (Waples 1982:227 [ref. 8397], Mundy 2005:199 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida nebulosa Valenciennes 1850. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

similis, Synodus McCulloch [A. R.] 1921:167, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 7; ref. 15318] Near the Capricorn Group, Queensland coast, Australia, depth 25-30 fathoms. Holotype (unique): QM I.3542. •Valid as Synodus similis McCulloch 1921 -- (Cressey 1981:38 [ref. 5574], Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Paulin et al. 1989:108 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:42 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:38 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:496 [ref. 25919], Russell 1999:1944 [ref. 24747], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:127 [ref. 25191], Randall 2005:64 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:470 [ref. 28997], Fricke et al. 2011:359 [ref. 31242], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:109 [ref. 36167], Russell 2015:544 [ref. 34253]). Current status: Valid as Synodus similis McCulloch 1921. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: eastern Australia and New Caledonia south to northern New Zealand, Kermadec Islands and Rapa Island. Habitat: marine.

simulans, Synodus Garman [S.] 1899:251, Pl. L' (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Cocos Islands, eastern Pacific, surface. Syntypes: MCZ 28513 (2), USNM 153607 [ex MCZ 28513] (1). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

sinaitica, Saurida Dollfus [R.-P.] in Gruvel 1936:174, fig. 51 [Mémoires présentées à l'Institut d'Égypte N. S., v. 29; ref. 17404] Suez, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea No types known. Not available, appeared in the synonymy of Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). •In the synonymy of Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Dor 1984:46 [ref. 29757]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida gracilis (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae.

spixianus, Saurus Poey [F.] 1860:304 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype (unique): MCZ 6884. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:176 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Frable et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32553]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus foetens (Linnaeus 1766). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

squamosus, Harpodon Alcock [A. W.] 1891:127 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 8 (no. 43/44); ref. 87] Bay of Bengal, India, 15°56'50"N, 81°30'30"E, Investigator station 120, depth 240-276 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1891.9.2.5 [ex ZSI F13096] (1); ZSI F13084-86 (3), F13088 (1), F13090-95 (6). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:102 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:34 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1900: Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [ref. 20536]. Original genus should have been Harpadon. •Valid as Harpadon squamosus Alcock 1891 -- (Ganga et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34160]). Current status: Valid as Harpadon squamosus Alcock 1891. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Bay of Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

suspicio, Saurida Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:15, Figs. 8, 9 (lower) [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] Misteriosa Bank, between Grand Cayman and Yucatán, surface. Holotype: YPM 62. Paratypes: YPM 111 (1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:26 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Saurida suspicio Breder 1927 -- (Cervigón 1992:446 [ref. 23827], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:151 [ref. 27754], Russell 2003:928 [ref. 27004], Smith et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27621], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:37 [ref. 30983]). Current status: Valid as Saurida suspicio Breder 1927. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

synodus, Esox Linnaeus [C.] 1758:313 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. •Valid as Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885], Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:411 [ref. 13675], Robins & Ray 1986:80 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:629 [ref. 9166], Scott & Scott 1988:190 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:99 [ref. 14674], Sulak 1990:369 [ref. 15106], Cervigón 1991:148 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:71 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:447 [ref. 23827], Arruda 1997:42 [ref. 24952], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:613 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:47 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:150 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:70 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:151 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Collette et al. 2003:99 [ref. 26784], Figueiredo & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:50 [ref. 27192], Russell 2003:929 [ref. 27004], Smith et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:88 [ref. 27807], Wirtz et al. 2007:26 [ref. 30263], Carvalho-Filho et al. 2010:33 [ref. 30983], Frable et al. 2003:141 [ref. 32553], Page et al. 2013:89 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:119 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:28 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34324], Russell 2016:1828 [ref. 34572], Nión et al. 2016:37 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36103], Almeida & Alves 2019:273 [ref. 37097], Brown et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Synodus synodus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to northern Angola, including Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, São Tomé and Principe; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Western Atlantic populations are genetically different [ref. 34572] Habitat: marine.

taiwanensis, Synodus Chen [J.-P.], Ho [H.-C.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2007:149, Figs. 1-2 [Zoological Studies v. 46 (no. 2); ref. 29121] Off Hobihu, southwestern Taiwan, depth about 80 meters. Holotype: ASIZP 0064389. Paratypes: ASIZP 0064390 (1), NMMBP 7890 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:35 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Synodus taiwanensis Chen, Ho & Shao 2007 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:35 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Valid as Synodus taiwanensis Chen, Ho & Shao 2007. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Southwestern Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

tectus, Synodus Cressey [R. F.] 1981:39 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 342; ref. 5574] Visayan Sea, Philippines, depth 41 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 218935. Paratypes: AMS I.20218-001 (5), I.20751-014 (6), I.20752-018 (1); USNM 136223 (1), 217762-63 (2, 1), 217766-67 (1, 1), 217770 (2), 217774 (1), 218936 (1), 218952 (6). •Valid as Synodus tectus Cressey 1981 -- (Cressey 1981:39 [ref. 5574], Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442], Russell 1999:1945 [ref. 24747], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Hoese & Gates 2006:470 [ref. 28997], Chen et al. 2007:153 [ref. 29121], Fricke et al. 2011:359 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:47 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:48 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35490], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:56 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Synodus tectus Cressey 1981. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: from northern Australia to Taiwan and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

tombil, Saurida Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:500 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Unneeded spelling change for Salmo tumbil Bloch 1795. •In the synonymy of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Kottelat 2013:271 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae.

trachinus, Saurus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:231, Pl. 106 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 3228. Paralectotypes: RMNH D1814 (1, stuffed), D1929 (1, stuffed), 3227 (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:171 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801) -- (Sulak 1990:370 [ref. 15106]). •Valid as Trachinocephalus trachinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Polanco Fernandez et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34512], Motomura et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35490], Golani & Fricke 2018:35 [ref. 36273], Matsunuma in Kimura et al. 2018:57 [ref. 36460], Wang et al. 2018:152 [ref. 36124], Arndt & Fricke 2019:31 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:21 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:65 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626], Prokofiev 2019:414 [ref. 36808], Zajonz et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Trachinocephalus trachinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Socotra east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

translucens, Harpodon Saville-Kent [W.] 1889:222, 234, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 6 (pt 5); ref. 18382] Ord River, Cambridge Gulf, northern Australia. Lectotype: AMS I.2772. Paralectotypes: AMS I.2773 (1). Lectotype selected by Whitley 1937:121 [ref. 4689]. Original genus should have been Harpadon. •Valid as Harpadon translucens Saville-Kent 1889 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:242 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Russell 1999:1936 [ref. 24747], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:473 [ref. 29051], Larson et al. 2013:45 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:271 [ref. 32989], Ganga et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34160]). Current status: Valid as Harpadon translucens Saville-Kent 1889. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trivirgatus, Saurus Valenciennes [A.] 1839:[72], Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8608 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:6 [ref. 19576]. Dates to Pl. 15 in Nov. 1839, p. 72 published in 1843. •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Nielsen 1973:161 [ref. 6885], Sulak 1990:368 [ref. 15106]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

truculenta, Saurida Macleay [W.] 1881:219 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 6222] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS [ex MAMU F174] I.16270-001. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:475 [ref. 29051], Kottelat 2013:271 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Habitat: marine.

truncatus, Saurus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:82, Pl. 45 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Brazil. Syntypes: (2) MHNN 795 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:146 [ref. 21784]). •Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801) -- (Sulak 1990:370 [ref. 15106], Polanco Fernandez et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34512]). Current status: Synonym of Trachinocephalus myops (Forster 1801). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

tumbel, Salmo (Laurida) Swainson [W.] 1839:288 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Unneeded name change or emendation, based on Bloch Pl. 430, which is tumbil Bloch. In the synonymy of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Kottelat 2013:270 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Synodontinae.

tumbil, Salmo Bloch [M. E.] 1795:112, Pl. 430 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 9; ref. 464] Malabar or Tranquebar, India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32625 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:147 [ref. 24282]. On p. 100 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. Misspelled tombil by Valenciennes 1850:500 [ref. 1014]. •Valid as Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795) -- (Shindo & Yamada 1972:4 [ref. 571], Kyushin et al. 1982:33 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:46 [ref. 29757], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Budnichenko 1989:241 [ref. 13371], Paxton et al. 1989:243 [ref. 12442], Baranes & Golani 1993:303 [ref. 22372], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:217 [ref. 24016], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:277 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:270 [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:78 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:149 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:123 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:18 [ref. 26476], Randall et al. 1997:496 [ref. 25919], Russell 1999:1940 [ref. 24747], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:240 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:75 [ref. 26587], Youn 2002:200, 534 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:115 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:475 [ref. 29051], Shao et al. 2008:240 [ref. 29952], Kimura 2009:37 [ref. 30426], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Russell 2011:24 [ref. 31610], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:270 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:47 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:414 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:27 [ref. 33932], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:25 [ref. 34319], Russell 2015:445 [ref. 33739], Russell 2015:565 [ref. 33799], Psomadakis et al. 2015:169 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:312 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:69 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:34 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:20 [ref. 37020], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Saurida tumbil (Bloch 1795). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa and Persian Gulf east to India. Habitat: marine.

tweddlei, Saurida Russell [B. C.] 2015:441, Figs. 2-3 [Zootaxa 3947 (no. 3); ref. 33739] Saya da Malha Bank, 10.91°S, 60.97°E, depth 127 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 185941. Paratypes: MNHN, NSMT, NTM, SAIAB. •Valid as Saurida tweddlei Russell 2015. Current status: Valid as Saurida tweddlei Russell 2015. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Saya da Malha Bank and Seychelles Bank, Mascarene Plateau, western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

ulae, Synodus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:38 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Honolulu market, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 52671 [ex USFC 3174]. Paratypes: FMNH 62591 [ex USNM] (1); USNM 55272 (3), 55376 (orig. 4, now 3), 55437 (2), 58525 (1), 59778 (1), 59805 (1), 1143700-01 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Synodus ulae Schultz 1953 -- (Cressey 1981:40 [ref. 5574], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:60 [ref. 6441], Waples & Randall 1989:199 [ref. 9187], Nakabo 2000:355 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26368], Chen 2002:67 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:355 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:202 [ref. 28379], Chen et al. 2007:149 [ref. 29121], Randall 2007:113 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2010:76 [ref. 31256]). Current status: Valid as Synodus ulae Schultz 1953. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Western and central North Pacific: Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan, Ogasawara Islands, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

umeyoshii, Saurida Inoue [T.] & Nakabo [T.] 2006:386, Figs. 3A-B, 4, 8, 9B, 11, 12A [Ichthyological Research v. 53 (no. 4); ref. 29238] East China Sea, 28°30'N, 126°30'E. Holotype: FAKU 84812. Paratypes: Many lots at BSKU and FAKU. •Valid as Saurida umeyoshii Inoue & Nakabo 2006 -- (Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:55 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Saurida umeyoshii Inoue & Nakabo 2006. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam and China to Japan Habitat: marine.

undosquamis, Saurus Richardson [J.] 1848:138, Pl. 51 (figs. 1-6) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Coast of northwestern Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1977.4.22.1. •Valid as Saurida undosquamis (Richardson 1848) -- (Shindo & Yamada 1972:6 [ref. 571], Nielsen 1973:162 [ref. 6885], Kyushin et al. 1977:30 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:32 [ref. 19754], Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:408 [ref. 13675], Dor 1984:47 [ref. 29757], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:161, 343 [ref. 8057], Cressey 1986:271 [ref. 6289], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Budnichenko 1989:241 [ref. 13371] as undosquanus, Paxton et al. 1989:244 [ref. 12442], Yamaoka et al. 1989:208 [ref. 20456], Winterbottom et al. 1989:13 [ref. 13251], Gomon et al. 1994:270 [ref. 22532], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:271 [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:79 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:150 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:348 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:123 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:496 [ref. 25919], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Russell 1999:1940 [ref. 24747], Johnson 1999:723 [ref. 25471], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:39 [ref. 25480], Bakhoum 2000:35 [ref. 25537], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:43 [ref. 26753], Chen 2002:73 [ref. 26587], Youn 2002:200, 534 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:23 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:115 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:22 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:63 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:475 [ref. 29051], Inoue & Nakabo 2006:384 [ref. 29238], Fricke et al. 2007:58 [ref. 29533], Russell 2008:260 [ref. 30632], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:61 [ref. 35264], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:24 [ref. 36649], Fricke et al. 2011:358 [ref. 31242], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:414 [ref. 33460], Russell 2015:445 [ref. 33739], Russell et al. 2015:565 [ref. 33799], Ali et al. 2018:313 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36262], Hoschke et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Saurida undosquamis (Richardson 1848). Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia; western Pacific. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to S. lessepsianus Russell, Golani & Tikochinski 2015. Habitat: marine.

usitatus, Synodus Cressey [R. F.] 1981:42, Fig. 35 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 342; ref. 5574] Off Haleiwa, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, depth 55 fathoms. Holotype: BPBM 15484. Paratypes: BPBM 26544 (1), FAKU 5780 (1, not present in 1997), USNM 225068 (1). •Valid as Synodus usitatus Cressey 1981 -- (Waples & Randall 1989:201 [ref. 9187], Nakabo 2000:357 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:357 [ref. 26001], Mundy 2005:202 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:113 [ref. 30952], Ho et al. 2010:63 [ref. 30761]). Current status: Valid as Synodus usitatus Cressey 1981. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Mascarrene Ridge, Indonesia, southern Japan, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Salmo Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:157, 224, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2165 (dry). Named varius on p. 224, variegatus on p. 157. First reviser not researched. Neotype (BPBM 21092) designated by Cressey 1981:9 [ref. 5574]; holotype MNHN B-2165 found after neotype designation, but neotype designation not accepted (Art. 75.8 of the Code) -- see Waples & Randall 1988:203 [ref. 9187]. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:34 [ref. 19756], Cressey 1981:6 [ref. 5574], Kyushin et al. 1982:34 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:48 [ref. 29757], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:60 [ref. 6441], Cressey 1986:273 [ref. 6289], Allen & Swainston 1988:36 [ref. 25477], Budnichenko 1989:241 [ref. 13371], Waples & Randall 1989:202 [ref. 9187], Paxton et al. 1989:239 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:13 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:51 [ref. 15987], Francis & Randall 1993:128 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:41 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:158 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:12 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:273 [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:79 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:152 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:60 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:124 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:36 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:51 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:65 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:94 [ref. 24106], Russell 1999:1945 [ref. 24747], Randall 1999:7 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:355 [ref. 25086], Russell in Randall & Lim 2000:592 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:127 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:40 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:8 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:62 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:355 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:200, 534 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:25 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S98 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:613 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:20 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:118 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3317 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:116 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:64 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:202 [ref. 28379], Hoese & Gates 2006:470 [ref. 28997], Chen et al. 2007:149 [ref. 29121], Randall 2007:114 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:25 [ref. 30213], Kimura 2009:37 [ref. 30426], Motomura et al. 2010:76 [ref. 31256], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:61 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:359 [ref. 31242], Allen & Erdmann 2012:125 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33932], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:109 [ref. 36167], Russell 2015:545 [ref. 34253], Koeda et al. 2016:11 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:71 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:35 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:57 [ref. 36460], Arndt & Fricke 2019:30 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:20 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:64 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Kermadec Islands and Rapa, straying to New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

varius, Salmo Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:157, 224, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2165 (dry). See Salmo variegatus Lacepède 1803. •Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Mundy 2005:202 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus variegatus (Lacepède 1803). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

vityazi, Synodus Ho [H.-C.], Prokofiev [A. M.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2010:64, Figs. 2-3 [Zootaxa No. 2419; ref. 30761] Southwest of Socotra, 12°04'-12°10'N, 53°14'-53°09'E, Western Indian Ocean, depth 30-40 meters. Holotype: USNM 307924. Paratypes: USNM 396992 (6), IOARS 2617 (2). •Valid as Synodus vityazi Ho, Prokofiev & Shao 2010. Current status: Valid as Synodus vityazi Ho, Prokofiev & Shao 2010. Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: off Socotra. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Saurus Cloquet [H.] 1827:454 (v. 47) [Dictionnaire des sciences Naturelles; ref. 852] Antilles, Arabian Coast and Mediterranean Sea. Unneeded new name for Salmo saurus Linaneus 1758. •Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Sulak in Whitehead et al. 1984:410 [ref. 13675]). Current status: Synonym of Synodus saurus (Linnaeus 1758). Synodontidae: Synodontinae. Habitat: marine.

wanieso, Saurida Shindo [S.] & Yamada [U.] 1972:8 [No. 11], Fig. 8 [No. 12] [Uo (Japanese Society of Ichthyologists) Nos 11-12; ref. 571] East China Sea. Holotype: ZUMT 52502. Paratypes: (103) not reesearched. •Valid as Saurida wanieso Shindo & Yamada 1972 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:000 [ref. 19754], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:61 [ref. 6441], Yamakawa in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:163, 344 [ref. 8057], Paxton et al. 1989:244 [ref. 12442], Yamaoka et al. 1989:208 [ref. 20456], Nakabo 2000:354 [ref. 25086], Kar & Chakraborty 2001:126 [ref. 25680] as wanesio, Shimizu 2001:22 [ref. 25799], Hutchins 2001:20 [ref. 25847], Chen 2002:77 [ref. 26587], Nakabo 2002:354 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:409 [ref. 28370], Hoese et al. 2006:476 [ref. 29051], Larson et al. 2013:46 [ref. 32988] as winesio, Yeo et al. 2018:211 [ref. 36438]). Current status: Valid as Saurida wanieso Shindo & Yamada 1972. Synodontidae: Harpadontinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.