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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Tetraodontidae: [ 435 ] records


abbotti, Spheroides Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:240, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1254); ref. 14759] Tokyo Bay, western North Pacific. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6523. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:144 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Takifugu vermicularis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:132 [ref. 23547]). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu vermicularis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

abei, Tetraodon Roberts [T. R.] 1998:228, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 45 (no. 3); ref. 23472] Xe Bang Fai watershed, Xe Bang Fai at Ban Geng Sahwang, Mekong basin, Laos. Holotype: CAS 91016. Paratypes: CAS 91017-20 (2, 1, 4, 1), 91832 (2). •Valid as Monotrete abei (Roberts 1998) -- (Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780]). •Valid as Tetraodon abei Roberts 1998 -- (Ebert 2001:50 [ref. 25494], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 33104], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782]). •Valid as Pao abei (Roberts 1998) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Pao abei (Roberts 1998). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

abukohhla, Tetraodon Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xvii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Originally as Abu-kohhla. Not available, no distinguishing features; from Arabia. Tetraodontidae.

adspersus, Spheroides Schreiner [C.] & Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:5 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 12 (1902); ref. 15045] Pernambuco, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 1365A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 1365 (2 of 3). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:407 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1961:6 [ref. 22040]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:398 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. Tetraodontidae.

aerobaticus, Liosaccus Whitley [G. P.] 1928:237, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 4661] Off Montague Island, New South Wales, Australia, depth 70-100 fathoms. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.408. •Valid as Liosaccus aerobaticus Whitley 1928 -- (Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1925 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

aerostaticus, Tetrodon Jenyns [L.] 1842:152 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Locality not known. Holotype (unique): UMZC [Darwin specimen]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron aerostaticus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:69 [ref. 13251], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757], Lindberg et al. 1997:168 [ref. 23547], Ebert 2001:30 [ref. 25494], Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Tetrodon Poey [F.] 2000:830, Pl. 470 (fig. 3) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

africanus, Chonerhinus Boulenger [G. A.] 1909:15 (201) [Catalogue des poissons du Congo du Musée d'Histoire naturelle de Luxembourg; ref. 14368] Presumed to be from Sankuru River, Kasai, Democratic Republic of Congo [but probably from Sumatra, Borneo or perhaps Thailand]. Holotype (unique): MRAC 15306. Type information: Roberts 1981:92 [ref. 20634]; see also Roberts 1986:436 [ref. 6223]. Original genus should have been spelled Chonerhinos. •Synonym of Chonerhinos modestus Bleeker 1850 -- (Roberts 1981:91 [ref. 20634]). •Synonym of Auriglobus modestus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Auriglobus modestus (Bleeker 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

albomaculosus, Torquigener Matsuura [K.] 2014:[3], Figs. 2-6 [Ichthyological Research v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 33491] Katetsu Cove, south coast of Amami-oshima Island, Ryukyu Islands, depth 18 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 118118. Paratypes: KAUM-I 61100 (1). Plus SCUBA diver observations. •Valid as Torquigener albomaculosus Matsuura 2014. Current status: Valid as Torquigener albomaculosus Matsuura 2014. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Ryukyu Islands and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan [distribution probably more widespread]. Habitat: marine.

alboplumbeus, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1845:121, Pl. 58 (figs. 6-7) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] China Seas, Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.6.1. Originally species spelled albo-plumbeus. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Takifugu poecilonotus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:141 [ref. 23547]). •Valid as Fugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:493 [ref. 26385] dated 1844, Wang et al. 2001:337 [ref. 26566] dated 1844). •Synonym of Gastrophysus niphobles (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989] with question). •Synonym of Takifugu niphobles (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Dyldin & Orlov 2017:202 [ref. 35257] with question). •Valid as Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845) -- (Nakabo 2000:1423 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:287 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:1423 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 698 [ref. 26218], Matsuura 2017:72 [ref. 35985], Sonoyama et al. 2020:131 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China to Korea, Russia and Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

alboreticulatus, Tetraodon Tanaka [S.] 1908:42, Pl. 1 (fig. 5) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 23 (art. 7); ref. 6032] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 959 (dry mount). •Probably a synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall 1995:402 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:647 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Eagderi et al. 2019:137 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Uncertain as Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

altipinnis, Tetrodon Ogilby [J. D.] 1891:110 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 18490] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6031 (stuffed). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Torquigener altipinnis (Ogilby 1891) -- (Hardy 1983:30 [ref. 5341], Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1926 [ref. 29099], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1740 [ref. 34322]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener altipinnis (Ogilby 1891). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alvheimi, Chelonodontops Psomadakis [P. N.], Matsuura [K.] & Thein [H.] 2018:[2], Figs. 1, 2a, 3a [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 1); ref. 36003] Off Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean, 14°27.29'N, 94°3.79'E, depth 115-117 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 132270. Paratypes: NSMT, Department of Fisheries, Yangon. •Valid as Chelonodontops alvheimi Psomadakis, Matsuura & Thein 2018 -- (Psomadakis et al. 2020:620 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Chelonodontops alvheimi Psomadakis, Matsuura & Thein 2018. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal (India) east to Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

amabilis, Chonerhinos Roberts [T. R.] 1982:5, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 5513] Kapuas River, 6 kilometers west of Putussibau, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 3972. Paratypes: CAS 49504 (1), FMNH 94255 (1), MNHN 1991-0216 (1), MZB 3973-77 (5), RMNH 7935 (4), RMNH 28928 [ex RMNH 7934] (2), UMMZ 171708 (2), USNM 230359 (1), ZMA 108912 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367] as 2 specimens at FMNH. •Valid as Chonerhinos amabilis Roberts 1982 -- (Roberts 1989:187 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448]). •Valid as Auriglobus amabilis (Roberts 1982) -- (Ebert 2001:31 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Auriglobus amabilis (Roberts 1982). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

amabilis, Tetrodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1879:401 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 764] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4082. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:465 [ref. 21440]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron stellataus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Psilonotus Bleeker [P.] 1864:180 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 13924] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1867.11.28.127 (1), RMNH 7361 (1). •Valid as Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:499 [ref. 6714], Smith & Heemstra 1986:898 [ref. 5714], Randall et al. 1990:475 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:417 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:646 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:418 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:475 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:606 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1419 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Nakabo 2002:1419 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:648 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:534 [ref. 28379], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:356 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1917 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:490 [ref. 30952], Shao et al. 2008:266 [ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Williams et al. 2012:84 [ref. 32264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1091 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:199 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] dated 1965, Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:31 [ref. 36883], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Matsuura et al. 2020:85 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia), New Caledonia; waifs reaching Galápagos Archipelago (eastern Pacific). Habitat: marine.

ammocryptus, Tetraodon Gosse [P. H.] 1851:287 [A naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica; ref. 18149] Bluefields, Jamaica. Holotype or syntype: BMNH 1846.10.28.26 (1). •Synonym of Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

andersonae, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] 1983:39, Fig. 17 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 13 (no. 1/2); ref. 5341] Jervis Bay, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.16892-002. Paratypes: AMS I.16892-002 (1, lost), I.19392-008 (1, lost); CSIRO CA 184 (1); NMNZ P.11630 (7). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:15 [ref. 18942]. •Valid as Torquigener andersonae Hardy 1983 -- (Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Kuiter 1993:420 [ref. 23929], Ebert 2001:79 [ref. 25494], Hoese et al. 2006:1926 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener andersonae Hardy 1983. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Off southeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

andersonianus, Sphoeroides Morrow [J. E., Jr.] 1957:8, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 16 (art. 2); ref. 12093] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru. Holotype: YPM 3734. Paratypes: (221) YPM 1418 (2), 1432 (72), 3735 (17), 3797 (99). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:26-27 [ref. 16741]. •Valid as Sphoeroides andersonianus Morrow 1957 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:146 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides andersonianus Morrow 1957. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific off Peru. Habitat: marine.

angusticeps, Tetrodon Jenyns [L.] 1842:154, Pl. 28 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Syntype or type: UMZC [Darwin no. 1265]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Sphoeroides angusticeps (Jenyns 1842) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:300 [ref. 22193], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1634 [ref. 22830], Walker & Bussing 1996:677 [ref. 22229], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:650 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:147 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:517 [ref. 24550], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides angusticeps (Jenyns 1842). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

annandalei, Kanduka Hora [S. L.] 1926:468, Fig. 8 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 27 (pt 6); ref. 2207] Ennur backwater near Madras, India. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. See Das 2003:385 [ref. 27706]. Tetraodontidae.

annulatus, Tetrodon Jenyns [L.] 1842:153 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.80. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:44 [ref. 37559], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:298 [ref. 9277], Allen & Robertson 1994:300 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:156 [ref. 23101], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1635 [ref. 22830], Walker & Bussing 1996:677 [ref. 22229], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:304 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:651 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:146 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:513 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:126 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:277 [ref. 25640], Ebert 2001:31 [ref. 25494], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:409 [ref. 34894], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:340 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns 1842). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argentatus, Pleuracanthus Bleeker [P.] 1865:36 [17] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 17043] On p. 17 of separate. Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Tetraodon argenteus. Also in Bleeker 1865-69:65 [ref. 416] as name in synonymy as Pleuranacanthus argentatus. •In the synonymy of Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:478 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

argenteus, Tetrodon Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1804:211, Pl. 58 (fig. 2) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 12515] West coast of New Holland. Syntypes: MNHN A-8326 (1), MNHN 0000-0314 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:472 [ref. 21440] with types as above. Original genus should have been Tetraodon. •Synonym of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1922 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

argyropleura, Tetrodon Bennett [E. T.] 1833:184 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1832 (pt 2); ref. 16789] Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.8.30.26 [ex Zool. Soc.]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

armilla, Tetraodon Waite [E. R.] & McCulloch [A. R.] 1915:475, Pl. 15 [Transactions Royal Society of South Australia v. 39; ref. 15026] Southern Australia, depth 10-140 fathoms. Holotype: SAMA F168. Paratypes: AMS I.14 (1), I.10193 (1), I.12300 (1), I.10344 (1), I.10388 (1), E.2304-05 (1, 1), E.725 (1), E.798 (1), E.953 (1) E.478 (1). Probable holotype located by R. Foster, email of 24 Aug. 2011. •Valid as Omegophora armilla (Waite & McCulloch 1915) -- (Hardy & Hutchins 1981:190 [ref. 5582], Kuiter 1993:422 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:908 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:414 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1923 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:853 [ref. 30661], Williams et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36359], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Omegophora armilla (Waite & McCulloch 1915). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Australia north to Western Australia and New South Wales. Habitat: marine.

asellus, Chelichthys Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:641 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Barama River, northwestern Guyana. No types known. •Valid as Colomesus asellus (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:21 [ref. 9708], Cervigón 1992:448 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:117 [ref. 24489], Ebert 2001:19 [ref. 25494], Shipp 2003:1989 [ref. 27120], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:670 [ref. 27061], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192] dated 1848, Amaral et al. 2013:1 [ref. 33364], Phillip et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32896], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:103 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Colomesus asellus (Müller & Troschel 1849). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northern South America: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela; Trinidad. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

asper, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:138, Pl. 6 [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8365 (dry). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:462-463 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:96 [ref. 12539]. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

aspilos, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1851:495 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16898] Riau, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Verruraj et al. 2011:7 [ref. 31496], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

assellinus, Tetrodon Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1845:123 [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Not available, Solander name mentioned in text under Tetrodon spadiceus and although some text is presented from Solander's manuscript, no distinguishing features are presented. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •In the synonymy of Lagocephalus spadiceus (Richardson 1845) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1922 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus spadiceus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae.

asterias, Spheroides Blosser [C. B.] 1909:300, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1) (art. 5); ref. 14363] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype: FMNH 53050 [ex CM 1475]. Paratypes: CAS 44169 [ex IU 11924] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:98 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Canthigaster rostrata (Bloch 1786) -- (Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster rostrata (Bloch 1786). Tetraodontidae.

astrotaenia, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1853:129 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 1867.11.28.111. Original genus as Tetraödon. •Possibly a synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Uncertain as Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

atratus, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1848:15, Pl. 7 (figs. 1-3) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Samarang; ref. 3744] China Sea. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1320. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Geneion honckenii (Bloch 1785) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Amblyrhynchote honckenii (Bloch 1785). Current status: Synonym of Amblyrhynchote honckenii (Bloch 1785). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

aurantius, Tetrodon Ogilby [J. D.] 1890:81 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 18485] Shoalhaven District, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.2734. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531], Hoese et al. 2006:1915 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Canthigaster Stead [D. G.] 1907:7, Pl. 2 [Note on a small collection of fishes from Suwarow Island; ref. 15178] Anchorage Island, Suwarrow Islands, Cook Islands, southwestern Pacific. Holotype (unique): N. S. W. Dept. of Fish [apparently lost]. •Synonym of Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:481 [ref. 6714]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

axiologus, Canthigaster Whitley [G. P.] 1931:333 [Australian Zoologist v. 6 (pt 4); ref. 4672] Near the Capricorn Group, Grat Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.3549. Based on Canthigaster cinctus of McCulloch 1922:245. The species name axiologus stems from the Greek words αξίος and λόγος, the latter Latinised to logus; it is a noun in apposition and does not change its ending, though Canthigaster is feminine. •Synonym of Canthigaster coronata (Vaillant & Sauvage 1875) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:486 [ref. 6714]). •Valid as Canthigaster axiologus Whitley 1931 (sometimes seen as axiologa) -- (Randall et al. 2008:6 [ref. 29943], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Williams et al. 2012:84 [ref. 32264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1091 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2015:31 [ref. 34709], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster axiologus Whitley 1931. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Pacific and Australia to French Polynesia, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

aziz, Canthigaster Matsuura [K.], Bogorodsky [S. V.], Mal [A. O.] & Alpermann [T. J.] 2020:83, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 4834 (no. 1); ref. 37714] Off Al Wajh, Tabuk, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia, 25°24.910'N, 36°44.200'E, depth 315 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 35887. •Valid as Canthigaster aziz Matsuura, Bogorodsky, Mal & Alpermann 2020. Current status: Valid as Canthigaster aziz Matsuura, Bogorodsky, Mal & Alpermann 2020. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea. Habitat: marine.

baileyi, Tetraodon Sontirat [S.] 1985:47, Fig. 3 [Thai Fisheries Gazette v. 38 (no. 1); ref. 33172] Mekong River, Boondharik District, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. Holotype: KUMF 3874. Paratypes: KUMF 1375 (2), NIFI 001175 (4). •Valid as Monotrete baileyi (Sontirat 1985) -- (Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780]). •Valid as Tetraodon baileyi Sontirat 1985 -- (Roberts 1998:226 [ref. 23472], Ebert 2001:50 [ref. 25494], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782]). •Valid as Pao baileyi (Sontirat 1985) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pao baileyi (Sontirat 1985). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Mekong River basin, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

bajacu, Tetraodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:98, Pl. 47 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. No types known. Tetraodontidae.

balteus, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] 1989:120, Fig. 1 [National Museum of New Zealand Records v. 3 (no. 11); ref. 17672] Off Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth about 20 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 18293. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 17298 (1, cleared), 27037 (1). •Valid as Torquigener balteus Hardy 1989. Current status: Valid as Torquigener balteus Hardy 1989. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Tetraodon Roberts [T. R.] 1998:230, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Research v. 45 (no. 3); ref. 23472] Huay Huang, 30 kilometers west of Chiang Khan Loei Province, Thailand. Holotype: CAS 79100. Paratypes: CAS 79101-02 (5, 3), 79104 (not given), 91015 (1); NSMT-P 46293 (2); UMMZ 214496 (3), 217312 (not given), 217313-15 (2, 2, 1). •Synonym of Tetraodon cambodgiensis Chabanaud 1923 -- (Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Pao cambodgiensis (Chabanaud 1923) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Tetraodon barbatus Roberts 1998 -- (Freyhof et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25184], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 33104]). Current status: Valid as Pao barbatus (Roberts 1998). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Mekong basin, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

basilevskianus, Tetrodon Basilewsky [S.] 1855:262 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Northern China. No types at ZIN. Usually seen as basilewskianus. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Fugu basilewskianus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:485 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Takifugu basilewskianus [perhaps should be basilevskianus] (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:118 [ref. 23547], Choi et al. 2003:453, 698 [ref. 26218] as basilevskianus). •Synonym of Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Dyldin & Orlov 2017:203 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

batrachoides, Tetrodon Fréminville [C. P. P.] 1813:252, Pl. 4 (fig. 5) [Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique, Paris. v. 3 (no. 67); ref. 18094] Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti, West Indies. Originally as batrachoïdes. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

bellangerii, Xénoptère Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:281 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Syntypes: MNHN A.9539 (4), A.9540 (3), 2166 (4), B.1554 (1), B.1555 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:281 [ref. 21439] with types. Combined genus and species description. •Synonym of Chonerhinos naritus (Richardson 1848) -- (Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chonerhinos naritus (Richardson 1848). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bengalensis, Chelonodontops Habib [K. A.], Neogi [A. K.], Oh [J.], Lee [Y.-H.] & Kim [C.-G.] 2018:[4], Fig. 3 [Ocean Science Journal v. 54 (no. 1); ref. 36229] Down of Ganges Estuaries, Alorkol, near Dubla Island, southern coast of the Sundarbans, Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, 21.71°N, 89.59°E. Holotype: FBGN-SAU F1612sb-186. Paratype: FBGN-SAU. •Valid as Chelonodontops bengalensis Habib, Neogi, Oh, Lee & Kim 2018 -- (Mohapatra et al. 2020:38 [ref. 37741]). Current status: Valid as Chelonodontops bengalensis Habib, Neogi, Oh, Lee & Kim 2018. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: northern Bay of Bengal (Bangladesh, India). Habitat: marine.

bennetti, Tropidichthys Bleeker [P.] 1854:504 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (9) BMNH 1867.11.28.126 (1), RMNH 7360 (some of 29). Based on specimens and literature. •Valid as Canthigaster bennetti (Bleeker 1854) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:488 [ref. 6714], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:898 [ref. 5714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:475 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:125 [ref. 20996], Kuiter 1993:418 [ref. 23929], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:416 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:475 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:607 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1420 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:469 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Nakabo 2002:1420 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:228 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:648 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1917 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Williams et al. 2012:84 [ref. 32264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1091 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:199 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:386 [ref. 35805], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster bennetti (Bleeker 1854). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Taiwan, south to northern New South Wales (Australia); waifs reaching Galápagos Archipelago (eastern Pacific). Habitat: marine.

bergii, Tetrodon Popta [C. M. L.] 1905:186 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 25 (no. 4) (art. 15); ref. 3549] Bongan River at Bulit, Upper Kapuas River system, Borneo. Holotype: RMNH 7657. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Tetraodon leiurus Bleeker 1850 -- (Dekkers 1975:108 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1989:188 [ref. 6439], Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Monotrete leiurus (Popta 1905) -- (Tan & Kottelat 2009:64 [ref. 30261]). •Valid as Pao bergii (Popta 1905) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pao bergii (Popta 1905). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Kapuas drainage, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

bibroni, Tetrodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:247 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 761] Entrance of Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Marilyna pleurosticta (Günther 1872) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1923 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Marilyna pleurosticta (Günther 1872). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish.

bicolor, Tetraodon Brevoort [J. C.] 1856:283 [31] [Notes on some figures of Japanese fish taken from recent specimens by the artists of the U. S. Japan Expedition. Pp. 253-288, Pls. 3-12 (color) In: M. C. Perry, Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan.; ref. 17284] Simoda, Japan. No types known. On p. 31 of separate. Description made from a figure. •Synonym of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

bimaculatus, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] (ex Bennett) 1845:119, Pl. 57 (figs. 7-9) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Estuaries of Chinese rivers, Canton, Chusan, etc. Syntypes: BMNH (whereabouts unknown). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Fugu bimaculatus (Richardson 1845) -- (Zheng 1989:377 [ref. 21202], Cheng & Zhou 1997:490 [ref. 26385] dated 1844). •Valid as Takifugu bimaculatus (Richardson 1845) -- (Nakabo 2000:1424 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1424 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 698 [ref. 26218]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu bimaculatus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: brackish.

biocellatus, Tetrodon Tirant [G.] 1885:123 [95] [Excursions et Reconnaissances: Cochinchine française v. 10; ref. 17923] Thu-day-mot, Vietnam. Lectotype: MHNL 4200-0004. On p. 95 of reprint in Chevey 1929 [ref. 16215]. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1987:20 [ref. 11434]. Original genus should have been Tetraodon. •If removed from Tetraodon then a synonym of Crayracion ocellatus Steindachner 1870, the latter preoccupied by T. ocellatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kottelat 1987:20 [ref. 11434]). •Valid as Chelonodon biocellatus (Tirant 1885) -- (Rainboth 1996:225 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Tetraodon biocellatus Tirant 1885 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448], Ebert 2001:20 [ref. 25494], Yoshida et al. 2013:233 [ref. 34464]). •Synonym of Dichotomyctere oceallatus (Steindachner 1870) -- (Kottelat 2013:476 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Dichotomyctere ocellatus (Steindachner 1870). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indochina and Indonesia (if valid). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bitaeniatus, Eumycterias Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:400, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 49702. •Synonym of Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Mundy 2005:535 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:491 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

blochi, Lagocephalus Bonaparte [C. L.] 1841:fasc. 30, punt. 159 [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 512] New name for Lagocephalus stellatus of Swainson 1839 based on Bloch pl. 143. •Objective synonym of Tetraodon honckenii Bloch 1785. •Synonym of Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch 1785). •Synonym of Amblyrhynchote honckenii (Bloch 1785). Current status: Synonym of Amblyrhynchote honckenii (Bloch 1785). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

blochii, Tetraodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1861:75 [Mémoire sur les poissons de l'Afrique australe; ref. 767] Kalk Bay, South Africa. No types known. •Possible synonym of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Foster 1788) -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:901 [ref. 5714] with genus as Tetrodon). •Synonym of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

bondarus, Tetrodon Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1359 [377] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia; Vizagapatham, India. Syntypes: BMNH (skin, not seen). On p. 377 of separate. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borealis, Spheroides Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:245, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1254); ref. 14759] Mororan, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6525. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6760-61 (16, 28), 6746 (2); USNM 49856 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:144-145 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Takifugu porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:136 [ref. 23547], Parin 2003:S35 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:553 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:203 [ref. 35257] with question). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

borneensis, Tetrodon Regan [C. T.] 1903:303, Pl. 24 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, v. 2 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 4 Nov. 1902); ref. 14413] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Lectotype: BMNH 1894.1.20.16. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1894.1.20.17 (1). Lectotype selected by Lim & Kottelat 1995:364 [ref. 21592]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Tetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Dekkers 1975:97 [ref. 7417]). •Synonym of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448], Lim & Kottelat 1995:363 [ref. 21592]). •Valid as Carinotetraodon borneensis (Regan 1903) -- (Tan 1999:351 [ref. 24234], Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494], Parenti & Lim 2005:196 [ref. 28285], Britz et al. 2012:105 [ref. 32346], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Carinotetraodon borneensis (Regan 1903). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

bourouensis, Tetrodon Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:280 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Name only, not available; possible subsequent publication not researched. Le Danois 1959:159, fig. 115 [ref. 12003] and Le Danois 1962:464-465 [ref. 21440] list type as MNHN B-1472 (Sonde I.). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •In the synonymy of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae.

brederi, Canthigaster Whitley [G. P.] 1959:323 [Australian Zoologist v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 4729] Baja California, Mexico. New name for Canthigaster punctatissimus reticulatus of Breder 1936. •Synonym of Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:496 [ref. 6714]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

brevicaudus, Contusus Hardy [G. S.] 1981:16, Figs. 1A, 3 [New Zealand Journal of Zoology v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 8595] Emu Bay, Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Holotype: AMS I.20185-001. Paratypes: (49) AMS I.13618 (1), I.15724-006 (1), I.16879-010 (1), I.20166-007 (1), I.20181-012 (1), I.20194-007 (2), I.20228-001 (1), I.20232-017 (1); CSIRO CA 562-565 (4); NMV A59-60 (1, 1), A.561-562 (6, 2), A564 (1); QVM 1972:5:6 (3, 1 skeleton), 1972:5:53 (1), 1972:5:703 (1), 1974:8:103 (1), 1976:5:6 (2), 1978:6:65 (1); SAMA F2754 (1), F2794 (1), F3599 (1), F3906 (1); USNM 214723 (7); WAM P.21821-001 (1), 22203-001 (1), 25064-008 (1), 25183-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Contusus brevicaudus Hardy 1981 -- (Kuiter 1993:421 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:904 [ref. 22532], Ebert 2001:75 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1920 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:851 [ref. 30661], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Contusus brevicaudus Hardy 1981. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern New South Wales to Western Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevipinnis, Tetrodon Regan [C. T.] 1903:300 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, v. 2 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 4 Nov. 1902); ref. 14413] Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: BMNH 1872.4.6.87. Paratypes: AMS B.7777-78 (2). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Torquigener brevipinnis (Regan 1903) -- (Hardy 1984 [ref. 8219], Hardy 1989:121 [ref. 17672], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:203 [ref. 23219], Nakabo 2000:1426 [ref. 25182], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317] dated 1902, Nakabo 2002:1426 [ref. 26193], Shao et al. 2008:266 [ref. 29952], Verruraj et al. 2011:8 [ref. 31496], Motomura et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35490], Psomadakis et al. 2020:624 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener brevipinnis (Regan 1903). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brevirostris, Tetraodon leiurus Benl [G.] 1957:63, Figs. 1-3 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 12130] Possibly from Thailand (aquarium specimens). Holotype: BMNH 1956 [or 1957].1.7.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1957.1.7.2 (1). •Synonym of Tetraodon fangi Pellegrin & Chevey 1940 -- (Dekkers 1975:112 [ref. 7417]). •See Kottelat 1998:120 [ref. 23436]. •Synonym of Tetraodon cochinchinensis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Ebert 2001:21 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Monotrete cochinchinensis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Kottelat 2001:166 [ref. 25780]). •Valid as Monotrete brevirostris (Benl 1957) -- (Tan & Kottelat 2009:64 [ref. 30261]). •Valid as Pao brevirostris (Benl 1957) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pao brevirostris (Benl 1957). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Malay Peninsula. Habitat: freshwater.

brunneus, Sphoeroides Fowler [H. W.] 1944:404, Fig. 261 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Maria Madre Island, Tres Marias Islands [Islas Marias], Mexico. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69992. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Tetraodon Brevoort [J. C.] 1856:284 [32] [Notes on some figures of Japanese fish taken from recent specimens by the artists of the U. S. Japan Expedition. Pp. 253-288, Pls. 3-12 (color) In: M. C. Perry, Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan.; ref. 17284] Simoda, Japan. No types known. On p. 32 of separate. Description made from a figure. Tetraodontidae.

brunneus, Tetrodon Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1798:505 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Appeared as "Tetrodon brunneus, hispidulus, maculis lenticularibus...."; regarded as non-binominal and not available (seas of Asia). See ICZN Opinion 89. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

bufo, Tetrodon Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:28 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] Not available, no distinguishing features. Appeared as Tetrodon turgidus Mitchill 1815 [ref. 13292]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

caeruleopunctatus, Arothron Matsuura [K.] 1994:29, Figs. 1 (top 2), 2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 41 (no. 1); ref. 21445] Lagoon side of Bikini Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 2 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 45451. Paratypes: AMS I.34603-001 (1); NSMT-P 30925 (1). Non-types: NSMT-P 33507 (1). •Valid, or a synonym of Arothron mappa (Lesson 1831) -- (Anderson et al. 1998:29 [ref. 23611]). •Valid as Arothron caeruleopunctatus Matsuura 1994 -- (Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:540 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:288 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:1428 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:466 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Nakabo 2002:1428 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:644 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1913 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2009:120 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:334 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1086 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Daly et al. 2018:4 [ref. 35897], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron caeruleopunctatus Matsuura 1994. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Amirantes, western Mascarenes and Maldives east to Papua New Guinea, north to central Japan, south to northern Australia and Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

caeruleopunctatus, Prilonotus Kaup [J. J.] in Richardson 1854:162 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Originally as caeruleo-punctatus. Not available, name only. Tetraodontidae.

calamara, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:64, Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-8334 (1, dry); SMF 266 (1), 8651-52 (2), 17528 (1, dry). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

calamaroides, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1850:96 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 16876] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Tetraodontidae.

callisternus, Tetrodon Ogilby [J. D.] 1889:74, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney No. 2 (art. no. 3); ref. 18489] Lord Howe Island. Syntypes: AMS I.1485 (1), I.1965 (1). •Valid as Canthigaster callisterna (Ogilby 1889) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:442 [ref. 6714], Matsuura 1986:224 [ref. 6715], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:418 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:200 [ref. 23219], Kuiter 1997:416 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1917 [ref. 29099], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1734 [ref. 34322], Matsuura et al. 2020:85 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster callisterna (Ogilby 1889). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

cambodgiensis, Tetrodon (Crayracion) Chabanaud [P.] 1923:137 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 15399] Pnompenh [Phnom Penh], Cambodia. Syntypes: (6) MNHN 1922-0080 to 0083 (1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:466-467 [ref. 21440]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Tetraodon leiurus Bleeker 1851 -- (Dekkers 1975:108 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1989:188 [ref. 6439], Roberts 1998:231 [ref. 23472]). •Valid as Monotretus cambodgiensis (Chabanaud 1923) -- (Rainboth 1996:227 [ref. 22772] as Monotreta, Kottelat 2001:166 [ref. 25780]). •Valid as Tetraodon cambodgiensis Chabanaud 1923 -- (Freyhof et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25184], Ebert 2001:54 [ref. 25494], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 33104], Saenjundaesis et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782]). •Probably a synonym of Tetraodon leiurus Bleeker 1850 -- (Kottelat 1998:120 [ref. 23436]). •Valid as Pao cambodgiensis (Chabanaud 1923) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pao cambodgiensis (Chabanaud 1923). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

capistratus, Tetrodon Lowe [R. T.] 1839:90 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1839 (pt 7); ref. 2829] Off Madeira. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Canthigaster rostrata (Bloch 1786) -- (Tortonese 1973:647 [ref. 7192], Shipp 1990:1069 [ref. 19531]). •Valid as Canthigaster capistrata (Lowe 1839) -- (Moura & Castro 2002:39 [ref. 25970], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Carneiro et al. 2019:224 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster capistrata (Lowe 1839). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands; central Angola. Habitat: marine.

carduus, Tetrodon Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1357 [375] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.591 (skin, right side). On p. 375 of separate. •Valid as Arothron carduus (Cantor 1849) -- (Matsuura & Okuno 1991:157 [ref. 19923], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Arothron carduus (Cantor 1849). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Off Malaysia and Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

caria, Tetrodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:9, 362 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Nathpur, Kosi River, Ganges River system, India. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Information on type locality see Britz 2019:38 [ref. 37532]. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 6 [ref. 37532] •Mention under Tetraodon cutcutis Hamilton 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:95 [ref. 7417], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1060 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Tertraodon cutcutia Hamilton 1822 -- (Menon 1999:305 [ref. 24904], Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494], Ataur Rahman 2003:67 [ref. 31338]). •Synonym of Leiodon cutcutia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Leiodon cutcutia (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

caudacinctus, Prilonotus Richardson [J.] 1854:162, Pl. 31 (figs. 1-3) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Unknown locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH. Appeared as Prilonotus vel Anchisomus caudacinctus. •Synonym of Canthigaster rostrata (Bloch 1786) -- (W. Smith-Vaniz, pers. comm. Dec. 2000). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster rostrata (Bloch 1786). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

caudofasciatus, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1870:304 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] No locality. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2004.8.4.1. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:492 [ref. 6714], Randall 1995:405 [ref. 22896], Mundy 2005:535 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:492 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

cheesemanii, Tetrodon Clarke [F. E.] 1897:248 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 29 (art. 16) (for 1896); ref. 14630] Motouroa, Taranaki, New Zealand. Neotype: NMNZ P.18876. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Neotype designated by Matsuura & Satoh 2016:[4] [ref. 34732]. •Valid as Sphoeroides cheesemanii (Clarke 1897) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556] as cheesemani). •Valid as Lagocephalus cheesemanii (Clarke 1897) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1921 [ref. 29099], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1736 [ref. 34322], Matsuura & Satoh 2016:[1] [ref. 34732], Motomura et al. 2017:237 [ref. 35490], Psomadakis et al. 2020:621 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:131 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus cheesemanii (Clarke 1897). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar and Andaman Sea east to Indonesia, Korea, China, Vietnam, Philippines, north to central Japan, south to eastern Australia and New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Sphoeroides rubripes form Abe [T.] 1949:105, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan v. 14 (no. 13); ref. 3] East China Sea or adjoining waters, obtained at Tokyo market, Japan. Holotype: ABE 7906. Paratypes: ABE 4515 (1), 6386 (1), 7926' (1), 8006 (1, skull), 8008 (1, skull), 8009 (1); ZUMT [ex ABE 4545] (1). •Valid as Takifugu chinensis (Abe 1949) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:123 [ref. 23547], Nakabo 2000:1426 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1426 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 698 [ref. 26218], Barabanshchikov 2003:849 [ref. 27538], Parin 2003:S34 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:553 [ref. 33547], Sonoyama et al. 2020:133 [ref. 37637]). •Synonym of Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Dyldin et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34682], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:203 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

chlupatyi, Carinotetraodon Benl [G.] 1957:1, Fig. [Opuscula Zoologica. Herausgegeben von der Zoologischen Staatssammlung in München No. 5; ref. 258] Near Krung Thep, Thailand. Holotype: ZSM 15419. Paratypes: (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:278 [ref. 31652]. •Synonym of Tetraodon lorteti Tirant 1885 -- (Dekkers 1975:97 [ref. 7417]). •Synonym of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Lim & Kottelat 1995:359 [ref. 21592], Tan 1999:345 [ref. 24234], Ebert 2001:18 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysops, Tetrodon (Liosarcus) Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1879:80 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1879; ref. 18288] Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 10625. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Takifugu chrysops (Hilgendorf 1879) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23547], Nakabo 2000:1421 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1421 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu chrysops (Hilgendorf 1879). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

cinctus, Canthigaster Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1905:433, Fig. 189 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 1) (1903); ref. 2451] Hawaiian Islands. Based on Solander manuscript name and other Polynesian references and one specimen from Hawaii. Perhaps validates Solander name in synonymy and should not be attributed to Jordan & Evermann. •Synonym of Canthigaster coronata (Vaillant & Sauvage 1875) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:486 [ref. 6714], Randall et al. 1990:476 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:405 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:649 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:534 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:490 [ref. 30952], Randall et al. 2008:4 [ref. 29943], Williams et al. 2012:87 [ref. 32264]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster coronata (Vaillant & Sauvage 1875). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

cinctus, Tetrodon Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1845:125 [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Not available, name mentioned in text and synonymy of Tetrodon solandri. Later named Canthigaster cinctus Jordan & Evermann. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

cinereus, Orbis Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Mauritius, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Based on the “etoilé [sic] Lac. cinereus Commers.”, i.e. the "Le Tétrodon étoilé" of Lacepède 1798:483 [ref. 2708], which is based on the "Tetrodon cinereus, nigro guttatus, hispidus setis è basi stellata exortis"of Commerson 1767-1771 [ref. 34154]; see Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106] and Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

cinereus, Tetrodon Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1798:483 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Appeared as "Tetrodon cinereus, nigro guttatus, ..."; regarded as non-binominal and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. From Mauritius. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

citrinella, Tetrodon nigropunctatus var. Günther [A.] 1870:293 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron nigropucnctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

cochinchinensis, Crayacion Steindachner [F.] 1866:480, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 5030] Cochinchine, Vietnam. Syntypes: NMW 16835 (2). Original genus should have been Crayracion. •Possibly a synonym of Tetraodon leiurus Bleeker 1851 -- (Kottelat 1998:120 [ref. 23436]). •Synonym of Tetraodon leiurus Bleeker 1851 -- (Roberts 1998:231 [ref. 23472]). •Valid as Monotrete cochinchinensis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Kottelat 2001:166 [ref. 25780], Tan & Kottelat 2009:64 [ref. 30261]). •Valid as Tetraodon cochinchinensis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Ebert 2001:21 [ref. 25494], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782]). •Valid as Pao cochinchinensis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Pao cochinchinensis (Steindachner 1866). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

cochinensis, Crayracion Day [F.] 1865:314 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865 (pt 1); ref. 5295] Cochin, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2223 (lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. Also appeared in Day 1865:258, Pl. 20 fig. 1 [ref. 1074]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

coheni, Pelagocephalus Tyler [J. C.] & Paxton [J. R.] 1979:203, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 4478] Norfolk Island, 0.7 kilometers inland (on ground beneath nest of a tern), South Pacific. Holotype (unique): AMS I.15601-001. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

commersoni, Ovum Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:530, Pl. 108 (upper fig.) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean. No types known. Spelled commersonii on plate. Tetraodontidae.

commersoni, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:508 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mare Indicum circa insulam Francicam. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

compressus, Tetrodon Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:130 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Canthigaster compressa (Marion de Procé 1822) [sometimes seen as Procé] -- (Allen & Randall 1977:483 [ref. 6714], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1420 [ref. 25182] with author as Procé, Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:469 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:329 [ref. 27511], Ebert 2001:74 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Nakabo 2002:1420 [ref. 26193] with author as Procé, Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:228 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:648 [ref. 28239] with author as Procé, Hoese et al. 2006:1917 [ref. 29099] with author as Procé, Allen & Erdmann 2012:1092 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:199 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:236 [ref. 35490], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster compressa (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: central Indonesia east to Palau and Vanuatu, north to Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

conspicillum, Tetrodon Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Houttuyn) 1779:1577 [Hannoverisches Magazin v. 17 (no. 99); ref. 26433] Nagasaki, Japan. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. New name for Tetraodon ocellatus Linnaeus 1758, based on 'Stekelbuik' of Houttuyn (1782, ref. 2220). •Synonym of Gastrophysus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Takifugu ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

constellatus, Canthigaster Kendall [W. C.] & Goldsborough [E. L.] 1911:336, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 26 (pt 7); ref. 2594] Takarava, Paumotu Is, French Polynesia, southern Pacific. Holotype: USNM 65767. Paratypes: MCZ 29396 (2), CAS-SU 7164 (2). •Synonym of Canthigaster bennetti (Bleeker 1854) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:488 [ref. 6714]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster bennetti (Bleeker 1854). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

coronatus, Tetraodon (Anosmius) Vaillant [L. L.] & Sauvage [H.-E.] 1875:286 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 3; ref. 17853] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9006. Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:281 [ref. 21439]. •Valid as Canthigaster coronata (Vaillant & Sauvage 1875) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:486 [ref. 6714], Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:899 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:476 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:417 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:405 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:420 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:476 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:607 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1419 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:470 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1419 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] with author as Vaillant, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:454 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:649 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:534 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1917 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:490 [ref. 30952], Randall et al. 2008:4 [ref. 29943], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Williams et al. 2012:87 [ref. 32264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1091 [ref. 31980], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster coronata (Vaillant & Sauvage 1875). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands [see ref. 29943]. Habitat: marine.

coronoidus, Takifugu Ni [Y.] & Li [C.-S.] 1992:527 (English p. 532), Figs. 1-3 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 21087] Estuary of Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], Shanghai, China. Holotype: ECSFRI SN0842. Paratypes: (23) ECSFRI SN0045 (1), SN1024 (1), SN1040 (1); Inst. Oceanol., Acad. Sinica, Qingdao SN0544 (1), SN0869 (1), SN1062-63 (1, 1). •Valid as Takifugu coronoidus Ni & Li 1992. Current status: Valid as Takifugu coronoidus Ni & Li 1992. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: brackish.

criobe, Canthigaster Williams [J. T.], Delrieu-Trottin [E.] & Planes [S.] 2012:82, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 3523; ref. 32264] Kouaku Island, on southeastern side of archipelago, small surge channel in outer reef, 23.22°S, 154.88°W, Gambier Archipelago, depth 15-20 meters.; Holotype (unique): USNM 400521. •Valid as Canthigaster criobe Williams, Delrieu-Trottin & Planes 2012 -- (Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster criobe Williams, Delrieu-Trottin & Planes 2012. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Gambier Archipelago (French Polynesia) and Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

curvus, Tetrodon Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:472 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

cutaneus, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1870:287 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] St. Helena; ? Cape of Good Hope. Syntypes: BMNH 1867.10.8.22-23 (2), BMNH 1859.5.7.25 (stuffed). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Sphoeroides cutaneus (Günther 1870) -- (Tortonese 1973:646 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1345 [ref. 13677]). •Valid as Sphoeroides cutaneus (Günther 1870) -- (Jardas & Pallaoro 1996:83 [ref. 23507]). •Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:670 [ref. 9166], Shipp 1990:1072 [ref. 19531], Lindberg et al. 1997:169 [ref. 23547], Mendiola 2005:6 [ref. 28208], Mundy 2005:536 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:495 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

cutcutia, Tetrodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:8, 362, Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River, India or Bangladesh. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 4 [ref. 37532] •Valid as Tetraodon cutcutia Hamilton 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:95 [ref. 7417], Shrestha 1978:41 [ref. 15970], Ataur Rahman 1989:52 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1060 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:600 [ref. 23778], Roberts 1998:234 [ref. 23472], Menon 1999:305 [ref. 24904], Rema Devi et al. 2000:441 [ref. 25320], Ebert 2001:21 [ref. 25494], Ataur Rahman 2003:67 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:235 [ref. 29923], Ahmed et al. 2013:287 [ref. 32872], Gurung et al. 2013:4885 [ref. 32969]). •Valid as Leiodon cutcutia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989], Suresh et al. 2018:329 [ref. 36495]). Current status: Valid as Leiodon cutcutia (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southern Asia: Pakistan and India, Bhutan, Bangladesh and to Thailand. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cyanetron, Canthigaster Randall [J. E.] & Cea-Egaña [A.] 1989:94, Figs. 1-4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 3) [for 1988]; ref. 9295] Cave on northern side of Motu Tautara, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 12 meters. Holotype: BPBM 31799. Paratypes: BPBM 31796-98 (1, 1, 1); CAS 60581 (1); MNHN 1987-1095 (1); NSMT-P 44519 (1); USNM 287594 (1). •Valid as Canthigaster cyanetron Randall & Cea-Egaña 1989 -- (Pequeño 1997:84 [ref. 23536], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster cyanetron Randall & Cea-Egaña 1989. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

cyanopunctata, Omegophora Hardy [G. S.] & Hutchins [J. B.] 1981:195, Figs. 2, 3B [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 9 (pt 2); ref. 5582] Canal Rocks, Cape Naturaliste, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.26942-001. Paratypes: AMS I.20219-012 (2), I.20220-013 (2), I.20231-009 (1), I.20233-016 (1), I.20236-012 (1), I.20243-005 (1), I.21732-001 (1); SAMA F4549 [ex WAM P.26602-001] (1); WAM P.5648-001 (1), P.24540-001 (1), P.25763-001 (1), P.25769-001 (1), P.26003-004 (2), P.26564-001 (1), P.26928-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Omegophora cyanopunctata Hardy & Hutchins 1981 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:909 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1924 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:853 [ref. 30661], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Omegophora cyanopunctata Hardy & Hutchins 1981. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

cyanospilota, Canthigaster Randall [J. E.], Williams [J. T.] & Rocha [L. A.] 2008:7, Pl. 2C-H [Smithiana, Publications in Aquatic Biodiversity, Bulletin No. 9; ref. 29943] Off the Interuniversity Institute of Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 12 meters. Holotype: BPBM 13898. Paratypes: BMNH 1951.1.16.700 (1); HUJ 9393 (1); 16669 (1); NSMT-P 77636 (1); SAIAB 79818 (1), USNM 191710 (1), 387501 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Canthigaster cyanospilota Randall, Williams & Rocha 2008 -- (Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Williams et al. 2012:87 [ref. 32264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1092 [ref. 31980], Golani & Fricke 2018:182 [ref. 36273], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster cyanospilota Randall, Williams & Rocha 2008. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indian Ocean: East Africa, Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Seychelles and western Mascarenes east to western Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

dapsilis, Chelonodon Whitley [G. P.] 1943:143 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 68 (pts 3-4) (nos. 307-308); ref. 4702] Near Mackenzie Island, Fitzroy River estuary, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.1261. Paratypes: AMS IB.1262-63 (2) •Valid as Chelonodon dapsilis Whitley 1943 -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1919 [ref. 29099]). •Valid as Leiodon dapsilis (Whitley 1943). Current status: Valid as Leiodon dapsilis (Whitley 1943). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

darwinii, Tetrodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:94 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN B-1475 to B-1476 (1, 1), B-2123 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1963:473-474 [ref. 21440] as darwini. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Marilyna darwinii (Castelnau 1873) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:376 [ref. 23967], Ebert 2001:76 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1922 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Marilyna darwinii (Castelnau 1873). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia and new Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diadematus, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:65, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 264. Paralectotypes: SMF 4643 (1, dry). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Arothron diadematus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Su & Tyler 1986:21 [ref. 11531], Randall 2005:646 [ref. 28239], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Arothron diadematus (Rüppell 1829). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

dissutidens, Tetrodon Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1364 [382] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia; Coromandel, India. No types known. On p. 382 of separate. •Synonym of Chelonodon patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Matsuura 2002:177 [ref. 26209]). •Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dorsalis, Sphoeroides Longley [W. H.] 1934:259 [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 33; ref. 13896] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 109179. Paralectotypes: USNM 109180 (4). Lectotype from museum records, not designated here. •Valid as Sphoeroides dorsalis Longley 1934 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:475 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:306 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:183 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:449 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:122 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:514 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Shipp 2003:1996 [ref. 27120], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:924 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides dorsalis Longley 1934. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dorsounicolor, Tetrodon Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:280 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Nomen nudum, not available; see kottelat 2001:613 [ref. 25859]. •In the synonymy of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae.

dorsovittatus, Arothron Blyth [E.] 1860:173 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 477] Calcutta fish market, India. No types known. Types not in ZSI or BMNH. •Synonym of Chelonodon fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1055 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Tetraodon fluviatilis Hamilton 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:127 [ref. 7417], Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Dichotomyctere fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Dichotomyctere fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dubius, Spheroides von Bonde [C.] 1923:40, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal coast, 29°25'22"S, 31°24'E, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 179, depth 27 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 803. Type information: Winterbottom 1974:8 [ref. 19544]. Original genus should have been Sphoeroides. •Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848) -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:902 [ref. 5714], Mendiola 2005:6 [ref. 28208]). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

duboisi, Tetraodon Poll [M.] 1959:116, Pl. 21 (figs. 1A-1B) [Annales du Musée du Congo Belge v. 71 (art. 3); ref. 3522] Kinshasa, Stanley Pool, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 119888. Paratypes: MRAC 118576 (1). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:69 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Tetraodon duboisi Poll 1959 -- (Roberts 1986:435 [ref. 6223], Poll & Gosse 1995:105 [ref. 24781], Ebert 2001:22 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Valid as Tetraodon duboisi Poll 1959. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

dumerilii, Chelonodon Bleeker [P.] 1864:33, 37 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 17029] Syntypes or Bleeker specimens: MNHN 0000-2007 (2). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:466 [ref. 21440] as paratypes. •Nomen nudum in the synonym of Carcinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885). Tetraodontidae.

electricus, Tetradon Gmelin [J. F.] 1789:1445 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] South Joannae Island, Indian Ocean. Tetraodontidae.

electricus, Tetraodon Forster [J. R.] 1795:14 [Zoologia Indica, sistens descriptiones animalium selectorum; ref. 18091] India. Name only. Based on 'Philosophical Transactions' v. 76:382, pl. 13. Tetraodontidae.

epilamprus, Tropidichthys Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:485, Fig. 33 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Kihei, Maui, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50853 [= 50722]. •Valid as Canthigaster epilampra (Jenkins 1903) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:491 [ref. 6714], Matsuura 1986:224 [ref. 6715], Randall et al. 1990:476 [ref. 15987], Matsuura & Yoshino 1992:178 [ref. 20431], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:476 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:1420 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:470 [ref. 25191], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Nakabo 2002:1420 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:228 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:649 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:534 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1918 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:491 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1093 [ref. 31980], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster epilampra (Jenkins 1903). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western and central Pacific: Christmas Island (Indian Ocean); Philippines east to Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands, south to New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

erethizon, Arothron Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:631 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 329); ref. 2474] Panama. Holotype: USNM 29679 (apparently lost). Paratypes: USNM (5), YPM 5571-72 (1, 1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:27 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

erythrotaenia, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1853:174 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16912] Maros, southwestern Sulawesi, Indonesia; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 7356 (53 mm). Paralectotypes: RMNH 7356 (1 of 3). Bleeker specimens: AMS B.7629 (1) BMNH 1867.11.28.113 (1), RMNH 7356 (1 of 3). Lectotype selected by Dekkers 1975:116 [ref. 7417]. •Valid as Tetraodon erythrotaenia Bleeker 1853 -- (Dekkers 1975:115 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1978:70 [ref. 8886], Allen 1991:209 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448], Ebert 2001:22 [ref. 25494], Hoese et al. 2006:1926 [ref. 29099]). •Valid as Dichotomyctere erythrotaenia Bleeker 1853 -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989], Miesen et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34492]). Current status: Valid as Dichotomyctere erythrotaenia (Bleeker 1853). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

eulepidotus, Tetrodon (Spheroides) Metzelaar [J.] 1919:170, Fig. 54 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Lesser Antilles, from Curaçao or St. Eustatius. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109480. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:110 [ref. 19236]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

exascurus, Spheroides Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:241, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1254); ref. 14759] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6524. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:145 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Takifugu exascurus (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:138 [ref. 23547], Nakabo 2000:1424 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1424 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu exascurus (Jordan & Snyder 1901). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

exilis, Lagocephalus Tanaka [S.] 1916:27 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 327); ref. 15074] Tokyo fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 6202. Species originally published in Japanese in above reference, later illustrated and described in more detail in English and Japanese in Tanaka 1916:412, Pl. 112 (fig. 335) [ref. 14938]. •Synonym of Lagocephalus oceanicus Jordan & Evermann 1904 -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:158 [ref. 23547]). •Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

fahaka, Tetraodon Hasselquist [F.] 1762:441 [Reise nach Palästina; ref. 18250] Nile River around Cairo, Egypt. Holotype (unique): NRM 82. Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:276-277 [ref. 20707]. Not available, published in a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57); subsequent validation not researched. Also a vernacular name, no scientific name. Based on Hasselquist 1757:400 [ref. 30181], also a rejected work (ICZN Opinion 57). Named spelled fahaca by Linnaeus 1758:333 [ref. 2787] in synonymy of Tetraodon lineatus. Appeared in a footnote as name only in Rüppell 1829:5 [ref. 22233]. •In the synonymy of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Roberts 1986:434 [ref. 6223], Lévêque et al. 1989:123 [ref. 26480] and Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367] with author and date as Rüppell 1829, Ebert 2001:23 [ref. 25494], Seegers et al. 2003:47 [ref. 28087] with author and date as Rüppell 1829). Current status: Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. Tetraodontidae.

fallax, Tetraodon Vaillant [L. L.] & Sauvage [H.-E.] 1881:286 Puducherry, India. Holotype: MNHN A-8352. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:473 [ref. 21440]; Le Danios says this appeared in Nouv. Arch. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. IV, p. 286, but we do not find it there. Tetraodontidae.

fangi, Tetrodon (Leiodon) var. Pellegrin [J.] & Chevey [P.] 1940:157, Fig. 2 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 65; ref. 13132] Vi-Thanh, Xano Canal, Rach-Gia Province, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1940-0042. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:467 [ref. 21440]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Tetraodon fangi Pellegrin & Chevey 1940 -- (Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782]). •Valid as Pao fangi (Pellegrin & Chevey 1940) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pao fangi (Pellegrin & Chevey 1940). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Ovoides Anonymous (ex Lacepède) 1798:675 [Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 1798 (pt. 3) (no. 287) (for 24 Sept. 1798); ref. 13098] Nile River. Neotype: NRM 82. Neotype designation by Kottelat 2013:471 [ref. 32989]. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:508 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. Based on Seba 1758:60, Pl. 24 (fig. 1). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Tyler 1964:144 [ref. 22575] with question, Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494]). •Species inquirenda in Tetraodontidae -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:670 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Uncertain as Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Tetrodon McClelland [J.] 1843:412, Pl. 21 (fig. 2) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 2927] Chusan and Ningpo, China. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Tetrodon fasciatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

fasciatus, Tetrodon Macleay [W.] 1878:365, Pl. 10 (fig. 5) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Port Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16426-001 [ex MAMU F1138] (11), AMS I.21374-001 [es AMS I.16426] (1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:210 [ref. 19518]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Tetrodon fasciatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Marilyna darwinii (Castelnau 1873) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:376 [ref. 23967], Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494], Hoese et al. 2006:1922 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Synonym of Marilyna darwinii (Castelnau 1873). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

figueiredoi, Canthigaster Moura [R. L. de] & Castro [R. M. C.] 2002:34, Fig. 1A [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 115 (no. 1); ref. 25970] Alcatrazes Archipelago, 24°06'S, 45°42'W, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 45608. Paratypes: LIRP 1126-27 (1, 1); MZUSP 44594 (1), 44936 (1), 45630 (1), 46327 (1), 52256 (1), 53032 (2), 53044 (1), 55434 (1), 60536 (1); USNM 357498-99 (1, 1). •Valid as Canthigaster figueiredoi Moura & Castro 2002 -- (Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:189 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:35 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster figueiredoi Moura & Castro 2002. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Caribbean south to Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

firmamentum, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:280, Pl. 126 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1560 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1845.6.22.229 [ex RMNH] (stuffed); RMNH D1559 (1, stuffed), 4033 (1), 4034 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:202 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Boesemanichthys firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:307 [ref. 19754], Yabe in Amaoka et al. 1983:163, 218 [ref. 8379], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Arothron firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hardy 1980:116 [ref. 37753], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:422 [ref. 23929], Matsuura & Tachikawa 1994:145 [ref. 21905], Gomon et al. 1994:903 [ref. 22532], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xiv [ref. 21953], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:199 [ref. 23219], Lindberg et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23547], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1427 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1427 [ref. 26193], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2003:879 [ref. 27136], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:452 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1913 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:850 [ref. 30661], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1732 [ref. 34322], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic; Indo-West Pacific; antitropical. Habitat: marine.

flavidus, Fugu Li [C.-S.], Wang [C.-X.] & Wang [Y. Z.] in Cheng et al. 1975:372 [English p. 378], Fig. 23; Pl. 2 (figs. 8-10) [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 21 (no. 4); ref. 7414] Qingdao, China. Holotype: Inst. Oceanol. Acad. Sin. 66-171. Paratypes: (37) Inst. Oceanol. 66-176 (1), 66-177 (1), 66-178 (1), Misspelled once as blavidus in caption to Fig. 23. •Valid as Fugu flavidus Li, Wang & Wang 1975 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:488 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Takifugu flavidus (Li, Wang & Wang 1975) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:147 [ref. 23547], Nakabo 2000:1425 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1425 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 698 [ref. 26218], Sonoyama et al. 2020:133 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu flavidus (Li, Wang & Wang 1975). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China to central Japan. Habitat: marine.

flavimaculosus, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] & Randall [J. E.] 1983:14, Figs. 1-2 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 8335] Northwestern shore of Gulf of Aqaba, Nuweiba El Muzeini, Egypt, Red Sea, depth 3 meters. Holotype: BPBM 19822. Paratypes: BMNH 1925.9.19.145 (1), 1925.12.31.67 (1), 1939.5.24.1859 (1); BPBM 21511 (3), 28189 (2); CAS 51287 (1); HUJ 6377 (10), 6509 (3), 10901 (1); NMNZ P.13135 (1, c&s); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 17281 (1); USNM 238947 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:15 [ref. 18942], Golani 2006:35 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Torquigener flavimaculosus Hardy & Randall 1983 -- (Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356] as flavimaculatus, Randall 1995:404 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:241 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Golani 2005:65 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:118 [ref. 29533], Zenetos et al. 2010:414 [ref. 31201], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:389 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:183 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:138 [ref. 37020], Bariche & Fricke 2020:151 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener flavimaculosus Hardy & Randall 1983. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; western Indian Ocean: East Africa, Seychelles and Madagascar to Persian Gulf; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

flavipterus, Takifugu Matsuura [K.] 2017:76, Figs. 6-9 [Bulletin of the National Museum of Nature and Science (Ser. A) v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 35985] Waku, Shimonoseki, Honshu, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 124758. Paratypes: FAKU, NMST, RMNH. •Valid as Takifugu flavipterus Matsuura 2017 -- (Dyldin et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37569], Sonoyama et al. 2020:133 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu flavipterus Matsuura 2017. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China to Korea, Russia and Japan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flavoreticulata, Canthigaster Matsuura [K.] 1986:223, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 33 (no. 3); ref. 6715] Tonga Submarine Ridge, 22°53.1'S, 175°49.4'W, depth 98-111 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 41757. Paratypes: NSMT-P 41758 (1). •Valid as Canthigaster flavoreticulata Matsuura 1986 -- (Matsuura & Tyler 1997:200 [ref. 23219], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster flavoreticulata Matsuura 1986. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southern central Pacific; near Tonga. Habitat: marine.

florealis, Tetrodon Cope [E. D.] 1871:479 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Hawaiian Islands. Lectotype: ANSP 1109. Paralectotypes: ANSP 1110 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:160 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype selected by Hardy 1983:68 [ref. 5342]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Torquigener florealis (Cope 1871) -- (Hardy 1983:68 [ref. 5342], Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:51 [ref. 27712], Mundy 2005:537 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:496 [ref. 30952], Psomadakis et al. 2020:625 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener florealis (Cope 1871). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: India and Myanmar east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

fluviatilis, Tetrodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:6, 362, Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River at Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. Neotype: BMNH 1934.10.17.139. Neotype designated by Dekkers 1975:129 [ref. 7417]. Original genus should have been Tetraodon. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 3 [ref. 37532] •Valid as Chelonodon fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:54 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1055 [ref. 20764], Rainboth 1996:226 [ref. 22772], Khan 2003:11 [ref. 27710]). •Valid as Tetraodon fluviatilis Hamilton 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:127 [ref. 7417] with subspecies, Pethiyagoda 1991:294 [ref. 20075], Ebert 2001:22 [ref. 25494], Ataur Rahman 2003:69 [ref. 31338]). •Valid as Dichotomyctere fluviatalis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Dichotomyctere fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southern Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

formosus, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1870:283 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] South America. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.3.11.5. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Guentheridia formosa (Günther 1870) -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:156 [ref. 23101], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1634 [ref. 22830], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668]). Current status: Valid as Guentheridia formosa (Günther 1870). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

freycinetii, Epipédorhynque Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Name only, not available; genus not Latinized. Tetraodontidae.

fuerthii, Tetrodon Steindachner [F.] 1876:70 [22] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 64233 (1), 64341 (2). On p. 22 of separate. Species originally spelled fürthii. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Sphoeroides trichocephalus (Cope 1870) -- (Shipp 1971:569 [ref. 22196] but as furthii). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides trichocephalus (Cope 1870). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

galapagosi, Canthigaster psegma var. Borodin [N. A.] 1928:35 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): VMM 71 (now at AMNH). Tetraodontidae.

geometricus, Anchisomus Richardson [J.] (ex Kaup) 1854:156, Pl. 30 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1853.10.27.1 (1). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

geometricus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:508 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Around Virginia, U.S.A. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

geometricus, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1868:489 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.411. Apparently described independently of (and preoccupied by) Tetraodon geometricus Bloch & Schneider 1801; objectively invalid. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Replaced by Tetrodon heraldi Günther 1870. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

georgemilleri, Sphoeroides Shipp [R. L.] 1972:132, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 124 (no. 6); ref. 7591] Caribbean Sea, off Colombia, 8°59'N, 76°39-42.8'W, depth 12 fathoms. Holotype: ANSP 110218. Paratypes: ANSP 117319 (5, 1 c&s), UF 230327 [ex UMML 30327] (1). Non-types?: UF 222262 [ex UMML 22262] (2), 230327 [ex UMML 30327] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Sphoeroides georgemilleri Shipp 1972 -- (Shipp 2003:1997 [ref. 27120]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides georgemilleri Shipp 1972. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic, Caribbean Sea: Colombia. Habitat: marine.

gernaerti, Epipedorhynchus Bleeker [P.] 1865:36 [17] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 17043] On p. 17 of separate. Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Crayracion erythrotaenia. •In the synonymy of Dichotomyctere erythrotaenia (Bleeker 1853) -- (Kottelat 1813:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Dichotomyctere erythrotaenia (Bleeker 1853). Tetraodontidae.

gernaertii, Epipédorhynque Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:470 [ref. 21440] lists holotype as MNHN 2176. Name only, not available. Also appeared in same context in Bleeker 1866. Tetraodontidae.

giganteus, Tetrodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:121 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3538. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:465 [ref. 21440]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Incertae sedis in Tetraodontidae -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1929 [ref. 29099]). Tetraodontidae.

gillbanksii, Tetrodon Clarke [F. E.] 1897:245, Pl. 14 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 29 (art. 16) (for 1896); ref. 14630] Moturoa, Taranaki, New Zealand. Syntypes: NMNZ P.456 (1) Taranaki, ?NMNZ P.7637 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:15 [ref. 18942]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Mention -- (Kuiter 1993:422 [ref. 23929] as gillbanksi). •Synonym of Arothron firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hardy 1980:116 [ref. 37753]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

glaber, Tetrodon Fréminville [C. P. P.] 1813:251, Pl. 4 (fig. 4) [Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique, Paris. v. 3 (no. 67); ref. 18094] Aventure Bay, Tasmania, Australia. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813) -- (Hardy 1983:9 [ref. 5341], Kuiter 1993:421 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:911 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:414 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Ebert 2001:79 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1925 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:855 [ref. 30661]). Current status: Valid as Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia: New South Wales to South Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

glaucospilotus, Canthigaster Fowler [H. W.] 1944:185, Figs. 33-34 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1451] Vanuatu. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71403. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:481 [ref. 6714]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

gloerfelti, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] 1984:130, Fig. 2 [Pacific Science v. 38 (no. 2); ref. 8219] Bali Strait, Indonesia, depth 50-60 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.14790. Paratypes: BMNH 1984.1.2.6 (1); NMNZ P.14791 (1); NTM S.10747-004 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:15 [ref. 18942]. •Valid as Torquigener gloerfelti Hardy 1984 -- (Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317] as gloerferti). Current status: Valid as Torquigener gloerfelti Hardy 1984. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

gloveri, Lagocephalus Abe [T.] & Tabeta [O.] 1983:2, Pls. 1-3 [Uo (Japanese Society of Ichthyologists) No. 32; ref. 8386] Futo, Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 54324. Paratypes: SMF 17695 (1), ZUMT 54325 (1). •Synonym of Lagocephalus guntheri Ribeiro 1915 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:901 [ref. 5714] with doubt, as guentheri). •Valid as Lagocephalus gloveri Abe & Tabeta 1983 -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:639, 749 [ref. 8056], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1431 [ref. 25182], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1431 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 697 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:444 [ref. 28370], Matsuura 2009:337 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256], Matsuura et al. 2011:165 [ref. 31987], Wu et al. 2011:622 [ref. 32150]). •Synonym of Lagocephalus cheesemanii (Clarke 1897) -- (Matsuura & Satoh 2016:[1] [ref. 34732]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus cheesemanii (Clarke 1897). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

grammatocephalus, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:286, Pl. 126 (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 4003. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:205 [ref. 12876]. Tetraodontidae.

grandispina, Tetrodon van der Hoeven [J.] 1855:275 [Handboek der Dierkunde; ref. 2182] Borneo. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Not available, no description. •In the synonymy of Chonerhinos naritus (Richardson 1848) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chonerhinos naritus (Richardson 1848). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

greeleyi, Spheroides Gilbert [C. H.] 1900:176, Pl. 9 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 2; ref. 1630] Reef near Maceio, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 6308. Paratypes: CAS-SU 68632 [ex CAS-SU 6308] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:145 [ref. 12291]. Original genus should have been Sphoeroides. •Valid as Sphoeroides greeleyi Gilbert 1900 -- (Cervigón 1992:449 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:123 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Shipp 2003:1998 [ref. 27120], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27621], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341], Costa et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides greeleyi Gilbert 1900. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gronovii, Tetraodon Cuvier [G.] 1829:369 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:280 [ref. 21439]. Not available, no distinguishing features. •In the synonymy of Canthigaster valentini (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:484 [ref. 6714], Fricke 1999:609 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster valentini (Bleeker 1853). Tetraodontidae.

gularis, Tetrodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:10, 362 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Nathpur, Kosi River, Ganges River system, India. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Information on type locality see Britz 2019:38 [ref. 37532]. •Synonym of Tetraodon cutcutia Hamilton 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:95 [ref. 7417], Menon 1999:305 [ref. 24904], Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494], Ataur Rahman 2003:67 [ref. 31338]). •Synonym of Leiodon cutcutia (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Leiodon cutcutia (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

guntheri, Lagocephalus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Tetrodontidae p. 5 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Brazil [probably erroneous, ref. 31987]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.10.12.1. On p. 155 when continuously paginated. Based on Tetrodon lunaris var. b of Günther 1870:275 [ref. 1995]. Apparently named for A. Günther on his var. b, so guentheri would be correct. •Valid as Lagocephalus ?guentheri Miranda Ribeiro 1915 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:900 [ref. 5714]). •Valid as Lagocephalus guentheri Miranda Ribeiro 1915 -- (Abe 1987:6 [ref. 11636], Randall 1995:403 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:240 [ref. 23922], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Matsuura et al. 2011:164 [ref. 31987], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:434 [ref. 33460], Psomadakis et al. 2015:338 [ref. 34104], Matsuura & Satoh 2016:[6] [ref. 34732], Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:388 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:182 [ref. 36273], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Eagderi et al. 2019:138 [ref. 37020], Bariche & Fricke 2020:150 [ref. 37515], Psomadakis et al. 2020:622 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus guentheri Miranda Ribeiro 1915. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Indonesia, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia; Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Marmara (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

guttata, Uranostoma Bleeker [P.] 1865:34 [15] [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 17043] Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:469-470 [ref. 21440] as holotype, MNHN 2175 (1). On p. 15 of separate. Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Tetraodon hypselogeneion. •In the synonymy of Torquidener hypselogeneion (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Torquigener hypselogeneion (Bleeker 1852). Tetraodontidae.

guttatus, Orbis Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Mare Indicum circa insulam Francicam. No types known. Based on the "moucheté Lac.", i.e., Le Tétrodon moucheté of Lacepède 1798:491 [ref. 2708], which is based on the "Tetrodon hispidus supernè fuscus, deorsum exalbidus, guttis nigris ..."of Commerson 1767-1771 [ref. 34154]; see Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

guttifer, Tetrodon Bennett [E. T.] 1831:148 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] Atlantic coast of northern Africa. Holotype: No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Ephippion guttiferum (Bennett 1831) -- (Tortonese 1973:645 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1343 [ref. 13677]). •Valid as Ephippion guttifer (Bennett 1831) -- (Shipp 1990:1069 [ref. 19531], Ebert 2001:76 [ref. 25494], Bañón & Santás 2011:1574 [ref. 31248], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3069 [ref. 34618], Bañón et al. 2018:[1] 733 [ref. 36236], Carneiro et al. 2019:224 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Ephippion guttifer (Bennett 1831). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guttulatus, Tetrodon ocellatus var. Richardson [J.] 1845:121, Pl. 58 (fig. 3) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] China seas; Canton, China. Non-types: BMNH 1968.3.11.20 (1). Type information: Whitehead 1970:218 [ref. 11606]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Gastrophysus niphobles (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989] with question). •Uncertain as synonym of Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

halsteadi, Sphaeroides Whitley [G. P.] 1957:70, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1955-56; ref. 4727] Chinaman's Beach, Middle harbor, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.3623. •Valid as Reicheltia halsteadi (Whitley 1957) -- (Kuiter 1993:420 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:414 [ref. 25488], Hoese et al. 2006:1924 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Valid as Reicheltia halsteadi (Whitley 1957). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

hamiltoni, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1846:63, Pl. 39 (figs. 10-11) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Sea coasts of Australia; Tasmania, Australia; New Zealand. Lectotype: BMNH 1855.9.19.1310. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1855.9.19.1311-1312 (2), 1855.9.19.1316 (2), 1855.9.19.1318 (2, 1 skeletonized). Appeared first without distinguishing features in Gray & Richardson in Richardson 1843:226 [ref. 1885]. Lectotype selected by Hardy 1983:14 [ref. 5341]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. See Aphanacanthus Le Danois 1959 and Kottelat 2001:611-612 [ref. 25859]. •Valid as Tetractenos hamiltoni (Richardson 1846) -- (Hardy 1983:11 [ref. 5341], Kuiter 1993:420 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Kuiter 1997:414 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Ebert 2001:79 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317] with authorship as Gray & Richardson 1843, Hoese et al. 2006:1926 [ref. 29099] with authorship as Gray & Richardson 1843). Current status: Valid as Tetractenos hamiltoni (Richardson 1846). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

harperi, Spheroides Nichols [J. T.] 1914:81 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 33 (art. 3); ref. 14160] Cape Sable, Munroe County, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: AMNH 2535. Paratypes: AMNH 2589 (3). Tetraodontidae.

hartlaubii, Tetrodon Bianconi [G. G.] 1854:68 [Rendiconto delle Sessioni dell'Accademia delle Scienze dell'Instituto dei Bologna 1853-1854 (for 11 May 1854); ref. 17949] Mozambique. No types known. Also in Bianconi 1854:224 [ref. 295] with figure. Name also appeared in Bianconi 1855:146 [ref. 26452] with figure. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

heraldi, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1870:283 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Eastern Pacific. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.10.27.1 (1), 1864.1.26.411 (1). Replacement name, based on Anchisomus geometricus of Richardson (ex Kaup) (not of Bloch & Schneider) and Tetrodon geometricus Günther 1868. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

hicksi, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] 1983:25, Fig. 10 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 13 (no. 1/2); ref. 5341] 33 kilometers northeast of Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia, depth 70 fathoms. Holotype (unique): QM I.14143. •Valid as Torquigener hicksi Hardy 1983 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1927 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32988], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener hicksi Hardy 1983. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Australia. Habitat: marine.

hilgendorfii, Tetrodon Popta [C. M. L.] 1905:185 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 25 (no. 4) (art. 15); ref. 3549] Boh River system, Upper Mahakam River, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 7658 (6). Original genus should have been Tetraodon. •Synonym of Tetraodon leiurus Bleeker 1850 -- (Dekkers 1975:108 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1989:188 [ref. 6439]). •Valid as Tetraodon hilgendorfii Popta 1905 -- (Kottelat 1998:120 [ref. 23436], Ebert 2001:59 [ref. 25494]). •Valid as Monotrete hilgendorfii (Popta 1905) -- (Tan & Kottelat 2009:62 [ref. 30261]). •Valid as Pao hilgendorfii (Popta 1905) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pao hilgendorfii (Popta 1905). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Mahakam River drainage, eastern Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

hispidus, Tetraodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:333 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. Holotype (unique): ZMUU Linn. Coll. 102. Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:30 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1991:192, Fig. 29 [ref. 20102]. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1759:247 [ref. 24770]. •Valid as Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:370 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:283 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:896 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:473 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:423 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:299 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1623 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:401 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:303 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:644 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:410 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:473 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1428 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:466 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:285 [ref. 25480], Thomson et al. 2000:275 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Ebert 2001:28 [ref. 25494], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1428 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:226 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:451 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:644 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:532 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1914 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:493 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:120 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Matsuura 2009:334 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Verruraj et al. 2011:5 [ref. 31496], Randall et al. 2012:41 [ref. 31764], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1087 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2012:18 [ref. 33457], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:433 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923] Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Kwun et al. 2017:143 [ref. 37287], Fricke et al. 2018:384 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], Fricke et al. 2019:331 [ref. 36673], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:616 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Panama, north to southern Korea and central Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Rapa; Cocos Island (Costa Rica) and El Salvador in the eastern Pacific Habitat: brackish, marine.

honckenii, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] 1785:133, Pl. 143 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 1; ref. 4866] China; East Indies. Syntypes: ZMB 4295 (2) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:148 [ref. 24282] as honkenii, also see his errata inside back cover. Appeared as honckenii in text and on Pl. 143, but honkenii in the index. On p. 133 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 4 [ref. 21381]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Geneion honckenii (Bloch 1785) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:388 [ref. 35805]). •Valid as Amblyrhynchote honckenii (Bloch 1785) -- (Jelks 2018:290 [ref. 36375]). •Valid as Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch 1785) -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:895 [ref. 5714], Chen et al. 1997:185 [ref. 26476] dated 1787, Myers 1999:288 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106], Ebert 2001:73 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317] dated 1795 [sic], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:450 [ref. 28072], Arndt & Fricke 2019:31 [ref. 36883]). Current status: Valid as Amblyrhynchote honckenii (Bloch 1785). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Micronesia, north to China. Habitat: brackish, marine.

hypselogeneion, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1852:24 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 10); ref. 16874] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Wahai, Ceram, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?AMS B.7269 (1), B.7777-78 (2); BMNH (1); ?NMV 46655 (1); RMNH 7312 (now 21). Also appeared in Bleeker 1852:300 [ref. 16825] -- earliest not established, but ref. 16874 was written in March 1852 and 16825 in April. Hardy 1983:67 [ref. 5342] assumed that 16874 was published one month earlier (with 3 syntypes), but that is probably incorrect since the dates given are not the publication dates (and the Nat. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. probably was the more rapidly published journal). If the species dates to ref. 16825 then there were 12 syntypes. Of 21 specimens now in RMNH, Hardy did not accept any of them as identifiable as one of the 3 syntypes, and Hardy designated a neotype as USNM 236937 (from a locality not represented in Bleeker's material). Most authors have been able to establish a lectotype from the RMNH collections, and from the Code that would be desirable; Hardy's neotype designation is perhaps invalid (and he should examine the AMS specimens; the RMNH and the AMS specimens, plus the BMNH specimen) as they evidently represent 24 of the 25 that Bleeker eventually accumulated, so the 3 or 12 syntypes must be represented. Nrotype designated by Hardy (USNM 236936) 1983:67, fig. 1 is probably invalid. •Valid as Ostracion hypselogeneion, but genus changed to Torquigener in footnote -- (Dor 1984:283 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Amblyrhynchotes hypselongeneion (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:303 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441]). •Valid as Torquigener hypselogeneion (Bleeker 1852) -- (Hardy 1983:65 [ref. 5342], Smith & Heemstra 1986:902 [ref. 5714], Hardy 1989:121 [ref. 17672], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:627 [ref. 27969], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1426 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:468 [ref. 25191], Ebert 2001:79 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1426 [ref. 26193], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1927 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:496 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2018:389 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:335 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener hypselogeneion (Bleeker 1852). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South and East Africa and Madagascar east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

imitator, Carinotetraodon Britz [R.] & Kottelat [M.] 1999:40, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 24288] Small rivers, Kerala, Cochin District, India (aquarium specimen). Holotype: ZRC 42593. Paratypes: AMNH 211073 (2), 211074 (2, 1 c&s); CMK 14810 (1); NRM 42003 (2); ZRC 42594 (1). •Valid as Carinotetraodon imitator Britz & Kottelat 1999 -- (Rema Devi et al. 2000:441 [ref. 25320] with question, Ebert 2001:17 [ref. 25494], Britz et al. 2012:105 [ref. 32346]). Current status: Valid as Carinotetraodon imitator Britz & Kottelat 1999. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

immaculatus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Lacepède) 1801:507 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality stated. No types known. Based on "Tetrodon sans tache" of Lacepède 1798:475, 486, Pl. 24 (fig. 1). Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:603 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:306 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:896 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:473 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:423 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:401 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:623 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:412 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:327 [ref. 27511], Ebert 2001:28 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:227 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:452 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:645 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1914 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:493 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:120 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:335 [ref. 31171], Verruraj et al. 2011:7 [ref. 31496], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1087 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:434 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2018:384 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36495], Psomadakis et al. 2020:617 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

implutus, Tetrodon Jenyns [L.] 1842:152 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Possible types: BMNH 1917.7.14.79 (1). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae.

inconditus, Arothron Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:159, Pl. 2 (figs. D-E) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 4121] Algoa Bay, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 93. Paratypes: (9) not researched. •Valid as Arothron inconditus Smith 1958 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:896 [ref. 5714], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Arothron inconditus Smith 1958. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:278, Pl. 122 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Bay of Simabara, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D2265 (dry). Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:199 [ref. 12876]. Spelled inervis by Michajlova 1989:26 [ref. 20062]. •Valid as Lagocephalus inermis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:901 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Cheng & Zhou 1997:476 [ref. 26385] dated 1847, Lindberg et al. 1997:149 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1430 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317] dated 1844, Nakabo 2002:1430 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 697 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:50 [ref. 27712] with author as Schlegel, Hoese et al. 2006:1921 [ref. 29099], Verruraj et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31496], Wu et al. 2011:622 [ref. 32150], Larson et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:337 [ref. 34104], Matsuura & Satoh 2016:[6] [ref. 34732], Fricke et al. 2018:388 [ref. 35805], Eagderi et al. 2019:138 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:622 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:131 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus inermis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to central Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

inframacula, Canthigaster Allen [G. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:493, Fig. 7C [Records of the Australian Museum v. 30 (no. 17); ref. 6714] Off northern shore of Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, 21°40'N, 158°07'W, depth 68-86 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 208483. Paratypes: AMS I.16764-001 (1, possibly lost), BPBM 15934 (2). •Valid as Canthigaster inframacula Allen & Randall 1977 -- (Matsuura 1986:224 [ref. 6715], Nakabo 2000:1418 [ref. 25182], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Nakabo 2002:1418 [ref. 26193], Mundy 2005:535 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:491 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster inframacula Allen & Randall 1977. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion (western Mascarenes); Japan, Johnston Atoll, Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

insignitus, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1848:20, Pl. 9 (figs. 1-2) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Samarang; ref. 3744] Sea of China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.45. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Canthigaster compressa (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:483 [ref. 6714], Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494], Mundy 2005:534 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster compressa (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

insularum, Tetrodon De Vis [C. W.] 1884:456 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] Api, Vanuatu. Syntypes: QM I.108 (3). •Synonym of Tetractenos hamiltoni (Richardson 1846) -- (Hardy 1983:11 [ref. 5341], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Tetractenos hamiltoni (Richardson 1846). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Liosacus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1903:176 [33] [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] 1903 (nos 4-7); ref. 3709] East-southeast of Ilha Rasa, off coast of Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1368. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:407 [ref. 12732], Miranda Ribeiro 1961:6 [ref. 22040]. On p. 33 of separate. Original genus should have been spelled Liosaccus. Tetraodontidae.

investigatoris, Tropidichthys Annandale [N.] & Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:16, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 10427] Andaman Islands, 11°49'30"N, 92°55'E, Investigator station 239, depth 55 fathoms. Syntypes: ZSI F436/1-437/1 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:162 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:46 [ref. 22148]. •Valid as Canthigaster investigatoris (Annandale & Jenkins 1910) -- (Matsuura 1986:224 [ref. 6715], Allen & Randall 1977:501 [ref. 6714], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster investigatoris (Annandale & Jenkins 1910). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Andaman Islands. Habitat: marine.

irrubesco, Carinotetraodon Tan [H. H.] 1999:346, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 24234] Banjuasin basin, Sumatra Selatan, Sumatra, Indonesia [from aquarium trade]. Holotype: MZB 9319. Paratypes: BMNH (5); CMK 14988 (5); FMNH (5); MZB 9320-9324 (5); RMNH (5); USNM (5); ZMA 121.822 (5); ZRC 43360-62 (43, 2, 1); plus non-type material. •Valid as Carinotetraodon irrubesco Tan 1999 -- (Ebert 2001:17 [ref. 25494], Britz et al. 2012:105 [ref. 32346], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Carinotetraodon irrubesco Tan 1999. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

jactator, Tropidichthys Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:399, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 49703. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23302 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:145 [ref. 12291]. Type established in caption to Fig. 11 if identifiable. •Valid as Canthigaster jactator (Jenkins 1901) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:496 [ref. 6714], Randall et al. 1990:476 [ref. 15987], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Thomson et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25640], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Randall 2005:649 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:535 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:491 [ref. 30952], Williams et al. 2012:87 [ref. 32264], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster jactator (Jenkins 1901). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

jamestyleri, Canthigaster Moura [R. L. de] & Castro [R. M. C.] 2002:41, Fig. 1D [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 115 (no. 1); ref. 25970] South Carolina, 33°48'N, 76°34'W, U.S.A., depth 100 meters. Holotype: USNM 325810. Paratypes: GMBL 74-147 (1), 78-129 (2). •Valid as Canthigaster jamestyleri Moura & Castro 2002 -- (Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:921 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:190 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster jamestyleri Moura & Castro 2002. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) to northern Gulf of Mexico; Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

janthinopterus, Tropidichthys Bleeker [P.] 1855:429 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7359 (43-mm TL spec. of 2). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.125 (1), RMNH 7359 (1 of 2, not 43-mm spec.). •Valid as Canthigaster janthinoptera (Bleeker 1855) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:496 [ref. 6714], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:899 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:476 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:418 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:647 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:418 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:476 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:607 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1419 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:470 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Nakabo 2002:1419 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:649 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1918 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:491 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:122 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256], Williams et al. 2012:84 [ref. 32264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1093 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:199 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:386 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:31 [ref. 36883], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster janthinoptera (Bleeker 1855). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marquesas Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia; a waif from Galápagos Islands (eastern Pacific). Habitat: marine.

janthinus, Tetraodon (Anosmius) Vaillant [L. L.] & Sauvage [H.-E.] 1875:286 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 3; ref. 17853] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9007. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:472 [ref. 21440]. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Mundy 2005:536 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

joani, Spheroides Serrano [A.] 1929:9, fig. 24 [El Tabano, Organo del los Estudiantes del Colegio Nacional, Paraná, Argentina v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 34188] Rio de la Plata, Argentina, southwestern Atlantic Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

kailolae, Javichthys Hardy [G. S.] 1985:147, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 36 (no. 1); ref. 5185] Serpent Bank, Bali Strait, Java, 8°33'S, 114°31'30"E, Indonesia, depth 62-68 meters. Holotype: NMNZ P.15175. Paratypes: NMNZ P.15176 (1, c&s), P.16028-29 (4, 3); NTM S.11004-002 (2), S.10995-007 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:14 [ref. 18942]. •Valid as Javichthys kailolae Hardy 1985. Current status: Valid as Javichthys kailolae Hardy 1985. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

kappa, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1850:16 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 10); ref. 16874] India; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens: MNHN 0000-0807 (2), B-1571 (1), Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:467 [ref. 21440]. Based on Russell 1803:18, fig. 25, and on specimens. •Synonym of Chelonodon patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Matsuura 2002:177 [ref. 26209], Verruraj et al. 2011:9 [ref. 31496]). •Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

kendalli, Sphoeroides Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:819, Pl. 79 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Balboa, Canal Zone, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: USNM 80952. Paratypes: FMNH 8492 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Sphoeroides kendalli Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:156 [ref. 23101], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1635 [ref. 22830], Walker & Bussing 1996:677 [ref. 22229], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:147 [ref. 24555]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides kendalli Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

kretamensis, Tetraodon Inger [R. F.] 1953:149 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 34 (no. 11); ref. 19145] Pinang River, a tributary of the Kretam Kechil River, Kinabatangan District, East Coast Residency, Malaysia. Holotype: FMNH 51558. Paratypes: FMNH 51559 (34, now 33), 51560-61 (4, 3), 51562 (12), 51563 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:83 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Tetraodon kretamensis Inger 1953 -- (Dekkers 1975:121 [ref. 7417], Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448], Ebert 2001:60 [ref. 25494]). •Valid as Dichotomyctere kretamensis (Inger 1853) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Dichotomyctere kretamensis (Inger 1953). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

kunhardtii, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1850:97 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 16876] Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5). •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lacrimosus, Spheroides Waite [E. R.] 1923:226 [Marine and freshwater fishes of South Australia; ref. 23131] Southern Australia. Syntypes: not researched. Still researching; perhaps a misspelling of Tetrodon lacrymatus Quoy & Gaimard. •Synonym of Torquigener pleurogramma (Regan 1903) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:912 [ref. 22532], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Hoese et al. 2006:1928 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Torquigener pleurogramma (Regan 1903). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lacrymatus, Tetraodon Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:204 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Hawaiian Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Lacepède 1798) -- (Mundy 2005:533 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:494 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

laevigatus, Tetrodon Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:411 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Based on manuscript description by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:477 [ref. 14275], Roberts 1986:436 [ref. 6223], Robins & Ray 1986:305 [ref. 23100], Shipp 1990:1070 [ref. 19531], Boschung 1992:182 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:448 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:181 [ref. 25472], Cervigón 1996:119 [ref. 24489], Murdy et al. 1997:267 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:517 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:355 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25466], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Ebert 2001:76 [ref. 25494], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808], Shipp 2003:1994 [ref. 27120], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:923 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:42 [ref. 30263], Bañón & Santás 2011:1574 [ref. 31248], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Fabiano et al. 2014:9 [ref. 33530], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3070 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:56 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:224 [ref. 37250], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and New England (U.S.A.) south to Argentina; eastern Atlantic: Spain and Portugal south to Namibia, including Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

laevis, Tetrodon De Vis [C. W.] 1884:456 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] South Seas. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Marilyna pleurosticta (Günther 1872) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1923 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Marilyna pleurosticta (Günther 1872). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish.

laevissimus, Tetraodon Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:233, Fig. 48 misprinted 18 (see p. xii) [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Off Madeira, eastern Atlantic. No types known. •Unused senior synonym of Sphoeroides marmoratus (Lowe 1838) -- (Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934]). •To be called a nomen oblitum, Paulo Parenti, pers. comm., 16 Oct. 2017. Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides marmoratus (Lowe 1838). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

laevissimus, Tetrodon Cuvier [G.] 1829:368 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype: MNHN A-8340. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:468 [ref. 21440]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. See Kottelat 2001:611 [ref. 25859]. •Apparently not available, no description. Tetraodontidae.

lagocephalus, Ostracion Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xviii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Name only, not available (from Malta); perhaps for Tetrodon lagocephalus Linnaeus 1758. Tetraodontidae.

lagocephalus, Tetraodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:332 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India [Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: NRM LP 81 (1), ?NRM 8789 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:278-279 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:645 [ref. 7192], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:298 [ref. 9277], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1343 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:306 [ref. 23100], Smith & Heemstra 1986:901 [ref. 5714], Scott & Scott 1988:567 [ref. 25518], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:226 [ref. 14674], Shipp 1990:1070 [ref. 19531], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:181 [ref. 25472], Gomon et al. 1994:906 [ref. 22532], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1634 [ref. 22830], Cervigón 1996:119 [ref. 24489], Santos et al. 1997:115 [ref. 23531], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:650 [ref. 24023], Arruda 1997:122 [ref. 24952], Fricke 1999:611 [ref. 24106], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:355 [ref. 25013], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:157 [ref. 26753], Shipp 2003:1995 [ref. 27120], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Parin 2003:S34 [ref. 28536], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:536 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1921 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29533], Randall 2007:495 [ref. 30952], Matsuura 2008:852 [ref. 30661], Fricke et al. 2009:122 [ref. 30213], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:75 [ref. 36649], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Bañon et al. 2010:24 [ref. 31029], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256], Wu et al. 2011:622 [ref. 32150], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Parin et al. 2014:552 [ref. 33547], Psomadakis et al. 2015:337 [ref. 34104], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1737 [ref. 34322], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3071 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Matsuura & Satoh 2016:[6] [ref. 34732], Kells et al. 2016:340 [ref. 35888], Fricke et al. 2018:388 [ref. 35805], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], Brown et al. 2019:184 [ref. 36444], Burton & Lea 2019:101 [ref. 37205], Carneiro et al. 2019:225 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36864], Encarnação et al. 2019:6 [ref. 37002], Bariche & Fricke 2020:114 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37519], Psomadakis et al. 2020:622 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:131 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas (including Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Japan) Habitat: marine.

lampris, Catophorhynque Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:280 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Not available, name only. Tetraodontidae.

laterna, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1845:124, Pl. 61 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218 [ref. 11606]). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Randall et al. 2012:42 [ref. 31764], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

laterofasciatus, Rhynchote Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:282 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Not available, name only; genus not Latinized. Tetraodontidae.

laticeps, Chelonodon Smith [J. L. B.] 1948:344, Fig. 3 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 11) v. 14 (no. 113) (art. 30); ref. 4074] Xora River mouth, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Syntypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 303 (primary specimen), plus one not found form Beira. •Valid as Chelonodon laticeps Smith 1948 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:900 [ref. 5714], Ebert 2001:74 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2002:174 [ref. 26209], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Leiodon laticeps (Smith 1948) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:389 [ref. 35805]). •Valid as Chelonodontops laticeps (Smith 1948) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2018:[7] [ref. 36003]). Current status: Valid as Chelonodontops laticeps (Smith 1948). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: East and South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latifrons, Ovoides Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:398, Fig. 10 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 49696. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Lacepède 1798) -- (Mundy 2005:533 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

leiogaster, Tetraodon Smith [J. A.] 1865:272 [Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. v. 3; ref. 21737] Old Calibar. No types known. Original as leiógaster. Smith did not consider this to be the same as Tetraodon pustulatus Murray 1857. •Synonym of Tetraodon pustulatus Murray 1857 -- (Roberts 1986:436 [ref. 6223], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Tetraodon pustulatus Murray 1857. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

leionothos, Holocanthus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:23 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Ocean. No types known. •Probably a tetraodontid and not a holocanthid -- (R. Pyle, pers. comm. 121/10/2003). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

leiopleura, Tetraodon Gray [J. E.] 1830:no page number, Pl. 87 (fig. 2) [Illustrations of Indian zoology; ref. 1878] Indian Ocean. No types known. Published about 30 Mar. 1830. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:478 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

leiurus, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1850:97 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 16876] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes (orig. 5) and Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.110 (1), MNHN 1903-0184 [ex RMNH] (1), ?NMV 46396 (1), RMNH 7342 (4), ?RMNH 26477 [ex RMNH 7342] (10); SMNS 10641 (2 syntypes), ZMA 102308 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:466 [ref. 21440], Fricke 1991:21 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:63 [ref. 29864]. Dekkers 1975:111 [ref. 7417] regards RMNH 7342 as syntypes. Original genus should have been Tetraodon. •Valid as Monotretus leiurus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Zhu 1995:191 [ref. 25213] as Monotreta, Rainboth 1996:227 [ref. 22772] as Monotreta, Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284] as Monotrete). •See Kottelat 1998:120 [ref. 23436]. •Valid as Monotrete leiurus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Tan & Kottelat 2009:62 [ref. 30261]). •Valid as Tetraodon leiurus Bleeker 1850 -- (Dekkers 1975:108 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1989:188 [ref. 6439], Roberts 1998:231 [ref. 23472], Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782]). •Valid as Pao leiurus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Kottelat 2013;483 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:210 [ref. 34477], Sulaiman et al. 2018:46 [ref. 35802], Ng et al. 2019:538 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Pao leiurus (Bleeker 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: southern China, Malaya (Malaysia), Java and Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

leoparda, Canthigaster Lubbock [R.] & Allen [G. R.] 1979:88, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 8809] Caves on vertical drop-off, 1/2 kilometer north of Caubyan Daku Island, Camotes Sea, Philippines, depth 35-40 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1979.1.9.41. Paratypes: BMNH 1979.1.9.42 (1): WAM P.25239-010 (1), P.26116-003 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Canthigaster leoparda Lubbock & Allen 1979 -- (Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Randall et al. 2002:163 [ref. 26192], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1094 [ref. 31980], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster leoparda Lubbock & Allen 1979. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Christmas Island, Indonesia, Philippines, and Guam. Habitat: marine.

leopardus, Tetrodon Day [F.] 1878:706, Pl. 180 (fig. 2) [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Seas of India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.7722 (1, syntype), ZSI F2260 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:298 [ref. 25110]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Chelonodontops leopardus (Day 1878) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36003], Chakraborty et al. 2020:16629 [ref. 37723], Psomadakis et al. 2020:620 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Chelonodontops leopardus (Day 1878). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: southwestern India; Bay of Bengal (India) east to Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

leschenaultii, Epipédorhynque Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN B-1493 (poor condition). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:469 [ref. 21440] with type as above. Name only, not available; genus not Latinized. Possible subsequent availability not researched. Tetraodontidae.

levis, Spheroides pachygaster var. Borodin [N. A.] 1928:35 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Oceanographic Museum v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 526] Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas. Syntypes: (6 or 5) VMM 172 (1). Possible types: VMM 173 (1). Tetraodontidae.

lineatus, Tetraodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:333 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Nile River. Holotype: NRM 82. Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:276-277 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Roberts 1986:434 [ref. 6223], Lévêque et al. 1989:123 [ref. 26480], Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:869 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:105 [ref. 24781], Ebert 2001:23 [ref. 25494], Seegers et al. 2003:47 [ref. 28087], Neumann et al. 2016:307 [ref. 35036]). Current status: Valid as Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northern and central Africa. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lineolatus, Tetrodon Poey [F.] 1868:432 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lioderma, Thecapteryx Fowler [H. W.] 1948:1, Figs. 1-3 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 208; ref. 1459] Off Ventnor, New Jersey, U.S.A., depth 50 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71739. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848) -- (Mendiola 2005:6 [ref. 28208]). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

liosomus, Spheroides Regan [C. T.] 1909:439 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 4 (no. 23); ref. 14420] Southeastern Australian coast. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1864.7.22.63, 1868.8.13.16, 1872.7.1.15, 1896.6.17.87 (cleared and stained), 1896.6.17.88, 1899.2.14.57. •Synonym of Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813) -- (Hardy 1983:9 [ref. 5341], Gomon et al. 1994:911 [ref. 22532], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Hoese et al. 2006:1925 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lispus, Sphoeroides Walker [H. J., Jr.] in Walker & Bussing 1996:678, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1996 (no. 3); ref. 22229] Gulf of California, Bahia de Los Angeles, 28°54.2'N, 113°30.4'W, Mexico. Holotype: SIO 62-213. Paratypes: CAS 117769 (12); LACM 32089-1 (1), 38099-4 (1), 38216-28 (2); SIO 08-186 (1) (ex UCLA W50-67), 15-186 (33) (ex UCLA W51-15), 15-2230 (6) (ex UCLA W49-129), 61-180 (1), 61-185 to 186 (6, 49), 61-259 (1), 62-213 to 214 (17, 75), 62-217 (1), 62-222 (2), 62-229 (1), 64-831 (3), 65-177 (1), 65-286 (1), 65-297 (225) (ex UCLA W65-62), 65-336 (1), 68-147 (5), 68-165 (1); UCLA W50-51 (4), W50-57 (35), W55-97 (2), W53-89 (7), W56-117 (19); UCR 2439-1 (3), 2440-1 (4); USNM 337590 (4). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:383 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Sphoeroides lispus Walker 1996 -- (De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:304 [ref. 24545], De la Cruz-Agüero & Cota-Gómez 1998:357 [ref. 23520], Cota-Gómez et al. 1998:104 [ref. 24503], Thomson et al. 2000:278 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides lispus Walker 1996. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico. Habitat: marine.

lobatus, Canthogaster Steindachner [F.] 1870:640 [18], Pl. 5 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] Altata, west coast of Mexico, eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): NMW. On p. 18 of separate. •Valid as Sphoeroides lobatus (Steindachner 1870) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:299 [ref. 9277], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:301 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:156 [ref. 23101], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1635 [ref. 22830], Walker & Bussing 1996:677 [ref. 22229], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:304 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:653 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:145 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:516 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:126 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:278 [ref. 25640], Ebert 2001:77 [ref. 25494], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:409 [ref. 34894], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:340 [ref. 35888], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544], Walker et al. 2020:4 [ref. 37499]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides lobatus (Steindachner 1870). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

longicauda, Dilobomycterus Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:279 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Lectotype: BMNH 1852.9.13.92. Le Danois specimens: MNHN B-1482 (1), B-1494 (1), B-1565 (1), B-1567 (1). Original genus was spelled Dilobomyctère, latinized as Dilobomycterus by Troschel 1856:88 [ref. 12559]. Le Danois 1962:464-465 [ref. 21440] lists types as holotype and paratypes. See Kottelat 2001:613 [ref. 25859]; he regards the generic name as latinized and as available by indication to two available species name; he designated the holotype of Tetraodon strigatus Bennett 1834 as the lectotype of longicauda. •Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. Tetraodontidae.

longispinis, Cataphorhynchus Bibron [G.] in Bleeker 1865:75 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 416] Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Crayracion immaculatus. Tetraodontidae.

longispinis, Catophorhynque Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:280 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Not available, name only; genus not Latinized. Tetraodontidae.

lorteti, Tetrodon Tirant [G.] 1885:175 [95] [Excursions et Reconnaissances: Cochinchine française v. 10; ref. 17923] Thu-dâu-môt, Vietnam. Lectotype: MHNL 4200-0006 [3907]. Paralectotypes: MHNL 4200-0005 [3907] (12), 4200-0007 [3909] (9), 4200-0008 (6); MHNN 1937-60 (1); USNM 47996 (1). Type catalog: Chevey 1937:251 [ref. 31779], Le Danois 1962:466 [ref. 21440] as holotype. On p. 95 of reprint in Chevey 1929 [ref. 16215]. Lectotype selected by Dekkers 1975:100 [ref. 7417]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Tetrodon lorteti Tirant 1885 -- (Dekkers 1975:97 [ref. 7417]). •Valid as Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Kottelat 1987:19, 21 [ref. 11434], Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448], Lim & Kottelat 1995:363 [ref. 21592], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:225 [ref. 22772], Tan 1999:345 [ref. 24234], Britz & Kottelat 1999:43 [ref. 24288], Ebert 2001:18 [ref. 25494], Britz et al. 2012:105 [ref. 32346], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indochina (Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam). Habitat: freshwater.

lunaris, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:505 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Lectotype: ZMB 4227. Paralectotypes: ZMB 4226 (1), 8186 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:149 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:149 [ref. 24282]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:300 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:286 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:901 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1058 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:236 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:403 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:625 [ref. 27969], Lindberg et al. 1997:151 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:240 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:611 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1430 [ref. 25182], Ebert 2001:76 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1430 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 697 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:50 [ref. 27712], Hoese et al. 2006:1921 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2009:337 [ref. 31171], Verruraj et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31496], Matsuura et al. 2011:167 [ref. 31987], Wu et al. 2011:622 [ref. 32150], Larson et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:478 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:232 [ref. 34464], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:106 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:337 [ref. 34104], Matsuura & Satoh 2016:[6] [ref. 34732], Motomura et al. 2017:237 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:388 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:124 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:138 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:623 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf east to Indonesia, north to South China Sea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macclellandi, Tetrodon Regan [C. T.] 1903:301 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, v. 2 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 4 Nov. 1902); ref. 14413] China. Syntypes: BMNH 1873.7.30.119-123 (5). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

macrophthalmus, Tetrodon Duncker [G.] & Mohr [E.] 1929:79, Fig. 8 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Staatsinstitut und Zoologischen Museum in Hamburg. v. 44; ref. 15892] Rein Bay, New Guinea. Holotype (unique): ZMH H144 [ex 12965]. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:167 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:409 [ref. 21161]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

maculatum, Ephippion Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:281 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype: MNHN 0000-2155. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:468 [ref. 21440]. •Synonym of Ephippion guttifer (Bennett 1831) -- (Shipp 1990:1069 [ref. 19531], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Ephippion guttifer (Bennett 1831). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatum, Geneion Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:280 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1522. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:470 [ref. 21440]. Regarded as available as a single species under brief genus description, as "T. (G.) maculatus". •Synonym of Geneion honckenii (Bloch 1785) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Amblyrhynchote honckenii (Bloch 1785). Current status: Synonym of Amblyrhynchote honckenii (Bloch 1785). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Dilobomycter Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:279 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Types of Le Danois: MNHN B-1601 (A), 3556 to 3558 (3, B), 3515 (C), 3564 (D). Genus was spelled Dilobomyctère. Name only, not available; genus not Latinized; possible subsequent publication in an available way not researched. Le Danois 1962:465 [ref. 21440] lists holotypes for varieties A-D. Tetraodontidae.

maculatus, Tetraodon Swainson [W.] 1839:328 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Hamilt. 18 (fig. 2) -- which is Hamilton 1822:Pl. 18 (fig. 2). Unneeded new name for Tetrodon patoca Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

maculatus, Tetrodon Hermann [J.] 1804:299 [Observationes zoologicae; ref. 2146] "Insula Franciae". Not available, insufficient description. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

maculatus, Tetrodon hispidus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Schöpf) 1801:504 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] 3.2 miles north of Northport, New York, U.S.A. Neotype: UF 12303. Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035]. Based on a spotted variety of Tetrodon hispidus described from New York and Rhode Island (U.S.A.) by Schöpf 1788:190 [ref. 18700]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Neotype selected by Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Sphoeroides maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith 1986:460 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:307 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:568 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:227 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1992:450 [ref. 23827], Murdy et al. 1997:268 [ref. 23144], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Ebert 2001:77 [ref. 25494], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:598 [ref. 26158], Shipp 2003:1999 [ref. 27120], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mammilaris, Orbis Müller [P. L. S.] 1766:141, Pl. H (fig. 2) (v. 2) [Deliciae Naturae; ref. 3055] •Not available, published in a rejected work on the Official Index (Opinion 701). Tetraodontidae.

manilensis, Tetrodon Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:130 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines, South China Sea. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441] as manillensis, Randall 1985:347 [ref. 6719], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:675 [ref. 25598], Randall et al. 1990:473 [ref. 15987], Matsuura & Okuno 1991:162 [ref. 19923], Randall et al. 1993:233 [ref. 21003], Kuiter 1993:423 [ref. 23929] as manillensis, Randall 1995:401 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:410 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:473 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182] with author as Procé, Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:467 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:328 [ref. 27511], Ebert 2001:29 [ref. 25494], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193] with author as Procé, Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] as manillensis, Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495] with author as Procé, Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624] with author as Procé, Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:227 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:645 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:533 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1914 [ref. 29099] with author as Procé, Randall 2007:493 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1088 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Miesen et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:236 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2019:331 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:617 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean: Myanmar and Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan. south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mappa, Tetraodon Lesson [R. P.] 1831:102, Poissons Pl. 5 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Doreh Bay, New Guinea, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3507. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:463 [ref. 21440]. Appeared with Tetraodon mappa as scientific name and 'Tétrodon cosmographique' as vernacular name. •Valid as Arothron mappa (Lesson 1831) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:897 [ref. 5714], Randall et al. 1990:473 [ref. 15987], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:412 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:473 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:604 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1428 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:467 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317] dated 1830, Nakabo 2002:1428 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] dated 1830, Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624] dated 1830, Randall 2005:645 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1915 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2009:120 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:335 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1088 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:332 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:617 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron mappa (Lesson 1831). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to southern Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

margaritatus, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:66 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] El-Tor, Sinai coast, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF (lost). •Valid as Canthigaster margaritata (Rüppell 1829) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:483 [ref. 6714], Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:405 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:291 [ref. 23965], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Randall 2005:651 [ref. 28239], Matsuura & Toda 2005:120 [ref. 28613], Randall 2007:492 [ref. 30952], DiBattista et al. 2015:22 [ref. 35706] dated 1826, Fricke et al. 2018:386 [ref. 35805], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:182 [ref. 36273], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster margaritata (Rüppell 1829). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

marki, Pelagocephalus Heemstra [P. C.] & Smith [M. M.] 1981:911, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 31 (no. 4); ref. 5415] Port Alfred, about 400 meters east of the Kowie River mouth, Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 10734. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 993 (1), 10900 (1, c&s). •Valid as Pelagocephalus marki Heemstra & Smith 1981 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:902 [ref. 5714], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1738 [ref. 34322]). Current status: Valid as Pelagocephalus marki Heemstra & Smith 1981. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

marleyi, Sphoeroides Fowler [H. W.] 1929:263, Fig. 6 (bottom) [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 1403] Tugela River mouth, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 200-250 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 51293. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch 1795) -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:895 [ref. 5714]). •Valid as Torquigener marleyi (Fowler 1929) -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:451 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener marleyi (Fowler 1929). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

marmorata, Crayracion Castelnau [F. L.] 1873:148 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 2; ref. 758] Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-1506 (1 of 4, poor condition). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:469 [ref. 21440] as holotype but with 4 specimens listed. •Incertae sedis in Tetraodontidae -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1929 [ref. 29099]). Tetraodontidae.

marmoratus, Leisomus Swainson [W.] 1839:328 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Ham. pl. 18. fig. 3 -- which is Hamilton 1822:Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [ref. 2031]. Unneeded new name for Tetrodon cutcutia Hamilton 1822. •Synonym of Tetraodon cutcutia Hamilton 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:95 [ref. 7417], Menon 1999:305 [ref. 24904], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Leiodon cutcutia (Hamiton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Leiodon cutcutia (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

marmoratus, Tetrodon Lowe [R. T.] 1838:193 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.11.29.28. Le Danois 1962:470 [ref. 21440] wrongly treated Tetrodon marmoratus Valenciennes 1843 as an original description with a holotype and paratype, but it is just a subsequent use of Tetrodon marmoratus Lowe 1838. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Precoccupied by the unused name Tetraodon laevissimus Bowdich 1825, but to be called a nomen protectum, Paulo Parenti, pers. comm., 16 Oct. 2017. •Valid as Sphoeroides marmoratus (Lowe 1838) -- (Shipp 1990:1071 [ref. 19531], Galeote & Otero 1996:3 [ref. 22883], Santos et al. 1997:115 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:123 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25466], Galeote 2001:314 [ref. 26422], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Mendiola 2005:5 [ref. 28208], Vacchi et al. 2007:1216 [ref. 37493], Wirtz et al. 2007:43 [ref. 30263], Bañón & Santás 2011:1574 [ref. 31248], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3072 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:225 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides marmoratus (Lowe 1838). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Angola, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

marmoreus, Tetrodon Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1823:111 [Verzeichniss der Doubletten des zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung...; ref. 17525] Brazil. Try ZMB for type(s). Apparently an available overlooked name. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

marquesensis, Canthigaster Allen [G. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:487, Fig. 4A [Records of the Australian Museum v. 30 (no. 17); ref. 6714] Northwestern side of Sentinelle de l'Est off Taichae Bay, Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands, depth 50-60 feet. Holotype: BPBM 11129. Paratypes: AMS I.11678-001 (1, not found in 1996); BMNH 1972.10.24.1 (1); BPBM 11109 (1), 11113 (1), 11124 (1), 11126 (2), 11146 (2); CAS 15453 (1); USNM 208267 (1). •Valid as Canthigaster marquesensis Allen & Randall 1977 -- (Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Randall 2005:650 [ref. 28239], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster marquesensis Allen & Randall 1977. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

mathematicus, Tetrodon Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:474, Pl. 6 (fig. 6) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

mbu, Tetrodon Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:56, Pl. 29 [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 1 (fasc. 3); ref. 548] Kinshasa [Leopoldville], Monsembé, Umangi, and Ubangi. Syntypes: BMNH (3) 1899.2.20.31 (1), 1899.2.20.32 (1); MRAC 167 (1) Umangi, 118 (1) Léopoldville, 343 (1) Ubangi. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Information on types at MRAC provided by G. Boden, 2/8/06 personal communication. •Valid as Tetraodon mbu Boulenger 1899 -- (Roberts 1986:435 [ref. 6223], Poll & Gosse 1995:105 [ref. 24781], Ebert 2001:24 [ref. 25494], De Vos et al. 2001:130 [ref. 26059], De Vos et al. 2001:132 [ref. 26059]). Current status: Valid as Tetraodon mbu Boulenger 1899. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Congo basin, Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

melanorhynchos, Arothron Bleeker [P.] 1855:111 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 16843] Sahu, Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1867.11.28.107. Lectotype if needed perhaps established in Günther 1870:283 [ref. 1995] by use of "Adult. Halmaheira ... Type of T. melanorhynchus." •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

melanostictus, Liosaccus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:340, 352, Fig. 267 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] James Bay, James Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: ANSP 70136. Paratypes: ANSP 70137 (1), 70260 (1, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns 1842). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanothos, Holocanthus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:24 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] American Ocean, Carolinas, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.175 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:246 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Wheeler 1958:246 [ref. 13434], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

meleagris, Tetrodon Anonymous in Lacepède (ex Commerson) 1798:684 [Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 1798 (pt. 3) (no. 288) (for 25 Sept. 1798); ref. 24107] Mers de l'Asie [Indo-West Pacific]. No types known. Usually dated to Lacepède 1798:505 [ref. 2708], but he only used a vernacular name "méléagris" in italics under vernacular genus 'Tétrodon', as 'Le tétrodon méléagris'; Lacepède did not use italics for scientific names. Correctly dated to Anonymous [ex Commerson, Lacepède] 1798:684 [ref. 24107], which is the first available, Latinized version. Sometimes dated to Bloch & Schneider 1801. Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Arothron meleagris (Lacepède 1798) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:897 [ref. 5714], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Allen & Robertson 1994:299 [ref. 22193], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1633 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:401 [ref. 22896], Lindberg et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23547], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:303 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:645 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:412 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1428 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:467 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:274 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, date as 1801, Nakabo 2002:1428 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495] as Bloch & Shneider 1801, Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576] as Bloch & Schneider 1801, Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:452 [ref. 28072], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:453 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:646 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:533 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1915 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:494 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:152 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider 1801). •Valid as Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Fricke 1999:604 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1088 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:198 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider 1801, Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:618 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros and Madagascar east to Clipperton Island, Mexico and Panama (eastern Pacific), north to Ryukyu, Ogasawara and Hawaiian islands, south to Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

meraukensis, Sphoeroides de Beaufort [L. F.] 1955:53 [Beaufortia v. 5 (no. 48); ref. 12262] Merauke River, southern New Guinea. Lectotype: ZMA 104139. Paralectotypes: ZMA 104140-41 (3, 5). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:110 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Nijssen et al. 1982:110 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Marilyna meraukensis (de Beaufort 1955) -- (Allen 1991:208 [ref. 21090], Larson & Williams 1997:376 [ref. 23967], Ebert 2001:77 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Allen et al. 2002:354 [ref. 25930], Hoese et al. 2006:1923 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32988] to De Beaufort). Current status: Valid as Marilyna meraukensis (de Beaufort 1955). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Pacific; southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish.

michiei, Kanduka Hora [S. L.] 1925:579, Pl. 34 (figs. 1-7) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 26 (pt 6); ref. 2206] Sandheads off the mouth of the Hughli River, Bay of Bengal, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype: ZSI. See Das 2003:385 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1054 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

micropthalmos, Gastrophysus Blyth [E.] 1860:174 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 29 (no. 2); ref. 477] Calcutta fish market, India. No types known. •Synonym of Gastrophysus oblongus (Bloch 1786) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989] with question). •Synonym of Takifugu oblongus (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu oblongus (Bloch 1786). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

millepunctatus, Prilonotus Kaup [J. J.] in Richardson 1854:162 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Not available, name only. Tetraodontidae.

miurus, Tetrodon Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:55, Pl. 15 (fig. 4) [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 2 (fasc. 2); ref. 562] Ubangi River at Banzyville, Democratic Republic of Congo, about 4°18'N, 21°11'E. Syntypes: BMNH 1901.12.26.69 (1); MRAC 1171-72 (2). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Tetraodon miurus Boulenger 1902 -- (Roberts 1986:435 [ref. 6223], Poll & Gosse 1995:105 [ref. 24781], Ebert 2001:24 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Valid as Tetraodon miurus Boulenger 1902. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Congo basin, Central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

modestus, Tetraodon (Arothron) Bleeker [P.] 1850:16 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16884] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.128 (1), MNHN 0000-2179 (3) Sumatra, NMV 46100 (1). •Valid as Chonerhinos modestus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Roberts 1989:187 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210]). •Valid as Auriglobus modestus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Kottelat 1999:598 [ref. 24610], Ebert 2001:16 [ref. 25494], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:538 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Auriglobus modestus (Bleeker 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

moriwaki, Spheroides Tanaka [S.] 1918:99 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 30 (no. 353); ref. 17356] Takashima, near Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 8214. Tetraodontidae.

multilineatus, Arothron Matsuura [K.] 2016:[2], Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 63 (no. 4); ref. 34340] Ryukyu Islands, southeastern coast of Sesoko-jima, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 33528. Paratypes: KAUM-I, MUFS, NSMT-P. •Valid as Arothron multilineatus Matsuura 2016 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Arothron multilineatus Matsuura 2016. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

multimaculatus, Tetrodon Liénard [F.] 1840:102, Pl. 5 [Rapport Annuel sur les travaux de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Ile Maurice No. 11; ref. 23141] Syntypes: MNHN B-1467 (1) Seychelles. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:463 [ref. 21440]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Appeared first in French vernacular as 'Tetrodon multimaculé' in Liénard 1839:45 [ref. 17536]. Tetraodontidae.

multistriatus, Anchisomus Richardson [J.] (ex Kaup) 1854:160, Pl. 24 (figs. 1-3) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Southern Polynesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH (dry). •Valid as Anchisomus multistriatus Richardson 1854 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977]). •Valid as Feroxodon multistriatus (Richardson 1854) -- (Kuiter 1997:414 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1920 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Feroxodon multistriatus (Richardson 1854). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia and (?) southern Polynesia. Habitat: marine.

munnozius, Tetrodon Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:389 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Spelled mugnozius on p. 379. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:317, 323 [ref. 20322] (spelled mugnozius on p. 323); Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus Linnaeus [= Tetraodon laevigatus Linnaeus 1766]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linaneus 1766) -- (Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

naritus, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1848:18, Pl. 8 (figs. 1-3) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Samarang; ref. 3744] Sarawak River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2013.4.22.1. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Xenopterus naritus (Richardson 1848) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1062 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:175 [ref. 23448], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Chonerhinos naritus (Richardson 1848) -- (Ebert 2001:67 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2020:621 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Chonerhinos naritus (Richardson 1848). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: South and southeast Asia: Myanmar, Indochina and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

natalensis, Tetrodon amboinensis var. Günther [A.] 1870:303 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1963.12.15.24. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864) -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:898 [ref. 5714]). •Valid as Canthigaster natalensis (Günther 1870) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:500 [ref. 6714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Fricke 1999:608 [ref. 24106], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Fricke et al. 2009:122 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Arndt & Fricke 2019:31 [ref. 36883], Matsuura et al. 2020:85 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster natalensis (Günther 1870). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: East Africa and South Africa, Mozambique Channel, western Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

nefastus, Chonerhinos Roberts [T. R.] 1982:10, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 5513] Kapuas River, 29 kilometers west of Putussibau, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 3980. Paratypes: (60) BMNH 1982.3.29.254-255 (2); CAS 49506-07 (3, 2); FMNH 94594-96 (3, 2, 3); IRSNB 632 (1); MB; MZB; MNHN 1966-0055 to 0057 (6, 3, 12); ROM; RMNH 28927 [ex 7934] (1), 7933 (2), 7936 (1); CAS-SU 36040 (1); UMMZ 197038 (1), 209932-33 (1, 3), 209935-38 (1, 1, 1, 1); USNM 230361 (3); ZMA. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367], Walschaerts 1987:48 [ref. 20755]. •Valid as Chonerhinos nefastus Roberts 1982 -- (Roberts 1989:187 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:226 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Auriglobus nefastus (Roberts 1982) -- (Ebert 2001:43 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971], Ng et al. 2019:538 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Auriglobus nefastus (Roberts 1982). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

nephelus, Tetrodon Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:412 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Indian River, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 31428. Paralectotypes: USNM 26570 (1), 31427 (1). Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 264, p. 3286 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Sphoeroides nephelus (Goode & Bean 1882) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:307 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:183 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:450 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:514 [ref. 24550], Ebert 2001:77 [ref. 25494], Shipp 2003:2000 [ref. 27120], Smith et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:925 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides nephelus (Goode & Bean 1882). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigridorsum, Lagocephalus lagocephalus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:308, 374, 376, 414, Fig. 265 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] North of Tres Marias Islands, Mexico, 22°03'N, 106°42'W. Holotype: ANSP 70293. Paratypes: ANSP 70284 (1), 70285-86 (2), 70287 (1). Additional material (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies nigridorsum Fowler 1944 -- (Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

nigroguttatus, Dilobomycter Bibron [G.] in Bleeker 1865:74 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 416] Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Crayracion nigropunctatus. Tetraodontidae.

nigropunctatus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:507 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4283. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:149 [ref. 24282]. Originally nigro-punctatus. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:897 [ref. 5714], Su & Tyler 1986:15, 25 [ref. 11531], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:474 [ref. 15987], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:402 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:244, 246 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:185 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:412 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:474 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:605 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:467 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:453 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:646 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1915 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:335 [ref. 31171], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1089 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:198 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211] Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:332 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:618 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to A. diadematus (Rüppell 1829). Habitat: marine.

nigroviridis, Tetrodon Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:130 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Deli, near Medan, northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Neotype: ZMA 113020. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:110 [ref. 19236]. Neotype designated by Dekkers 1975:126 [ref. 7417]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Chelonodon nigroviridis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1056 [ref. 20764], Rainboth 1996:226 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Tetraodon nigroviridis Marion de Procé 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:123 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1989:188 [ref. 6439], Roberts 1993:45 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Ebert 2001:25 [ref. 25494], Tan & Lim 2004:111 [ref. 27716], Matsuura 2009:337 [ref. 31171]). •Valid as Dichotomyctere nigroviridis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:46 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Dichotomyctere nigroviridis (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Asia: Sri Lanka east to Indonesia, Borneo, north to Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

niphobles, Spheroides Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:246, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 24 (no. 1254); ref. 14759] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 6526. Paratypes: (numerous) AMS I.6926; ANSP 29500 (1), 29687 (1); BMNH 1905.2.4.493-495 (3); CAS 11328 [ex IU 10661] (2); CAS-SU 6645 (5), 6759 (3), 6764 (1); USNM 49843 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:145 [ref. 12291], Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Fugu niphobles (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Sheiko 1983:19 [ref. 37041], Kuang & Liang in Kuang et al. 1986:340 [ref. 26639], Zheng 1989:379 [ref. 21202], Cheng & Zhou 1997:483 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:340 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Gastrophysus niphobles (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Takifugu niphobles (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:672 [ref. 25598], Lindberg et al. 1997:127 [ref. 23547], Chen et al. 1997:186 [ref. 26476], Kim 1997:501 [ref. 24032], Takahashi et al. 1997:49 [ref. 24971], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Sato et al. 1998:44 [ref. 24972], Mizuno et al. 1999:14 [ref. 25311], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1425 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:288 [ref. 25480], Kolpakov & Barabanshchikov 2001:423 [ref. 25413], Song et al. 2001:129 [ref. 25468], Ebert 2001:78 [ref. 25494], Sakai et al. 2001:124 [ref. 25693], Shimizu 2001:47 [ref. 25799], Kim & Park 2002:421 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1425 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 698 [ref. 26218], Barabanshchikov 2003:849 [ref. 27538], Jang et al. 2003:120 [ref. 27681], Parin 2003:S34 [ref. 28536], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256], Parin et al. 2014:553 [ref. 33547], Dyldin et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34682], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:202 [ref. 35257], Kwun et al. 2017:143 [ref. 37287]). •Synonym of Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845) -- (Matsuura 2017:72 [ref. 35985]). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nitidus, Spheroides Griffin [L. T.] 1921:356, Pl. 55 (fig. 2) [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 53; ref. 15343] Auckland Harbor and Tauranga Harbor, New Zealand. Syntypes: AIM MA 327 (1), 32173 (1). Original genus should have been Sphoeroides. Trnski personal communication (12/1/2017) on type status. •Valid as Sphoeroides nitidus Griffin 1921. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

niveatus, Tetraodon Brevoort [J. C.] 1856:284 [32] [Notes on some figures of Japanese fish taken from recent specimens by the artists of the U. S. Japan Expedition. Pp. 253-288, Pls. 3-12 (color) In: M. C. Perry, Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan.; ref. 17284] Simoda, Japan. No types known. On p. 32 of separate. Description made from a figure. •Synonym of Gastrophysus niphobles (Jordan & Snyder 1901) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989] with question). •Uncertain as synonym of Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

notospilus, Canthigaster Fowler [H. W.] 1941:278, Fig. 31 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1438] Off Kaena Point, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands (stomach content). Holotype: ANSP 69850. Paratypes: ANSP 69851-90 (40), 69891 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Randall 2007:491 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

oahuensis, Tropidichthys Jenkins [O. P.] 1903:485, Fig. 32 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2341] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50690. •Synonym of Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:499 [ref. 6714], Mundy 2005:534 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

oblongus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] 1786:6, Pl. 146 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 2; ref. 465] Coromandel, India. Syntypes: ZMB 4228 (1), 32982 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:149 [ref. 24282]. On p. 4 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 5 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Fugu oblongus (Bloch 1786) -- (Sheiko 1983:19 [ref. 37041], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:537 [ref. 23876]). •Valid as Gastrophysus oblongsus (Bloch 1786) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Takifugu oblongus (Bloch 1786) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:362 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:902 [ref. 5714], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1059 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:626 [ref. 27969], Lindberg et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23547], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1423 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:288 [ref. 25480], Ebert 2001:32 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1423 [ref. 26193], Fricke et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:337 [ref. 31171], Verruraj et al. 2011:9 [ref. 31496], Hata et al. 2012:257 [ref. 32681], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:106 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:338 [ref. 34104], Yoshida et al. 2013:232 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2018:389 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:124 [ref. 36262], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:310 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:138 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:624 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:133 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu oblongus (Bloch 1786). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to Indonesia, north to central Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obscurus, Sphoeroides ocellatus form Abe [T.] 1949:97, Pls. 1 (figs. 3-4), 2 (fig. 1) [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan v. 14 (no. 13); ref. 3] Market in Tokyo, Japan (among fishes caught from eastern China Sea or its adjoining waters). Holotype: ZUMT 8015. Paratypes: ZUMT 8016 (1, dry), ZUMT [ex ABE 2079 and 2079'] (2). Non-types (doubtfully included): ZUMT 29800-03 (4). •Valid as Fugu obscurus (Abe 1949) -- (Zheng 1989:381 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:191 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:489 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:341 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Takifugu obscurus (Abe 1949) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:118 [ref. 23547], Kim 1997:504 [ref. 24032], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1423 [ref. 25182], Ebert 2001:78 [ref. 25494], Kim & Park 2002:424 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1423 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 699 [ref. 26218]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu obscurus (Abe 1949). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

occipitalis, Prilonotus Kaup [J. J.] in Richardson 1854:162 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Not available, name only. Tetraodontidae.

occipitalis, Tetrodon Poey [F.] 2000:828, Pl. 469 (fig. 4) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Figured specimen listed as type. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

oceanicus, Lagocephalus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:199 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2450] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: USNM 50820. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7784 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:144 [ref. 12291]. If the subspecies oceanicus is recognized, then the oldest name for that subspecies is Tetraodon janthinus Vaillant & Sauvage 1875. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:368 [ref. 19756], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:1430 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1430 [ref. 26193], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256]). •Valid as Lagocephalus oceanicus Jordan & Evermann 1903 -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:158 [ref. 23547]). •Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:906 [ref. 22532], Parin 2003:S34 [ref. 28536], Mundy 2005:536 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:495 [ref. 30952], Wu et al. 2011:623 [ref. 32150], Parin et al. 2014:552 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellaris, Tetraodon Klausewitz [W.] 1957:201, Pl. 18 (fig. 2); Fig. 4 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 38 (nos 3/4); ref. 12152] Near Patalung, south of the peninsula, Thailand. Holotype: SMF 3975. Paratypes: SMF 3827 (20), 3976 (1). •Synonym of Tetraodon fangi Pellegrin & Chevey 1940 -- (Dekkers 1975:112 [ref. 7417]). •See Kottelat 1998:120 [ref. 23436]. •Synonym of Tetraodon cochinchinensis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Ebert 2001:21 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Monotrete cochinchinensis (Steindachner 1866) -- (Kottelat 2001:166 [ref. 25780]). •Valid as Monotrete ocellaris (Klausewitz 1957) -- (Tan & Kottelat 2009:64 [ref. 30261]). •Valid as Pao ocellarus (Klausewitz 1957) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pao ocellaris (Klausewitz 1957). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Malay Peninsula. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Crayracion fluviatilis var. Steindachner [F.] 1870:640 [18], Pl. 5 (figs. 2-2a) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] Johor, Malaysia/ Pengulan Patie, India. Syntypes: NMW (4). On p. 18 of separate. Described as a variety. •Synonym of Tetraodon biocellatus Tirant 1885 -- (Ebert 2001:20 [ref. 25494]). •Valid as Dichotomyctere ocellatus (Steindachner 1870) -- (Kottelat 2013:476 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Dichotomyctere ocellatus (Steindachner 1870). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ocellatus, Tetraodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:333 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Asia and Egypt in fresh water. •Valid as Fugu ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Zheng 1989:380 [ref. 21202], Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:538 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:191 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:484 [ref. 26385], Kottelat 2001:64 [ref. 25482]). •Valid as Gastrophysus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Takifugu ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Lindberg et al. 1997:117 [ref. 23547], Nakabo 2000:1424 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:289 [ref. 25480], Ebert 2001:32 [ref. 25494], Nakabo 2002:1424 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ocellatus, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1865-69:67 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 416] Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Crayracion palembangensis; not Tetraodon ocellatus Linnaeus 1758. Tetraodontidae.

ocellatus, Tetrodon Bennett [J. W.] 1830:unnum. p., Pl. 21 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Tetraodon ocellatus Linnaeus 1758. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Canthigaster bennetti (Bleeker 1854) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:488 [ref. 6714], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43-44 [ref. 21456]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster bennetti (Bleeker 1854). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Tetrodon Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:462 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique. No types known. Also described as new in Peters 1855:274 [ref. 13448]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

ocellicincta, Canthigaster Allen [G. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:485, Fig. 3B [Records of the Australian Museum v. 30 (no. 17); ref. 6714] Off Tanavulu Point near entrance to Sandfly Passage, Florida Island, Solomon Islands, depth 20-30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 15933. Paratypes: AMS I.17500-001 (1), BPBM 18378 (2), MNHN 1975-0002 (1), USNM 211299 (1), WAM P.25283-004 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Canthigaster ocellicincta Allen & Randall 1977 -- (Randall et al. 1990:477 [ref. 15987], Matsuura & Yoshino 1992:179 [ref. 20431], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:477 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Nakabo 2000:1418 [ref. 25182], Kuiter 1997:420 [ref. 25488] as ocellicauda, Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Randall et al. 2002:164 [ref. 26192], Nakabo 2002:1418 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:650 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1918 [ref. 29099], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1094 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:199 [ref. 33932], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster ocellicincta Allen & Randall 1977. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, to Solomon Islands, south to Australia, New Caledonia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

oculifer, Prilonotus Kaup [J. J.] in Richardson 1854:162 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Not available, name only. Tetraodontidae.

ophryas, Arothron Cope [E. D.] 1871:479 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Navigators Islands [= Samoa], Pacific. Holotype (unique): ANSP 651. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

orbimaculatus, Takifugu Kuang [Y.-D.], Li [C.-S.] & Liang [S.-H.] 1984:58 [English p. 60], Figs. 1-3 [Haiyang-huzhai-tongbao: jikan = Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology / Haiyang-huzhaoptongbao Bianweihui bianji. No. 4; ref. 23877] Creek in Lianhuashan, Humen, Guangdong, China. Holotype: PR-810617 in Zhu Jiang Fish. Res. Inst. Paratypes: Zhu Jiang Fish. Res. Inst., Guangzhou: PR-820620 (1), 840521 (1); Inst. Oceanol., Qingdao: PR-840618 (1), 810520 (1), 840628 (1). •Valid as Fugu orbimaculatus (Kuang, Li & Liang 1984) -- (Kuang in Pan et al. 1991:539 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:191 [ref. 25213]). •Now placed in Takifugu Abe 1949 -- (authors). Current status: Valid as Takifugu orbimaculatus Kuang, Li & Liang 1984. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

ornatus, Tetrodon Poey [F.] 1867:244 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 14078] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Canthigaster rostratus (Bloch 1786) -- (Moura & Castro 2002:37 [ref. 25970]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster rostratus (Bloch 1786). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

otteri, Ovoides aerostaticus Whitley [G. P.] 1932:311, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Great Barrier Reef Expedition, 1928-29: scientific reports. v. 4 (no. 9); ref. 4676] Batt Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.4494. •Synonym of Arothron stellataus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

oviformis, Tetraodon Commerson [P.] in Lacepède 1798:521, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 1; ref. 2708] Indian Ocean. Appeared as "Tetraodon oviformis, pinnis tantùm pectoralibus gaudens, ..."; regarded as non-binominal and not available. See ICZN Opinion 89. Tetraodontidae.

oxylophius, Tropidichthys Smith [J. L. B.] 1931:159, Pl. 16 [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 4062] Kareiga River mouth, near Port Alfred, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 307 [ex AMG]. •Synonym of Canthigaster bennetti (Bleeker 1854) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:488 [ref. 6714], Smith & Heemstra 1986:898 [ref. 5714]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster bennetti (Bleeker 1854). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

oxyrrhynchus, Tetrodon Lockington [W. N.] 1881:114 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 33; ref. 14288] Angeles Bay, Gulf of California, Mexico. No types known. Lockington believes this to be Tetrodon punctatissimus Günther 1870, but proposes the name if the specimen proves distinct. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:496 [ref. 6714]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

pachycephalus, Tetraodon Ranzani [C.] 1839:73 [9], Pl. 10 (figs. 2a-e) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 4 [1840]; ref. 18606] Brazil. Syntypes: MZUB 972 (2), 946 (1). Appeared first without description as Ranzani in Alessandrini 1838:433 [ref. 25852]. Dates to publication in a separate, on p. 9 and Pl. 3 in 1839; journal version in 1840. •Synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Shipp 2003:1994 [ref. 27120] but with authorship wrongly as Jordan & Rutter 1897, Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3070 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus 1766). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

pachygaster, Tetrodon (Cheilichthys) Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:677 [20] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4290. Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:20. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Liosaccus pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848) -- (Amaoka in Okamura et al. 1982:305, 410 [ref. 8256]). •Valid as Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:476 [ref. 14275], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:641, 750 [ref. 8056], Robins & Ray 1986:308 [ref. 23100], Smith & Heemstra 1986:902 [ref. 5714], Edwards & Glass 1987:670 [ref. 9166], Scott & Scott 1988:568 [ref. 25518], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:227 [ref. 14674], Matsuura in Amaoka et al. 1990:334 [ref. 16024], Shipp 1990:1072 [ref. 19531], Boschung 1992:183 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:450 [ref. 23827], Arculeo et al. 1994:209 [ref. 22333], Golani 1996:30 [ref. 22271], Cervigón 1996:125 [ref. 24489], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:202 [ref. 23219], Shinohara et al. 1996:184 [ref. 26605], Santos et al. 1997:115 [ref. 23531], Lindberg et al. 1997:169 [ref. 23547], Arruda 1997:123 [ref. 24952], Bedini 1998:94 [ref. 24057], Savinykh & Balanov 1999:424 [ref. 24871], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1421 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Shinohara et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25995], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:158 [ref. 26753], Dulĉić 2002:133 [ref. 26085], Nakabo 2002:1421 [ref. 26193], Shipp 2003:2000 [ref. 27120], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Parin 2003:S34 [ref. 28536], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Golani 2005:65 [ref. 37112], Mendiola 2005:6 [ref. 28208], Shinohara et al. 2005:444 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:536 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:926 [ref. 28815], Hoese et al. 2006:1925 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2007:118 [ref. 29533], Randall 2007:495 [ref. 30952], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:76 [ref. 36649], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256], Bañón & Santás 2011:1574 [ref. 31248], Shinohara et al. 2011:58 [ref. 31715], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:137 [ref. 32972], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Shinohara et al. 2014:279 [ref. 33330], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:552 [ref. 33547], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:191 [ref. 37485], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1739 [ref. 34322], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3073 [ref. 34618], Koeda et al. 2016:115 [ref. 35333], Nión et al. 2016:56 [ref. 35565], Fricke et al. 2018:389 [ref. 35805], Brown et al. 2019:184 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:225 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36864], Iglésias et al. 2019:282 [ref. 37098], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717], Bariche & Fricke 2020:151 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:35 [ref. 37519], Psomadakis et al. 2020:624 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:131 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides pachygaster (Müller & Troschel 1848). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Japan). Habitat: marine.

palembangensis, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1851:25 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 10); ref. 16874] Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7341 (possibly 1 of 5). Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1867.11.28.115 (1), MNHN 0000-2310 (1), RMNH 7341 (probably 4 of 5). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:466 [ref. 21440]. Also in Bleeker 1852:605 [ref. 334], earliest not established. •Valid as Tetraodon palembangensis Bleeker 1851 -- (Dekkers 1975:104 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1989:188 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:175 [ref. 23448], Ebert 2001:26 [ref. 25494]). •Valid as Monotrete palembangensis (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284]). •Valid as Pao palembangensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:538 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Pao palembangensis (Bleeker 1851). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Indochina, Malaya (Malaysia), Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

pallimaculatus, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] 1983:20, Fig. 8 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 13 (no. 1/2); ref. 5341] Princess Charlotte Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.15995. Paratypes: AMS IA.6773 (1), I.13151-52 (1, 1), I.15557-259 (5, 1 skel.); CSIRO C 551 (1), C 2313 (1), C 2576 (1), C 3951 (1); NTM S.0231 (1); QM I.14271 (1), I.16995 (1), I.16063 (2), I.16761-62 (1, 1), I.16764 (1); WAM P.13490-001 (1), P.13491-001 (1), P.22070-001 (1), P.23439-001 (1, skel.), P.23440-001 (1), P.23799-001 (1), P.25095-026 (2), P.26293-002 (1), P.26929-001 (2). Type information: Hutchins & Smith 1991:46 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Torquigener pallimaculatus Hardy 1983 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1927 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32988], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener pallimaculatus Hardy 1983. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Australia. Habitat: marine.

palustris, Tetraodon Saenjundaeng [P.], Vidthayanon [C.] & Grudpun [G.] 2013:78, Figs. 1-2, 5 (A-B) [Zootaxa 3686 (no. 1); ref. 32782] Nongkomkoh Swamp, Amphoe Mueang, Nong Khai Province, Mekong basin, Thailand. Holotype: KUMF 8834. Paratypes: KUMF 8835 (6), 8836 (8), 8837 (14), 8838 (10), 8839 (10), 8840 (13); NIFI 513 (1), 624 (1), 630 (1), 3425 (4), 3628 (1). •Synonym of Pao brevirostris (Benl 1957) -- (Kottelat 2013:479 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Pao palustris (Saenjundaeng, Vidthayanon & Grudpun 2013) -- (Saenjundaeg et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782]). Current status: Valid as Pao palustris (Saenjundaeng, Vidthayanon & Grudpun 2013). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Mekong basin, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

pantherinus, Tetraodon Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:215, Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Macao. Tetraodontidae.

papua, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1848:638 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 2 (no. 9); ref. 315] Bima, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: ?AMS B.7769 (1) Almorrha, BMNH 1867.11.28.122 (1), RMNH 7358 (1 or more of 6). •Synonym of Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:481 [ref. 6714], Randall et al. 1990:477 [ref. 15987]). •Valid as Canthigaster papua (Bleeker 1848) -- (Randall 1995:405 [ref. 22896], Kuiter 1997:418 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:477 [ref. 25919], Anderson et al. 1998:29 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Randall 2005:651 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1918 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:492 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1094 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:199 [ref. 33932], To & Shea 2016:1 [ref. 34792], Fricke et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36673], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Psomadakis et al. 2020:619 [ref. 37272], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster papua (Bleeker 1848). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar, Andaman Islands and Indonesia east to Palau, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

parcuspinus, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] 1983:23, Fig. 9 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 13 (no. 1/2); ref. 5341] Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.19450-010. •Valid as Torquigener parcuspinus Hardy 1983 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1927 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:239 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener parcuspinus Hardy 1983. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:282, Pl. 123 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1575 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1846.2.1613. [ex RMNH] (stuffed), RMNH D1572-1574 (3, stuffed), 3997 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:203 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Fugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:480 [ref. 26385] dated 1847). •Valid as Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23547], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1421 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:47 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1421 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 699 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S34 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:553 [ref. 33547], Dyldin et al. 2016:135 [ref. 34682], Sonoyama et al. 2020:133 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

parvus, Sphoeroides Shipp [R. L.] & Yerger [R. W.] 1969:478, Figs. 1, 3b [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 82; ref. 7846] Center of Mobile Bay, Alabama, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 203248 [ex FSU 15365]. Paratypes: AMNH 27399 [ex FSU 15365] (10); ANSP 97647 (51), 98275 (2), 98279 (2); BLBG uncat. (1); BLGT (1, 2, 1, 3); FMNH 74783 [ex FSU 15365] (10); IMS 614 (3), 619 (8), 622 (4), 624 (1); MCZ 46203 [es FSU 15365] (10); MNHN 1985-1123 (4); TU 9381 (1), 19038 (2), 22573 (14); UA 62 (5), 296 (15), 397 (5), 625 (22), 1290 (17); UF 2731 (2), 4437 (8), 65364 [ex FSU 15364] (35, now 5), 65365 [ex FSU 15365] (176), 202618 [ex UMML 2618] (1); plus non-types. Type catalog: Suttkus 1970:128 [ref. 20861], Gilbert 1974:113 [ref. 21035], Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367], Bart & Taylor 1993:67 [ref. 20906]. •Valid as Sphoeroides parvus Shipp & Yerger 1969 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:307 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:183 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:516 [ref. 24550], Ebert 2001:77 [ref. 25494], Shipp 2003:2001 [ref. 27120], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:921 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides parvus Shipp & Yerger 1969. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

parvus, Tetraodon Joannis [L. de] 1835:no page number, Pl. 15 [Magasin de Zoologie 1835 (5 anneé); ref. 2355] Al-Qusair, Egypt, Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

patoca, Tetrodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:7, 362, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries, India. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Chelonodon patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:304 [ref. 19754], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Ataur Rahman 1989:55 [ref. 24860], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:674 [ref. 25598], Randall et al. 1990:475 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jingran 1991:1057 [ref. 20764], Allen 1991:208 [ref. 21090], Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:402 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:625 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:240 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:416 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:475 [ref. 25919], Arunachalam et al. 1999:12 [ref. 24090], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1427 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:286 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:188 [ref. 25703], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:330 [ref. 27511], Ebert 2001:30 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Sakai et al. 2001:124 [ref. 25693], Allen et al. 2002:353 [ref. 25930], Matsuura 2002:177 [ref. 26209], Nakabo 2002:1427 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:229 [ref. 27510], Khan 2003:11 [ref. 27710], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:50 [ref. 27712], Ataur Rahman 2003:70 [ref. 31338], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:357 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1919 [ref. 29099] with author as Hamilton-Buchanan, Arunachalam et al. 2009:238 [ref. 30304] with author as Hamilton-Buchanan, Matsuura 2009:336 [ref. 31171], Verruraj et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31496] with author as Hamilton-Buchanan, Allen & Erdmann 2012:1096 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:231 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:199 [ref. 33932], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2015:105 [ref. 34319], Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:328 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:137 [ref. 37020]). •Valid as Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:336 [ref. 34104], Miesen et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34492], Fricke et al. 2018:388 [ref. 35805], Psomadakis et al. 2018:[7] [ref. 36003], Habib et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 36229], Psomadakis et al. 2020:621 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Chelonodontops patoca (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Persian Gulf, India and Sri Lanka east to French Polynesia, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

paxtoni, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] 1983:17, Fig. 7 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 13 (no. 1/2); ref. 5341] Shark Bay, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.23298-001. Paratypes: WAM P.13488-001 (1), 13489-001 (1), P.23296-001 (1), P/.3297-001 (1), P.23299-001 to 23302-001 (1 ea.), P.23607-001 to 23610-001 (1 ea.), P.26771-001 (1, skel.), P.26924-001 (9), P.26924-002 (1), P.26925-001 (1), P.26926-001 (1), P.26927-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:46 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Torquigener paxtoni Hardy 1983 -- (Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1928 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener paxtoni Hardy 1983. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

pennantii, Tetrodon Yarrell [W.] 1836:347, Fig. [A history of British fishes; ref. 4812] Cornish Coast of England. No types known. Replacement name for Tetraodon stellatus Donovan 1804, preoccupied by Tetrodon lagocephalus stellatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1343 [ref. 13677] with author as Swainson). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

perlevis, Spheroides Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:22 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3286] Sandgate, Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.1554 [ex AFAQ]. •Valid as Torquigener perlevis (Ogilby 1908) -- (Hardy 1983:28 [ref. 5341], Hardy 1989:121 [ref. 17672], Kuiter 1993:401 [ref. 23929], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Ebert 2001:80 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1928 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener perlevis (Ogilby 1908). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

peronii, Tetraodon Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:282 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Indonesia. No types known. Original as Peronii. Possibly available by reference to "De Verkenstop, Valentyn, fig. 498" [= 'De verkenskop' of Valentyn 1726:502, fig. 498 [ref. 30358]]. See Kottelat 2001:615 [ref. 25859]. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

perspicillaris, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:63 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 260 (1, dry), 196-99 (4), 6200-01 (1, 1, dry), 8184 (1, skeleton). Dor 1984:283 [ref. 29757] lists paralectotypes but does not designate a lectotype. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Dor 1984:283 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall et al. 2012:42, 52 [ref. 31764], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

petersii, Tetrodon Bianconi [G. G.] 1854:68 [Rendiconto delle Sessioni dell'Accademia delle Scienze dell'Instituto dei Bologna 1853-1854 (for 11 May 1854); ref. 17949] Mozambique. No types known. Name also appeared in Bianconi 1854:225 [ref. 295] and Bianconi 1855:147 [ref. 26452] with figure. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:481 [ref. 6714]). •Valid as Canthigaster petersii (Bianconi 1854) -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1095 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:386 [ref. 35805], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Zajonz et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:619 [ref. 37272], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster petersii (Bianconi 1854). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to southern India, Andaman Islands and Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

physa, Tetrodon Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1809:[176], Pls. 1 (fig. 1), 2 [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4182] Egypt. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3563 (1, figured), 0000-3566 (1), B-1471 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:467 [ref. 21440] with holotype and paratypes. Rüppell 1829:5 [ref. 22233] spelled the name as Tetraodon physis. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. The page number is from a different edition. •Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Roberts 1986:434 [ref. 6223] with 3566 as holotype, Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

picturatus, Tetrodon Poey [F.] 2000:831, Pl. 470 (fig. 5) [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

pictus, Prilonotus Kaup [J. J.] in Richardson 1854:162 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Not available, name only. Tetraodontidae.

pinguis, Tetraodon Vaillant [L. L.] 1902:38 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 24 (note 1); ref. 4490] Mahakam River at Tepu, Borneo. Holotype (?): RMNH 7928. Non-types: MNHN 1891-0213 and 0214 (1, 1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:466 [ref. 21440] as 1891-213. •Synonym of Tetraodon palembangensis Bleeker 1852 -- (Dekkers 1975:105 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1989:188 [ref. 6439] but misspelled, Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Pao palembangensis (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pao palembangensis (Bleeker 1851). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

piosae, Torquigener Whitley [G. P.] 1955:56, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1953-54; ref. 4724] 3 miles west of Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.3217. Paratypes: AMS IB.3218 (1), WAM P.3681-001 to P.3686-001 (1 ea.). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:46 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Polyspina piosae (Whitley 1955) -- (Hardy 1983:42 [ref. 5341], Gomon et al. 1994:910 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:416 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1924 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:854 [ref. 30661], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Polyspina piosae (Whitley 1955). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

plagiocellatus, Takifugu Li [C.-S.] in Su & Li 2002:250, 447, Fig. 115 [Fauna Sinica. Osteichthyes. Tetraodontiformes, Pegasiformes, Gobiesociformes, Lophioformes. i-xii +1-495; ref. 28836] Coast of Xincun, Hainan Province, China. Holotype: IOCAS H92 (445 mm SL). Paratypes: IOCAS H92 (3), English summ. on pp. 447-448. •Valid as Takifugu plagiocellatus Li 2002. Current status: Valid as Takifugu plagiocellatus Li 2002. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Coast of Hainan Island, China. Habitat: marine.

pleei, Sténométope Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8344. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:471 [ref. 21440] as pleii with type as above. Name only, not available; genus not Latinized. Subsequent availability not researched. Tetraodontidae.

pleurogramma, Tetrodon Regan [C. T.] 1903:300, Pl. 24 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1902, v. 2 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 4 Nov. 1902); ref. 14413] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Lectotype: BMNH 1890.9.23.246. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1853.7.21.3 (1), 1862.10.23.23 (2), 1864.1.1.7.27-28 (2), 1890.9.23.247-248 (3). Lectotype selected by Hardy 1983:36 [ref. 5341]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Torquigener pleurogramma (Regan 1903) -- (Hardy 1983:34 [ref. 5341], Hardy 1989:121 [ref. 17672], Kuiter 1993:419 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:912 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:416 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1928 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:856 [ref. 30661], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener pleurogramma (Regan 1903). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Western Australia, eastern Australia, Lord Howe Island. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pleurospilus, Tetrodon Regan [C. T.] 1919:203 [Annals of the Durban Museum v. 2 (pt 4) (art. 18); ref. 15230] Durban, KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1919.9.12.52. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Chelonodon pleurospilus (Regan 1919) -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:900 [ref. 5714], Ebert 2001:75 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2002:173 [ref. 26209]). •Valid as Chelonodontops pleurospilus (Regan 1919) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2018:[7] [ref. 36003], Habib et al. 2018:[7] [ref. 36229]). Current status: Valid as Chelonodontops pleurospilus (Regan 1919). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: East coast of South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pleurostictus, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1872:674, Pl. 69 (fig. A) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1871 (pt 3) (art. 1) (for 21 Nov. 1871); ref. 1997] Port Bower and Port Mackay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: BMNH 1871.9.13.127 (1), 1871.9.13.128 (1). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Sphoeroides pleurostictus (Günther 1872) -- (Roberts 1978:70 [ref. 8886]). •Valid as Marilyna pleurosticta (Günther 1872) -- (Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Ebert 2001:77 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1923 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:238 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Marilyna pleurosticta (Günther 1872). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish.

plumerii, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:509 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] America. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

poecilonotus, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:279, Pl. 124 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 4038a. Paralectotypes: RMNH D1576-1579 (4, stuffed, = paratypes of Takifugu flavipterus Matsuura 2017), RMNH 4038b, c, d, e (4). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:201 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Takifugu poecilonotus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:141 [ref. 23547], Kim 1997:503 [ref. 24032], Nakabo 2000:1423 [ref. 25182], Pietsch et al. 2001:147 [ref. 25688], Shimizu 2001:47 [ref. 25799], Kim & Park 2002:423 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1423 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 699 [ref. 26218], Dyldin et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34682], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:202 [ref. 35257]). •Synonym of Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845) -- (Matsuura 2017:72 [ref. 35985]). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu alboplumbeus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

politus, Tetrodon Girard [C. F.] 1858:340 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 983. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

polyophthalmus, Canthigaster Pietschmann [V.] 1938:51, Pl. 1C [Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum No. 156; ref. 17214] Kaupoa, Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW. •Synonym of Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:499 [ref. 6714], Mundy 2005:534 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

porphyreus, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:282, Pl. 121 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Bay of Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 1566 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: (4) RMNH D1564-1565 and D1567 (3, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:203 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Fugu porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:481 [ref. 26385] dated 1847). •Valid as Takifugu porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:641, 750 [ref. 8056], Lindberg et al. 1997:136 [ref. 23547], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1422 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1422 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 700 [ref. 26218], Barabanshchikov 2003:849 [ref. 27538], Parin 2003:S34 [ref. 28536], Poltev & Koynov 2011:819 [ref. 32470], Parin et al. 2014:553 [ref. 33547], Dyldin et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34682], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:203 [ref. 35257], Sonoyama et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu porphyreus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

potamophilus, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1849:16 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Surabaya and Kammal; near Jakarta, Semarang, etc., Java, Indonesia. Possible types: BMNH 1867.11.28.108 (1), RMNH 7357 (in part). •Synonym of Tetraodon nigroviridis Marion de Procé 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:123 [ref. 7417], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Dichotomyctere nigroviridis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Dichotomyctere nigroviridis (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

psegma, Tropidichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1903:209 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 22 (1902); ref. 2449] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 50885. •Synonym of Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:499 [ref. 6714], Mundy 2005:534 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster amboinensis (Bleeker 1864). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

pseudommus, Lagocephalus Chu [Y.-T.] 1935:87 [The China Journal v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 13877] Chusan, Chekiang, China. Holotype: Uncat. 1. Additional material or syntypes: UMMZ 70297 (7). UMMZ specimens probably should not be considered types as they were referred with question as, "... are apparently the young of the same species." •Valid as Fugu pseudommus (Chu 1935) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:486 [ref. 26385], Wang et al. 2001:339 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Takifugu pseudommus (Chu 1935) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:129 [ref. 23547], Nakabo 2000:1425 [ref. 25182], Song et al. 2001:129 [ref. 25468], Nakabo 2002:1425 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 700 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Dyldin et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34682], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:203 [ref. 35257]). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific off China [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

pseudopterus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:508 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean, near Francicam Island. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

psittacinus, Orbis Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] India [erroneous, should be Western Atlantic] Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. Coll. 47 (1). Based on "Peroquet [sic] Lacep.", i.e. "Le Tétrodon perroquet" of Lacepède 1798:477 [ref. 2708], which is based on Tetraodon testudineus Linnaeus 1758; see Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

psittacus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:505, Pl. 95 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Indian Ocean [in error]. Syntypes: ZMB 4297 (3). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:150 [ref. 24282]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Tyler 1964:141 [ref. 22575], Ovchynnyk 1967:44 [ref. 37559], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:478 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:448 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:117 [ref. 24489], Keith et al. 2000:262 [ref. 24547], Ebert 2001:20 [ref. 25494], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Shipp 2003:1993 [ref. 27120], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:670 [ref. 27061], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192].Phillip et al. 2013:26 [ref. 32896], Amaral et al. 2013:1 [ref. 33364], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324]). Current status: Valid as Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

pulchellus, Chelonodontops Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:157, Pl. 2 (figs. A-B) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 4121] Xora River mouth, Transkei, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, 32°50'S, 29°E. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 326. •Synonym of Chelonodon pleurospilus (Regan 1919) -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:900 [ref. 5714], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Chelonodontops pleurospilus (Regan 1919) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2018:[7] [ref. 36003]). Current status: Synonym of Chelonodontops pleurospilus (Regan 1919). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctata, Canthigaster Matsuura [K.] 1992:127, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of the National Science Museum Series A (Zoology) v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 20989] Mascarene Submarine Ridge, 10°23'S, 61°40'E, depth 92 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 35305. Paratypes: NSMT-P 35306 (1). •Valid as Canthigaster punctata Matsuura 1992 -- (Psomadakis et al. 2020:619 [ref. 37272], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster punctata Matsuura 1992. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: northern Mascarene Ridge; Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

punctatissimus, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1870:302 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Pacific coast of Panama. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1863.12.16.7-14 (8?). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:496 [ref. 6714], Randall et al. 1990:476 [ref. 15987], Allen & Robertson 1994:300 [ref. 22193], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1633 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:304 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:648 [ref. 24023], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Thomson et al. 2000:276 [ref. 25640], Moura & Castro 2002:45 [ref. 25970], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:649 [ref. 28239], Randall 2007:491 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:152 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Tropical eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Tetrodon Poey [F.] 1868:432 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Cuba. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Tetrodon punctatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

punctatus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:506 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] East India [not Brazilian Seas]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4292 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:150 [ref. 24282]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paepke 1999:150 [ref. 24282], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Tetrodon Shaw [G.] 1804:447 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. No types known. Based on Tetrodon pointillé of Lacepède. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

punctulatus, Fugu Chu [Y.-T.] & Hsu [no initials] in Chu, Chan & Chen 1963:559, Figs. 423, 423A [Ichthyofauna of the East China Sea; ref. 18002] Shanghai fish market, China. Holotype: SFI 59-1090. Paratypes: SFI 59-1091 (1), 59-1095 (1). Tetraodontidae.

punctulatus, Orbis Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Mauritius? No types known. Based on the “pointillé Lac.”, i.e., Le Tétrodon pointillé of Lacepède 1798:485 [ref. 2708], which is based on the "Tetrodon hispidus, punctis in dorso, guttis in ventre defluentibus atris ..." of Commerson 1767-1771:No. 80 [ref. 34154]; see Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106] and Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106]). •Probably a synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pusillus, Tetrodon Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:645 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 121 (1), ZMB 8080 (2). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Randall et al. 2012:42 [ref. 31764], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pustulatus, Tetraodon Murray [A.] 1857:253 [Proceedings of the Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh. v. 1; ref. 21736] Old Calabar [presumably lower Cross River], Nigeria. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.6.14.5-6 (2). •Valid as Tetraodon pustulatus Murray 1857 -- (Roberts 1986:435 [ref. 6223], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:869 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:105 [ref. 24781], Ebert 2001:41 [ref. 25494], Schelly & Carvalho 2007:571 [ref. 30090]). Current status: Valid as Tetraodon pustulatus Murray 1857. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Cameroon and Nigeria. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pygmaea, Canthigaster Allen [G. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:498, Fig. 15 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 30 (no. 17); ref. 6714] About 100 meters south of Marine Laboratory at Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 3 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18012. Paratypes: BMNH 1975.1.13.1-2 (2); BPBM 17875-76 (1, 2); CAS 31792-93 (1, 5); HUJ 4756 (3), 7005-08 (2, 2, 10, 4); MNHN 1975-0003 (1); SMF 13227 (4); USNM 212284 (13), 212286-87 (1, 23); WAM P.25124-001 (1), P.25125-001 (2). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Golani 2006:35 [ref. 28840], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Canthigaster pygmaea Allen & Randall 1977 -- (Dor 1984:286 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:182 [ref. 36273], Matsuura et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster pygmaea Allen & Randall 1977. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

radiatus, Sphoeroides vermicularis Abe [T.] 1947:159, Fig. 1 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 57 (no. 10); ref. 12992] Ariake Sound, Fukuoka, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 18069. Paratypes: whereabouts unknown. Page is 159, not 133-135 as given in Ref. 20459 References. Appeared in English in Abe 1948:228 [ref. 20459]. •Valid as Takifugu radiatus (Abe 1947) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:135 [ref. 23547]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu radiatus (Abe 1947). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

randalli, Torquigener Hardy [G. S.] 1983:71, Fig. 4 [Pacific Science v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 5342] Off Haleiwa, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, 21°40'N, 158°07'W, depth 101-104 meters. Holotype: BPBM 24387 (1 of 3). Paratypes: ANSP 150281 (1); BPBM 5093 (1), 24387 (now 1); NMNZ P.13167 (1, c&s); USNM 247235 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:15 [ref. 18942]. •Valid as Torquigener randalli Hardy 1983 -- (Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Mundy 2005:537 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:496 [ref. 30952]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener randalli Hardy 1983. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

rangoonensis, Dichotomycterus Le Danois [Y.] 1959:133, Figs. 85-88 [Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco (Nouvelle Série) v. 36 (art. 1); ref. 12003] Region of Rangoon, Myanma/ Bengal, India. Syntypes: MNHN B-1564 (now 5). Non-types: MNHN 1961-1117 (4). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:462 [ref. 21440]. •Synonym of Chelonodon fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1055 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Tetraodon fluviatilis Hamilton 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:127 [ref. 7417], Ebert 2001:23 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Dichotomyctere fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Dichotomyctere fluviatilis (Hamilton 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rapaensis, Canthigaster Allen [G. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:492, Fig. 4C [Records of the Australian Museum v. 30 (no. 17); ref. 6714] Off southern side of Ruea Point, Rapa Island, southern Pacific, depth 45 feet. Holotype: BPBM 12952. Paratypes: AMS I.16588-001 (1); BPBM 12662 (1), 12983 (1); USNM 208277 (1), 208346 (1). •Valid as Canthigaster rapaensis Allen & Randall 1977 -- (Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Randall 2005:650 [ref. 28239], Williams et al. 2012:84 [ref. 32264], Matsuura et al. 2020:85 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster rapaensis Allen & Randall 1977. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: South Central Pacific: Rapa Island and French Polynesia. Habitat: marine.

regani, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1910:468, Pl. 175 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] Society Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Uncertain status in Arothron -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

remotus, Chonerhinos Roberts [T. R.] 1982:11, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 5513] Kinabatangan basin, mouth of Sungai Deramakot, Malaysia. Holotype: FMNH 68476. Paratypes: CAS 49743 [ex FMNH 68475] (10); CAS-SU 33487 (2), 33563 (10); FMNH 44931 (1), 68474-75 (3, 51), 94597 (9); N. Borneo Mus. [ex FMNH] (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Chonerhinos remotus Roberts 1982 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448]). •Valid as Auriglobus remotus (Roberts 1982) -- (Ebert 2001:43 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Auriglobus remotus (Roberts 1982). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indochina and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

reticularis, Anchisomus Richardson [J.] (ex Kaup) 1854:161, Pl. 31 (figs. 4-5) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Western coasts of southern Atlantic, northwards to Jamaica. Syntypes: (2) BMNH. Tetraodontidae.

reticularis, Dilobomycter Bleeker [P.] 1865:71 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 416] Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Crayracion testudineus. Tetraodontidae.

reticularis, Fugu Tian [M.-C.], Cheng [Q.-T.] & Wang [Q.] in Cheng et al. 1975:369 [English p. 377], Pl. 1 (fig. 6) [Acta Zoologica Sinica v. 21 (no. 4); ref. 7414] Shidao, Shandong Province, China. Holotype: ASIO 66-266. Paratypes: ASIO 66-255 (1), 66-281 (1). •Valid as Fugu reticularis Tian, Cheng & Wang 1975 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:486 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Takifugu reticularis (Tian, Cheng & Wang 1975) -- (Nakabo 2000:1425 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1425 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 700 [ref. 26218] with authors as Tien, Chen & Wang). Current status: Valid as Takifugu reticularis (Tian, Cheng & Wang 1975). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: marine.

reticularis, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:506 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Malabar sea, India. Syntypes: ZMB 4259 (1) Tranquebar, 4304 (1, dry, lost) East India. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:150 [ref. 24282]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron reticularis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:674 [ref. 25598], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1054 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:410 [ref. 25488], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182], Ebert 2001:29 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Sakai et al. 2001:124 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:227 [ref. 27510], Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2009:336 [ref. 31171] with author as Marion de Procé 1822, Verruraj et al. 2011:4 [ref. 31496], Randall et al. 2012:41 [ref. 31764], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1090 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron reticularis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to central Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

reticulatus, Aphanacanthe Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:278 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Types: MNHN B-1505 (1), B-1507 (1), B-1576 (1), B-1577 (1). Appeared under Aphanacanthe as "T. reticulatus". Name only, no distinguishing features; genus not Latinized. See Le Danois 1959:183 [ref. 12003]. Le Danois 1962:469 [ref. 21440] lists types at MNHN. •In the synonymy of Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813) -- (Hardy 1983:10 [ref. 5341], Hoese et al. 2006:1925 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Tetractenos glaber (Fréminville 1813). Tetraodontidae.

reticulatus, Canthigaster punctatissimus Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1936:50, Figs. 17, 18 (upper) [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 2 (art. 3); ref. 634] San Jose Island, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: YPM 1067. Paratypes: YPM 1063 (5), 1089 (1), 1277 (2), 1278 (2). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:27 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:496 [ref. 6714]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster punctatissima (Günther 1870). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1849:16 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [8]; ref. 320] Madura Straits near Surabaya and Kammal, Java, Indonesia. Tetraodontidae.

richei, Tetrodon Fréminville [C. P. P.] 1813:250, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique, Paris. v. 3 (no. 67); ref. 18094] Port Recherche, Terre de Nyts, Great Australian Bight, Australia. Syntypes: MNHN B-1503 (1), B-1504 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:468 [ref. 21440] as holotype and paratype. Also appeared in Bleeker 1855:24, Fig. 3 [ref. 346], but that was a new combination and not an original description. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Contusus richei (Fréminville 1813) -- (Hardy 1981 [ref. 8595], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:421 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:905 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:414 [ref. 25488], Ebert 2001:76 [ref. 25494], Hoese et al. 2006:1920 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:851 [ref. 30661], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1735 [ref. 34322]). Current status: Valid as Contusus richei (Fréminville 1813). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia to New Zealand region. Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:285, Pl. 124 (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Nagasaki Bay, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 4653a. Paralectotypes: RMNH D1568-1571 (4, stuffed), 4653b (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:205 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:492 [ref. 6714], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:637 [ref. 8056], Smith & Heemstra 1986:899 [ref. 5714], Matsuura 1986:224 [ref. 6715], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Suzuki & Uno 1992:4 [ref. 24139], Kuiter 1993:419 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:405 [ref. 22896], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:201 [ref. 23219], Lindberg et al. 1997:161 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Fricke 1999:608 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1420 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2000:184 [ref. 25987], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Shimizu 2001:46 [ref. 25799], Shinohara et al. 2001:337 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1420 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218] as rivulatus, Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] with author as Schlegel, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Shinohara et al. 2005:444 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:535 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1918 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:492 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:122 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256], Williams et al. 2012:87 [ref. 32264], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2015:31 [ref. 34709], Fricke et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36673], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster rivulata (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles and Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, north to South Korea, central Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

rosenblatti, Sphoeroides Bussing [W. A.] in Walker & Bussing 1996:680, Figs. 2B, 3B, 4B, 5A [Copeia 1996 (no. 3); ref. 22229] Golfo de Nicoya, Estero de Punta Morales, 10°04.1'N, 84°57.3'W, Costa Rica. Holotype: SIO 95-8 [ex UCR 1270]. Paratypes: LACM 46002-1 (3), 46067-1 (3), 46068-1 (2); SIO 95-10 (3); UCR 32-18 (2), 36-7 (1), 105-3 (1), 171-2 (1), 272-4 (1), 420-16 (18), 421-7 (1), 598-3 (2), 1147-3 (8), 1268-4 (14), 1270-13 (7), 1340-3 (1), 1359-15 (1), 1535-8 (4), 1536-2 (1), 1543-7 (1), 1544-3 (1), 1645-2 (2), 1793-6 (12), 1869-1 (2), 2183-9 (3); USNM 337536 (4). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:384 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Sphoeroides rosenblatti Bussing 1996 -- (Angulo et al. 2013:1011 [ref. 33194], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides rosenblatti Bussing 1996. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

rostratus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] 1786:8, Pl. 146 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 2; ref. 465] Twin Cays, Belize. Neotype: USNM 276209. On p. 7 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 5 [ref. 21381]. The type locality apparently is the w. Atlantic Ocean. Neotype designated by Moura & Castro 2002:38 [ref. 25970]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Canthigaster rostrata (Bloch 1786) -- (Tortonese 1973:647 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1342 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:305 [ref. 23100], Shipp 1990:1069 [ref. 19531], Boschung 1992:182 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:448 [ref. 23827], Azevedo & Heemstra 1995:7 [ref. 22269], Cervigón 1996:115 [ref. 24489], Santos et al. 1997:114 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:122 [ref. 24952], Aguilera 1998:54 [ref. 24221] as rostratum, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Galeote 2001:313 [ref. 26422], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:355 [ref. 25013], Moura & Castro 2002:37 [ref. 25970], Collette et al. 2003:127 [ref. 26784], Shipp 2003:1992 [ref. 27120], Smith et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:922 [ref. 28815], Bañón & Santás 2011:1574 [ref. 31248], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Carneiro et al. 2019:224 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster rostrata (Bloch 1786). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rubripes, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:283, Pl. 123 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Coasts of Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1584 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1845.6.22.227 (stuffed), 1846.2.16.14 (stuffed); RMNH D1583 (1, stuffed), D1585 (1, stuffed), 3996 (1); ZMB 8122 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:204 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Sphaeroides rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Berg 1949:1194 [ref. 20662]). •Valid as Fugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:487 [ref. 26385] dated 1847, Wang et al. 2001:338 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:120 [ref. 23547], Kim 1997:506 [ref. 24032], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1426 [ref. 25182], Song et al. 2001:129 [ref. 25468], Ebert 2001:79 [ref. 25494], Kim & Park 2002:426 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1426 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 700 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S35 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:554 [ref. 33547], Dyldin et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34682], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:203 [ref. 35257], Sonoyama et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwstern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rudolfianus, Tetraodon fahaka Deraniyagala [P. E. P.] 1948:29 [Spolia Zeylanica v. 25 (pt 2); ref. 13006] Lake Rudolf [Lake Turkana], Kenya. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Based on Copley, "A short account of the fresh water fishes of Kenya," Pl. 8 (fig. 26) [not investigated]. Tetraodontidae.

rueppelii, Dilobomycterus Bibron [G.] in Duméril 1855:279-280 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 7; ref. 297] Original genus was spelled Dilobomyctère, latinized as Dilobomycterus by Troschel 1856:88 [ref. 12559]. Originally as Rüppelii. Regarded as latinized and available by Kottelat 2001:613 [ref. 25859] by indication to Rüppell 1829:65, Pl. 17 (fig. 2). Specific name also seen as rueppellii Kullander 2016:95 [ref. 34436]. •Synonym of Amblyrhynchotes hypselogeneion (Bleeker 1852) -- (see Kottelat 2001:613 [ref. 25859]). Current status: Synonym of Amblyrhynchotes hypselogeneion (Bleeker 1852). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

rufopunctatus, Amblyrhynchotes hypselogenion Li [?] 1962:1086, Fig. 832 South China Sea. Type catalog: Zhang 1996:503 [ref. 24036], Ye et al. 2015:109 [ref. 33808] dated to Li 1962. Original not seen; appeared in "The fish fauna of the South China Sea." Possibly original as Amblyrhynchotes rufopunctatus. •Synonym of Torquigener hypselogeneion (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989], Ye et al. 2015:109 [ref. 33808]). Current status: Synonym of Torquigener hypselogeneion (Bleeker 1852). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

sabahensis, Tetraodon fluviatilis Dekkers [W. J.] 1975:130, Figs. 35-37 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 45 (no. 1); ref. 7417] Pinang River, 5°30'N, 118°33'E, Kinabatangan District, Sabah, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype: FMNH 51564. Paratypes: FMNH 105534 [ex FMNH 51564] (2), 51660-62 (2, 3, 3). •Valid as Tetraodon sabahensis Dekkers 1975 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:175 [ref. 23448], Ebert 2001:64 [ref. 25494]). •Valid as Dichotomyctere sabahensis (Dekkers 1975) -- (Kottelat 2013:476 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Dichotomyctere sabahensis (Dekkers 1975). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

saipanensis, Canthigaster Fowler [H. W.] 1945:73, Fig. 18 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 97; ref. 13142] Saipan Island, western Pacific. Holotype: ANSP 71606 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 71607-08 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:481 [ref. 6714], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

salivator, Carinotetraodon Lim [K. K. P.] & Kottelat [M.] 1995:359, Figs. 1-3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 41 (no. 4); ref. 21592] Sungai Bejit, kilometer 10 on road to Simunjan, 1°08'39"N, 110°53'43"E, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 37465. Paratypes: CMK 8393 (5), 10883 (2), 10930 (1); SM uncat. (5, 2); USNM 322184 (2), 322186-88 (2, 2, 3), 323665 (1); ZRC 37466-71 (6), 37831 (2). •Valid as Carinotetraodon salivator Lim & Kottelat 1995 -- (Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210], Tan 1999:353 [ref. 24234], Britz & Kottelat 1999:43 [ref. 24288], Ebert 2001:48 [ref. 25494], Parenti & Lim 2005:196 [ref. 28285], Britz et al. 2012:105 [ref. 32346], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Carinotetraodon salivator Lim & Kottelat 1995. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

sanctaehelenae, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1870:304 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Saint Helena Island, South Atlantic; Japan? Syntypes: (at least 4, including Japan ?) BMNH 1853.1.11.13 (1), 1868.6.15.22-23 (2), 2020.5.25.1 (1). Originally as sanctae helenae. Text somewhat unclear, if Japan material was doubtfully included, then type locality is restricted to St. Helena. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Canthigaster sanctaehelenae (Günther 1870) -- (Tortonese 1973:647 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1342 [ref. 13677], Edwards & Glass 1987:669 [ref. 9166], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:355 [ref. 25013], Moura & Castro 2002:43 [ref. 25970], Wirtz et al. 2014:12 [ref. 33516], Brown et al. 2019:183 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster sanctaehelenae (Günther 1870). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southern-central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

sazanami, Tetraodon Tanaka [S.] 1916:384, Pls. 105 (fig. 324), 110 (fig. 333) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 22; ref. 14937] Tokyo fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 6745. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae.

scaber, Tetraodon Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:214, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Macao, China. Holotype: MNHN 0000-2178. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:472-473 [ref. 21440]. •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scalaris, Anchisomus Kaup [J. J.] in Richardson 1854:162 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Herald; ref. 3746] Not available, name only. Tetraodontidae.

sceleratus, Tetrodon Gmelin [J. F.] (ex Forster) 1789:1444 [Caroli a Linné ... Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18139] American [in error] and Pacific. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Pleuranacanthus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:302 [ref. 19754]). •Valid as Lagocephalus sceleratus (Forster 1789) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Baranes & Golani 1993:312 [ref. 22372], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:302 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:468 [ref. 25191]). •Valid as Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789) -- (Dor 1984:286 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Matsuura in Okamura et al. 1985:639, 749 [ref. 8056], Smith & Heemstra 1986:901 [ref. 5714], Gomon et al. 1994:907 [ref. 22532], Randall 1995:404 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:625 [ref. 27969], Lindberg et al. 1997:155 [ref. 23547], Carpenter et al. 1997:240 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:416 [ref. 25488], Fricke 1999:611 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1430 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1430 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 697 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:51 [ref. 27712] with author as Forster, Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:647 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1922 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29533], Matsuura 2008:852 [ref. 30661], Fricke et al. 2009:122 [ref. 30213], Iwatsubo et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30933], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256], Larson et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:200 [ref. 33932], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:388 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:182 [ref. 36273], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36864], Eagderi et al. 2019:138 [ref. 37020], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:149 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:34 [ref. 37519], Moore et al. 2020:110 [ref. 37357], Sonoyama et al. 2020:131 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin 1789). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to central Japan, south to Kimberley (Western Australia), Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia; Mediterranean Sea and Sea of Marmara (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

schoutedeni, Tetrodon (Arothron) Pellegrin [J.] 1926:207 [Revue de Zoologie Africaine v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 17939] Kinshasa [Leopoldville], Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1940-0001. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:468 [ref. 21440] as shoutedeni with a holotype and paratype. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Tetraodon schoutedeni Pellegrin 1926 -- (Roberts 1986:436 [ref. 6223], Poll & Gosse 1995:105 [ref. 24781], Ebert 2001:26 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Valid as Tetraodon schoutedeni Pellegrin 1926. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

sechurae, Sphoeroides Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:486, Fig. 92 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Sechura Bay - Nonora Bay, Peru, 5°32'S, 81°07'W. Holotype: USNM 128122. Paratypes: USNM 88816 (3), 107149 (1), 119746 (2), 127048 (1), 128123 (25, 1 c&s), 128124 (3). •Valid as Sphoeroides sechurae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:156 [ref. 23101], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1636 [ref. 22830], Walker & Bussing 1996:677 [ref. 22229], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:304 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:146 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:516 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides sechurae Hildebrand 1946. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Central eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

semispinosus, Tetrodon Fréminville [C. P. P.] 1813:253, Pl. 4 (fig. 6) [Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique, Paris. v. 3 (no. 67); ref. 18094] Seas of Santo Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN A-5257 (2). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:473 [ref. 21440]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Questionably a synonym of Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Tyler 1964:144 [ref. 22575]). •Species inquirenda in Tetraodontidae -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:670 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Uncertain as Colomesus psittacus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

semistriatus, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:58, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 6202 (dry). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Randall et al. 2012:42, 52 [ref. 31764], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

senior, Tetrodon punctatus var. Poey [F.] 2000:827 [Ictiologia Cubana. Posthumous transcription of original unpublished manuscript (1884) by M. Sánchez Roig and F. Gómez de la Maza v. 1-3; ref. 26366] Not available; not explicitly proposed as new [see Art. 16.1 of the Code]. Posthumous publication. Name appearing as a variety and in synonymy. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

setosus, Tetrodon Smith [R.] 1886:155 [Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences v. 2; ref. 18284] Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS 2996 (lost). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Lacepède 1798) -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:646 [ref. 24023]). •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

silus, Chonerhinos Roberts [T. R.] 1982:12, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 5513] Sungai Baleh between Sungai Mujong and Sungai Gaat, Rejang basin, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype: FMNH 68477. Paratypes: CAS 49744 (5); FMNH 62987 (1), 68813-15 (1, 2, 16), ?94598 (36); CAS-SU 33610 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:24 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Chonerhinos silus Roberts 1982 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:174 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210]). •Valid as Auriglobus silus (Roberts 1982) -- (Ebert 2001:16 [ref. 25494], Parenti & Lim 2005:196 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Auriglobus silus (Roberts 1982). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

simulans, Tetrodon Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1356 [374] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea and estuaries of Penang, Malaysia; Singapore. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1860.3.19.588-589 (2, skins). On p. 374 of separate. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Mention under Chelonodon nigroviridis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1056 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Tetraodon nigroviridis Marion de Procé 1822 -- (Dekkers 1975:123 [ref. 7417], Roberts 1989:188 [ref. 6439], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Dichotomyctere nigroviridis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:475 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Dichotomyctere nigroviridis (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sipui, Tetrodon Montrouzier [X.] 1857:489 [211] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 211 of reprint. Name also appeared as name in synonymy under another species. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

smithae, Canthigaster Allen [G. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:489, Fig. 5C [Records of the Australian Museum v. 30 (no. 17); ref. 6714] Off Flic en Flac, western coast of Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18009. Paratypes: BPBM 18010 (2), 18041 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 2231 (1); USNM 213575 (1), 215969 (1); WAM P.25126-001 (1, missing). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Canthigaster smithae Allen & Randall 1977 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:899 [ref. 5714], Fricke 1999:609 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Fricke et al. 2009:122 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1095 [ref. 31980], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster smithae Allen & Randall 1977. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, western Mascarenes and Maldives east to Andaman Sea and coast of Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

snyderi, Fugu vermicularis Abe [T.] 1988:13 [Uo (Japanese Society of Ichthyologists) No. 38; ref. 16149] Western Pacific. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 7186 (not present in 1997). •Valid as Takifugu snyderi (Abe 1988) -- (Nakabo 2000:1421 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1421 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 701 [ref. 26218], Dyldin et al. 2016:136 [ref. 34682], Sonoyama et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu snyderi (Abe 1988). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Korea, Russia, Japan. Habitat: marine.

solandri, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] (ex Solander) 1845:125, Pl. 57 (figs. 4-6) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Polynesia [Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1858.6.6.1. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:481 [ref. 6714], Smith & Heemstra 1986:899 [ref. 5714], Randall et al. 1990:477 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:405 [ref. 22896], Kuiter 1997:418 [ref. 25488], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317] dated 1844, Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] dated 1844, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495] dated 1844, Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:229 [ref. 27510] dated 1844, Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624] dated 1844, Randall 2005:650 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:536 [ref. 28379], Matsuura & Toda 2005:119 [ref. 28613], Randall 2007:492 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:122 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:336 [ref. 31171], Williams et al. 2012:84 [ref. 32264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1095 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], To & Shea 2016:2 [ref. 34792], Arndt & Fricke 2019:31 [ref. 36883], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster solandri (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique Channel, western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to Ryukyu Islands, mainland China, Taiwan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

somphongsi, Tetraodon Klausewitz [W.] 1957:205, Figs. 1-2 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 38 (nos 3/4); ref. 12150] Possible Nakorn Chaisri River, Thailand. Holotype: SMF 4083. Paratypes: SMF 4084-86 (3). •Synonym of Tetraodon lorteti Tirant 1885 -- (Dekkers 1975:97 [ref. 7417]). •Synonym of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448], Lim & Kottelat 1995:363 [ref. 21592], Tan 1999:345 [ref. 24234], Ebert 2001:18 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sordidus, Tetrodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:64 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Paratypes: MNHN A-8360 (1, dry); SMF 276 (1), 7618 (1, dry). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757] as Tetraodon sordidus, Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spadiceus, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1845:123, Pl. 58 (figs. 4-5) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] China seas. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1970.3.3.1. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801), but a valid subspecies -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:301 [ref. 19754]). •Valid as Gastrophysus spadiceus (Richardson 1845) -- (Chen et al. 1997:185 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:477 [ref. 26385] dated 1844, Wu et al. 2011:622 [ref. 32150], Larson et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Lagocephalus spadiceus (Richardson 1845) -- (Tortonese 1973:645 [ref. 7192], Dor 1984:286 [ref. 29757], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1344 [ref. 13677], Allen & Swainston 1988:156 [ref. 25477], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1059 [ref. 20764], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:236 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:403 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:626 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:248 [ref. 23977], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:254 [ref. 24754], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Song et al. 2001:129 [ref. 25468], Ebert 2001:76 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317] dated to 1844, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:157 [ref. 26753] dated to 1844, Golani 2005:64 [ref. 37112] dated 1844, Hoese et al. 2006:1922 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2007:117 [ref. 29533], Matsuura 2010:39 [ref. 33271], Matsuura et al. 2011:165 [ref. 31987], Psomadakis et al. 2015:338 [ref. 34104], Matsuura & Satoh 2016:[6] [ref. 34732], Motomura et al. 2017:238 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:389 [ref. 35805], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:138 [ref. 37020], Chakraborty et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37356], Psomadakis et al. 2020:623 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:131 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus spadiceus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Taiwan, north to central Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spengleri, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] 1785:135, Pl. 144 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 1; ref. 4866] Seas of East Indies. Syntypes: ZMB 4239 (2). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:150 [ref. 24282]. On p. 134 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 4 [ref. 21381]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Sphoeroides spengleri (Bloch 1785) -- (Tortonese 1973:646 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:1345 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:306 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:183 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:449 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:126 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:54 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:515 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:356 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Ebert 2001:78 [ref. 25494], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:146 [ref. 27639], Shipp 2003:2003 [ref. 27120], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:928 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:35 [ref. 34324], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:226 [ref. 37250], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides spengleri (Bloch 1785). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico; eastern Atlantic including Azores and Madeira. Habitat: brackish, marine.

spinosissimus, Spheroides Regan [C. T.] 1908:253, Pl. 31 (fig. 5) [The Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. Second Series. Zoology v. 12 (pt 3); ref. 3634] Saya de Malha Bank, western Indian Ocean, depth over 123 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.3.23.299. •Valid as Amblyrhynchotes spinosissimus (Regan 1908) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:303 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:283 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:623 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Tylerius spinosissimus (Regan 1908) -- (Hardy 1984:32 [ref. 5182], Smith & Heemstra 1986:903 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:204 [ref. 23219], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1929 [ref. 29099], Shao et al. 2008:266 [ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2009:123 [ref. 30213], Larson et al. 2013:239 [ref. 32988], Fricke 2015:7 [ref. 33807], Fricke et al. 2016:115 [ref. 34625], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:389 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:183 [ref. 36273], Matsuura et al. 2018:147 [ref. 36475], Bariche & Fricke 2020:152 [ref. 37515], Psomadakis et al. 2020:625 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Tylerius spinosissimus (Regan 1908). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Madagascar and Réunion (Mascarenes) east to Indonesia, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northwestern Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

squamicauda, Spheroides Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:17 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. •Valid as Torquigener squamicauda (Ogilby 1910) -- (Hardy 1983:32 [ref. 5341], Hardy 1989:121 [ref. 17672], Kuiter 1993:419 [ref. 23929], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317] dated 1911, Hoese et al. 2006:1928 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener squamicauda (Ogilby 1910). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

staigeri, Tetrodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:248 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 761] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

steindachneri, Tetraodon Dekkers [W. J.] 1975:132, Figs. 38-40 [Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde v. 45 (no. 1); ref. 7417] Pengulon Patie, Singapore. Syntypes: (4) whereabouts unknown. Replacement name for Crayracion fluviatilis var. ocellata Steindachner, secondarily preoccupied by Tetraodon ocellatus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Tetraodon biocellatus Tirant 1885 -- (Kottelat 1987:20, 21 [ref. 11434], Rainboth 1996:224 [ref. 22772], Ebert 2001:20 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Dichotomyctere ocellatus (Steindachner 1870) -- (Kottelat 2013:476 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Dichotomyctere ocellatus (Steindachner 1870). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

stellatus, Tetraodon Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:212, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3542. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:463 [ref. 21440]. Preoccupied by Tetraodon stellatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Tetraodontidae.

stellatus, Tetrodon Donovan [E.] 1804:6 unnum. pp., Pl. 66 [The natural history of British fishes, including scientific and general descriptions of the most interesting species, and an extensive selection of accurately finished coloured plates.; ref. 17408] England. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Tetraodon stellatus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:645 [ref. 7192]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Tetrodon Shaw [G.] 1804:447 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. No types known. Based on Tetrodon étoilé of Lacepède 1798. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Objective synonym of Tetraodon stellatus Anonymous 1798 -- (Fricke 1999:605 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Tetrodon Anonymous (ex Commerson, Lacepède) 1798:683 [Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 1798 (pt. 3) (no. 288) (for 25 Sept. 1798); ref. 24107] [Habitat mare Indicum circa insulam Mauricii] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Based on "Le Tétrodon étoilé" of Lacepède 1798:474, 483 [ref. 2708], which was based on a description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Most authors date to Tetrodon lagocephalus var. stellatus Bloch & Schneider 1801:503 [ref. 471]; however Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106] pointed out that the name correctly dates to Anonymous 1798:683 [ref. 13098]. •Valid as Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:372 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:305 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:898 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:474 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1054 [ref. 20764], Kuiter 1993:422 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:402 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:624 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Lindberg et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:239 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:410 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:474 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1427 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:468 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:286 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Ebert 2001:30 [ref. 25494], Sakai et al. 2001:124 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1427 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:50 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:453 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:647 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Fricke 1999:605 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Verruraj et al. 2011:6 [ref. 31496], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1090 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:434 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:198 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider, 1801, Psomadakis et al. 2015:336 [ref. 34104], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1733 [ref. 34322], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211] Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Kwun et al. 2017:143 [ref. 37287], Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:124 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:137 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:618 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Korea, central Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island and northern New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Tetrodon lagocephalus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Commerson, ex Lacepède) 1801:503 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Preoccupied by Tetrodon stellatus Anonymous 1798. Based on "Le Tétrodon étoilé" of Lacepède 1798:474, 483 [ref. 2708], which was based on a description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Fricke 1999:605 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

stictonotus, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:280, Pl. 126 (fig. 1 ) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1582 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1846.2.16.16 [ex RMNH] (stuffed); RMNH 1580-1581 (2, stuffed); ?ZMB 4200 (1, dry), 5883 (1), 8117 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:201 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Takifugu stictonotus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:129 [ref. 23547], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Nakabo 2000:1424 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1424 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 700 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S35 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:554 [ref. 33547], Dyldin et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34682], Sonoyama et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu stictonotus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Tetraodon Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4242. Unnecessary replacement name for Tetraodon lineatus of Bloch 1786:Pl. 141 [ref. 465], allegedly different from Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758 according to Billberg 1833; see Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

strigosus, Tetrodon Bennett [E. T.] 1834:46 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1834 (pt 2) (no. 18); ref. 16796] Quorro River, Niger, western Africa. BMNH 1852.9.13.92 [ex Zool. Soc.]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Roberts 1986:434 [ref. 6223], Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367], Lévêque in Lévêque et al. 1992:869 [ref. 21590], Ebert 2001:23 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Tetraodon lineatus Linnaeus 1758. Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

striolatus, Tetraodon Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:203 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Timor Island, southern Malay Archipelago. No types known. •Synonym of Canthigaster compressa (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:483 [ref. 6714], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster compressa (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

suezensis, Lagocephalus Clark [E.] & Gohar [H. A. F.] 1953:56, Fig. 16 [Publications of the Marine Biological Station Al-Ghardaqa (Red Sea) No. 8; ref. 12688] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Holotype: MBSH uncat. Paratypes: ?MBSH uncat. (20). •Valid as Lagocephalus suezensis Clark & Gohar 1953 -- (Dor 1984:287 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:75 [ref. 25356], Golani 1996:29 [ref. 22271], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:526 [ref. 26145], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:157 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:65 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:118 [ref. 29533], Iwatsubo et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30933] as widespread, Zenetos et al. 2010:412 [ref. 31201], Ben-Abdallah et al. 2011:71 [ref. 31254], Yoshida et al. 2013:232 [ref. 34464], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:434 [ref. 33460], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:182 [ref. 36273], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:149 [ref. 37515], Psomadakis et al. 2020:623 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Lagocephalus suezensis Clark & Gohar 1953. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Myanmar east to Indonesia, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

supramacula, Canthigaster Moura [R. L. de] & Castro [R. M. C.] 2002:44, Fig. 1F [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 115 (no. 1); ref. 25970] Off Abidjan, about 05°N, 04°W, Ivory Coast. Holotype (unique): ANSP 102312. •Valid as Canthigaster supramacula Moura & Castro 2002 -- (Wirtz et al. 2007:22, 42 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:136 [ref. 32972], Matsuura in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3068 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster supramacula Moura & Castro 2002. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: off the Ivory Coast and Ghana and islands of the Gulf of Guinea, Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

suvattii, Tetraodon Sontirat [S.] & Soonthornsatit [S.] 1985:49 [ ref. 33397] Nam Oon, Sakol Nakorn, Mekong River, Nong Khai Province, Thailand. Holotype: KUMF 2917. Paratypes: KUMF 2918 (93), NIFI 01418 (1). Described again by Sontirat 1989:106, Figs. 4-5 [ref. 17730]. •Valid as Monotrete suvattii (Sontirat 1989) -- (Kottelat 2001:166 [ref. 25780]). •Valid as Tetraodon suvattii Sontirat 1989 -- (Roberts 1998:228 [ref. 23472], Ebert 2001:27 [ref. 25494], Saenjundaeng et al. 2013:77 [ref. 32782]). •Valid as Pao suvattii (Sontirat & Soonthornsatit 1985) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Pao suvattii (Sontirat & Soonthornsatit 1985). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Laos and Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniatus, Tetrodon Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:462 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique. Syntypes: ZMB 4219 (1?). Also described as new in Peters 1855:275 [ref. 13448]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Canthigaster valentini (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:484 [ref. 6714], Randall 2005:651 [ref. 28239]). Current status: Synonym of Canthigaster valentini (Bleeker 1853). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

taeniatus, Tetrodon inermis var. Borodin [N. A.] 1932:98 [Bulletin Vanderbilt Marine Museum v. 1 (art. 3); ref. 16361] Viti Levu Island, Fiji Islands. Syntypes: VMM 1069 (2) now at AMNH. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Tetrodon taeniatus Peters 1855. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Tetraodontidae.

tepa, Tetrodon Hamilton [F.] 1822:10, 362 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River estuaries, India. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:478 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus lunaris (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

testudinarius, Tetrodon Müller [J.] 1841:252 [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1839; ref. 3061] No types known. Based on Bloch. •In the synonymy of Arothron reticularis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron reticularis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

testudineus, Tetraodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:332 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India [erroneous, should be Western Atlantic]. Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. Coll. 47 (1). Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:21 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1991:190-191, Fig. 28 [ref. 20102]. •Valid as Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:474 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:307 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:450 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:590 [ref. 16204], Cervigón 1996:128 [ref. 24489], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:258 [ref. 22947], Aguilera 1998:54 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:513 [ref. 24550], Keith et al. 2000:264 [ref. 24547], Marín 2000:80 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:171 [ref. 27754], Ebert 2001:31 [ref. 25494], Shipp 2003:2004 [ref. 27120], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:71 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:931 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Matamoros et al. 2009:27 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:1011 [ref. 33194], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:88 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324], Costa et al. 2017:46 [ref. 35684], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:19 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides testudineus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

tiranti, Monotreta d'Aubenton [F.] & Blanc [M.] 1966:556, Fig. 2 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 38 (no. 5); ref. 9027] Tonlé-Sap at kilometer 9, Cambodia. Holotype: MNHN 1966-0048. Paratypes: MNHN 1966-0049 to 0051 (1, 1, 1). •Synonym of Tetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Dekkers 1975:97 [ref. 7417]). •Synonym of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Lim & Kottelat 1995:363 [ref. 21592], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tocantinensis, Colomesus Amaral [C. R. J.], Brito [P. M.], Silva [D. A.] & Carvalho [E. F.] 2013:9, Figs. 6a, 7-9A-B, 10A, 11-12, 10A, 13A [PLoS ONE v. 8 (no. 9): e74397; ref. 33364] Tocantins River, near Porto Nacional, State of Tocantins, Brazil. Holotype: PNT.UERJ 405. Paratypes: PNT.UERJ 396-404. •Valid as Colomesus tocantinensis Amaral, Brito, Silva & Carvalho 2013. Current status: Valid as Colomesus tocantinensis Amaral, Brito, Silva & Carvalho 2013. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Tocantins River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

travancoricus, Tetraodon (Monotretus) Hora [S. L.] & Nair [K. K.] 1941:391, Figs. 3-4 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 43 (pt 3); ref. 13243] Rambha [Pamba] River, central Travancore, Kerala, India. Holotype: ZSI F13601/1. Paratypes: ZSI F13601/1 (9). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:162 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:385 [ref. 27706] as travancorius and dated 1942. •Valid as Tetraodon travancoricus Hora & Nair 1941 -- (Dekkers 1975:101 [ref. 7417], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1061 [ref. 20764], Rema Devi et al. 1996:144 [ref. 24021], Aijthkumar et al. 1999:249 [ref. 24211], Menon 1999:305 [ref. 24904], Biju et al. 1999:161 [ref. 25263], Rema Devi et al. 2000:441 [ref. 25320], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:51 [ref. 26359]). •Valid as Tetraodon travancoria [sic] Hora & Nair 1941 -- (Arunachalam et al. 1999:11 [ref. 24090]). •Valid as Carinotetraodon travancoricus (Hora & Nair 1941) -- (Britz & Kottelat 1999:46 [ref. 24288], Tan 1999:346 [ref. 24234], Ebert 2001:19 [ref. 25494], Britz et al. 2012:105 [ref. 32346]). Current status: Valid as Carinotetraodon travancoricus (Hora & Nair 1941). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

trichocephalus, Tetraodon Cope [E. D.] 1870:120 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 18030] (Pacific) Panama [not Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 685. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. Locality corrected to Gulf of Panama in Shipp 1971:569 [ref. 22196]. •Valid as Sphoeroides trichocephalus (Cope 1870) -- (Shipp 1971:569 [ref. 22196], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:300 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:156 [ref. 23101], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1637 [ref. 22830], Walker & Bussing 1996:677 [ref. 22229], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:145 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:191 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:408 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides trichocephalus (Cope 1870). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

trichoderma, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1854:532 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5965] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1867.1.28.106. Günther 1870:283 [ref. 1995] states "Adult. Sumatra. ... Type of T. trichoderma" for the British Museum specimen. •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

trichodermatoides, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1854:336 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 343] Larantuka, Flores Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1867.11.20.99 (1). Original as Tetraödon trichodermatoïdes. Lectotype perhaps established in Günther 1870:283 [ref. 1995] by use of "Adult (9 inches). Flores... Type of T. trichodermatoides." •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

tuberculiferus, Spheroides Ogilby [J. D.] 1912:61, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 1; ref. 14855] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Lectotype: QM I.1531 [ex QM I.405]. Paralectotypes: [?orig. AFAQ 1514 and 1799 (2)], AMS I.12529 [ex QM] (1, not present in 1996), QM I.405 (1). Lectotype selected by Hardy 1983:28 [ref. 5341]. •Valid as Torquigener tuberculiferus (Ogilby 1912) -- (Hardy 1983:26 [ref. 5341], Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1928 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:239 [ref. 32988], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener tuberculiferus (Ogilby 1912). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Australia. Habitat: marine.

turgidus, Monotrete Kottelat [M.] 2000:79, Fig. 73 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 25040] Xe Pon between rapids upstream and downstream of Ban Fuang, 16°37'06"N, 106°33'30"E, Savannakhet Province, Laos. Holotype: ZRC 45399. Paratypes: CMK 13751 (14), LARRI uncat. (3), NRM 44922 (3), ZRC 45400 (3). •Valid as Tetraodon turgidus (Kottelat 2000) -- (Ebert 2001:66 [ref. 25494]). •Valid as Pao turgidus (Kottelat 2000) -- (Kottelat 2013:480 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Pao turgidus (Kottelat 2000). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

turgidus, Tetrodon Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:473, Pl. 6 (fig. 5) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Sphoeroides maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith 1986:460 [ref. 22186], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). Current status: Synonym of Sphoeroides maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tyleri, Canthigaster Allen [G. R.] & Randall [J. E.] 1977:497, Fig. 6C [Records of the Australian Museum v. 30 (no. 17); ref. 6714] Off Flic en Flac, western coast of Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18014. Paratypes: ANSP 109816 (1); BMNH 1974.3.11.8 (1); BPBM 18011 (1), 18042 (1); WAM P.25169-001 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621], Hutchins & Smith 1991:45 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:53 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Canthigaster tyleri Allen & Randall 1977 -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:290 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:609 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster tyleri Allen & Randall 1977. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Comoro Islands, Mauritius (Mascarenes), Maldives and Chagos Archipelago east to Christmas Island (eastern Indian Ocean) and Banda Sea (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

tyleri, Sphoeroides Shipp [R. L.] 1972:131, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 124 (no. 6); ref. 7591] Caribbean Sea, off Suriname, 6°50'N, 54°04'W, depth 28 fathoms. Holotype: ANSP 117311. Paratypes: ANSP 100131 (2), 101359 (1), 101361 (3), 101832 (1), 117317 (1); RMNH 26577 (1); UF 230321-26 [ex UMML 30321-26] (1, 3, 2, 5, 1, 5). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Sphoeroides tyleri Shipp 1972 -- (Cervigón 1996:130 [ref. 24489], Shipp 2003:2005 [ref. 27120], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27192], Ribeiro et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides tyleri Shipp 1972. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: northern South America to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

unifasciatus, Spheroides von Bonde [C.] 1923:39, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 279, depth 57 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Tylerius spinosissimus (Regan 1908) -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:903 [ref. 5714]). Current status: Synonym of Tylerius spinosissimus (Regan 1908). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

valentini, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1853:130 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1858.4.21.191 (1), 1867.11.28.123 (1); MNHN 0000-2305 (2) Ambon, 0000-2306 (1) Jakarta; NMV 46075 (1). Type catalog: Le Danois 1961:281 [ref. 21439]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:610 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Based in part on 'Ikan kaskasse' of Valentyn 1726:353, fig. 19 [ref. 30358]. •Valid as Canthigaster valentini (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen & Randall 1977:484 [ref. 6714], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:899 [ref. 5714], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:477 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:417 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:406 [ref. 22896], Lindberg et al. 1997:163 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:648 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:420 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:477 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:291 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:609 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1419 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:470 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1419 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:229 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:453 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:651 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1919 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2009:122 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:238 [ref. 31256], Williams et al. 2012:87 [ref. 32264], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1096 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:199 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:18 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:387 [ref. 35805], Arndt & Fricke 2019:31 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:335 [ref. 36673], Mishra et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36950], Zajonz et al. 2019:103 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:620 [ref. 37272], Matsuura et al. 2020:86 [ref. 37714]). Current status: Valid as Canthigaster valentini (Bleeker 1853). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to South Korea, southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Australia and Lord Howe Island; waifs reaching Galápagos Archipelago (eastern Pacific). Habitat: marine.

variomaculatus, Takifugu Li [C.-S.] & Kuang [Y.-D.] in Su & Li 2002:266, 448, Fig. 122 [Fauna Sinica. Osteichthyes. Tetraodontiformes, Pegasiformes, Gobiesociformes, Lophioformes. i-xii +1-495; ref. 28836] Modaomen Zhuhai, Kuangdong Province, China. Holotype: IOCAS [formerly PR-820201]. Paratypes: PR-820202-07 (6). •Valid as Takifugu variomaculatus Li & Kuang 2002. Current status: Valid as Takifugu variomaculatus Li & Kuang 2002. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Modaomen Zhuhai, Kuangdong Province, China. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vermicularis, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:278, Pl. 124 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Bay of Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 4012a. Paralectotypes: RMNH D1557-58 (2, stuffed), 4011 (1), 4012b-c (2). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:200 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Fugu vermicularis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:482 [ref. 26385] dated 1847, Wang et al. 2001:334 [ref. 26566] dated 1847). •Valid as Takifugu vermicularis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:132 [ref. 23547], Kim 1997:500 [ref. 24032], Nakabo 2000:1422 [ref. 25182], Song et al. 2001:129 [ref. 25468], Kim & Park 2002:420 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1422 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 701 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S35 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:555 [ref. 33547], Sonoyama et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu vermicularis (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

vicinus, Torquigener tuberculiferus Whitley [G. P.] 1930:31 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 4671] Between Cape Naturaliste and Geraldton, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.13600. Subspecific name proposed for specimen described and figured by McCulloch 1915:168, Pl. 34 (fig. 1) [ref. 2941]. •Valid as Torquigener vicinus Whitley 1930 -- (Hardy 1983:37 [ref. 5341], Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1929 [ref. 29099], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener vicinus Whitley 1930. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia endemic. Habitat: marine.

virgatus, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1846:62, Pl. 39 (figs. 8-9) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.123. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1914 [ref. 29099] with author as Procé, Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

waandersii, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1853:194 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16902] Marawang, Bangka, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.11.28.112 (poor condition). Original genus as Tetraödon. •Valid as Tetraodon waandersii Bleeker 1853 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:175 [ref. 23448], Ebert 2001:67 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Gastrobranchus oblongus (Block 1786) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989] with question). •Synonym of Takifugu oblongus (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu oblongus (Bloch 1786). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indonesia (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

werneri, Tetraodon Benl [G.] & Chlupaty [P.] 1957:227 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 10 (no. 9); ref. 33396] Not available, explicitly used as a provisionary name, not as a new species. •In the synonymy of Tetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Dekkers 1975:97 [ref. 7417]). •In the synonymy of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885) -- (Lim & Kottelat 1995:363 [ref. 21592], Ebert 2001:18 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:474 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Carinotetraodon lorteti (Tirant 1885). Tetraodontidae.

wheeleri, Lagocephalus Abe [T.], Tabeta [O.] & Kitahama [K.] 1984:4, Pls. 2-3 [Uo (Japanese Society of Ichthyologists) No. 34; ref. 8258] Sagami Bay, off Manazuru, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 54368. Paratypes: SMF 19427 (1), ZUMT 54369 (1). •Valid as Lagocephalus wheeleri Abe, Tabeta & Kitahama 1984 -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:153 [ref. 23547], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1431 [ref. 25182], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1431 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 697 [ref. 26218], Wu et al. 2011:622 [ref. 32150]). •Synonym of Lagocephalus spadiceus (Richardson 1845) -- (Matsuura 2010:40 [ref. 33271]). Current status: Synonym of Lagocephalus spadiceus (Richardson 1845). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

whitleyi, Spheroides Paradice [W. E. J.] in Paradice & Whitley 1927:105, Pl. 15 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 9 (pt 1); ref. 15810] Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IA.618. Paratypes: AMS IA.2583 (1). •Valid as Torquigener whitleyi (Paradice 1927) -- (Hardy 1983:15 [ref. 5341], Hardy 1989:122 [ref. 17672], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3957 [ref. 26317], Hoese et al. 2006:1929 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:239 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Torquigener whitleyi (Paradice 1927). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

woodlarkensis, Tetrodon Montrouzier [X.] 1857:489 [211] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 211 of reprint. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. Kottelat (2013) treats authorship as Montrouzier & Thiolloière. •Synonym of Gastrophysus oblongus (Block 1786) -- (Kottelat 2013:477 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Takifugu oblongus (Bloch 1786). Current status: Synonym of Takifugu oblongus (Bloch 1786). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthopterus, Proodus Fowler [H. W.] 1944:183, Fig. 266 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Balboa Harbor, Panama, depth 5-10 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70210. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. Tetraodontidae.

xanthopterus, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:284, Pl. 125 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 4407. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1846.2.16.15 (stuffed); RMNH D1561-D1563 (3, stuffed); ZMB 4250 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:204 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Fugu xanthopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Zheng 1989:378 [ref. 21202], Cheng & Zhou 1997:492 [ref. 26385] dated 1847, Wang et al. 2001:336 [ref. 26566] dated 1847). •Valid as Takifugu xanthopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:363 [ref. 6441], Lindberg et al. 1997:124 [ref. 23547], Chen et al. 1997:186 [ref. 26476] dated 1847, Kim 1997:499 [ref. 24032], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24670], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:649 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1424 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:289 [ref. 25480], Song et al. 2001:129 [ref. 25468], Ebert 2001:79 [ref. 25494], Kim & Park 2002:418 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:1424 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 702 [ref. 26218], Kolpakov & Kolpakov 2002:841 [ref. 26577], Barabanshchikov 2003:849 [ref. 27538], Parin 2003:S35 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:555 [ref. 33547], Dyldin et al. 2016:137 [ref. 34682], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:204 [ref. 35257], Sonoyama et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Takifugu xanthopterus (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

yergeri, Sphoeroides Shipp [R. L.] 1972:129, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 124 (no. 6); ref. 7591] Off Honduras, Caribbean Sea, 15°49.5'N, 83°44'W, depth 17 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 206479. Paratypes: UF 73380 [ex FSU 23380] (3), 73393 [ex FSU 23393] (2), 73397 [ex FSU 23397] (7), 73400 [ex FSU 23400] (1), 75256 [ex FSU 25256] (orig. 8, now 7), 223787 [ex UMML 23787] (1), 230315-19 [ex UMML 30315-18] (41, 1, 1, 4), 230319 [ex UMML 30319] (3, now 0), 230320 [ex UMML 30320] (11, now 0). •Valid as Sphoeroides yergeri Shipp 1972 -- (Shipp 2003:2006 [ref. 27120]). Current status: Valid as Sphoeroides yergeri Shipp 1972. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Central America. Habitat: marine.