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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Arothron: [ 57 ] records


aerostaticus, Tetrodon Jenyns [L.] 1842:152 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Locality not known. Holotype (unique): UMZC [Darwin specimen]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron aerostaticus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:69 [ref. 13251], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757], Lindberg et al. 1997:168 [ref. 23547], Ebert 2001:30 [ref. 25494], Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

alboreticulatus, Tetraodon Tanaka [S.] 1908:42, Pl. 1 (fig. 5) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 23 (art. 7); ref. 6032] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 959 (dry mount). •Probably a synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall 1995:402 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:647 [ref. 28239]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Eagderi et al. 2019:137 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Uncertain as Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

amabilis, Tetrodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1879:401 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 764] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-4082. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:465 [ref. 21440]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron stellataus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

asper, Diodon Cuvier [G.] 1818:138, Pl. 6 [Mémoires du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 4; ref. 18059] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8365 (dry). Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:462-463 [ref. 21440], Leis & Bauchot 1984:96 [ref. 12539]. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ebert 2001:91 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

aspilos, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1851:495 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16898] Riau, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Verruraj et al. 2011:7 [ref. 31496], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

astrotaenia, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1853:129 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 1867.11.28.111. Original genus as Tetraödon. •Possibly a synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Uncertain as Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

aurantius, Tetrodon Ogilby [J. D.] 1890:81 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 18485] Shoalhaven District, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.2734. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531], Hoese et al. 2006:1915 [ref. 29099]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

bondarus, Tetrodon Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1359 [377] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia; Vizagapatham, India. Syntypes: BMNH (skin, not seen). On p. 377 of separate. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caeruleopunctatus, Arothron Matsuura [K.] 1994:29, Figs. 1 (top 2), 2 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 41 (no. 1); ref. 21445] Lagoon side of Bikini Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 2 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 45451. Paratypes: AMS I.34603-001 (1); NSMT-P 30925 (1). Non-types: NSMT-P 33507 (1). •Valid, or a synonym of Arothron mappa (Lesson 1831) -- (Anderson et al. 1998:29 [ref. 23611]). •Valid as Arothron caeruleopunctatus Matsuura 1994 -- (Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:540 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:288 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106], Nakabo 2000:1428 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:466 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:124 [ref. 25868], Nakabo 2002:1428 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:644 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1913 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2009:120 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:334 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1086 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Daly et al. 2018:4 [ref. 35897], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron caeruleopunctatus Matsuura 1994. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Amirantes, western Mascarenes and Maldives east to Papua New Guinea, north to central Japan, south to northern Australia and Coral Sea. Habitat: marine.

calamara, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:64, Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-8334 (1, dry); SMF 266 (1), 8651-52 (2), 17528 (1, dry). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

carduus, Tetrodon Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1357 [375] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.591 (skin, right side). On p. 375 of separate. •Valid as Arothron carduus (Cantor 1849) -- (Matsuura & Okuno 1991:157 [ref. 19923], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Arothron carduus (Cantor 1849). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Off Malaysia and Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

cinereus, Orbis Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Mauritius, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Based on the “etoilé [sic] Lac. cinereus Commers.”, i.e. the "Le Tétrodon étoilé" of Lacepède 1798:483 [ref. 2708], which is based on the "Tetrodon cinereus, nigro guttatus, hispidus setis è basi stellata exortis"of Commerson 1767-1771 [ref. 34154]; see Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106] and Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

citrinella, Tetrodon nigropunctatus var. Günther [A.] 1870:293 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Fiji Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron nigropucnctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

cochinensis, Crayracion Day [F.] 1865:314 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865 (pt 1); ref. 5295] Cochin, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2223 (lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762]. Also appeared in Day 1865:258, Pl. 20 fig. 1 [ref. 1074]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diadematus, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:65, Pl. 17 (fig. 3) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 264. Paralectotypes: SMF 4643 (1, dry). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Arothron diadematus (Rüppell 1829) -- (Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Su & Tyler 1986:21 [ref. 11531], Randall 2005:646 [ref. 28239], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Arothron diadematus (Rüppell 1829). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

erethizon, Arothron Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1883:631 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 329); ref. 2474] Panama. Holotype: USNM 29679 (apparently lost). Paratypes: USNM (5), YPM 5571-72 (1, 1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:27 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

firmamentum, Tetraodon Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1850:280, Pl. 126 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Last part (15); ref. 4375] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1560 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1845.6.22.229 [ex RMNH] (stuffed); RMNH D1559 (1, stuffed), 4033 (1), 4034 (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:202 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Boesemanichthys firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:307 [ref. 19754], Yabe in Amaoka et al. 1983:163, 218 [ref. 8379], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Arothron firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hardy 1980:116 [ref. 37753], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:422 [ref. 23929], Matsuura & Tachikawa 1994:145 [ref. 21905], Gomon et al. 1994:903 [ref. 22532], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xiv [ref. 21953], Matsuura & Tyler 1997:199 [ref. 23219], Lindberg et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23547], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1427 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1427 [ref. 26193], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2003:879 [ref. 27136], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:452 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1913 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2008:850 [ref. 30661], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1732 [ref. 34322], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic; Indo-West Pacific; antitropical. Habitat: marine.

gillbanksii, Tetrodon Clarke [F. E.] 1897:245, Pl. 14 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 29 (art. 16) (for 1896); ref. 14630] Moturoa, Taranaki, New Zealand. Syntypes: NMNZ P.456 (1) Taranaki, ?NMNZ P.7637 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:15 [ref. 18942]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Mention -- (Kuiter 1993:422 [ref. 23929] as gillbanksi). •Synonym of Arothron firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850) -- (Hardy 1980:116 [ref. 37753]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron firmamentum (Temminck & Schlegel 1850). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Orbis Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Mare Indicum circa insulam Francicam. No types known. Based on the "moucheté Lac.", i.e., Le Tétrodon moucheté of Lacepède 1798:491 [ref. 2708], which is based on the "Tetrodon hispidus supernè fuscus, deorsum exalbidus, guttis nigris ..."of Commerson 1767-1771 [ref. 34154]; see Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

hispidus, Tetraodon Linnaeus [C.] 1758:333 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] India. Holotype (unique): ZMUU Linn. Coll. 102. Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:30 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1991:192, Fig. 29 [ref. 20102]. Also appeared in Linnaeus 1759:247 [ref. 24770]. •Valid as Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:370 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:283 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:896 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:473 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:423 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:299 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1623 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:401 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:303 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:644 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:410 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:473 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1428 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:466 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:285 [ref. 25480], Thomson et al. 2000:275 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Ebert 2001:28 [ref. 25494], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1428 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:226 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:451 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:644 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:532 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1914 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:493 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:120 [ref. 30213], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Matsuura 2009:334 [ref. 31171], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Verruraj et al. 2011:5 [ref. 31496], Randall et al. 2012:41 [ref. 31764], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1087 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2012:18 [ref. 33457], Page et al. 2013:190 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:433 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923] Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Kwun et al. 2017:143 [ref. 37287], Fricke et al. 2018:384 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], Fricke et al. 2019:331 [ref. 36673], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544], Hoschke et al. 2019:161 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:616 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Panama, north to southern Korea and central Japan, Ogasawara Islands and Hawaiian Islands, south to Rottnest Island (Western Australia), New Caledonia, Lord Howe Island and Rapa; Cocos Island (Costa Rica) and El Salvador in the eastern Pacific Habitat: brackish, marine.

immaculatus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Lacepède) 1801:507 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality stated. No types known. Based on "Tetrodon sans tache" of Lacepède 1798:475, 486, Pl. 24 (fig. 1). Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:603 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:306 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:896 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:473 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:423 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:401 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:623 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:412 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:327 [ref. 27511], Ebert 2001:28 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:227 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:452 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:645 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1914 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:493 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:120 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:335 [ref. 31171], Verruraj et al. 2011:7 [ref. 31496], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1087 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:434 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2018:384 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:327 [ref. 36495], Psomadakis et al. 2020:617 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Philippines, north to Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

implutus, Tetrodon Jenyns [L.] 1842:152 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Cocos-Keeling Islands, Indian Ocean. Possible types: BMNH 1917.7.14.79 (1). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae.

inconditus, Arothron Smith [J. L. B.] 1958:159, Pl. 2 (figs. D-E) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 4121] Algoa Bay, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 93. Paratypes: (9) not researched. •Valid as Arothron inconditus Smith 1958 -- (Smith & Heemstra 1986:896 [ref. 5714], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Arothron inconditus Smith 1958. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

kunhardtii, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1850:97 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 16876] Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5). •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lacrymatus, Tetraodon Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:204 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Hawaiian Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Lacepède 1798) -- (Mundy 2005:533 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:494 [ref. 30952]). •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

laterna, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1845:124, Pl. 61 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218 [ref. 11606]). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Randall et al. 2012:42 [ref. 31764], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latifrons, Ovoides Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:398, Fig. 10 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 49696. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Lacepède 1798) -- (Mundy 2005:533 [ref. 28379]). •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

manilensis, Tetrodon Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:130 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines, South China Sea. No types known. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441] as manillensis, Randall 1985:347 [ref. 6719], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:675 [ref. 25598], Randall et al. 1990:473 [ref. 15987], Matsuura & Okuno 1991:162 [ref. 19923], Randall et al. 1993:233 [ref. 21003], Kuiter 1993:423 [ref. 23929] as manillensis, Randall 1995:401 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:410 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:473 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182] with author as Procé, Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:467 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:328 [ref. 27511], Ebert 2001:29 [ref. 25494], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193] with author as Procé, Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] as manillensis, Myers & Donaldson 2003:650 [ref. 27495] with author as Procé, Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624] with author as Procé, Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:227 [ref. 27510], Randall 2005:645 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:533 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1914 [ref. 29099] with author as Procé, Randall 2007:493 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1088 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Miesen et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:236 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2019:331 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:617 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific Ocean: Myanmar and Indonesia east to Hawaiian Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to southern Japan. south to Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mappa, Tetraodon Lesson [R. P.] 1831:102, Poissons Pl. 5 [Voyage autour du monde Zool. v. 2 (pt 1); ref. 2776] Doreh Bay, New Guinea, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3507. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:463 [ref. 21440]. Appeared with Tetraodon mappa as scientific name and 'Tétrodon cosmographique' as vernacular name. •Valid as Arothron mappa (Lesson 1831) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:897 [ref. 5714], Randall et al. 1990:473 [ref. 15987], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Allen 1997:246 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:412 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:473 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:604 [ref. 24106], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1428 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:467 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317] dated 1830, Nakabo 2002:1428 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830] dated 1830, Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624] dated 1830, Randall 2005:645 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1915 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2009:120 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:335 [ref. 31171], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1088 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:197 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:332 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:617 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron mappa (Lesson 1831). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to southern Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

melanorhynchos, Arothron Bleeker [P.] 1855:111 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 16843] Sahu, Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1867.11.28.107. Lectotype if needed perhaps established in Günther 1870:283 [ref. 1995] by use of "Adult. Halmaheira ... Type of T. melanorhynchus." •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

meleagris, Tetrodon Anonymous in Lacepède (ex Commerson) 1798:684 [Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 1798 (pt. 3) (no. 288) (for 25 Sept. 1798); ref. 24107] Mers de l'Asie [Indo-West Pacific]. No types known. Usually dated to Lacepède 1798:505 [ref. 2708], but he only used a vernacular name "méléagris" in italics under vernacular genus 'Tétrodon', as 'Le tétrodon méléagris'; Lacepède did not use italics for scientific names. Correctly dated to Anonymous [ex Commerson, Lacepède] 1798:684 [ref. 24107], which is the first available, Latinized version. Sometimes dated to Bloch & Schneider 1801. Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Arothron meleagris (Lacepède 1798) -- (Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:897 [ref. 5714], Pequeño 1989:77 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Allen & Robertson 1994:299 [ref. 22193], Bussing in Fischer et al. 1995:1633 [ref. 22830], Randall 1995:401 [ref. 22896], Lindberg et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23547], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:303 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:645 [ref. 24023], Kuiter 1997:412 [ref. 25488], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:30 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1428 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:467 [ref. 25191], Thomson et al. 2000:274 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, date as 1801, Nakabo 2002:1428 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495] as Bloch & Shneider 1801, Lobel & Lobel 2004:78 [ref. 27576] as Bloch & Schneider 1801, Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:185 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:452 [ref. 28072], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:453 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:646 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:533 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1915 [ref. 29099], Randall 2007:494 [ref. 30952], Béarez & Séret 2009:152 [ref. 36646], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider 1801). •Valid as Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Fricke 1999:604 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1088 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:198 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider 1801, Galván-Villa et al. 2016:151 [ref. 34871], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Fourriére et al. 2016:451 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:S8 [ref. 36248], González-Murcia et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36544], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:618 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros and Madagascar east to Clipperton Island, Mexico and Panama (eastern Pacific), north to Ryukyu, Ogasawara and Hawaiian islands, south to Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Easter Island. Habitat: marine.

michiei, Kanduka Hora [S. L.] 1925:579, Pl. 34 (figs. 1-7) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 26 (pt 6); ref. 2206] Sandheads off the mouth of the Hughli River, Bay of Bengal, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype: ZSI. See Das 2003:385 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1054 [ref. 20764]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

multilineatus, Arothron Matsuura [K.] 2016:[2], Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 63 (no. 4); ref. 34340] Ryukyu Islands, southeastern coast of Sesoko-jima, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 33528. Paratypes: KAUM-I, MUFS, NSMT-P. •Valid as Arothron multilineatus Matsuura 2016 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Arothron multilineatus Matsuura 2016. Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Pacific: Ryukyu Islands. Habitat: marine.

nigropunctatus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:507 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4283. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:149 [ref. 24282]. Originally nigro-punctatus. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:897 [ref. 5714], Su & Tyler 1986:15, 25 [ref. 11531], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:70 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:474 [ref. 15987], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:402 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:244, 246 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:185 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:412 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:474 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:289 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:605 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:95 [ref. 37268], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:467 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:453 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:646 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1915 [ref. 29099], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Matsuura 2009:335 [ref. 31171], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Motomura et al. 2010:237 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1089 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:198 [ref. 33932], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211] Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Matsuura in Kimura et al. 2018:309 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:332 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:618 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to A. diadematus (Rüppell 1829). Habitat: marine.

ophryas, Arothron Cope [E. D.] 1871:479 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Navigators Islands [= Samoa], Pacific. Holotype (unique): ANSP 651. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:161 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

otteri, Ovoides aerostaticus Whitley [G. P.] 1932:311, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Great Barrier Reef Expedition, 1928-29: scientific reports. v. 4 (no. 9); ref. 4676] Batt Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.4494. •Synonym of Arothron stellataus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

parvus, Tetraodon Joannis [L. de] 1835:no page number, Pl. 15 [Magasin de Zoologie 1835 (5 anneé); ref. 2355] Al-Qusair, Egypt, Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

perspicillaris, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:63 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 260 (1, dry), 196-99 (4), 6200-01 (1, 1, dry), 8184 (1, skeleton). Dor 1984:283 [ref. 29757] lists paralectotypes but does not designate a lectotype. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Dor 1984:283 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356]). •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Randall et al. 2012:42, 52 [ref. 31764], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

pilosus, Holocanthus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:28 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822). Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:506 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] East India [not Brazilian Seas]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 4292 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:150 [ref. 24282]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paepke 1999:150 [ref. 24282], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

punctulatus, Orbis Billberg [G. J.] 1833:53 [Linnéska Samfundets Handlingar v. 1 (for 1832); ref. 34146] Mauritius? No types known. Based on the “pointillé Lac.”, i.e., Le Tétrodon pointillé of Lacepède 1798:485 [ref. 2708], which is based on the "Tetrodon hispidus, punctis in dorso, guttis in ventre defluentibus atris ..." of Commerson 1767-1771:No. 80 [ref. 34154]; see Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106] and Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106]). •Probably a synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Kullander 2016:114 [ref. 34147]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pusillus, Tetrodon Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:645 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 121 (1), ZMB 8080 (2). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Randall et al. 2012:42 [ref. 31764], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

regani, Tetrodon Günther [A.] 1910:468, Pl. 175 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 17); ref. 14460] Society Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Uncertain status in Arothron -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

reticularis, Tetrodon Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:506 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Malabar sea, India. Syntypes: ZMB 4259 (1) Tranquebar, 4304 (1, dry, lost) East India. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:150 [ref. 24282]. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Valid as Arothron reticularis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:364 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:674 [ref. 25598], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1054 [ref. 20764], Kottelat et al. 1993:173 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:410 [ref. 25488], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1429 [ref. 25182], Ebert 2001:29 [ref. 25494], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Sakai et al. 2001:124 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:1429 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:227 [ref. 27510], Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099], Matsuura 2009:336 [ref. 31171] with author as Marion de Procé 1822, Verruraj et al. 2011:4 [ref. 31496], Randall et al. 2012:41 [ref. 31764], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1090 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron reticularis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to central Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sazanami, Tetraodon Tanaka [S.] 1916:384, Pls. 105 (fig. 324), 110 (fig. 333) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 22; ref. 14937] Tokyo fish market, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 6745. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae.

scaber, Tetraodon Eydoux [J. F. T.] & Souleyet [F. A.] 1850:214, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 4501] Macao, China. Holotype: MNHN 0000-2178. Type catalog: Le Danois 1962:472-473 [ref. 21440]. •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

semistriatus, Tetraodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1837:58, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 6202 (dry). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. •Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757], Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Randall et al. 2012:42, 52 [ref. 31764], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus 1758). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

setosus, Tetrodon Smith [R.] 1886:155 [Bulletin of the California Academy of Sciences v. 2; ref. 18284] Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico. Holotype (unique): CAS 2996 (lost). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Lacepède 1798) -- (Grove & Lavenberg 1997:646 [ref. 24023]). •Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:27 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron meleagris (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

sordidus, Tetrodon Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:64 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Paratypes: MNHN A-8360 (1, dry); SMF 276 (1), 7618 (1, dry). Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:284 [ref. 29757] as Tetraodon sordidus, Ebert 2001:92 [ref. 25494], Kottelat 2013:472 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron immaculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

staigeri, Tetrodon Castelnau [F. L.] 1878:248 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 761] Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099]). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Tetrodon Shaw [G.] 1804:447 [General zoology or systematic natural history; ref. 4015] Indian Seas. No types known. Based on Tetrodon étoilé of Lacepède 1798. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Objective synonym of Tetraodon stellatus Anonymous 1798 -- (Fricke 1999:605 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Tetrodon Anonymous (ex Commerson, Lacepède) 1798:683 [Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung 1798 (pt. 3) (no. 288) (for 25 Sept. 1798); ref. 24107] [Habitat mare Indicum circa insulam Mauricii] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Based on "Le Tétrodon étoilé" of Lacepède 1798:474, 483 [ref. 2708], which was based on a description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Most authors date to Tetrodon lagocephalus var. stellatus Bloch & Schneider 1801:503 [ref. 471]; however Fricke 1999:602 [ref. 24106] pointed out that the name correctly dates to Anonymous 1798:683 [ref. 13098]. •Valid as Arothron stellatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:372 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:305 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:285 [ref. 29757], Matsuura in Masuda et al. 1984:365 [ref. 6441], Smith & Heemstra 1986:898 [ref. 5714], Allen & Swainston 1988:154 [ref. 25477], Paulin et al. 1989:245 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:474 [ref. 15987], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1054 [ref. 20764], Kuiter 1993:422 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Matsuura 1994:29 [ref. 21445], Goren & Dor 1994:74 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:402 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:624 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:375 [ref. 23967], Lindberg et al. 1997:165 [ref. 23547], Allen 1997:244 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:239 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:410 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:474 [ref. 25919], Johnson 1999:755 [ref. 25471], Matsuura in Randall & Lim 2000:648 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1427 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:468 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:286 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:22 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:125 [ref. 25868], Ebert 2001:30 [ref. 25494], Sakai et al. 2001:124 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:48 [ref. 25847], Matsuura 2001:3956 [ref. 26317], Nakabo 2002:1427 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:453, 696 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:65 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S124 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:651 [ref. 27495], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:50 [ref. 27712], Randall et al. 2004:32 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3332 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:453 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:647 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1916 [ref. 29099], Larson et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Fricke 1999:605 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:121 [ref. 30213], Verruraj et al. 2011:6 [ref. 31496], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1090 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:273 [ref. 32706], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:434 [ref. 33460], Fricke et al. 2014:198 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider, 1801, Psomadakis et al. 2015:336 [ref. 34104], Stewart & Roberts 2015:1733 [ref. 34322], Matsuura 2016:[6] [ref. 34211] Koeda et al. 2016:114 [ref. 35333], Kwun et al. 2017:143 [ref. 37287], Ali et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:385 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:181 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:124 [ref. 36262], Eagderi et al. 2019:137 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:334 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:102 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:618 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:130 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Tuamotu Archipelago, north to southern Korea, central Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island and northern New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Tetrodon lagocephalus var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Commerson, ex Lacepède) 1801:503 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Preoccupied by Tetrodon stellatus Anonymous 1798. Based on "Le Tétrodon étoilé" of Lacepède 1798:474, 483 [ref. 2708], which was based on a description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798) -- (Fricke 1999:605 [ref. 24106]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron stellatus (Anonymous 1798). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: marine.

testudinarius, Tetrodon Müller [J.] 1841:252 [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1839; ref. 3061] No types known. Based on Bloch. •In the synonymy of Arothron reticularis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron reticularis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

trichoderma, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1854:532 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 5965] Priaman, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1867.1.28.106. Günther 1870:283 [ref. 1995] states "Adult. Sumatra. ... Type of T. trichoderma" for the British Museum specimen. •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

trichodermatoides, Tetraodon Bleeker [P.] 1854:336 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 343] Larantuka, Flores Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1867.11.20.99 (1). Original as Tetraödon trichodermatoïdes. Lectotype perhaps established in Günther 1870:283 [ref. 1995] by use of "Adult (9 inches). Flores... Type of T. trichodermatoides." •Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Su & Tyler 1986:25 [ref. 11531]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron nigropunctatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Tetraodontidae.

virgatus, Tetrodon Richardson [J.] 1846:62, Pl. 39 (figs. 8-9) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1848.3.18.123. Original genus should have been spelled Tetraodon. •Synonym of Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822) -- (Hoese et al. 2006:1914 [ref. 29099] with author as Procé, Kottelat 2013:473 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Arothron manilensis (Marion de Procé 1822). Tetraodontidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.