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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Betta: [ 83 ] records


abbreviata, Betta splendens Pellegrin [J.] 1925:180 [v. 6 (no. 6); ref. 33399] Indochina. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1925-0082. Blanc attributes to Pellegrin 1925, Rev. Hist. Nat. Appl. v. 6:181 but that name is infrasubspecific and not available according to Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604], but treated as valid by Pellegrin 1925. •Synonym of Betta splendens Regan 1910 -- (Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Wakiyama et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25519], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta splendens Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

akarensis, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:779, Pl. 77 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Akar River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1895.7.2.44. •Valid as Betta akarensis Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:83 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:118 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:326, 327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543], Doi et al. 2001:17 [ref. 25691], Tan & Lim 2004:114 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:67 [ref. 28354], Parenti & Lim 2005:194 [ref. 28285], Tan & Ng 2004:279 [ref. 28058], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Betta akarensis Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Brunei and Sarawak (Malaysia), Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

albimarginata, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:67, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] Sungei Sanul, tributary of Sungei Tikung, Sungei Sebuku basin, Kalimantan Timur, Borneo. Holotype: ZRC 38485 [ex CMK 9541]. Paratypes: CMK 9549 (4), MZB 5897 (1), ROM uncat. (1), ZRC 35121-22 (2). •Valid as Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta albimarginata Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

anabatoides, Betta Bleeker [P.] 1851:269 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 325] Stream at kilometer 55 on Rantau-Martapura road, Bandjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Neotype: ZRC 40971. Neotype designated by Tan 2009:59 [ref. 30276]. •Valid as Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851 -- (Vierke 1986:83 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:119 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:172 [ref. 6439], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Tan 2009:60 [ref. 30276], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta anabatoides Bleeker 1851. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan (Indonesia), Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

antoni, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:98, Figs. 1a-c [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Sanggau area, Kapuas basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo [aquarium trade specimens]. Holotype: MZB 9340. Paratypes: CMK 18627 (6), 18544 (5); MZB 9341 (5); ZRC 46276 (4), 46277 (10), 46278 (16). Plus non-type matearial. •Valid as Betta antoni Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta antoni Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Lower Kapus basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

apollon, Betta Schindler [I.] & Schmidt [J.] 2006:50, Figs. 3-4 [Zeitschrift für Fischkunde v. 8 (no. 1/2); ref. 28865] About 20 kilometers west of Narathiwat at street to Marubo, about 6°23'N, 101°38'E, Province Narathiwat, Thailand. Holotype: MTD F30341. Paratypes: MTD F30342-45 (4), F30346-48 (3). •Valid as Betta apollon Schindler & Schmidt 2006 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta apollon Schindler & Schmidt 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Hill streams west of Narathiwat, peninsular Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

aurigans, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Lim [K. K. P.] 2004:113, Figs. 5-6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 11; ref. 27716] Pulau Natuna Besar, Natuna Archipelago. Holotype: MZB 10709. Paratypes: MZB 10710 (7); ZRC 49159-60 (8, 3). Plus 5 non-types as BMNH 1912.12.10.36-40. •Valid as Betta aurigans Tan & Lim 2004 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta aurigans Tan & Lim 2004. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Natuna Archipelago, South China Sea. Habitat: freshwater.

balunga, Betta Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1940:44 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 16; ref. 11006] Tiny brook, tributary to the Balung River, 45 miles from Tawau, Borneo, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 33203. •Tentatively valid -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Questionably a synonym of Betta akarensis Regan 1910 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448]). •Valid as Betta balunga Herre 1940 -- (Vierke 1986:85 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:120 [ref. 36453], Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543], Tan & Lim 2004:114 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:69 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2004:273 [ref. 28058], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta balunga Herre 1940. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

bellica, Betta Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:217, Fig. (p. 217) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 14401] Neotype locality: North Selangor peat swamp forest, adjacent to Perak Island, 43 kilometers towards Sungai Besae (3°39'12.9"N, 101°18'00.4"E), Selangor, Malaysia. Neotype: ZRC 39196. Neotype designated by Tan & Ng 1996:144 [ref. 22921]; original locality Perak I., Malaysia. •Valid as Betta bellica Sauvage 1884 -- (Vierke 1986:85 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:120 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 1996:144 [ref. 22921], Tan & Ng 2005:58 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:116 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta bellica Sauvage 1884. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

bleekeri, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:780 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Asia. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.3.10.930. Paralectotypes: RMNH 10741 (1). Lectotype selected by Hui & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354]. •Synonym of Betta bellica Sauvage 1884 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Junior objective synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) after lectotype selection -- (Tan & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

brederi, Betta Myers [G. S.] 1935:25 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 48; ref. 13906] Small stream emptying into Johore Strait, Johore, Malaysia. Holotype: USNM 94400. Paratypes: USNM 94442 (1). Also appeared in Myers 1935:307 [ref. 35916]. •Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Tan & Tan 1996:419 [ref. 22754], Tan & Ng 2005:60 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

breviobesus, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Kottelat [M.] 1998:46, Fig. 2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 23543] 87 kilometers east of Pontianak, 0°02'S, 110°07'E, stream, about 1 kilometer up Sungai Tajan from Tajan, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 3866. Paratypes: CMK 6927 (4); MNHN 1982-0719 (3); MZB 3859 (1), 3863-65 (1, 3, 1); RMNH 289118 (4); ZMA 16547 (1), ZRC 40284 (3). •Valid as Betta breviobesus Tan & Kottelat 1998 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459]). •Valid as Betta breviobesa Tan & Kottelat 1998 -- (Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta breviobesa Tan & Kottelat 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

brownorum, Betta Witte [K.-E.] & Schmidt [J.] 1992:312, Figs. 5-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 14256] Small peat swamp forest, 2.55 kilometers south of Batang Rejang ferry on road from Sibu to Kuching, Sarawak, East Malaysia, 2°08'N, 112°00'30"E. Holotype: ZSM 28090. Paratypes: KEW (K.E. Witte's coll.) 449 (3, 2 c&s), 1158 (1, c&s); ZSM 28091 (1), 28092 (2, c&s, missing). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:272 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Ng 2005:82 [ref. 28354], Parenti & Lim 2005:194 [ref. 28285], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta brownorum Witte & Schmidt 1992. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

burdigala, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:70, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] 4 kilometers north of Bikang village on road from Koba to Toboali, Bangka, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 35162. Paratypes: CMK 9597 (2), ZRC 35163-64 (2). •Valid as Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta burdigala Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Banka, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

channoides, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:71, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] Unnamed blackwater stream entering Mahakam River on thenorthern side near Mujub, 0°01'S, 115°43'E, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC [ex CMK 7765]. Paratypes: CMK 7781 (1), MZB 5898 (1), ZRC 35165 (1). •Valid as Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta channoides Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

chini, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] 1993:290, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 21104] Peat swamps, about 12 kilometers from Beaufort, about 5°33'06"N, 115°50'23"E, Sabah, Borneo. Holotype: ZRC 35086. Paratypes: CMK 10027 (3); Sabah Mus. uncat. (2); ZRC 35087-93 (7), 35094-95 (2), 35096-102 (7). Author is P. K. L. Ng. •Valid as Betta chini Ng 1993 -- (Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543], Tan & Lim 2004:114 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:70 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2004:273 [ref. 28058], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta chini Ng 1993. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

chloropharynx, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:72, Figs. 6-8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] Kilometer-mark 99.4 south of Pangkalpinang on road to Toboali, 41.4 kilometers south of Koba, Bangka, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 35166. Paratypes: CMK 9761 (1), ZRC 35167 (1). •Valid as Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta chloropharynx Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

climacura, Betta Vierke [J.] 1988:336, Figs. 1-2 [Das Aquarium, Zeitschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienfreunde v. 22 (no. 228); ref. 19852] Small clear-water creek about 60 air-miles southwest of Brunei, near Rampayoh, West Borneo. Holotype: ZFMK 15532. Paratypes: ZFMK 15533 (1). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:132 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Betta climacura Vierke 1988 -- (Vierke 1988:122 [ref. 36453]). •Status uncertain -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Synonym of Betta akarensis Regan 1910 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448] with question, Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Kottelat 1998:43 [ref. 23543] tentatively, Tan & Ng 2005:67 [ref. 28354], Parenti & Lim 2005:194 [ref. 28285], Tan & Ng 2004:273 [ref. 28058], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta akarensis Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

coccina, Betta Vierke [J.] 1979:288, Figured [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 13 (no. 121); ref. 8775] Jambi, central Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMH 6056. Paratypes: ZMH 6057 (2). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:419 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Betta coccina Vierke 1979 -- (Vierke 1986:86 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:123 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:80 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta coccina Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

compuncta, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:108, Fig. 6a-e [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Mahakam asin, feeder stream to Sungai Hajuq, about 800 meters east of NE Lampunut camp, about 0°03.92'S, 114°55.34'E, ong Iram subsidt., Kalimantan Timur. Holotype: MZB 9344. Paratypes: CMK 18547 (10); MZB 9345 (10); ZRC 46334 (90). 46335 (65). 46336 (18)46337 (77). •Valid as Betta compuncta Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta compuncta Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Upper Mahakam basin, Kalimantan Timur, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

cracens, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:120, Fig. 2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28283] Sungai Berliung Batam Bertram, about 1 kilometer into turnoff to Permata Biru Indah, 10 kilometers from Jambi towards Palembang after main bus terminus, Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 9309. Paratypes: CMK 14415 (2); ZRC 41717 (6), 42498 (2). •Valid as Betta cracens Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459]). Current status: Valid as Betta cracens Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

cyana, Betta Brüning [C.] 1930:49, Fig. 1 [Der Aquarienfisch- und Naturfreund No. 4; ref. 36332] Aquarium import from Cambodia? No types known. Based on a blue colour variety of Betta splendens. Current status: Synonym of Betta splendens Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae.

dennisyongi, Betta Tan [T. H.] 2013:326, Figs. 7-8 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 61 (no. 1); ref. 32497] Kabupaten Nagan Raya, Lamie, Alue Rayeuk, stream along road Meulaboh-Blangpidie; Ache Province, Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 17027. Paratypes: CMK 23281 (4); MZB 47028 (4), ZRC 53990 (19), 53991 (25), 53995 (7). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta dennisyongi Tan 2013 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]) Current status: Valid as Betta dennisyongi Tan 2013. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Ache Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

dimidiata, Betta Roberts [T. R.] 1989:172, Fig. 130 [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 14; ref. 6439] Kapuas basin, Sungai Seriang, 37 kilometers west of Putussibau, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 3849. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.3.29.230-235 (6); CAS 49469-72 (9, 3, 2, 6); FMNH 94251 (6); MNHN 1982-0718 (5); MZB 3850-58 (3, 2, 1, 7, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1); RMNH 28917 (2); UMMZ 209927 (5); USNM 230336-37 (7, 5). •Valid as Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:87 [ref. 28354], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:165 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta dimidiata Roberts 1989. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

edithae, Betta Vierke [J.] 1984:60, Figured [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 18 (no. 176); ref. 8203] Barito Delta at Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: SMF 18712. Paratypes: SMF 18713 (1). •Status uncertain -- (Roberts 1989:173 [ref. 6439]). •Valid as Betta edithae Vierke 1984 -- (Vierke 1986:87 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:124 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta edithae Vierke 1984. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

enisae, Betta Kottelat [M.] 1995:60, Fig. 4 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 21728] Sungai Santik, a tributary of Sungai Tawang, 0°50'21"N, 112°03'50"E, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 5907. Paratypes: CMK 10100 (4), 10128 (7), 10183 (5), 10217 (2), 10270 (2), 10294 (4), 10509 (1); MZB 5908-09 (5, 4), 5910 (3); ZRC 38061 (3), 38453 (2). •Valid as Betta enisae Kottelat 1995 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:44 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta enisae Kottelat 1995. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

falx, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Kottelat [M.] 1998:557 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 105 (no. 3); ref. 23781] Sungai Alai, kilometer 19.5 on Muara Bungo-Muara Tebo Road, about 1°28'42.6"S, 102°18'31.7"E, Jambi Province, central Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 9308. Paratypes: CMK 11119 (44); MHNG 2593.95 (5); MZB 9307 (4); RMNH 33087 (5); ZMA 121673 (6); ZRC 38254 (3) 38571 (44), 40974 (20), 42496 (10); plus nontype material. •Valid as Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta falx Tan & Kottelat 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciata, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:782, Pl. 77 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Deli, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1889.12.26.30. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.12.26.31 (1). Lectotype selected by Tan & Ng 1996:145 [ref. 22921]. •Valid as Betta fasciata Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:88 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:125 [ref. 36453]). •Synonym of Betta bellica Sauvage 1884 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:161 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 1996:144 [ref. 22921], Tan & Ng 2005:58 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:449 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta bellica Sauvage 1884. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ferox, Betta Schindler [I.] & Schmidt [J.] 2006:53, Fig. 5 [Zeitschrift für Fischkunde v. 8 (no. 1/2); ref. 28865] About 30 kilometers southwest of Rattsphun, Bori Pat, at national street 406, 150 meters before junction into Bori Pat waterfall park, 7°00'05"N, 100°08'55"E, Hat Yai, Thailand. Holotype: MTD F30355. Paratypes: MTD F30349-54 (6). •Valid as Betta ferox Schindler & Schmidt 2006 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta ferox Schindler & Schmidt 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Bori Pat, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

foerschi, Betta Vierke [J.] 1979:386, Figured [Aquarium Aqua Terra v. 13 (no. 123); ref. 8777] Mentaya River system, 250 kilometers northwest of Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: ZMH 6058. Paratypes: ZMH 6059 (2). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:420 [ref. 21161]. For comments on type locality see Korthaus 1979:389 [ref. 33754] and Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]. •Valid as Betta foerschi Vierke 1979 -- (Vierke 1986:89 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:126 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & van der Voort 2011:22 [ref. 32382], Tan 2013:329 [ref. 32497], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta foerschi Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

fusca, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:780, Pl. 78 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1908.7.13.18. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1908.7.13.119 (1). Lectotype selected by Hui & Ng 2005:123 [ref. 28283]. •Status uncertain -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Valid as Betta fusca Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:90 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:127 [ref. 36453], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:122 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta fusca Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia and Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

gladiator, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:75, Figs. 25a-b, 47f [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Maliau basin, northeast of basecamp 1966, about 5°14'N, 116°53'E, stream at right trail about 2 kilometers into Jalan Babi towards Maliau falls, Sabah, Borneo. Holotype: SBM (= MUS) uncat. Paratypes: CMK 13125 (2); RMNH 33088 (2); SBM (= MUS) uncat. (13); ZRC 40960 (9), 40961 (6). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta gladiator Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta gladiator Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sabah, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

hendra, Betta Schindler [I.] & Linke [H.] 2013:35, Fig. 1-3 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 63 (no. 1); ref. 32666] About 3 km south-east of Palangkaraya in direction of Berengbengkel, 2°16.5'S, 113°56.6'E, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: MTD 32875. Paratypes: MTD 32876-77 (2), 32878-81 (4). •Valid as Betta hendra Schindler & Linke 2013 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta hendra Schindler & Linke 2013. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

hipposideros, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] & Kottelat [M.] 1994:597, Figs. 2B, 3C-D, 4C-D, 6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 22076] North Selangor Peat Swamp Forest, 39 kilometers mark on road from Sungai Besar to Tanjung Malim, Selangor, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 18688. Paratypes: CMK 10037-38 (16, 10); ZRC 15351-57 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 15358-61 (4), 17097 (1), 18029-34 (6), 18689-18705 (17), 27761 (1), 28515-17 (3), 28550 (1). First author is P. K. L. Ng. •Valid as Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:84 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta hipposideros Ng & Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia). Habitat: freshwater.

ibanorum, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2004:273, Figs. 3, 7 [The Sarawak Museum Journal v. 59 (no. 80) (new series), Special Issue 6; ref. 28058] Kuching, Bako National Park, Bukit Gondol, Sarawak, Borneo. Holotype: SBC [ex ZRC 41584]. Paratypes: ZRC 37750 (3), 37757 (22). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta ibanorum Tan & Ng 2004 -- (Grinang & Lim 2004:292 [ref. 28551], Tan & Ng 2005:70 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta ibanorum Tan & Ng 2004. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southern Sarawak, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

ideii, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:111, Fig. 7a-b [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] North of Baturicin area, from coastal basin draining into Laut Strait and adjacent to Pulau, 3°16'15-18"S, 115°58'17-23"E, Kalimantan Selatan, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 10713. Paratypes: CMK 18548 (5), MZB 10714 (4), ZRC 50277. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta ideii Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta ideii Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southern area of Kalimantan Selatan, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

imbellis, Betta Ladiges [W.] 1975:262, Figs. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 28 (no. 8); ref. 7224] Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Holotype: ZMH H4644. Paratypes: ZMH H4520 (11). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:160 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975 -- (Vierke 1986:91 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:128 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Britz & Cambray 2001:280 [ref. 25647], Tan & Ng 2005:78 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Kuwasupat et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32254], Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta imbellis Ladiges 1975. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), northern Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: freshwater.

krataios, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:102, Fig. 3a-c [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Mandor area, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo [aquarium trade specimens]. Holotype: MZB 10715. Paratypes: ZRC 46274 (4), 47258 (9). •Valid as Betta krataios Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta krataios Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Lower Kapuas basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

kuehnei, Betta Schindler [I.] & Schmidt [J.] 2008:40, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Fish Biology v. 10 (nos 1/2); ref. 30459] Kota Bharu, about 35 kilometers south of Panjang (5°48'40"N, 101°57'20"E), Kelantan, Malaysia. Holotype: ZMB 33884. Paratypes: ZMB 33885 (5). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Betta kuehnei Schindler & Schmidt 2008 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta kuehnei Schindler & Schmidt 2008. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

lehi, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:65, Figs. 16, 46e [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Sungai Stuum Munda, 1°28'51.3"N, 105°58'18.1"E, about 58 kilometers to Sematan on road from Bau to Lundu, 21.1 kilometer before Lundu ferry over Batang Kayan, Sawawak, Borneo. Holotype: ZRC 39267. Paratypes: CMK 13021 (5); SM uncat. (5); ZMA 121674 (5); ZRC 41582 (15), 41583 (11). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta lehi Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta lehi Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

livida, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] & Kottelat [M.] 1992:177, Figs. 2-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 20005] Blackwater stream, north Selangor peat swamp, 800 meters from 45 kilometer mark on road from Tanjong Malim to Sungai Besar, Peninsula Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 15287. Paratypp: CMK 8032 (25); ZRC 14439 (1), 15209-28 (20), 15254-73 (20), 15288-89 (2), 18836-40 (5), 18851-53 (3), 22764-67 (4), 22768 (1), 22829 (1). First author is P. K. L. Ng. •Valid as Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992 -- (Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:80 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta livida Ng & Kottelat 1992. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalma, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:781, Pl. 77 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Singapore. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1868.7.10.28. •Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Tan & Tan 1996:419 [ref. 22754], Tan & Ng 2005:60 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrostoma, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:778, Pl. 78 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.11.2.2. •Valid as Betta macrostoma Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:92 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:131 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Ng 2005:71 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:37 [ref. 35802]). Current status: Valid as Betta macrostoma Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

mahachaiensis, Betta Kowasupat [C.], Panijpan [B.], Ruenwongsa [P.] & Sriwattanarothai [N.] 2012:50, Figs. 1-4c [Zootaxa No. 3522; ref. 32254] Behind the Pattarachai food factory (13°34'N, 100°15'E), Tha Sai subdistrict, Muang district, Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand. Holotype: THNHM-F-01630. Paratypes: many at THNHM •Valid as Betta mahachaiensis Kowasupat, Panijpan, Ruenwongsa & Sriwattanarothai 2012 -- (Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta mahachaiensis Kowasupat, Panijpan, Ruenwongsa & Sriwattanarothai 2012. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

mandor, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:104, Fig. 4a-d [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Mandor area, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo [aquarium trade specimens]. Holotype: MZB 9342. Paratypes: CMK 6646 (6), 18545 (5); MZB 9343 (4); ZRC 46280 (8), 46281 (15). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta mandor Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Schindler & van der Voort 2011:26 [ref. 32382], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta mandor Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Lower Kapus basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

marchei, Micracanthus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:96 [7] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 3881] Ogooué River at Doumé, Gabon. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0964. Type catalog: Blanc 1963:73 [ref. 19851]. On p. 7 of separate. See also ICZN Case 3113 to suppress Micracanthus marchei. •Tentatively valid -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Synonym (of the younger) Betta splendens Regan 1910 -- (Roberts 1981:91 [ref. 20634]). Current status: Synonym of Betta splendens Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

midas, Betta Tan [H. H.] 2009:64, Figs. 4-8 [Zootaxa No. 2165; ref. 30276] Small stream draining into Sungau Sepatah, a tributary to Sungai Mandor, 24 kilometers northeast of Pontianak (0°07.5'N, 109°30'E), Kabupaten Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 3846. Paratypes: CMK 20838 (2), 16320 (7); MZB 9334 (2); ZRC 43711 (8), 46190 (12), 46191 (4), 51527 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta midas Tan 2009 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta midas Tan 2009. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

miniopinna, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Tan [S. H.] 1994:42, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21374] Swamp forest at Tanjong Bintan end near Pasir Segiling (1°10'N, 104°30'E), northern Pulau Bintan, Riau Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 32504. Paratypes: MZB uncat. (1); ZRC 32503 (1), 32505 (1). •Valid as Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:118 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta miniopinna Tan & Tan 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

obscura, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:90, Fig. 41 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Sungai Barito basin, Desa Kerendan, Sungai Lahei and tributaries, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 9331. Paratypes: BMNH 1991.9.18.26-28 (3), 1991.9.18.32-37 (6), 1996.3.22.43-44 (2), 1996.3.22.253-260 (9); MZB 6941 (3), 9332 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta obscura Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta obscura Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Betta de Beaufort [L. F.] 1933:35 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 8; ref. 12381] Near Bettotan, Sandakan, British North Borneo. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1959.7.7.1 [ex NMS F.1126]. •Status uncertain -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Valid as Betta ocellata de Beaufort 1933 -- (Martin-Smith & Tan 1998:593 [ref. 23647], Tan & Ng 2005:72 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Wilkinson & Tan 2018:602 [ref. 36226]). Current status: Valid as Betta ocellata de Beaufort 1933. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Northeastern Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

omega, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ahmad [A. B.] 2018:403, Figs. 1-3, 4i [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 66; ref. 36015] Sungai Burong near Jeram Batu, Pekan Nanas area, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 59663. Paratypes: ZRC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Betta omega Tan & Ahmad 2018. Current status: Valid as Betta omega Tan & Ahmad 2018. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Pekan Nanas area, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia [species could already be extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

pallida, Betta Schindler [I.] & Schmidt [J.] 2004:2, Figs. 1-2 [Zeitschrift für Fischkunde v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 28030] About 30 kilometers west of Narathiwat at the street to Ruso, about 6°21'N, 101°38'E, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Holotype: MTD F 28389. Paratypes: MTD F 28390 (1). •Valid as Betta pallida Schindler & Schmidt 2004 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2006:54 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:44 [ref. 30459]). •Questionably a synonym of Betta prima Kottelat 1994 -- (Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Betta prima Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand (if valid), Habitat: freshwater.

pallifina, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:93, Figs. 44a-b, 49h [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Muara Teweh, Kec. Laung Tuhup, Desa Maruai, Rawa/Sungai Laung, tributary of Sungai Barito, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 9328. Paratypes: BMNH 1966.3.22.1-38 (38), 1966.3.22.48-57 (10), 1966.3.22.106-138 (33), 1966.3.22.171-230 (60); MZB 6978 (60), 9329 (15), 9330 (20); ZRC 41576 (15), 41577 (20). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta pallifina Tan & Ng 2005. Current status: Valid as Betta pallifina Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

pardalotos, Betta Tan [H. H.] 2009:501, Figs. 1-5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 57 (no. 2); ref. 30388] Sungai Gelam, Laut Kenten, Palembang, Musi Drainage, South Sumatra Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 10999. Paratypes: CMK uncat. (2); MZB 11000 (2); ZRC 51837 (5), 51838 (2), 51839 (1). •Valid as Betta pardalotos Tan 2009 -- (Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta pardalotos Tan 2009. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Musi Drainage, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

patoti, Betta Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1922:359 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 4; ref. 4598] Balikpapan, Mangar River; rivulet 25 kilometers east of Balikpapan Bay; Bluu River, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes: ZMA 112510-13 (1, 1, 2, 3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Tan & Ng (not valid); designated by Kottelat (2013), but lot 112513 apparently contains 3 specimens. •Valid as Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:162 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354]). Current status: Valid as Betta patoti Weber & de Beaufort 1922. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

persephone, Betta Schaller [D.] 1986:298, Figs. (p. 297, 299) [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 39 (no. 7); ref. 8046] Asian highway No. 2, 1°56'20.00"N, 103°09'40.00"E, at road bridge about 3 kilometers north of Ayer Hitam, Malaysia. Holotype: ZFMK 14226. Paratypes: ZFMK 14227-38 (12); ZMB 31614 (4); ZSM 31614 [now at CMK] (4). Type information: Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]. Paratypes 5944 (4) are apparently at CMK but should be returned to ZSM. •Valid as Betta persephone Schaller 1986 -- (Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:81 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta persephone Schaller 1986. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

pi, Betta Tan [H. H.] 1998:285, Figs. 3-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 23321] Mae Nam Tod Deng, about 6 kilometers north of Sungai Kolok, swamps about 100-200 meters south before bridge, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZRC 40289. Paratypes: CMK 12030 (3), 13025 (3); ZRC 40290-92 (2, 6, 18). •Valid as Betta pi Tan 1998 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:85 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:60 [ref. 28865], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta pi Tan 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Narathiwat Province, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

pictum, Panchax Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:385 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Near Bogor, Java, Indonesia. No types known [but see Roberts 1993]. Type information: Roberts 1993:38 [ref. 21799]. •Valid as Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Vierke 1986:93 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:133 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Roberts 1993:38 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Kottelat 1994:301 [ref. 21572], Tan & Kottelat 1998:557 [ref. 23781], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

pinguis, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Kottelat [M.] 1998:43, Fig. 1 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 23543] Sungai Letang near Kampung Kandung Suli (Kecamatan Jongkong), Kapuas basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: MZB 5936. Paratypes: CMK 11592 (1), ZRC 39629 (1). •Valid as Betta pinguis Tan & Kottelat 1998 -- (Tan & Lim 2004:114 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Tan & Ng 2004:273 [ref. 28058], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta pinguis Tan & Kottelat 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

prima, Betta Kottelat [M.] 1994:298, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 21572] Creek at about kilometer 1 on road to Nam Tok Phliu, after leaving Chantaburi-Trat highway, 12°32'N, 102°11'E, Chantaburi, Thailand. Holotype: ZRC [ex CMK 10798]. Paratypes: CMK 9738 (1), 10665 (5), 10691 (6), 10714 (2), 10723 (1); KUMF uncat. (14); MHNG 2158.52 (6); NIFI uncat. (2); ZRC 38250-51 (6, 5). •Valid as Betta prima Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:56 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:44 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta prima Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand, Cambodia and Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

pugnax, Macropodus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1066 [84], Pl. 2 (figs. 1-3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Penang, Malaysia. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.3.19.930. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.317-318 (2, skins). Type catalog: Alfred 1961:183 [ref. 20551]. Lectotype selected by Alfred 1964; see Hui & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354]. •Valid as Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) -- (Vierke 1986:94 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:134 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:173 [ref. 6439], Lim et al. 1990:49 [ref. 16753], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Kottelat 1994:300 [ref. 21572], Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Tan 1996:419 [ref. 22754], Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Tan & Lim 2004:111 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:60 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:48 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast sia: Malaya (Malaysia), Singapore, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

pulchra, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Tan [S. H.] 1996:428, Figs. 2a-c, 4c, 5B [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 44 (no. 2); ref. 22754] Kampong Jasa Sepakat, Pontian, Johor, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 28860. Paratypes: ZRC 17368-70 (3), 29123-25 (3), 39252 (5), 28861-99 (39). Plus additional material. •Valid as Betta pulchra Tan & Tan 1996 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Tan & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta pulchra Tan & Tan 1996. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southwest Johor, Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

raja, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:123, Fig. 4 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28283] Sungai Ayer Merah, feeder stream to Danau Souak Padang, about 15 minutes by boat upstream, 1°36'45.7"S, 103°27'00.0"E, Sumatra. Holotype: MZB 9315. Paratypes: BMNH uncat. (5); CMK uncat. (9); ZMA 121823 (5); ZRC 42499 (12), 42500 (20), 42501 (10), 42502 (14). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta raja Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta raja Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Sumatra. Habitat: freshwater.

renata, Betta Tan [H. H.] 1998:282, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 23321] Rantau Panjang, 1°21'57.6"S, 103°54'55.2"E, Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 9310. Paratypes: CMK 13024 (3); ZRC 39117 (3), 39265 (1), 40285-86 (7, 5). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta renata Tan 1998 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:126 [ref. 28283], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta renata Tan 1998. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

rubra, Betta Perugia [A.] 1893:242 [2] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 13; ref. 3434] Toba Lake, Sibolga, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: MSNG 13019a. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1893.5.29.1 [ex MSNG] (1), MSNG 13019 (9). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:340 [ref. 10350]. On p. 2 of separate. Lectotype listed in Hui & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354] and Hui & Ng 2005:119 [ref. 28283]. •Valid as Betta rubra Perugia 1893 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:119 [ref. 28283], Schindler & van der Voort 2011:21 [ref. 32382], Tan 2012:324 [ref. 32497], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta rubra Perugia 1893. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

rutilans, Betta Witte [K.-E.] & Kottelat [M.] in Kottelat 1991:278, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 13588] Sungei Kepayang, 7 kilometers southeast of Anjungan on road to Pontianak, 0°20'N, 109°08'E, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Holotype: ZSM 27977 [now ZRC 38452]. Paratypes: ZSM [now CMK 7438 (4), 7439 (1, c&s)]. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:273 [ref. 31652]. Holotype is now at ZRC. •Valid as Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991 -- (Kottelat 1991:278 [ref. 13588], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta rutilans Witte & Kottelat 1991. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

schalleri, Betta Kottelat [M.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1994:74, Figs. 9-11 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 21376] 5.5 kilometers north of Payung on road to Pangkalpinang, Bangka, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 35170. Paratypes: CMK 9585 (4), 9622 (2), 9630 (2), 9639 (3), 9648 (1); ZRC 35171-73 (3), 35174-78 (5), 35179 (1), 35180 (1). •Valid as Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994 -- (Kottelat 1995:61 [ref. 21728], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta schalleri Kottelat & Ng 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

siamorientalis, Betta Kowasupat [C.], Panijpan [B.], Ruenwongsa [P.] & Jeenthong [T.] 2012:389, Fig. 1-3 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 62 (no. 3); ref. 32320] Sai Hai village (13°42′N, 101°13′E), Tha Thonglang subdistrict, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao province, Thailand. Holotype: THNHM-F-01540. Paratypes: many at THNHM. •Valid as Betta siamorientalis Kowasupat, Panijpan, Ruenwongsa & Jeenthong 2012 -- (Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta siamorientalis Kowasupat, Panijpan, Ruenwongsa & Jeenthong 2012. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

simorum, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 1996:151, Figs. 3c, 4c [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 44 (no. 1); ref. 22921] Swamp in Rantau Panjang, Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB (present ZRC 39628). Paratypes: CMK 11182 (5); ZRC 38549 (4), 39118 (19). •Valid as Betta simorum Tan & Ng 1996 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:116 [ref. 28283], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta simorum Tan & Ng 1996. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

simplex, Betta Kottelat [M.] 1994:301, Figs. 3-5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 21572] Spring (small lake) of Tham Sra Kaew and Nine Ponds, 2.2 kilometers from National highway 4034, northwestern Krabi, Krabi Province, Thailand. Holotype: ZRC 38486 [ex CMK 10635]. Paratypes: CMK 9445 (4); ZRC 35168-69 (2). •Valid as Betta simplex Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Kottelat 1998:558 [ref. 23781], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:57 [ref. 28865], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta simplex Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

smaragdina, Betta Ladiges [W.] 1972:190, Figs. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 25 (no. 6); ref. 19853] Nongkhai, Thailand. Holotype: ZMH H4639. Paratypes: ZMH H4640 (1). Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:160 [ref. 22013]. •Valid as Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972 -- (Vierke 1986:95 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:136 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat 2001:160 [ref. 25780], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Kuwasupat et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32254], Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:48 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Betta smaragdina Ladiges 1972. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Western and north-eastern Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

spilotogena, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] & Kottelat [M.] 1994:606, Figs 2D, 3H, 4H, 8 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 22076] Northern Pulau Bintan, from small stream, Riau Archipelago, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ZRC 35417. Paratypes: CMK 10021 (2); MZB (3); ZRC 34748 (1), 34783 (1), 35418-20 (3), 35421-31 (11); plus other material. •Valid as Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:126 [ref. 28283], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta spilotogena Ng & Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

splendens, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:782 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Menam River [= Mae Nam Chao Phraya], Thailand. Lectotype: BMNH 1898.11.8.95. Paralectotypes: (8) BMNH 1897.12.28.36 (1), 1897.1.28.6-8 (now. 2), 1898.11.8.96-97 (2); ZMA 114490 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Schaller & Kottelat 1989:36 [ref. 13604]. •Valid as Betta splendens Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:96 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:138 [ref. 36453], Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Rainboth 1996:215 [ref. 22772], Fuller et al. 1999:471 [ref. 25838], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Kuwasupat et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32254], Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Larson et al. 2013:56 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta splendens Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Thailand; introduced elsewhere, such as NorthernTerritory, Australia, Habitat: freshwater.

stigmosa, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:64, Figs. 14a-b, 46d [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Terengganu, Sekayu waterfalls, 4°57'49.7"N, 102°57'14.0"E, near swampy stream, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 43392. Paratypes: ZRC 21720 (1), 41710 (5), 43393 (7). Plus non-type material. Misspelled once as stigmosus. •Valid as Betta stigmosa Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta stigmosa Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

stiktos, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2005:95, Fig. 45 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28354] Small swampy stream from Stung Treng to Ban Lung, about 3/4 to bridge over Tonle Srepok, about 13°30'N, 106°30'E, Mekong River basin, Cambodia. Holotype: CAS 204326. Paratypes: CAS 94115 (19), ZRC 43391 [ex CAS 94115] (3). •Valid as Betta stiktos Tan & Ng 2005 -- (Kuwasupat et al. 2012:49 [ref. 32254], Kowasupat et al. 2012:387 [ref. 32320], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta stiktos Tan & Ng 2005. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Mekong River drainage, Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

strohi, Betta Schaller [D.] & Kottelat [M.] 1989:33, Unnum. fig.; Figs. 2, 5 [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 43 (no. 1) [Jan. 1990]; ref. 13604] Nataik Sedawak, about 30 kilometers south of Sukamara (2°41'S, 111°13'E), Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: ZSM 26718. Paratypes: LIPI uncat. [ex ZSM 26719] (6); ZRC 32126-29 [ex ZSM 26719] (4) but returned to ZSM; ZSM 26719 (38, now 32), 26979 (10, 2 missing, probably at CMK). •Status uncertain -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256]). •Valid as Betta strohi Schaller & Kottelat 1989 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Tan & Ng 2005:86 [ref. 28354], Schindler & van der Voort 2011:26 [ref. 32382]). •Synonym of Betta foerschi Vierke 1979 -- (Kottelat 2013:450 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Betta foerschi Vierke 1979. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniata, Betta Regan [C. T.] 1910:781, Pl. 78 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1909 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 9 Nov. 1909); ref. 14593] Senah River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Lectotype: BMNH 1893.3.6.147. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1893.3.6.148-150 (3). Lectotype selected by Hui & Ng 2005:78 [ref. 28354]. •Tentatively valid -- (Roberts 1989:173 [ref. 6439]). •Valid as Betta taeniata Regan 1910 -- (Vierke 1986:98 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:141 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Kottelat 1994:301 [ref. 21572], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Kottelat 1998:558 [ref. 23781], Schindler & Schmidt 2004:3 [ref. 28030], Tan & Ng 2005:76 [ref. 28354], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:166 [ref. 28284], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:47 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:44 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta taeniata Regan 1910. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

tomi, Betta Ng [P. K. L.] & Kottelat [M.] 1994:603, Figs. 2C, 3E-G, 4E-G, 7 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 42 (no. 3); ref. 22076] Freshwater swamp forest along tributary of Sungai Mupor, about 15 kilometers on road from Kota Tinggi to Mersing (ca. 1°52'N, 103°56'E), Johor, Malaysia. Holotype: ZRC 35409. Paratypes: CMK 9753 (6); ZRC 35410 (1), 35411-16 (6). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat 1994 -- (Tan & Ng 2005:85 [ref. 28354], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta tomi Ng & Kottelat 1994. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia and Singapore. Habitat: freshwater.

trifasciata, Betta Bleeker [P.] 1849:14 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 12); ref. 16883] No types known. Also appeared in Bleeker 1850:12. •Synonym of Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Tan & Kottelat 1998:557 [ref. 23781], Kottelat 2013:451 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Betta picta (Valenciennes 1846). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Habitat: freshwater.

tussyae, Betta Schaller [D.] 1985:350, Figs. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 38 (no. 8); ref. 17271] About 77 kilometers south of Kuantan on road parallel to east coast, 17 kilometers south of Pekan, about 77 kilometers from Pahang, about 1 kilometer from sea, Pahang State, Malaysia. Holotype (?): ?ZSM 27336 [now ZRC 38451]. Paratypes: ZFMK 14195 (1), 14224-14225 (2). Plus additonal non-type material: ZFMK 14196-14207 (12), 14208-14212 (6); ZMB 31607-09 (6, 9, 3); CMK 6345 (11). Type catalog: Paepke 1994:315 [ref. 21516], Herder et al. 2010:132 [ref. 31087], Neumann 2011:273 [ref. 31652]. Type information: Schaller & Kottelat 1989:35 [ref. 13604]; holotype apparently still missing (Neumann, pers. comm. 12 July 2012). •Valid as Betta tussyae Schaller 1985 -- (Schaller & Kottelat 1989:31 [ref. 13604], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:82 [ref. 28354], Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta tussyae Schaller 1985. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

uberis, Betta Tan [H. H.] & Ng [P. K. L.] 2006:105, Fig. 5a-d [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 28764] Pankalanbun, Arut basin, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia [aquarium trade specimens]. Holotype: MZB 9338. Paratypes: CMK 16725 (7), 18546 (5); MZB 9339 (5); ZRC 46259 (21). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Betta uberis Tan & Ng 2006 -- (Schindler & Linke 2013:35 [ref. 32666], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta uberis Tan & Ng 2006. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Kalimantan Barat, Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

unimaculatus, Parophiocephalus Popta [C. M. L.] 1905:184 [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 25 (no. 4) (art. 15); ref. 3549] Howong R and Kajan River, Borneo, Indonesia. Lectotype: ZMA 114486. Syntypes: (52?) ZMA 114486 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. Lectotype selected by Hui & Ng 2005:92 [ref. 28354]. •Valid as Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905) -- (Vierke 1986:99 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:142 [ref. 36453], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:248 [ref. 23210], Tan & Ng 2005:45 [ref. 28354], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Betta unimaculata (Popta 1905). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Borneo, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

waseri, Betta Krummenacher [R.] 1986:177, Figs. [Aquaria: Vivaristische Fachzeitschrift mit Vereinsmitteilungen v. 33 (no. 12); ref. 8081] Small jungle creek, across the road Kuala Lumpur-Kuantan, 22.5 kilometers before Kuantan, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): ZMUZ 129201. •Valid as Betta waseri Krummenacher 1986 -- (Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Kottelat et al. 1993:163 [ref. 23448], Ng & Kottelat 1994:595 [ref. 22076], Tan & Ng 2005:83 [ref. 28354], Tan 2009:501 [ref. 30388], Kottelat 2013:453 [ref. 32989], Tan & Ahmad 2018:406 [ref. 36015]). Current status: Valid as Betta waseri Krummenacher 1986. Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.