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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Cephalopholis: [ 91 ] records


aitha, Cephalopholis Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:29, Pl. 1c, Fig. 5 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Tripod Reef, lagoon off Nagada Harbor, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, depth 30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 32655. Paratypes: AMS I.28525-001 (1); BMNH 1989.2.3.1 (1); BPBM 32223 (1), 32229 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 29158 [ex USNM 236462] (1); USNM 236456 (1), 274684 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis aitha Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:33 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Allen & Adrim 2003:30 [ref. 26830], Craig et al. 2011:12 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:260 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:58 [ref. 33932], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:111 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:50 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis aitha Randall & Heemstra 1991. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

amarui, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Fowler 1949:84 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

analis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:307 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7269. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis analis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:26 [ref. 19830], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

apiarius, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:143 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 9998 (1), 10068 (1, missing), 10158 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:189-190 [ref. 22926] with a holotype. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

argus, Cephalopholis Schneider [J. G.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:311, Pl. 61 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] In India orientali [Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 220. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:134 [ref. 24282] with a holotype. Fricke 1999:175 [ref. 24106] indicates possible syntypes; if so then a lectotype was established by Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757]. Author given as 'Schn.' for Schneider on p. 312. On the Official List (Opinion 1439). •Valid as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 (authorship often given as Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:160 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:95 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:516 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:26 [ref. 19830], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:100 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:226 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:41 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:100 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:175 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2476 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:710 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:177 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:76 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:710 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:47 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:162 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:148 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Randall 2007:196 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:83 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:95 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:14 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:260 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:317 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:144 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:111 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:382 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, Hawaiian Islands, northern Line Islands and Pitcairn Group and French Polynesia, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island; introduced to Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

aurantius, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:305 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0765. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:164 [ref. 19754] as aurantius, Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as aurantius, Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:226 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476] as aurantius, Fricke 1999:176 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:47 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Randall & Justine 2008:157 [ref. 29942], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:17 [ref. 31786], Craig et al. 2011:17 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:261 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Socotra east to Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

auratus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:75, Pl. 236 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Martinique Island, West Indies [not East India]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 231. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 57 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

balah, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:338 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of argus as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:493 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Parenti 2003:493 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

boelang, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] East Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7672 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042] with question, Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

boenak, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:43, Pl. 226 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan [erroneous, is Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 5220 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB (1, stuffed, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:133 [ref. 24282]. Spelled boenack on Plate and boenak in text; first reviser apparently by Bloch; see Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:ix [ref. 21953]. On p. 31 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381] as Bodianus boenac. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:133 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:27 [ref. 19830], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:227 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830]). •Valid as Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Larson & Williams 1997:354 [ref. 23967], Machida et al. 1997:47 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:101 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:176 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2540 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:729 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:178 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:77 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:163 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:83 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:18 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:261 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:97 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:97 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36460], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:382 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Shanghai (China) and Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

boninius, Cephalopholis Jordan [D. S.] & Thompson [W. F.] 1914:248, Pl. 29 (fig. 1 [not 7]) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 2543] Bonin Islands, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 57099 [ex CM 6038]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

burdi, Pomacentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:506, 511 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Unnecessary replacement name for Perca miniata Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleoguttata, Perca miniata var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:42, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [Ad Promont. Djymûm ante Jamboam] Ra’s Barīdī, NNW Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea, 24°17'N 37°31'E. On p. xi appeared as variety "caeruleo-guttata" and without name on p. 42. Regarded as available by indication. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caeruleoocellata, Perca miniata var. Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 41 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated [Red Sea]. No types known. Originally as caeruleo-ocellata, correction mandatory. Name appeared as cæruleo-ocellata on p. xi, as "Varietas" on p. 41; both linked together by the species code '41b', therefore name available by indication (see Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]). Authorship according to Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Bloch & Schneider 1801 -- (Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Bloch & Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

carauna, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. New name for Gymnocephalus ruber Bloch & Schneider 1801, on Marcgrave, p. 147: Carauna. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

coatesi, Cephalopholis Whitley [G. P.] 1937:124, Pl. 12 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4689] Slasher's Reef, off Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.5504. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:103 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2481 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

coronatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:371 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0890 (1), A-7713 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26, 59 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cruentatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:244, Pl. (fig. 1) [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876 (for 27 Apr. 1876); ref. 10019] Victoria, West Africa. Syntypes: ZMB 9333 (2). •Synonym of Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859). Serranidae. Habitat: marine.

cruentatus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:51, 156, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Brazil; Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:90 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:60 [ref. 19232]. Unneeded replacement name for Perca guttata Linnaeus 1758. Based on Perca guttata of Gmelin 1789:1315 [ref. 18139], which was based on Perca guttata Linnaeus 1758, the 'Gvarvgvarv' of Markgraf von Liebstad 1648:169, fig. [ref. 30347], the 'Cugupuguacu cogener, corpore rotundiore' of Sloane 1725:280, pl. 247, fig. 2 [ref. 30230], the 'Cugupu-guacu brasiliensibus' of Willughby 1686:303 [ref. 30164], the 'Cugupu guacu' of Ray 1713:127 [ref. 30231], the 'Perche sanguinolente' of Daubenton 1787:346 [ref. 38024], the Perca guttata of Bonnaterre 1788:130 [ref. 4940], the 'Cugupuguacu' of Catesby 1771:14, Pl. 14 [ref. 774], and the Perca guttata of Bloch 1792:Pl. 312 [ref. 470]; also on a manuscript drawing by Plumier from Martinique. Current usage here tentatively maintained; otherwise first available name would be Serranus coronatus Valenciennes 1828. •Valid as Epinephelus cruentatus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:84 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:323 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239]). •Valid as Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:304 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:426 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:12 [ref. 25512], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:204 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:82 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1335 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:137 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Trinidad and Tobago, including eastern and southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

cyanostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:359 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 103. •Valid as Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:41 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:40 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:227 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:101 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2477 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Satapoomin 2000:7 [ref. 25340], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:23 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:112 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra (Indonesia) east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Philippines, south to Queensland (Australia) Habitat: marine.

cyanostigmatoides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:31 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 31174 [ex RMNH 8134]. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 5478 (1), 8134 (6). •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

erythraeus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:516 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7346. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:182 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

formosa, Sciaena Shaw [G.] in Shaw & Nodder 1812:no page number, Pl. 1007 [The Naturalist's Miscellany; ref. 4013] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Based on "Rahtee bontoo" of Russell 1803:22, Pl. 29 [ref. 13862]. We treat authorship as Shaw in Shaw & Nodder. •Valid as Cephalopholis formosa (Shaw 1812) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:517 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:28 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:43 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:42 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:228 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2478 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] with authors as Shaw & Nodder, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:25 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:98 [ref. 34464], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:383 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:108 [ref. 37300]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis formosa (Shaw 1812). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: India and Myanmar east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

formosanus, Cephalopholis Tanaka [S.] 1911:24, Pl. 7 (fig. 22) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 2; ref. 14881] Keelung, Taihoku, Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 2975 (poor condition). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fulvus, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:287 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [Bahamas]. No types known. •Valid as Epinephelus fulvus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:97 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:324 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221]). •Valid as Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:303 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:426 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Bostrom et al. 2002:655 [ref. 26722], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Heemstra et al. 2003:1336 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:21 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:138 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Craig et al. 2011:27 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Garcia et al. 2018:962 [ref. 36271], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354], Robertson et al. 2020:162 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to southern Brazil and Uruguay, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

gibbus, Cephalopholis Fourmanoir [P.] 1955:215, Pl. 8 B [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série A, Biologie Animale v. 9; ref. 12271] Mutsamudu, Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands, depth 30-80 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSMNB (lost). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:39-40 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:179 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2481 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

grandinatus, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Fowler 1949:84 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guativere, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:336 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Guativere' of Parra 1787:7, Pl. 5 (figs. 1-2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guttatus, Bodianus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:36, Pl. 224 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Indian Ocean and Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 5213 (1, right skin) Japan, 33016 (1, stuffed). Spelled gutatus in text, guttatus on plate; first reviser perhaps Paepke 1999:134 [ref. 24282]. On p. 26 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. On Official Index of rejected names (Opinion 1439). •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hemistiktos, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:109, Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 314. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.11.9.96 (1); SMF 2999 (1), 3007 (1), 4895-96 (1, 1). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. Misspelled hemistictus by authors. •Valid as Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Rüppell 1830) -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:46 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:44 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:30 [ref. 31786], Psomadakis et al. 2015:195 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis hemistiktos (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Oman and Persian Gulf east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

homfrayi, Serranus Day [F.] 1871:678 [2] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Port Blair, Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): ZSI 1680. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

igarashiensis, Cephalopholis Katayama [M.] 1957:156, Fig. 3 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 6 (nos 4-6); ref. 12079] Sumisu-tu, Izu Islands, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 18655 [ex Katayama Coll. 1930]. Paratypes: ZUMT 39466 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:162 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:28 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:46 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2478 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:490 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011: 42 [ref. 31432], Craig et al. 2011:32 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to French Polynesia, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

immunerur, Serranus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:422 [144] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 144 of reprint. •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

indelebilis, Bodianus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:521, Pl. 17 (lower fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27553. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

jacobevertsen, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:283, 296 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic [erroneous, should be Indo-West Pacific]. Originally jacob-evertsen, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

janthinopterus, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1873:45 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 7; ref. 433] Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH 5507. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

kendalli, Cephalopholis Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:76, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55911. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:41 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:40 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2477 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

leopardus, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1801:450, 518, Pl. 30 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Grand Océan équatorial, ou les mers qui en sont voisines [Indo-West Pacific]. Syntypes: MNHN A-5725 (3, dry) Indian Ocean. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:98 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1984:17 [ref. 19232]. Based on drawing in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:42 [ref. 26476] dated 1802, Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:177 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2541 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:48 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:34 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:262 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to northern Marianas, Line and Marquesas islands, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

lineatum, Plectropoma Bliss [R.] (ex Steindachner) 1883:45 [Transactions of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences of Mauritius (N. S.) v. 13; ref. 16966] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MCZ 5712. •Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:18 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:178 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lineoocellatus, Serranus Guichenot [A.] in Duméril 1861:244 [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 10 [for 1858]; ref. 1149] Gabon; Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7370-to 0000-7371 (1, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. Originally as lineo-ocellatus, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:299 [ref. 6204], Heemstra 1991:11 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:695 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:51 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Bodianus Bowdich [S. L.] 1825:236, Fig. 39 [Fishes of Madeira; ref. 590] Boa Vista, Cape Verde Islands. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Bodianus maculatus Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti 2019:7 [ref. 36934], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Cephalopholis Seale [A.] & Bean [B. A.] 1907:235, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1568); ref. 4002] Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype: USNM 57843. Paratypes: USNM 61153 (1). •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculosa, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:350 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality given. No types known. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of taeniops as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:495 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti 2003:495 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculosa, Perca punctata Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:350 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Described as a "varietas" of Perca punctata, species no. 55 on p. 349. Based on Seba and Pennant. •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

mars, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:390 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 2); ref. 1090] Cardwell, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: not at QM. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

mauritiiae, Serranus Gudger [E. W.] 1929:527 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 58 (art. 10); ref. 11184] Name on a drawing by Pike from Mauritius, not available, no description. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Fricke 1999:182 [ref. 24106] as mauritiae). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

microprion, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1852:552 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 16834] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5476 or 5467. Paralectotypes: RMNH 31257 [ex RMNH 5476 or 5467] (2). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19601]. •Valid as Cephalopholis microprion (Bleeker 1852) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:102 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:52 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:48 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:48 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:102 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2541 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Satapoomin 2000:7 [ref. 25340], Allen 2000:97 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:49 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:36 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:263 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:383 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis microprion (Bleeker 1852). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar, Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to Philippines, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

miltostigma, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1873:45 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 7; ref. 433] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5508. •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

miniata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xi, 41 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMUC P43567 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588]. Surviving syntype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965: Pl. 9 [ref. 20847] as holotype. Cephalopholis is feminine, so miniata is correct. Lecteotype designated by Fricke 2008:27. •Valid as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:168 [ref. 19754] as miniatus, Kyushin et al. 1977:182 [ref. 19756] as miniatus, Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as miniatus, Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:29 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:103 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:54 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:24 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:126 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:228 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:103 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:111 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:178 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:729 [ref. 25471] as miniatus, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2480 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268] as miniatus, Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:178 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003: [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:163 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:150 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:84 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:95 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Ho & Shao 2011: 42 [ref. 31432], Craig et al. 2011:37 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:263 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:81 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:383 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Persian Gulf, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Line Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

miniatus, Lutjanus Suckow [G. A.] 1799:539 [Naturgeschichte der Thiere v. 4, pt. 1; ref. 18858] New combination for Perca miniata Forsskål 1775; not an original description. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

myriaster, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:365 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Bora Bora, Society Islands; Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7218 (1) Bora Bora, 0000-7219 (1) Hawaiian Is. [probably in error]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Dor 1984:96 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:34 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:344 [ref. 28379], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nadjil, Perca miniata var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:339 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti 2003:499 [ref. 27322], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nigri, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:112 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Niger River mouth. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.4.4.5. Also listed was Plate IX. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 3A in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Valid as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:299 [ref. 6204], Heemstra 1991:11 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:695 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:665 [ref. 21590], Heemstra & Randall 1993:51 [ref. 21042], Poll & Gosse 1995:123 [ref. 24781], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:40 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2384 [ref. 34618], Vella et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35106], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Carneiro et al. 2019:242 [ref. 37250], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis nigri (Günther 1859). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea: Malta; eastern Atlantic: Canary Islands; Senegal south to Angola, including Madeira and islands in the Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigripinnis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:339 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [probably Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: MNHN A-5733 (2, dry skins, left side). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:181 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2483 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239]). •Valid as Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:23 [ref. 13251], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Allen & Erdmann 2012:264 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis nigripinnis (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: South Africa, East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Andaman Sea and Christmas Island (eastern Indian Ocean). Habitat: marine.

nigrofasciatus, Serranus Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:36, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. Originally nigro-fasciatus. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

obtusauris, Cephalopholis Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:77, Fig. 12 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55910. •Valid as Cephalopholis obtusauris Evermann & Seale 1907 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:165 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as obtusaurus). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantius (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

okinawae, Gracila Katayama [M.] 1974:102, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Yamaguchi University v. 24 (pt 2); ref. 7257] Naha, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype: Katayama Fish Coll. 5180 (apparently lost). •Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:18 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

oligosticta, Cephalopholis Randall [J. E.] & Ben-Tuvia [A.] 1983:386, Pl. 1 (fig. D) [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 33 (no. 2); ref. 8284] South side of entrance to Port Sudan about 100 meters from end of jetty, Sudan, Red Sea, depth 40 meters. Holotype: BPBM 19709. Paratypes: BMNH 1981.4.6.1 (1); BPBM 20401 (1), 20837 (1); CAS 47921 (1); HUJ 10440 (1), 10543 (1); MNHN 1981-0720 (1); NMW 39259 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 513 (1); SMF 8618 (1); USNM 226618 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14 [ref. 19232], Golani 2006:25 [ref. 28840]. •Valid as Cephalopholis oligosticta Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983 -- (Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:56 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:52 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Craig et al. 2011:43 [ref. 31786], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis oligosticta Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

ouatalibi, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:381 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7257 (1) and 0000-7258 (1) Martinique, A-5746 (1, dry) and A-5778 (1, dry) Martinique, A-7677 (1, dry) and A-7717 (1, dry) St. Thomas. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:33 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

pachycentron, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:295 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [= East Indies]. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7432 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:33 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Cephalopholis pachycentron (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:161 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:43 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:490 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:77 [ref. 25480], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2018:145 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1876:551 [1], Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW 40730 (1). On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Epinephelus panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:53 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545]). •Valid as Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner 1876) -- (Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1580 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:334 [ref. 24023], Thomson et al. 2000:82 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:45 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Ecuador, including Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

percacaroli, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:88 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. See also Curtiss 1844:8 [ref. 12574] where this species is replaced by Anthias faroa and A. tearlachi. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

perguttatus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:445 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] New Hebrides [Vanuatu]. Holotype (?): QM I.497. The alleged holotype is a specimen of Cephalopholis urodeta and differs form the description of De Vis which is of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) suggesting a specimen switch (Randall & Heemstra 1991:55 [ref. 19601]). •Questionably a synonym of Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:49 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Cephalopholis miniata (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

playfairi, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1879:2 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 18; ref. 17121] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Spelled playfairi on p. 1, playfayri in main heading on p. 2 and on p. 11; apparently named for Playfair; eariest first reviser apparently Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601] as playfayri, Fricke 1999:182 [ref. 24106] as playfayri and playfairi, Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

polleni, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1868:336 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 2; ref. 17062] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5511. •Valid as Gracila polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:534 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Allen 2000:87 [ref. 37268]). •Valid as Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:17 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Anderson et al. 1998:23 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:178 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2541 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:710 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:710 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495] dated 1874, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:49 [ref. 27510], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:150 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:47 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:264 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:55 [ref. 37354], Tea et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37258]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Comoros, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line Islands and French Polynesia, north to Guam. Habitat: marine.

polyspila, Cephalopholis Randall [J. E.] & Satapoomin [U.] 2000:2, Figs. 1-2 [Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin No. 63; ref. 25340] Pulau Ular, 1°7.2'S, 100°21.35'E, southern side, Sumatra, Indonesia [eastern Indian Ocean], depth 4 meters. Holotype: BPBM 37636. Paratypes: AMS I.39056-001 (1); BMNH 1999.2.18.1 (1); BPBM 38552-53 (1, 1); CAS 205887 (1); NSMT-P 50628 (1); PMBC 9832 (1), 14099-100 (1, 1), 11566 (1); ROM 69424-37 (15, 15, 3, 1, 2, 20, 14, 8, 2, 10, 6, 11, 14, 3), 69438-39 (3); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 27659 (1), 59838 (1); USNM 353870 (1). •Valid as Cephalopholis polyspila Randall & Satapoomin 2000 -- (Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:149 [ref. 28239], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:85 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:265 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Psomadakis et al. 2020:384 [ref. 37272], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis polyspila Randall & Satapoomin 2000. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Myanmar and Andaman Sea to western Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

punctata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:291 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Bahamas. No types known. Based on Catesby p. 7, Pl. 7 (upper); should have been spelled puncticulata according to Goode & Bean 1885:201 [ref. 1841]. Perca punctata Linnaeus 1766:485 corresponds to this species; Perca punctatus Linnaeus 1766:482 is a different species. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

purpureus, Cephalopholis Fourmanoir [P.] 1966:221, Fig. 3 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 38 (no. 3); ref. 9029] Nha-Trang market, Vietnam. Syntypes: MNHN 1965-0276 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:14 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2482 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

ruber, Gymnocephalus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:346, Pl. 67 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil. •Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:43 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:205 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis fulva (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

rufus, Serranus Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:35, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Serranus rufus Bowdich 1825. •Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:36 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:35 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis aurantia (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

sexmaculatus, Serranus Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1830:107 [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): SMF 2994 (dry). •Valid as Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:163 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:97 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441] as sexmaculatus, Heemstra & Randall 1986:518 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:30 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:103 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:127 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:230 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:103 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:179 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2481 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268] as sexmaculatus, Nakabo 2000:711 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:711 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:163 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:151 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1005 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:50 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:265 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:59 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:61 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:113 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Line, Marquesas and Society islands, north to southern Japan and South China Sea, south to Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia), New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

sonnerati, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:299 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-7671 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-5774 (2, dry), A-7686 (1, dry), MNHN 0000-7266 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:64 [ref. 19601]. •Valid as Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:180 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:166 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:519 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:30 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:128 [ref. 23929], Randall 1995:127 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:230 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:82, 84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:43 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:102 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:104 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:180 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2482 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:179 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:50 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:151 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:85 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:95 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:383 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:53 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:265 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:98 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:195 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Fowler et al. 2017:[5] 2253 [ref. 36358], Motomura et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:384 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga, north to Japan, south to Western Australia, southern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

spiloparaeus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Commerson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:338 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality stated [Indian Ocean]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7172 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. Originally spelled spiloparæus. Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Cephalopholis spiloparaea (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:519 [ref. 5667], Lee 1990:31 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:66 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:58 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:50 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:104 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:181 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2542 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:713 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:179 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:713 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:50 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Randall & Justine 2008:157 [ref. 29942], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:56 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:266 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis spiloparaea (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Comoros, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Pitcairn Group, north to Taiwan, Ogasawara and Wake islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

spilurus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:433 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7270. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:177 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

stellatus, Bodianus Blosser [C. B.] 1909:297, Pl. 10 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1) (art. 5); ref. 14363] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): FMNH 53048 [ex CM 1473]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:16 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:38 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cruentata (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

stigmapomus, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:232 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH (not found). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenack (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:491 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:37 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1004 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

swanius, Cephalopholis Tsai [C.-F.] 1960:188, Fig. [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 13 (nos 3-4); ref. 11958] Hualien, eastern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NTUM 2305. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957 -- (Lee 1990:28 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:48 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:46 [ref. 21042], Ho & Shao 2011:42 [ref. 31432], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis igarashiensis Katayama 1957. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

taeniops, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:370 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Cape Verde Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6218 (1, dry), 0000-6233 (1), A.7720 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. Predated by Serranus taeniops Cuvier in Guérin-Méneville 1827-31, Pl. 27 [ref. 29508]. Species name misspelled teniops by Gruvel & Bouyat 1906:Pl. 11, fig. 28 [ref. 30367]. •Valid as Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra 1991:13 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:695 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:60 [ref. 21042], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:58 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Triay-Portella et al. 2015:165 [ref. 36561], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2385 [ref. 34618], Engin et al. 2016:184 [ref. 34718], Vella et al. 2016:1 [ref. 35106], Garcia et al. 2018:962 [ref. 36271], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Izquierdo-Muñoz & Ramos-Esplá in Stern et al. 2019:437 [ref. 36863], Bariche & Fricke 2020:139 [ref. 37515], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Morocco south to Angola, including Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands, and islands in the Gulf of Guinea; introduced in Brazil (southwestern Atlantic). Habitat: marine.

taeniops, Serranus Cuvier [G.] in Guérin-Méneville 1828:no page number, Livraison 13 [Planches de Seba v. 3; ref. 29508] No types known. Text applies to Pl. 27 (no. 6) published in 1827. Described in the same year as Serranus taeniops Valenciennes 1828. Nomen oblitum, see Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]. •Synonym of Serranus taeniops Valenciennes 1828 -- (Parenti & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:397, 399 [ref. 29507]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis taeniops (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

teatae, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:89 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodetus (Forster 1801) -- (Fowler 1949:84 [ref. 1462]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

thyrsites, Serranus Saville-Kent [W.] 1893:369 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Name only, not available; from Queensland, Australia. •In the synonymy of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:51 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis argus Schneider 1801. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

unicolor, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] (ex Liénard) 1874:89 [Poissons de Madagascar et de l'Ile la Réunion Part 4; ref. 443] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Proposed as "Epinephelus unicolor Blkr = Serranus unicolor Lién. Hab. Mauritius." -- this refers to "le Mérou unicolore" of Liénard 1839:31 [ref. 17536] (see Randall & Heemstra 1991:64 [ref. 19601]). For date of publication (as laterst in Dec. 1974), see Kottelat 2013 [ref. 32740]. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601] as Serranus unicolor Liénard in Bleeker & Pollen, Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:180 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

urodelops, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] 1943:105, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 180; ref. 3957] Lagoon of Canton Island, Phoenix Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 115366. •Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:49 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:47 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:54 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacepède 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

urodelus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Forster) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Santa Christina Island [= Tahuata], Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1979.6.13.7. Based on a Forster painting; regarded as an available, independent description. Randall and Wheeler 1991: 762 [ref. 19601] treat as an error for "urodeta" that appeared on Forster's plate -- even if an error, Valenciennes spelled the name with an "l" in several places. •Absolute synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], see Randall & Heemstra 1991:70 [ref. 19601], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:60 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:266 [ref. 31980], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and West Pacific: Christmas Island east to French Polynesia and Pitcairn Island, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

urodeta, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:333, xlv [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] St. Christina Island, Waitaho [Vaitahu, Tahuata Island, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1979.6.13.7. Based on description and painting in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Forster painting reproduced in Randall & Wheeler 1991:762, Pl 1 (fig. a) [ref. 15994]. As Percam urodetam on p. 333, Latinized in index under Bodianus as Perca urodeta, a variety of B. miniatus. Lichtenstein (1844:221 [ref. 17531] in footnote) treats as a synonym of "Bodianus miniatus Bl. Schn. p. 332" and as "Serranus urodelis [sic] Cuv. Val. II. p. 227". Author given as 'Schn.' (Schneider), but description based on manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German zoologist, naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Cephalopholis urodetus (Forster 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:167 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:127 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:000 [ref. 26476] as urodelus with author and date as Bloch & Schneider 1801, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:231 [ref. 27969] as urodelus with author as Schneider). •Valid as Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:54 [ref. 25477] with Schneider as author, Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:31 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:104 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:69 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:82 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:104 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:104 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:112 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:181 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2483 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:712 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:180 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:78 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:29 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:712 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:50 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:152 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:345 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1006 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:85 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:25 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:82 [ref. 35490] with authorship as Valenciennes 1828, Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:28 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:115 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to Wake Atoll, Line Islands and Pitcairn Group, south to Western Australia at 32°01'S, Queensland (Australia) at 18°16'S, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

urodeta, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:221 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] St. Christinae, Waitaho [Vaitahu, Tahuata Island, Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific]. No types known. Lichtenstein (editor, p. 221, footnote) treats as a synonym (in footnote). Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca urodeta Forster 1801. •Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:61 [ref. 21042] with author as Schneider, Parenti & Randall 2020:57 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis urodeta (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

virgatus, Cephalopholis Fourmanoir [P.] 1955:214, Pl. 8 B [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série A, Biologie Animale v. 9; ref. 12271] Mutsamudu, Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands. Syntypes: IRSMNB (lost). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:40 [ref. 19232]. Also in Fourmanoir 1957:148, Pl. 8 B. •Synonym of Gracila polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:534 [ref. 5667]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1988:18 [ref. 9299], Randall & Heemstra 1991:58 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:54 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis polleni (Bleeker 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

xanthopterus, Cephalopholis Allen [G. R.] & Starck [W. A., Jr.] 1975:246, Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 7406] Alite Reef, off Malaita, Solomon Islands, about 8°52'S, 160°36'E, depth 15 meters. Holotype: BPBM 15621. Paratypes: AMS I.16866-001 (1), I.17498-001 (2), I.17499-001 (1), I.17503-001 (1); BPBM 18088 (1); WAM P.25244-008 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:19 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Cephalopholis xanthopterus Allen & Starck 1975 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:492 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall et al. 1990:101 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:41 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:40 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2477 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:53 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

zanana, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:339 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7271 (dry). Not available for priority, placed on Official Index (Opinion 1439). •Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:61 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:55 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:179 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sexmaculata (Rüppell 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

zananella, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Commerson) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:304 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:49 [ref. 19232]. Based on Commerson manuscript and figure. •Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:63 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:57 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:146 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:56 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis sonnerati (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Bodianus Shaw [G.] 1803:574 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Japan. Unneeded new name for Bodianus boenack Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.