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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Cynoscion: [ 47 ] records


acoupa, Cheilodipterus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:540, 546 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Cayenne, French Guyana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5502. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:115 [ref. 12478], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:6 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:400 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:249 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:122 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1606 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama south to Brazil, inclucing southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

albus, Otolithus Günther [A.] 1864:149 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Chiapam, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.240. •Valid as Cynoscion albus (Günther 1864) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:42 [ref. 37559], Allen & Robertson 1994:159 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1453 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:318 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:365 [ref. 24550], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:91 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion albus (Günther 1864). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

analis, Otolithus Jenyns [L.] 1842:164 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Callao, Peru. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.44. •Valid as Cynoscion analis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion analis (Jenyns 1842). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador south to Chile. Habitat: brackish, marine.

arenarius, Cynoscion Ginsburg [I.] 1930:83, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 45 [for 1929]; ref. 16297] Off entrance to harbor, Galveston, Texas, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 89395. •Valid as Cynoscion arenarius Ginsburg 1930 -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Robins & Ray 1986:189 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:143 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:361 [ref. 24550], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250] dated 1929, Chao 2003:1607 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:607 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:419 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion arenarius Ginsburg 1930. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

argentea, Perca Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:384 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared as P. argentea vel 10-vittata in Devincenzi 1925:305, 321 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) [Otolithus striatus Cuvier 1829]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca argentea Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). •In the synonymy of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae.

bairdii, Ancylodon Steindachner [F.] 1879:33 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Santos, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 51130 (1). Species first appeared as above as Ancylodon (?) Bairdii, later as Otolithus (?) Bairdi when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:40, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 4228]. •Synonym of Cynoscion microlepidotus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion microlepidotus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Cestreus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:49 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Off Carolina, U.S.A., western North Atlantic. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.42 [Gronovius coll.] (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:221 [ref. 13434]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Cynoscion by Otolithus carolinensis Valenciennes 1833. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Wheeler 1958:221 [ref. 13434], Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

carolinensis, Otolithus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:475 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7507 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cayanensis, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:196, 240 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Cayenne, French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5502 (1, holotype of Bauchot), A-4562 (2), A-5617 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:34 [ref. 21549], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:6, 13, 16 [ref. 6382], but differing from Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983]. Name emended to cayennensis by Vaillant and Bocourt 1883:156 [ref. 4498], as Otolithus cayennensis. Appeared as Otolithus cayensis in Steindachner 1879:40 [ref. 4228]. •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983] as cayennensis, Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250] as cayenensis, Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

comes, Roccus Mitchill [S. L.] 1814:25 [Report, in part, of Samuel L. Mitchill; ref. 3030] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

drummondii, Otolithus Richardson [J.] 1836:70, footnote [Fauna Boreali-Americana Part 3; ref. 3731] New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guatucupa, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:75, Pl. 104 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil and Montevideo, Uruguay. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7517 (2) Montevideo, MNHN "holotype" (1, lost) Brazil. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382] with a holotype and paratypes. Appeared first in Cuvier 1829:173 [ref. 995] as a vernacular name. Unneeded new name for Otolithus striatus Cuvier 1829, but in prevailing usage. •Synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983]). •Valid as Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830 [not 1829]) -- (Figueiredo 1992:117 [ref. 21464], Cousseau & Perrotta 2000:108 [ref. 25942], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808] as Cynoscyon, Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Suriname south to Argentina. Habitat: marine.

jamaicensis, Otolithus Vaillant [L. L.] & Bocourt [F.] 1883:156, Pl. 6 (figs. 1a-d) [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] Jamaica. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0557. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt 1883) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:370 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:400 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:253 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:124 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1608 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:420 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Nión et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35565] with authoras Vaillant & Boucurt, Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt 1883). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Antilles south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leiarchus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:78 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Brazil; French Guiana. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5503 (2) Brazil, A-2690 (1, dry) Brazil, A-5422 (1, dry) Brazil; ?NMW 31096 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:400 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:255 [ref. 24474], Andreata & Séret 1996:586 [ref. 16204], González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1609 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27621], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Nicaragua and Panama south to Santos (Brazil), including southern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculatus, Labrus squeteague var. Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:396 [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Labrus maculatus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250] as squetaegue, Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magdalenae, Otolithus Steindachner [F.] 1875:62 [34] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 10880 (4), 10897 (2); NMW 31152 (1), 32256 (1), 32268 (1); USNM 153617 [ex MCZ 10880] (1); ZMUC 26 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:65 [ref. 9588]. On p. 34 of separate. Probably meant to be in synonymy of Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861 in Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250]. •Valid as Otolithes magdalenae Steindachner 1875 -- (Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250] as Otolithus, typographical error, meant to be a synonym). •Synonym of Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861 -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1457 [ref. 22830], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861. Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maracaiboensis, Cynoscion Schultz [L. P.] 1949:160, Fig. 20 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 99 (no. 3235); ref. 3967] Río Agua Caliente, 2-3 kilometers above Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121742. Paratypes: MCZ 37219 [ex USNM 121744] (1); UMMZ 157676 (1); USNM 121743 (1), 121744 (orig. 2, now 1), 121745 (1). •Valid as Cynoscion maracaiboensis Schultz 1949 -- (González Bencomo et al. 1997:159 [ref. 24960]). •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1993:253 [ref. 24474], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1606 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

microlepidotus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:79 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB uncat. (not found). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion microlepidotus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:401 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:258 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1610 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36717], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion microlepidotus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela south to Santos (Brazil). Habitat: brackish, marine.

microps, Otolithus Steindachner [F.] 1879:33 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Porto Alegre, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 31111. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:38, Pl. 8 [ref. 4228]. •Doubtful as a synonym of Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 2002:10 [ref. 26250]). •Synonym of Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nannus, Cynoscion Castro-Aguirre [J. L.] & Arvizu-Martínez [J.] 1976:323, Fig. 1 [Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural v. 37; ref. 8620] 18 miles southwest of outlet of Río Baluarte, Sinaloa, Mexico, 21°32'N, 105°56'W, depth 150 meters. Holotype: ENCB-IPN 4109 [ex 6982]. Paratypes: ENCB-IPN 4108 [ex 6082] (9). Plus additional material. Type catalog: Guzmán 2011:173 [ref. 32186]. •Valid as Cynoscion nannus Castro-Aguirre & Arvizu-Martínez 1976 -- (Castro-Aguirre 1991:80 [ref. 19554], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1455 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Guzmán 2011:173 [ref. 32186], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34871], Robertson et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35676], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion nannus Castro-Aguirre & Arvizu-Martínez 1976. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:79 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Locality unknown. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7527. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:15 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Lee et al. 1980:758 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:189 [ref. 23100], Ramsey & Wakeman 1987:682 [ref. 22452], Boschung 1992:144 [ref. 23239], Mettee et al. 1996:739 [ref. 25836], Bortone et al. 1997 [ref. 22817], Murdy et al. 1997:200 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:362 [ref. 24550], Gold et al. 1999:40 [ref. 24627], Fuller et al. 1999:404 [ref. 25838], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:162 [ref. 27754], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1611 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:607 [ref. 27995], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:421 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:356 [ref. 35886], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York south to Florida (U.S.A.), including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nortoni, Cynoscion Béarez [P.] 2001:60, Figs. 1-3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 49 (Supplement 1); ref. 26028] Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador, 1°33'S, 80°49'W, depth 100-200 meters (fish market). Holotype: MNHN 1999-0961. Paratypes: CAS 208889 (1), MCZ 156126 (1), MNHN 1999-0962 (7?), USNM 357280 (1). •Valid as Cynoscion nortoni Béarez 2001 -- (Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion nortoni Béarez 2001. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: marine.

nothus, Otolithus Holbrook [J. E.] 1848:46, Pl. 8 [Southern ichthyology: or, a description of the fishes inhabiting the waters of South Carolina Georgia and Florida. No. III; ref. 24519] South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Also appeared in Holbrook 1855:134, Pl. 19 (fig. 1) [ref. 2184] and in the second edition, 1860:134, Pl. 19 (fig. 1). See Anderson & Stephens 2002:324 [ref. 26596]. •Valid as Cynoscion nothus (Holbrook 1848) -- (Boschung 1992:144 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:199 [ref. 23144], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:362 [ref. 24550], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250] dated 1855, Anderson & Stephens 2002:327 [ref. 26596], Chao 2003:1612 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:422 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion nothus (Holbrook 1848). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Maryland south to Florida (U.S.A.), and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: brackish, marine.

obliquatus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] & Valenciennes [A.] in Sauvage 1879:209 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 13259] Martinique Island, West Indies. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7632. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1987-0151 [ex MNHN 0000-7632] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:16 [ref. 6382]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Cervigon 1968:182 [ref. 19857]. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

othonopterum, Cynoscion Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:274 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 227); ref. 10613] Punta San Felipe, Gulf of California, Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 29385. Cynoscion is masculine, so correct spelling is othonopterus. •Valid as Cynoscion othonopterus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:159 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1456 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:360 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:405 [ref. 25838], Musick 2000:18 [ref. 24959], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250] as orthonopterus dated 1881, Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion othonopterus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: brackish, marine.

parvipinnis, Cynoscion Ayres [W. O.] 1861:156, Fig. 48 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 1) v. 2; ref. 18924] Coast of Baja California, 27°N, Mexico. Holotype (unique): No types known. •Valid as Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:220 [ref. 9277], Swift et al. 1993:132 [ref. 22379], Allen & Robertson 1994:159 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1457 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Fuller et al. 1999:405 [ref. 25838], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35888], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion parvipinnis Ayres 1861. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California south to Mazatlán (Sinaloa), Mexico endemic. Habitat: marine.

patagonicus, Paralarimus Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:18 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] Northern Patagonia, South America. Holotype (unique): USNM 83222. Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250] stated: "The specimen was collected during the Wilkes expedition and catalogued on 1 March 1919. I suspect the stated locality of the holotype was incorrectly registered." •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

peruanus, Otolithus Tschudi [J. J. von] 1846:10 [Untersuchungen über die Fauna Peruana; ref. 4469] Coast of Peru. Holotype: ZMB 864. Type catalog: Kottelat 1987:50 [ref. 25858]. •Synonym of Cynoscion analis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1454 [ref. 22830], Chao 2002:11 [ref. 26250]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion analis (Jenyns 1842). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

petranus, Archoscion Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1913:Sciaenidae p. 42 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Campo Grande, Brazil. No types known. On p. 390 when continuously paginated. •Synonym of Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt 1883) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1608 [ref. 27097], Parenti 2020:14 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion jamaicensis (Vaillant & Bocourt 1883). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

phoxocephalum, Cynoscion Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:318 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: USNM 29296 (1), 29339 (1), 29389 (1, not found in 1980), 29724 (1). •Valid as Cynoscion phoxocephalus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:159 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1458 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:424 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:317 [ref. 24555], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250] dated 1881, Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:192 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion phoxocephalus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: El Salvador south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

praedatorius, Cestreus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1889:363 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Panama. Syntypes: MCZ 10901-02 (3). •Valid as Cynoscion praedatorius (Jordan & Gilbert 1889) -- (Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1459 [ref. 22830], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Matamoros et al. 2009:19 [ref. 31241], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion praedatorius (Jordan & Gilbert 1889). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

regalis, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:75 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8700 (stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:128 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:189 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:391 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:151 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:201 [ref. 23144], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:436 [ref. 26158], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Anderson & Stephens 2002:327 [ref. 26596], Chao 2003:1613 [ref. 27097], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:423 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:179 [ref. 32953], Béarez et al. 2016:245 [ref. 34817], Bañón et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35097], Robins et al. 2018:436 [ref. 35886], Martins & Carneiro 2018:164 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:275 [ref. 37250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Atlantic: Nova Scotia (Canada) south to Florida (U.S.A.), and Gulf of Mexico. Introduced in Portugal and Spain. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

reticulatus, Otolithus Günther [A.] 1864:149 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] San José and Chiapam, Guatelmala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.324. •Valid as Cynoscion reticulatus (Günther 1864) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1460 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:363 [ref. 24550], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion reticulatus (Günther 1864). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rhomboidalis, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Cayenne, French Guiana. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. Available from footnote as, "Ot. rhomboidalis ou Lutjan de Cayenne, Lacép., IV, p. 245." •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

similis, Cynoscion Randall [J. E.] & Cervigón [F.] 1968:179, fig. 2 [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 27 (no. 78) (for 1967); ref. 19857] Porlamar fish market, Isla de Margarita, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 201382. Paratypes: UF [ex UMML 4299] (1), 212502 [ex UMML 12502] (1); UPR 2868 (1); MOBR-EDIMAR-P-1978 (4). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1999:111 [ref. 33859]. •Valid as Cynoscion similis Randall & Cervigón 1968 -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:371 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:401 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:261 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Chao 2002:10 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1614 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion similis Randall & Cervigón 1968. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Isla Margarita (Venezuela). Habitat: marine.

squamipinnis, Otolithus Günther [A.] 1867:601 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Panama (Pacific). Syntypes: BMNH 1865.7.20.20-21 (2). Described in more detail in Günther 1868:429 [ref. 1994]. •Valid as Cynoscion squamipinnis (Günther 1867) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1461 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:317 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:360 [ref. 24550], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:451 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], González-Murcia et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36544], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion squamipinnis (Günther 1867). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

squeteague, Labrus Mitchill [S. L.] 1815:396, Pl. 2 (fig. 6) [Transactions of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New-York v. 1 (art. 5) (for 1814); ref. 13292] New York, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Smith 1986:433 [ref. 22186], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

steindachneri, Cestraeus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Eigenmann 1889:372 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 3); ref. 2439] Ponta Curuçá, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 10922. •Valid as Cynoscion steindachneri (Jordan 1889) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Cervigón 1992:401 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:263 [ref. 24474], Keith et al. 2000:126 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:10 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1615 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Marceniuk et al. 2017:41 [ref. 35324], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion steindachneri (Jordan 1889). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Central America south to northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

stolzmanni, Otolithus Steindachner [F.] 1879:33 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Tumbes, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:35, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [ref. 4228]. •Valid as Cynoscion stolzmanni (Steindachner 1879) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:128 [ref. 23101], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1462 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:318 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:364 [ref. 24550], Béarez 2001:61 [ref. 26028], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250], Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:451 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:405 [ref. 34894], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion stolzmanni (Steindachner 1879). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

striatus, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] 1829:173 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Brazil. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. Available from footnote as, "Ot. striatus, Nob., ou guatucupa, Margr., Bras., 177." Senior synonym of Otolithus guatucupa Cuvier 1830, but O. guatucupa is in prevailing usage. •Valid as Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Nakamura in Nakamura et al. 1986:224 [ref. 14235], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). •Regarded as a nomen dubium as Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Figueiredo 1992:117 [ref. 21464]). •In the synonymy of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

thalassinus, Otolithus Holbrook [J. E.] 1855:132, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology of South Carolina; ref. 2184] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. Also appeared in second edition, 1860:133, Pl. 18 (fig. 2). •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:9 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thallapinus, Otolithus Holbrook [J. E.] 1848:Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Southern ichthyology: or, a description of the fishes inhabiting the waters of South Carolina Georgia and Florida. No. III; ref. 24519] South Carolina. No types known. See Anderson & Stephens 2002:327 [ref. 26596] for information on this obscure work. •Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Anderson & Stephens 2002:327 [ref. 26596], Parenti 2020:15 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thorax, Johnius Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:77 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname [Cayenne, French Guiana]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5502. Both Cheilodipterus acoupa Lacepède 1801 and Johnius thorax Bloch & Schneider described from the same holotype in the same year; publication date of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710] established as 18 Oct. 1801, which is earlier than that of Bloch & Schneider 1801 [ref. 471] (unknown, therefore set to 31 Dec. 1801). Also, Johnius thorax was not used as valid by later authors, and is here treated as a nomen oblitum. •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

toeroe, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:72, Pls. 103, 138 (part) [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Cayenne, French Guiana; Suriname; Brazil; Lake Maracaibo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4616 (1) Cayenne, 0000-5500 (1) Brazil, 0000-5502 (1) Cayenne, A-0456 (1, dry) Brazil, A-0528 (1, dry) Brazil, A-5617 (1, dry) Lake Maracaibo; SMF 2167 [ex MNHN in 1830] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:16 [ref. 6382]. Originally as toe-roe. Possibly an unneeded new name for Lutjanus cayanensis Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801) -- (Chao 1978:35 [ref. 6983], Chao 2002:8 [ref. 26250], Parenti 2020:13 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion acoupa (Lacepède 1801). Sciaenidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

vigintiuniradiata, Perca Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:384 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Corresponds to Perca decimvittata in Devincenzi 1925:305 [ref. 20322] which Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829). •Synonym of Cynoscion striatus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). •Synonym of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Current status: Synonym of Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Habitat: marine.

virescens, Otolithus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:72 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 5; ref. 999] Suriname. Holotype (unique): ZMB. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:24 [ref. 6382]. •Valid as Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830) -- (Chao 1978:36 [ref. 6983], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:372 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1992:402 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:265 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:50 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:128 [ref. 24547], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Chao 2002:10 [ref. 26250], Chao 2003:1616 [ref. 27097], Casatti & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:86 [ref. 27192], Spier et al. 2018:13 [ref. 36103], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion virescens (Cuvier 1830). Sciaenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela south to Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

xanthulum, Cynoscion Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:460 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 254) (for 4 Aug. 1882); ref. 10610] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28109 (not found in 1980). •Valid as Cynoscion xanthulus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Page & Burr 1991:327 [ref. 18983], Allen & Robertson 1994:160 [ref. 22193], Chao in Fischer et al. 1995:1463 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:266 [ref. 24545], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:364 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:406 [ref. 25838], Chao 2002:12 [ref. 26250] dated 1881, Nelson et al. 2004:147 [ref. 27807], Minckley & Marsh 2009:305 [ref. 31114], Page et al. 2013:151 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:609 [ref. 34923], Parenti 2020:16 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Valid as Cynoscion xanthulus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sciaenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo Islands and Gulf of California south to Acapulco (Guerrero, Mexico); introduced elsewhere. Habitat: brackish, marine.