Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 11 January 2021

SEARCH RESULTS FROM

Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
Select the database to search:
GENERA   SPECIES   REFERENCES
Include unavailable names

         Comments: ,

    Please look in Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes for authorships of sections, Families of Fishes (all), and related information.

Species in the genus Epinephelus: [ 303 ] records


abdominalis, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:430 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique at 15°S, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32501 (skeleton). Also described as new in Peters 1855:237 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

adscensionis, Trachinus Osbeck [P.] 1765:388 [Reise nach Ostindien und China; ref. 3311] Ascension Island, southeastern Atlantic. No types known. Spelled ascensionis by Bonnaterre 1788:46 [ref. 4940]. See also Trachinus osbeck Lacepède 1800, an unnecessary replacement name. •Valid as Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:635 [ref. 9166], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Bullock & Smith 1991:82 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:329 [ref. 24472], Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Boschung 1992:105 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:427 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:18 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:206 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Thomson et al. 2000:87 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Heemstra et al. 2003:1339 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:142 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:71 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:13 [ref. 34324], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2387 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Brown et al. 2019:176 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean and south to Brazil; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena and Ascension islands; eastern Atlantic: Azores; islands in Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

aeneus, Serranus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 21 (figs. 3-4) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7326. Paratypes: MNHN 0000-6227 (1), B.3116 [ex MNHN 0000-7326] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. Species name misspelled oeneus by Gruvel & Bouyat 1906:152, Pl. 11, fig. 29 [ref. 30367]. •Valid as Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817) -- (Tortonese 1973:358 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:783 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:697 [ref. 18227], Smith 1990:697 [ref. 18227], Heemstra 1991:20 [ref. 19323], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590], Heemstra & Randall 1993:104 [ref. 21042], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Glamuzina et al. 2000:306 [ref. 25058], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:35 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:41 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:73 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation, Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516] needs confirmation, Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2388 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Martins & Carneiro 2018:123 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Bañón et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37355], Bariche & Fricke 2020:87 [ref. 37515], Dulčić & Sbragaglia in Bo et al. 2020:619 [ref. 37876], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) and Portugal south to Angola, including Madeira, Cape Verde Islands and islands of the Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

akaara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Kyūshū, Japan, Lectotype: RMNH D85 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D82 (1), D83 (1), D84 (1); ZMB 5218 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed). Possible paralectotype: BMNH 1844.2.21.16 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Originally as aka-ara. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:26 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:35 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2485 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:79 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Shimizu 2001:28 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Craig et al. 2011:75 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:53 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China and Taiwan to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

alatus, Serranus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:264, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Hall Sound, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16323-001 [ex MAMU F482]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

albimaculatus, Epinephelus Seale [A.] 1910:509, Pl. 8 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Butuan Bay, Mindanao Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): BSMP 1908 (apparently destroyed). Originally misspelled as albimuculatus in text, correct spelling in figure caption and plate. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

albofuscus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:340, 384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] East Indies. No types known. Originally albo-fuscus, correction mandatory. New name for Holocentrus maculatus Bloch. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

alboguttatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:366 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-6406. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] and Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] as caeruleopunctatus, Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

albomarginatus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:65, Pl. 4 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.2.6.2 (1), 1903.2.6.3 (1). •Valid as Mycteroperca albomarginata (Boulenger 1903) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as albomarginatus). •Valid as Epinephelus albomarginatus Boulenger 1903 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:522 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:94 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:108 [ref. 21042], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:78 [ref. 31786], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus albomarginatus Boulenger 1903. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mozambique and KwaZulu-Natal and Cape Province, South Africa. Habitat: marine.

albopunctulatus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:234, Pl. 9 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum 2nd edition v. 1; ref. 537] Nuka Hiva, Marquesas Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1978.2.1.1. •Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:174 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:169 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2504 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

alexandrinus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:281 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7325. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:23 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:784 [ref. 13676], Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alternatus, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:9 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

altivelioides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:38 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. •Synonym of Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:125 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:132 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

amblycephalus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1857:32 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2 (art. 7); ref. 356] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5159. •Valid as Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker 1857) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:222 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:170 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:36 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:95 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:109 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:232 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:44 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2486 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2007:49 [ref. 29493], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:86 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:80 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Tucker et al. 2016:661 [ref. 34684], Motomura et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35490], Frable et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 36287], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:387 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus amblycephalus (Bleeker 1857). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar, Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to Fiji, north to southern Japan, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

amboinensis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1852:258 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 16825] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5466. •Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:284 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:250 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2529 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

analogus, Epinephelus Gill [T. N.] 1863:163 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1681] Western coast of Central America. Holotype (unique): USNM 4944. Type catalog: Smith 2018:74 [ref. 36061]. •Valid as Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:197 [ref. 9277], Heemstra & Randall 1993:110 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1591 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:317 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:359 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:121 [ref. 25206], Thomson et al. 2000:84 [ref. 25640], Thomson et al. 2000:87 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:82 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Knuden & Clements 2016:261 [ref. 34458], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Peru, including offshore islands and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:66, Pl. 5 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1903.2.6.4. •Valid as Mycteroperca andersoni (Boulenger 1903) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus andersoni Boulenger 1903 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:522 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:96 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:111 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Craig et al. 2011:83 [ref. 31786], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus andersoni Boulenger 1903. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: South Africa; western Indian Ocean: South Africa to Mozambique and Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angularis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:353 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7280 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus angularis (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

angustifrons, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1864:230, Pl. 7 (figs. 2-3) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 14; ref. 13938] Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

ara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Unjustified emendation of Serranus ura Valenciennes 1828. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:275 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:244 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

arara, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0885 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232], with MNHN 885 as holotype. Based in part on the 'Bonací arará' of Parra 1787:30, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

areolata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 42 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Possible holotype: ZMUC P43570 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588] not definitely referred ZMUC P43570 as holotype due to confusion of some labels in Forsskål's collection. As Perca summana var. areolata on p. xi, and as "[PERCA summana] (c) Perca areolata" on p. 42. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. Possible type figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965: Pl. 10 [ref. 20847]. •Valid as Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:208 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:175 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:36 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:105 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:306 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:233 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:105 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2487 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:80 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:51 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:86 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:85 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:267 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Motomura et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:106 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:387 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:110 [ref. 37300], Wu et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37525]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Fiji, Tonga and Samoa, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

aspersus, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:6 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Porto Praya, St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.36. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1771) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

assabensis, Serranus Giglioli [E. H.] 1889:68 [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 6; ref. 14492] Assab, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

atara, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1938:93 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:75 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

atlanticus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:52, 156, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:86 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. Replacement name for Perca maculata Bloch 1792, preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

australis, Serranus Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:7 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:234 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:216 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

awoara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:9, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D78 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: ?BMNH (1); RMNH D77 (1, dry), D80 (1, dry), D110a-b (2); possible paralectotypes (dry): RMNH D18 (1, dry), D79 (1, dry), D81 (1, dry); ZMB 5217 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Original as awo-ara, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:26 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus awoara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:37 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:101 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:114 [ref. 21042], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2488 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:80 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Craig et al. 2011:87 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:100 [ref. 36460], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus awoara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

bataviensis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:38 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:220 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bicolor, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:568 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] No locality. Apparently based on Holocentrus maculatus Bloch but Bloch citation not given. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

bilobatus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:406, Fig. 4 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] Rosemary Island, 20°28'S, 116°36'E, Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia, depth 4 meters. Holotype: WAM P.25119-008. Paratypes: BPBM 31041 (1); WAM P.14924-001 (1), P.14948-001 (1), P.24358-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Randall & Heemstra 1991:103 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:115 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2542 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:90 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:268 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bilobatus Randall & Allen 1987. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean and western Pacific: Western Australia to eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Serranus Vaillant [L. L.] in Vaillant & Bocourt 1878:47, 69 [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7401. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:24 [ref. 19232]. Based on Serranus variolosus of Bleeker 1849:35 [ref. 318] (not of Valenciennes). •Valid as Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:204 [ref. 19756], Lee 1990:38 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:105 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:233 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:143 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:45 [ref. 26476] dated 1877, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2489 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:81 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] dated to 1849, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1008 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:93 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:268 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988] dated 1877, Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:101 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:387 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:110 [ref. 37300]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to Northern Territory (Australia). Habitat: marine.

bontoides, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:405 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5502. Bleeker specimens: RMNH 30548 [ex 5502] (6), BMNH 1880.4.21.7 (1) [Bleeker coll.]. Original as bontoïdes. •Valid as Epinephelus bontoides (Bleeker 1855) -- (Lee 1990:38 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:107 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:118 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2542 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:183 [ref. 27511], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:95 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bontoides (Bleeker 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, north to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

bontoo, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:334 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Vizagapatam and Madras, India. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. Based on Russell 1803:22, Pl. 128. •Synonym of Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:152 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:152 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

borbonicus, Serranus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:312, Pl. 57 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7407. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

brachysoma, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:466 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13372. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:154 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] with question, Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

bruneus, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:15, Pl. 328 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] "Norway" [likely China]. Lectotype: ZMB 5221 (left skin). Paralectotypes: (2, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:109 [ref. 19601]. On p. 13 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Often misspelled brunneus. •Valid as Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Lee 1990:39 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:108 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2490 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:718 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:718 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:97 [ref. 31786], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakae in Kimura et al. 2018:101 [ref. 36460], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Vietnam east to Philippines, north to Japan. Habitat: marine.

caerulescens, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:559 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Indian Seas. Neotype: MNHN A-5747. Unneeded new name for Holocentrus flavocaeruleus Lacepède 1802, and taking the same type specimen. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

caninus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] 1843:10 [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:45 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Mycteroperca canina (Valenciennes 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as caninus). •Valid as Epinephelus caninus (Valenciennes 1843) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1991:22 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:122 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:35 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:41 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:99 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2389 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:86 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus caninus (Valenciennes 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Angola, including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

capreolus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:145 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

carinatus, Serranus Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:265, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] Cape Grenville, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: MAMU (2). Appeared as a new species in Jouan 1878:333 [ref. 18364] but not new there. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

catalonica, Cerna Gibert [A. M.] 1913:38, 2 figs. [Fauna ictiológica de Catalunya; ref. 19362] Catalonia, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Record corrected in 2004. •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:27 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

catus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:373 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique Island, West Indies. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7238 (1); ?ZMB 265 [ex MNHN] Martinique. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232]. Unneeded replacement name for Perca maculata Bloch 1792, which is now considered as a synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

celebicus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1851:217 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 330] Bulucomba, southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: NMV 46427 (1), RMNH 5492 (7). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:147 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cernioides, Serranus de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:156 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 14041] Portugal. MB (not found). Figured in Capello 1867, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [ref. 14042]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [= gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cherna, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:310 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Cherna' of Parra 1787:50, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chewa, Epinephelus Morgans [J. F. C.] 1966:267, Pl. 9 (fig. D) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 8 (no. 89) (for 1965); ref. 9045] Mafia Island, Tanzania. Holotype: EAMFRO S73. Paratypes: EAMFRO S82/1 (1), S82/2 (1), S87 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus chewa Morgans 1966 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:234 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2526 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:82 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chlorocephalus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:522 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Tongatapu, Tonga. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7543 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25-26 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus chlorocephalus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:116 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:125 [ref. 21042], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Craig et al. 2011:103 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus chlorocephalus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Tonga. Habitat: marine.

chlorostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:352 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Seychelles, Western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7430. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7429 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:25 [ref. 19232] as holotype. Lectotype established by Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232] (see Art. 74.6 of the Code). •Valid as Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:206 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:174 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:41 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2492 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 590 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:104 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:98 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. chlorostigma, Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:388 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637], Wu et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37525]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Tonga and Line Islands, north to southern Sea of Japan, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

chrysomelanus, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:53, 160 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] "Amerique equinoxiale". No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:87 [ref. 20898], Bauchot et al. 1984:49 [ref. 19232] as chrysomelas. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042] as chrysomelas, Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

chrysotaenia, Cerna Doderlein [P.] 1882:171, 208 [41], Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Giornale di scienze naturali ed economiche, Società Naturali ed Economiche di Palermo v. 15; ref. 17414] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. On p. 41 of separate. •Synonym of Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192]). •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:27 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

clippertonensis, Epinephelus Allen [G. R.] & Robertson [D. R.] 1999:12, Figs. 1-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 26 (no. 1/2); ref. 24279] Clipperton Island, depth 0-20 meters. Holotype: USNM 347506. Paratypes: LACM W56-235 (35), W56-238 (44), W56-240 (68), W58-282 (2), W58-283 (54), W58-295 (64), W58-300 (17), W58-371 (2); USNM 332389 (26). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Epinephelus clippertonensis Allen & Robertson 1999 -- (Craig et al. 2006:92 [ref. 29771], Craig et al. 2006:969 [ref. 29775], Béarez & Séret 2009:147 [ref. 36646], Craig et al. 2011:103 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus clippertonensis Allen & Robertson 1999. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico), Clipperton Island (France) and Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

coeruleopunctatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:94, Pl. 242 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Unknown locality [probably Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 232. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. Originally coeruleo-punctatus with oe in text and plate; that spelling should be used. On p. 74 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) [wrongly as caeruleopunctatus by many authors] -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:196 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:523 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:490 [ref. 25598], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:40 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:105 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:280 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:128 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969] as caeruleopunctatus, Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:105 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:183 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2491 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Shinohara et al. 2000:177 [ref. 25987], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as caeruleopunctatus, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624] as caeruleopunctatus, Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945] as caeruleopunctatus, Randall 2005:154 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492] as caeruleopunctatus, Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256] as caeruleopunctatus, Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:109 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:269 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:116 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:388 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:111 [ref. 37300] as caeruleopunctatus, ). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, northern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

coioides, Bola Hamilton [F.] 1822:82, 369 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Large Gangetic estuaries, India. No types known. Originally as "Bola?". •Valid as Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:23 [ref. 19323], Randall et al. 1990:106 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Kottelat et al. 1993:106 [ref. 23448], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:129 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:106 [ref. 25919], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2493 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:181 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as coides, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:165 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:87 [ref. 30492], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Motomura et al. 2010:96 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:112 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:270 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36262], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:102 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:184 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:107 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. coioides, Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:388 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Fiji, north to southern Japan and Ryukyu Islands, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

cometae, Epinephelus Tanaka [S.] 1927:704, Pls. 159 (fig. 445), 160 (447) [Figures and descriptions of the fishes of Japan v. 37; ref. 14920] Tanabe and Hiro, Japan. Syntypes: ZUMT 7499 (1), 7509 (1), 7991 (described specimen). •Valid as Epinephelus cometae Tanaka 1927 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:198 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:178 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Lee 1990:50 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:211 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:196 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2513 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

confertus, Serranus Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:686 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

corallicola, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:336 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH D154 (dry). Possible types: SMF 3054 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:106 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:125 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:132 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:130 [ref. 23929], Senou 1994:2 [ref. 24346], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:106 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2543 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268] as coralicola, Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:115 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:270 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus corallicola (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Christmas Island and Indonesia east to Solomon and Mariana Islands, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

coromandelicus, Serranus Day [F.] 1878:746 [The fishes of India Part 4; ref. 4887] Madras, India. Holotype: ?BMNH 1889.2.1.4226 (skin). Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8272 (1, syntype); BMNH 1889.2.1.2791 (1); NMW 39248 (1); ZSI 1997 (1), 2920 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110]. Replacement name for Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1875, preoccupied by Bleeker 1874. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:81 [ref. 25480], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

costae, Serranus Steindachner [F.] 1878:389 [11] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 77 (1. Abth.); ref. 18774] Messina, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): NMW 39250. •Synonym of Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192]). •Valid as Mycteroperca costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:26 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:79 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:118 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2390 [ref. 34618], Bañón et al. 2018:400 [ref. 36404], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:87 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) and Portugal south to Angola, including Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

courtadei, Serranus Bocourt [F.] 1868:222 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 10; ref. 14069] La Union, El Salvador. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5210 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:26 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:110 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1591 [ref. 22830], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus analogus Gill 1863. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

craigi, Epinephelus Frable [B. W.], Tucker [S. J.] & Walker [H. J., Jr.] 2018:[2] 216, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 66 (no. 2); ref. 36287] Hong Kong, Tuen Long, Tai Kui Market, from South China Sea. Holotype: SIO 17-31. Paratypes: (16) ANSP 77242 (1); BMNH 1939.1.17.10 (1); BPBM 30913 (1); CAS 17797 (1), 27664 (1), 62197 (1), 62198 (2), 62199 (1); KU 41383 (1); SWIMS-CHO 1958-001(1); ZMUA E002001017001 (1), E002001017002 (1), E002001017003 (1); ZUMT 10701 (1), 52224 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus craigi Frable, Tucker & Walker 2018 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354], Suzuki et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37360]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus craigi Frable, Tucker & Walker 2018. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Malaysia, northern Borneo, Vietnam, southern China and Taiwan (South China Sea) north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

crapao, Serranus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:494 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7332. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

craspedurus, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Richardson [R. E.] 1910:447, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 37 (no. 1714); ref. 2494] Kagoshima, Japan. Holotype: USNM 64154. Paratypes: (5) CAS-SU 21180 (1 or 2), USNM 74585 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cruentus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:446 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 1089] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cubanus, Epinephelus Poey [F.] 1865:202 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 1; ref. 18562] Cuba. Holotype (?): MCZ 10058. Poey specimens: ZMB 5222 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

cyanopodus, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:233 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] China. Neotype: BMNH 1893.12.22.1. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 3a [ref. 11606]). Neotype was established by Randall & Whitehead 1985 [ref. 9723] -- picking the holotype of a junior synonym (punctatissimus) as neotype of cyanopodus. •Valid as Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:129 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:107 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:182 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:120 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:60 [ref. 33932], Fowler et al. 2017:[5] 2253 [ref. 36358], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to southern New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

cylindricus, Epinephelus Postel [E.] 1965:124, Fig. 1 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 37 (no. 1); ref. 9244] Nouméa market, New Caledonia. Holotype (unique): not at MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:40 [ref. 19232]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Serranus cylindricus Günther 1859 when in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cylindricus, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:151 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] Madagascar. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1981.12.23.1. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805]. Also listed was Plate XI. fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." •Synonym of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:186 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:179 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

daba, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] (ex Forsskål) in Niebuhr 1775:44 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P.43570. Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. Appeared as Perca dentibus daba, i.e. “teeth of Perca daba”. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354] as not binominal). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

daemelii, Serranus Günther [A.] 1876:391 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1876.5.1.8. Originally as Dämelii. •Valid as Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:175 [ref. 24556], Randall & Heemstra 1991:130 [ref. 19601], Paulin & Roberts 1992:140 [ref. 24625], Heemstra & Randall 1993:138 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:133 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:534 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2495 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Roberts & Gomon 2008:541 [ref. 30641], Craig et al. 2011:122 [ref. 31786], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:113 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1185 [ref. 34193], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern coast of Australia, Lord Howe and Norfolk islands, northern New Zealand, east to Kermadec islands. Habitat: marine.

dayi, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1874:105 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Amsterdam) v. 14 (art. 2); ref. 5110] Cochin, India. No types known. Based on Serranus sexfasciatus of Day 1865:2 (not Valenciennes). Not Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1875. •Synonym of Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:136 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:140 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dayi, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1875:47 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises v. 7; ref. 4861] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ?BMNH 1889.2.1.4226 (skin, not seen). Based on Serranus waandersi of Day 1875:12, Pl. 8 (fig. 1). See Ferraris et al. 2000:296 [ref. 25110] for remarks on type specimens. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Epinephelus dayi Bleeker 1874, replaced by Serranus coromandelicus Day 1878. •Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:117 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bleekeri (Vaillant 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dermochirus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:513 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Coromandel coast, India. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7650. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] and Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] as caeruleopunctatus, Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

diacanthus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:319 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coast of Malabar, India. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7157. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7158 (3), 1989-1018 [ex 7157] (2), A-5727 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601]. •Valid as Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Randall & Heemstra 1991:136 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:140 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:129 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:234 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476] dated 1829, Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:242 [ref. 24754], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:124 [ref. 31786], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:389 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus diacanthus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to Sri Lanka, southeastern India and Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

diacopaeformis, Serranus Anonymous [Bennett [E. T.]] 1830:686 [Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles; ref. 259] Sumatra, Indonesia. On Code recommendation 51D, the anonymous author is listed in square brackets. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dichropterus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Japan? [probably Indonesia]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7403 (2) Brazil; ZMB 5533 [not 365] (dry, lectotype of ongus), ?5214 (1, dry) Japan. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:27, 60 [ref. 19232], Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. Based on Holocentrus ongus Bloch 1790 and authors, plus specimens; not regarded as a replacment name. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

diktiophorus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1856:38 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1 (6); ref. 352] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5158 (1). Later spelled dictiophorus in Bleeker publications. •Valid as Epinephelus dictyophorus (Bleeker 1856) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983:407 [ref. 8284], Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

dispar, Serranus Playfair [R. L.] in Playfair & Günther 1867:6, Pl. 1 (figs. 2-3) [The fishes of Zanzibar; ref. 3490] Seychelles; Zanzibar, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1867.3.9.22 ["var. b"] (1, stuffed). •Serranus dispar var. B. is a synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1999:2516 [ref. 24815]). •Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

ditobo, Promicrops Roux [C.] & Collignon [J.] 1954:473 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 12470] Kouilou Estuary, Congo, western Africa. Syntypes: (2) MNHN. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:44 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus esonue (Ehrenbaum 1915) -- (Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708]). •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

doederleinii, Epinephelus Franz [V.] 1910:35 [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Yokohama and Dzushi, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (8) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:281 [ref. 28925]. Originally as döderleinii. •Synonym of Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:243 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:222 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2519 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:345, Pl. 25 (fig. c); Fig. 53 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Ocean reef off Giriinien Island, Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141844. Paratypes: FMNH 62611-12 (2, 1); USNM 115371 (1), 115384 (1), 139694 (2), 141836-42 (1, 2, 1, 2, 5, 1, 2), 141845-48 (1, 1, 2, 1), 141850-56 (6, 2, 1, 1, 1, 7, 2), 141930-32 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2526 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:163 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:82 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

emoryi, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:340, Fig. 52 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon coral head at Bikini Atoll, 11°33'13"N, 165°28'39"E, Marshall Islands, western Pacific, depth 30-45 feet. Holotype: USNM 141929. Paratypes: FMNH 62613 [ex USNM 139695] (1); USNM 139695 (orig. 6, now 5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:147 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2499 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

epistictus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:8 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH D88 (stuffed). Type information: Boeseman 1947:24 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Mycteroperca episticta (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as epistictus). •Valid as Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:43 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:306 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:143 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:144 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:46 [ref. 26476] dated 1843, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2496 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:720 [ref. 25086], Krupp et al. 2000:328 [ref. 25117], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:720 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 591 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Al-Mukhtar et al. 2011:136 [ref. 31710], Craig et al. 2011:129 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:85 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:342 [ref. 36985], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:389 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Korea, southern Sea of Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

erythraeus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:320 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N 34°15'E. No types known. •Unneeded replacement name for, and objective synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

erythrogaster, Serranus DeKay [J. E.] 1842:21, Pl. 19 (fig. 52) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] Florida, U.S.A. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

erythrurus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:320 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Malabar region, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7545. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:142 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:146 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2543 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] as erythrourus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:197 [ref. 34104], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:389 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:112 [ref. 37300]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Socotra and Pakistan east to Gulf of Thailand and Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

esonue, Promicrops Ehrenbaum [E.] 1915:54, Fig. [Über Küstenfische von Westafrika, besonders von Kamerun.; ref. 15784] Cameroon, West Africa. No types known. Also appeared in Ehrenbaum 1914:293 [ref. 17457]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110]). •Valid as Epinephelus esonue (Ehrenbaum 1915) -- (Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Thomson et al. 2000:89 [ref. 25640], Heemstra et al. 2003:1343 [ref. 27060], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

estuarius, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1883:200 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 14342] Mary River, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): MAMU (missing). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fario, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:296, Pl. 9 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26702] Japan. No types known. •Valid as Epinephelus fario (Thunberg 1793) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Yu & Zhou in Kuang et al. 1986:222 [ref. 26639] dated 1792, Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476] dated 1792). •Regarded as unidentifiable; see Randall & Heemstra 1991:276 [ref. 19601]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Thunberg 1793) -- (Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus fario Thunberg 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

faroa, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:8 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:75 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Perca Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xi, 40 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N, 34°15'E. No types known. Authorship and type locality according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Gill & Kemp 2002:165 [ref. 30496] suggest splitting into several species; Epinephelus fasciatus would be restricted to Red Sea and Indian Ocean (or possibly to northern Red Sea only). Others (some unnamed): Western Australia; Western Pacific; Japan; Pacific Plate islands; Marquesas. •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:218 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:180 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Lee 1990:45 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:307 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:134 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:25 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:235 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:107 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:113 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2499 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:182 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:84 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:309, 591 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:52 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:134 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:272 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Motomura et al. 2015:19 [ref. 34709], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Yoshigou 2019:199 [ref. 36714], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:137 [ref. 37515], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:390 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:113 [ref. 37300], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Socotra east to Wake Atoll, Marshall Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Sea of Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciatomaculosus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1865:111 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1865; ref. 13951] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 5552 (2). Misspelled fasciatomaculatus in early literature. •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculatus (Peters 1865) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Lee 1990:44 [ref. 19830]). •Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus (Peters 1865) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:143 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:148 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2498 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:722 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:83 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:722 [ref. 26001], Craig et al. 2011:133 [ref. 31786] dated 1866, Allen & Erdmann 2012:271 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fasciatomaculosus (Peters 1865). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan and Taiwan, Philippines, along coast to Vietnam, China and to Sarawak (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Plectropoma Costa [O. G.] 1844:Plectropoma p. 1, Pl. 6 [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] [Napoli] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Perca fasciata Forsskål 1775 in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:26 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

faveatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:329 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Sri Lanka. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1714 (1) Sri Lanka. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym in part of Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1858) -- (Fricke 1999:191 [ref. 24106] for Mauritius record, Craig et al. 2011:131 [ref. 31786]). •Valid as Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:524 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:152 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:152 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2500 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Allen & Erdmann 2012:272 [ref. 31980], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:390 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus faveatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Cocos-Keeling Islands and Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

fimbriatus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:195, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society v. 6 (pts 1); ref. 2828] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 3388. Possible syntype: BMNH 1858.4.2.81 (1). Unneeded replacement name for Serranus marginatus Lowe 1834, not preoccupied by Serranus marginalis Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

flavocaeruleus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:331, 367 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Neotype: MNHN A-5747 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:41 [ref. 19232]. Originally flavo-cæruleus. Based on description in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). Neotype designated by Randall & Whitehead 1985:37 [ref. 9723]. •Valid as Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:194 [ref. 19756], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:525 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:166 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:140 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Andaman Islands, western Thailand, Malay Peninsula and Sumatra (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

flavoguttatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:429 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mozambique. Holotype (unique): ZMB 257. Also described as new in Peters 1855:235 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601] and Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042] but as caeruleopunctatus, Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

flavopurpurea, Perca Bennett [J. W.] 1830:unnum. p., Pl. 19 [A selection from the most remarkable and interesting fishes found on the coast of Ceylon First Edition; ref. 16785] South coast of Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Originally as flavo-purpurea, correction mandatory. As Cynichthys flavopurpuratus in Swainson 1838:202. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Pethiyagoda et al. 1994:43 [ref. 21456], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

forskael, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:337, 377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Ras Muhammad, southern Sinai, Egypt, Red Sea, 27°44'N 34°15'E. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49, 58 [ref. 20740]. Unnecessary replacement name for Perca fasciata Forsskål 1775. •Objective synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757] as forsskael, Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

forsythi, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1937:222, Pl. 13 (fig. 4) [Australian Zoologist v. 8 (pt 4); ref. 4690] Lord Howe Island. Holotype: AMS I.1793. Paratypes: (2) not saved. •Synonym of Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:130 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:138 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus daemelii (Günther 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fusca, Perca Thunberg [C. P.] 1793:297, Pl. 9 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 14 (for 1793); ref. 26702] Japan [Nagasaki, Kyushu, Japan]. No types known. •Synonym of Cephalopholis boenak (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:52 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus boenak (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fuscoguttata, Perca summana var. Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 42 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Sams Pier, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Neotype: USNM 147594. Originally as fusco-guttata, correction mandatory. Neotype designated by Randall 1964: 291 [ref. 3600]. Original type localities 'Sues' (As-Suways, Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea) and 'Djiddæ' (Jeddah/Juddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea). Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:230 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:525 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:108 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:235 [ref. 27969], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:108 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:188 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2501 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:168 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:142 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:102 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:390 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Phoenix Islands and Samoa, north to Japan, south to Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

fuscomarginatus, Epinephelus Johnson [J. W.] & Worthington Wilmer [J.] 2019:332, Figs. 2-4A [Zootaxa 4674 (no. 3); ref. 36985] Capricorn Channel, south of Swain Reefs, Queensland, Australia, 22°52.8'S, 152°40.8'E, depth 230 meters. Holotype: QM I.40945. Paratypes: CSIRO, QM. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscomarginatus Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2019 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus fuscomarginatus Johnson & Worthington Wilmer 2019. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Great Barrier Reef (Queensland, Australia). Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Epinephelus Fourmanoir [P.] 1961:92 [Mémoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar. Série F. Océanographie v. 4; ref. 9346] West coast of Madagascar. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1963-0603. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805]. Also appeared as new in Fourmanoir 1963:140, fig. [ref. 4824]. •Valid as Epinephelus fuscus Fourmanoir 1961 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:216 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:173 [ref. 19754]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:342, 384 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] "Norway" [likely China]. Lectotype: ZMB 5221 (left half skin). Unneeded new name for Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:63 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gabriellae, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:159, Pl. 14A, Pl. 36A,B; Fig. 78 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Eagles' Retreat, 16°58'00"N, 54°42'50"E, Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 6-8 meters. Holotype: BPBM 33947. Paratypes: ANSP 161089 (1), BPBM 33948 (1), FMNH 4005 (1), NSMT-P 29536 (1), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 34268 [not 33620] (1). •Valid as Epinephelus gabriellae Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:158 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:131 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:145 [ref. 31786], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354], Wu et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37525]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus gabriellae Randall & Heemstra 1991. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Somalia, Yemen. Socotra and Oman. Habitat: marine.

gaimardi, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:520 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7547. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7420 (2), 0000-7641 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:28 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype designation not researched, not designated here. •Valid as Epinephelus gaimardi (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:210 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

galeus, Serranus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:621 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Guyana. Syntypes: ?ZMB 254 (1) Rio de Janeiro, 255 (1) Guyana. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

geoffroyi, Serranus Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:675, footnote [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Port Safaga, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: SMNS 233. Syntypes: Not NMW 39276 (1) see Randall et. al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685]. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Valid as Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354], Wu et al. 2020:135 [ref. 37525]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

geographicus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:322 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH D132 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

geometricus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:144 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17384] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: QM I.10140-41 (1, 1). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gigas, Batrachus Günther [A.] 1869:131 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 3 (no. 14); ref. 18192] Seychelles. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2007.8.13.1 (dry head). •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gigas, Perca Brünnich [M. T.] 1768:65 [Ichthyologia Massiliensis, sistens piscium descriptiones eorumque apud incolas nomina; ref. 17290] Marseille, France, western Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Unused senior synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Lowe 1834); name should be suppressed by ICZN (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590]). •Regarded as a nomen dubium -- (Heemstra 1991:33, 38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:199 [ref. 19601]). •Possibly the same as Epinephelus haifensis Ben-Tuvia 1953 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:162 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953) -- (Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2396 [ref. 34618]). •In the synonymy of Epinephelus maculatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gilberti, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1842:19 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 55); ref. 21245] Port Essington, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: BMNH 1968.3.11.3 (skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

glaucus, Serranus Day [F.] 1871:678 [2] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1870 (pt 3); ref. 1078] Andaman Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1870.5.18.76. Day specimens: ZSI ?1678 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

goldiei, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1882:226 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 17584] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16322-001 [ex MAMU F477]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:82 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

goldmanni, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:434 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16850] Obi Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5483. •Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:231 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:214 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

goliath, Oligorus De Vis [C. W.] 1882:318 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17382] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM (mounted, not found in 1997). Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Serranus goliath Peters 1855 when both are in Epinephelus. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goliath, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:430 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Mossimboa, Mozambique, 11°S. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32500 (skeleton). Also described as new in Peters 1855:237 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goreensis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:511 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7323 (2), 0000-7324 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Mycteroperca goreensis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus goreensis (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra 1991:30 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:159 [ref. 21042], Afonso et al. 1999:72 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:146 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2391 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus goreensis (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and islands of the Gulf of Guinea; possibly regionally extinct in Portugal. Habitat: marine.

grammatophorus, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:64, Pl. 3 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 15011] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.2.6.2 (1), 1905.6.6.94 (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

grammicus, Serranus Day [F.] 1868:700 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3); ref. 14045] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI 2952. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762]. •Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2506 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guasa, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:141, 354, Pl. 13 (fig. 8) [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 34157 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:190-191 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guaza, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1896:372 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 21 (for 1895) Appendix 5; ref. 2442] See Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). New spelling for Labrus gvaza Linnaeus 1758. See Labrus gvaza Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

guntheri, Homalogrystes Alleyne [H. G.] & Macleay [W.] 1877:269, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 1 (pts 3-4); ref. 101] About 12 miles south of Papua New Guinea coast at Katow [Mawatta, Western Province], depth 6-7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Acanthochromis polyacanthus (Bleeker 1855) in Pomacentridae -- (Allen 1991:235 [ref. 19344]). •Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:25 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Perca Linnaeus [C.] 1758:292 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America [Brazil]. No types known. Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:203 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:49 [ref. 20705]. Based on the 'Gvarvgvarv' of Markgraf von Liebstad 1648:169, fig. [ref. 30347], the 'Cugupuguacu cogener, corpore rotundiore' of Sloane 1725:280, pl. 247, fig. 2 [ref. 30320], the 'Cugupu-guacu brasiliensibus' of Willughby 1686:303 [ref. 30164], the 'Cugupu guacu' of Ray 1713:127 [ref. 30231], and the 'Cugupuguacu' of Catesby 1771:14, Pl. 14 [ref. 774]. Current usage here tentatively maintained, although E. guttatus does not occur in Brazil, and Markgraf von Liebstad's description was apparently based on E. adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). •Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:132 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:99 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:331 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:21 [ref. 25512], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:266 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1342 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:145 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:149 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:999 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:172 [ref. 32953], Robertson et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34961], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Trinidad and Tobago, including eastern and southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1878:33, Pl. 2 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 3 (pt 1); ref. 2868] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16324-001 [ex MAMU F1166]. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Epinephelus guttatus (Macleay 1878) -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Synonym of Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442] as undulostriatus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:283 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:249 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2528 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gvaza, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:285 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] "Pelago" [Cumana, Caribbean coast of Venezuela]. No types known. Spelled guaza by authors; "u" mistypset "v" in original; spelling guaza regarded as in prevailing usage. Based on a specimen from Venezuela mentioned in a letter by Pehr Löfling (1729-1756), one of the 'Linnaeus apostles'. Subsequently confused by authors with a Mediterranean serranid, which is now classified as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). •Valid as Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:359 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:785 [ref. 13676], Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:666 [ref. 21590], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666] as quaza). •In genus Mycteroperca, as güaza, regarded as a nomen dubium with discussion of locality -- (Heemstra 1991:38, 41 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601] as gvasa, Heemstra & Randall 1993:188 [ref. 21042], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Carneiro et al. 2019:243 [ref. 37250]). •Possibly the same as Mycteroperca cidi Cervigón 1966, Mycteroperca interstitialis (Poey 1860), or Mycteroperca phenax Jordan & Swain 1884 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:188, 264, 266 [ref. 21042]). •Nomen dubium in Mycteroperca -- (Smith Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013]). •Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753] as guaza). •Regarded as of uncertain status in Mycteroperca. •Questionably in synonymy of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gymnopareius, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:248 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7071. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

gymnosus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:335, 372 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [No locality stated] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Possible types: MNHN A-5747 (1) coll. Commerson. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:48 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:41 [ref. 19232]. Figured on Pl. 27 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hata, Epinephelus Katayama [M.] 1953:52, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Yamaguchi University v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 19758] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 41376 [ex Katayama coll. 1541]. Paratypes: (4) Katayama coll. 1537-40 (now should be 3), ZUMT 41376 (1, not seen in 1997). •Synonym of Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:163 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:164 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2502 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

heniochus, Epinephelus Fowler [H. W.] 1904:522, Pl. 18 (upper fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype: ANSP 27557. Paratypes: ANSP 27558 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Mycteroperca heniochus (Fowler 1904) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:169 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:163 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:164 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:236 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:47 [ref. 26476], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2502 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:717 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:717 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:151 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:100 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:99 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:342 [ref. 36985], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:391 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus heniochus Fowler 1904. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar and Sumatra (Indonesia) east to New Britain, north to Japan and Korea, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

hexagonatus, Holocentrus Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:323 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] [Otaheitee] Tahiti, Society Islands, French Polynesia, South Pacific. No types known. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:189 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Holocentrus hexagonatus Forster 1801 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356] with authorship as Bloch & Schneider). •Valid as Serranus hexagonatus (Forster 1901) -- (Dor 1984:102 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:46 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:108 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:166 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:165 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Randall et al. 1997:108 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:189-190 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2503 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:84 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Ikeda 2004:2 [ref. 27940], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:67 [ref. 35264], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:153 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:273 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706] as Bloch & Schneider ex Forster, Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932] as Bloch & Schneider ex Forster, Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988] with authors as Bloch & Schneider, Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll, northern Line Islands and to the Pitcairn Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

hoedtii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:406 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 350] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 5494. Paralectotypes: RMNH 30345 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus hoedtii (Bleeker 1855) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:177 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:236 [ref. 27969], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:42 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1010 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hoevenii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:36 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8158 [from Day] (1), RMNH 6164 (some syntypes out of 23), SMNS 10635 (1 syntype). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:58 [ref. 29864] •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) [sometimes as caeruleopunctatus] -- (Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:120 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1009 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

homosinensis, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1944:267 [Australian Zoologist v. 10 (pt 3); ref. 4705] Broom, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.2413-001. Paratypes: WAM P.2412-001 (1), P.2430-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:18 [ref. 19335] altered the type locality to Broome, Western Australia, Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

horridus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:321 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH D19 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D2160 (1, stuffed); ?SMF 2986 [ex RMNH in 1829] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

hostiaretis, Epinephelus summana Whitley [G. P.] 1954:25 [Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales v. for 1952-53; ref. 4721] Queensland, Australia. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:220 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

howlandi, Serranus Günther [A.] 1873:8, Pl. 9 (fig. B) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Howland Island, 0°48'N, 176°38'W, central Pacific. Holotype: BMNH 1873.4.3.237. Paratypes: ?NMV 8239 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873) -- (Randall et al. 1990:109 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:169 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:167 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1997:109 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:183 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:156 [ref. 31786], Ho et al. 2013:77 [ref. 33261], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western and South Pacific: China Sea and southern Japan throughout the west-central Pacific east to the Line Islands, south to Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

impetiginosus, Serranus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:665 [13] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 237. Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:13. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

indistinctus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:171, Fig. 84 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Indian Ocean off east coast of Somalia, 9°03'N, 50°59'E, depth 70-80 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 148119. •Valid as Epinephelus indistinctus Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:168 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:131 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:158 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871] as cf. indistinctus, Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus indistinctus Randall & Heemstra 1991. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Somalia, Oman. Habitat: marine.

ionthas, Epinephelus Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1913:32, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 2490] Pusan, South Korea. Holotype (unique): FMNH 55797 [ex CM 4559]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:91 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:34 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Choi et al. 2003:590 [ref. 26218], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

irrorata, Perca var. Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:333, xlv [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] St. Christian Island [=Tahuata], Marquesas Islands. Holotype (?): MNHN 0000-7438. As Percam irroratam in text, name Latinized in index (p. xlv). Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Described as probably a variety of Bodianus miniatus. See Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994]. •Valid as Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994], Randall & Heemstra 1991:174 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:169 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2504 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Craig et al. 2011:160 [ref. 31786], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) endemic. Habitat: marine.

itajara, Serranus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1822:278 [Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1820-1821; ref. 17529] Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 238. Spelled itaiara by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:376 [ref. 997]. •Valid as Promicrops itaiara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666]). •Valid as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:104 [ref. 36591], Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Cervigón 1991:337 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:94 [ref. 23101], Grace et al. 1994:22 [ref. 25512], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1594 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:285 [ref. 24545], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:147 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:257 [ref. 23144], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:355 [ref. 24555], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:264 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:208 [ref. 25013], Keith et al. 2000:84 [ref. 24547], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Thomson et al. 2000:89 [ref. 25640], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:143 [ref. 27639], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1341 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:146 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Craig et al. 2009:167 [ref. 29773] with eastern Pacific population a different species, Epinephalus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868), Craig et al. 2011:162 [ref. 31786], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:397 [ref. 34894], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2392 [ref. 34618], Reis et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34496], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U. S. A.) south to Brazil, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago; southern central Atlantic: Ascension Island; eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: brackish, marine.

jansenii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1857:376 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 358] Sangi [Sangihe] Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:82 [ref. 37354]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Epinephelus Tilesius [W. G. von] 1814:no page number, Pl. 64 (fig. 2) [Atlas zur Reis; ref. 19304] Japan. Scientific name not on plate so not available; served as basis for Serranus trimaculatus Valenciennes 1828; see Randall & Heemstra 1991:276 [ref. 19601]. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

japonicus, Serranus areolatus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:8 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Japan. Holotype: RMNH D76 (stuffed). Type information: Boeseman 1947:25 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

jayakari, Serranus Boulenger [G. A.] 1889:237 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1889 (pt 2); ref. 14491] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1888.12.29.32 (1, skin), 1888.12.29.33 (1, skin), 1888.12.29.34 (1, skin). •Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999]). •Valid as Epinephelus jayakari (Boulenger 1889) -- (Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus jayakari (Boulenger 1889). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf. Habitat: marine.

kohleri, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:336, Fig. 51 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Bock Passage, Rongerik Atoll, western Pacific, depth 60 feet. Holotype: USNM 141922. Paratypes: UW (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall et al. 1990:107 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2494 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

koschar, Perca summana var. Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:345 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Red Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskal 1775) -- (Parenti 2003:499 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

kulas, Plectropoma Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:423 [145] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 145 of reprint. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042] with question, Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

kunhardtii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1851:169 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16895] Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 32444 [ex RMNH 6164]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:111 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

kupangensis, Epinephelus Tucker [S. J.], Kurniasih [E. M.] & Craig [M. T.] 2016:658, Fig. 1 [Copeia v. 104 (no. 3); ref. 34684] Timor Sea, Sahul Banks (approx. 12°01'S, 124°8'E), depth 50-300 meters. Holotype: MZB 23005. Paratypes: BBPM, MZB, SIO, UF, USNM. •Valid as Epinephelus kupangensis Tucker, Kurniasih & Craig 2016 -- (Frable et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 36287], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Inoue et al. 2020:39 [ref. 37284], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus kupangensis Tucker, Kurniasih & Craig 2016. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: eastern Indonesia east to Taiwan, Philippines and Fiji, north to Kochi Prefecture (Japan). Habitat: marine.

labriformis, Serranus Jenyns [L.] 1840:8, Pl. 3 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Off San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.25.5 (right half skin on wood). •Valid as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:173 [ref. 21042], Allen & Robertson 1994:109 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:92 [ref. 23101], Heemstra in Fischer et al. 1995:1595 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:284 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:319 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:24 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:355 [ref. 24555], Allen & Robertson 1999:13 [ref. 24279], Thomson et al. 2000:86 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], Craig et al. 2006:91 [ref. 29771], Craig et al. 2006:969 [ref. 29775], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Craig et al. 2011:165 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:224 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35859], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to Chile, including offshore islands and the Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

lanceolatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:92, Pl. 242 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Ostindien [East Indies], Indonesia. Syntypes: ZMB 169 (1), ZMB (1, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 72 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Promicrops lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:132 [ref. 6441], Winterbottom et al. 1989:27 [ref. 13251], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:808 [ref. 20764], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:246 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:109 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Kottelat et al. 1993:106 [ref. 23448], Kuiter 1993:132 [ref. 23929], Randall 1994:261 [ref. 21644], Gomon et al. 1994:535 [ref. 22532], Randall 1995:132 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:109 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:190 [ref. 24106] with a holotype, Kuo & Shao 1999:401 [ref. 24297], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2505 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:714 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:184 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:85 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:714 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830] with author as Bleeker, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra 2004:3337 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:167 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:158 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Randall 2007:196 [ref. 30952], Roberts & Gomon 2008:542 [ref. 30641], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:168 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:274 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Gill 2014:599 [ref. 33481], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Roberts 2015:1186 [ref. 34193], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:185 [ref. 36495], Fricke et al. 2019:117 [ref. 36673], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Jawad et al. 2019:186 [ref. 36777], Zajonz et al. 2019:70 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:391 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), northern New Zealand and Tonga. Habitat: brackish, marine.

latifasciatus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:6 [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D21 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D22 (1, stuffed). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:22 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:46 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:132 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:237 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:48 [ref. 26476] dated 1843, Heemstra & Randall 1999:2506 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:718 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:75 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:718 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 591 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:88 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:170 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:198 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:86 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:391 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf east to South China Sea, north to Japan, south to northwestern Australia. Habitat: marine.

lebretonianus, Serranus Hombron [J. B.] & Jacquinot [H.] in Jacquinot & Guichenot 1853:33, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Voyage au Pôle Sud et dans l'Oceanie v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 18307] No locality. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7548. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:29-30 [ref. 19232] also type described. •Valid as Epinephelus lebretonianus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1853) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:181 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:177 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2011:172 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus lebretonianus (Hombron & Jacquinot 1853). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Locality unknown, probably Indo-Pacific but no specific information (known from one specimen). Habitat: marine.

leprosus, Epinephelus Smith [J. L. B.] 1955:310, Pl. 1 (fig. A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 8 (no. 88) (art. 38); ref. 4096] Aldabra Island, Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 434. Paratypes: (many) not researched. •Valid as Epinephelus leprosus Smith 1955 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:226 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

leucostigma, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Ehrenberg) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:346 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:46 [ref. 19232]. Based on a drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:267 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:239 [ref. 21042], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lilia minor, Perca selebardo var. Fabricius [J. C.] (ex Forsskål) in Niebuhr 1775:xv [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (İstanbul or İzmir, Turkey, eastern Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Unavailable, not accompanied by a diagnosis, species name not in Latin letters (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Authorship and locality according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Uncertain in genus Epinephelus -- (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

lineatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:312 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7544 (dry), A-7681 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:284 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:250 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2529 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lobotoides, Epinephelus Nichols [J. T.] 1913:179, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 32 (art. 7); ref. 14964] Shimonoseki Market, Honshu, Japan. Holotype (unique): AMNH 3957. •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

longispinis, Serranus Kner [R.] 1864:483 [3] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 49; ref. 4927] Madras, India. No types known. On p. 3 of separate. Also appeared in Kner 1865: 275, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [ref. 2638]. •Valid as Epinephelus longispinis (Kner 1864) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:526 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:24 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:182 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:178 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:190 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2507 [ref. 24815], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:173 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:274 [ref. 31980], Ali et al. 2018:318 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:113 [ref. 37300]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus longispinis (Kner 1864). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to eastern Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

luctuosus, Homalogrystes De Vis [C. W.] 1882:369 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 1087] Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.179 (dry mount). •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lunulatus, Lutianus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:329 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Not same as lunulatus Park. Based on 'Cabrilla' Parra 1787:93, Pl. 36 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042] with author as Parra, Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

luridus, Serranus Ranzani [C.] 1842:356, Pl. 36 (fig. 1) [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 9017] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 977. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

lutra, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:474 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7278. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:30 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:156 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:188 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2018:149 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

macrocephalus, Bodianus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:281, 293 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [No locality] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Possible types: MNHN A-5747 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:39 [ref. 19232]. Based on Commerson drawing. Figured on Pl. 20 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710]. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:155 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:154 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:186 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

macrospilos, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1855:499 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16851] Batjan, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5503. Later spelled macrospilus. •Valid as Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:110 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:186 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:179 [ref. 21042], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:237 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:110 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:191 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2508 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:158 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:175 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:275 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Hata et al. 2016:49 [ref. 35065], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Sakamoto et al. 2018:216 [ref. 36508], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus macrospilos (Bleeker 1855). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall and Marquesas islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Perca Forster [J. R.] in Lichtenstein 1844:220 [Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris Australis; ref. 17531] St. Christian Island, Waitako [= Vaitahu, Tahuata Island, Marquesas Islands]. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Perca maculata Bloch 1792 (and also secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790). Lichtenstein (editor, p. 220, footnote) treats as a synonym of "Perca miniata Forsk. Faun. orient. p. 41", "Bodianus miniatus Bl. Sch. p. 332", and "Serranus variolosus Cuv. Val. II. p. 265." •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

maculata, Perca Bloch [M. E.] 1792:92, Pl. 313 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Epinephelus by Holocentrus maculatus Bloch 1790. On p. 81 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. Replaced by Sparus atlanticus Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:96, Pl. 242 (fig. 3) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] East Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB (not found). On p. 76 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:176 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:47 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:110 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:131 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:110 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2509 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:184 [ref. 25191], Johnson 2001:730 [ref. 25471], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:11 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:159 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:97 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:178 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:275 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35333], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Cocos-Keeling Island east to the Line Islands, north to southern Japan, south to southeastern Australia and Lord Howe Island. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:332 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality [? Martinique]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7360. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232], Bauchot & Daget 1996:241 [ref. 22899]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:266 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

maderaspatensis, Priacanthichthys Day [F.] 1868:193 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 1); ref. 1076] Madras [= Chennai], India. Syntypes: BMNH 1868.10.27.38 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762] as madraspatensis. •Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:179 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:176 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus latifasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

magnificus, Serranus Macleay [W.] 1882:229 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 17584] Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Holotype (unique): AMS I.9460. The type has been found, Feb. 2013. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Gill 2014:599 [ref. 33487], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

magniscuttis, Epinephelus Postel [E.], Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1963:365, Fig. 9 [Mémoires de l'Institut français d'Afrique Noire No. 68; ref. 5208] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 1962-1296. Paratypes: MNHN 1963-0037 (1) [not listed in original description]. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:527 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:192 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:182 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:71 [ref. 21258], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:505 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:192 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2510 [ref. 24815], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:164 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1013 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:45 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:180 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Nakamura et al. 2018:226 [ref. 36354], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:345 [ref. 36985], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:514 [ref. 38001], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:113 [ref. 37300]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, western Mascarenes and Socotra east to Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to eastern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

magnus, Mugil chanos var. Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:xiv, 74 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (İstanbul or İzmir, Turkey, eastern Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Name unavailable, as it is neither accompanied by an indication, a diagnosis or a description. Appeared as Mugil chanos magnus on p. xiv, and as Mugil chanos var. b on p. 74; both linked together by the species code '110b' (see Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Authorship according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Uncertain in genus Epinephelus -- (Fricke 2008:27 [ref. 30182]). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

malabaricus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:319, Pl. 63 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 190. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:236 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:182 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:786 [ref. 13676], Heemstra & Randall 1986:527 [ref. 5667], Daget & Smith 1986:303 [ref. 6204], Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:48 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:111 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601] with remarks on type, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:807 [ref. 20764], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Kuiter 1993:132 [ref. 23929], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:133 [ref. 22896], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476], Machida et al. 1997:50 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:111 [ref. 25919], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Myers 1999:114 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:192 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2511 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:721 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:185 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:86 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:721 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra 2004:3338 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:168 [ref. 28072], Larson & Pidgeon 2004:196 [ref. 28107], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Randall 2005:159 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:89 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:182 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:276 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[20] 258 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:103 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:187 [ref. 36495], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871] as cf. malabaricus, Bogorodsky et al. 2020:515 [ref. 38001], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:392 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Socotra east to Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia); Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

manca, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Klein) 1792:349 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated (probably Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia), No types known. Based on Percis pinnis quatuor ... of Klein 1749:43, pl. 8, fig. 3 [ref. 30141], a pre-Linnaean name. A forgotten name, but treated as a nomen oblitum to permit continued use of guoyanus as a nomen protectum (see Parenti 2003:496 [ref. 27322]). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Cuvier 1830) -- (Parenti 2003:496 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

marginalis, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:14, Pl. 328 (fig. 1) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] East India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5224 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 12 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Holocentrus marginatus Lacepède 1802:384 [ref. 4929] is an incorrect subsequent spelling. Lacepède 1802:384 refers only to "Bloch, pl. 328, fig. 1." See Holocentrus marginatus Shaw 1803:566 [ref. 4014], an unjustified emendation and objective synonym of Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. •Valid as Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:384 [ref. 31242]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227] as marginatus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Randall 2005:156 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:566 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] East India. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5224 (right skin). An unjustified emendation and objective synonym of Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. Shaw 1803 referred to "Epinephelus marginalis Bloch" but intentionally changed name to Holocentrus marginatus. Also see Holocentrus marginatus Lacepède 1802. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginatus, Serranus Lowe [R. T.] 1834:142 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1833 (pt 1) (for 24 Dec.); ref. 2826] Off Madeira. Neotype: MMF 3388. Possible syntype: BMNH 1858.4.2.81 (1) [from Lowe]. Neotype designated by Heemstra 1991:39 [ref. 19323]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Mycteroperca marginata (Lowe 1834) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as marginatus). •Valid as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:198 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:186 [ref. 21042], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:155 [ref. 25472], Grace et al. 1994:23 [ref. 25512], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Randall 1995:133 [ref. 22896], Louisy 1996:21 [ref. 22516], Santos et al. 1997:80 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:79 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:207 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753], López et al. 2002:65 [ref. 26808], Machado et al. 2003:133 [ref. 26945], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Luiz et al. 2004:1176 [ref. 27860], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:169 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:185 [ref. 31786], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2393 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Reid et al. 2016:100 [ref. 36644], Martins & Carneiro 2018:124 [ref. 36550], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Carneiro et al. 2019:244 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Bariche & Fricke 2020:85 [ref. 37515], Béarez et al. 2020:252 [ref. 37874], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:515 [ref. 38001], Kovačić et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37519], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Angola, including Azores, Madeira and São Tomé and Principe; western Atlantic: Brazil south to Argentina; Western Indian Ocean: South Africa to southern Mozambique; Réunion (Mascarenes); Socotra; Oman. Habitat: marine.

matterni, Epinephelus Fowler [H. W.] 1918:31, Fig. 13 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1396] Philippines. Holotype: ANSP 47506. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:155 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

mauritianus, Epinephelus Baissac [J. de B.] 1962:188 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Arts and Science Mauritius v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 5776] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): NHMI uncat. •Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:51 [ref. 9721], Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:245 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:224 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:198 [ref. 24106], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

medurensis, Serranus Günther [A.] 1873:8, Pl. 9 (fig. A) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Maduro [Majuro], Marshall Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.4.3.243. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2509 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

megachir, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:230 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Coasts of China. Holotype: BMNH 1968.3.11.2 (skin). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Epinephelus megachir (Richardson 1846) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:49 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:51 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2518 [ref. 24815], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:87 [ref. 25480], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melanocelidota, Perca Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:110 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique) (?): BMNH 1853.11.12.57 (skin). •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melanometopon, Epinephelus flavocoeruleus var. Bleeker [P.] 1871:96 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17077] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Mozambique. Description somewhat confused as to allocation to varieties melanometopon and xanthometopon. Based on specimens and literature sources. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:148 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melanostigma, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:348, Fig. 54 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Reef off Swains Island, American Samoa. Holotype: USNM 115375. Paratypes: BMNH 1962.12.12.52 [ex USNM 115385] (1); FMNH 62614 [ex USNM 148966] (2); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 18870 [ex USNM 148966] (2); USNM 115374 (4), 115376 (18, ? now 17), 115385 (6, now 5), 148965 (5), 148966 (18, now 14), 148967-68 (2, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:35 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Epinephelus melanostigma Schultz 1953 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:49 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:202 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:189 [ref. 21042], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:193 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:188 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:276 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:150 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:75 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus melanostigma Schultz 1953. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Line Islands and Cook Islands, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

melanurus, Bodianus Geoffroy St. Hilaire [E.] 1817:no page number, Pl. 21 (figs. 1-2) [Poissons du Nil v. 1 (part 1); ref. 4184] Suez, Egypt, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7409 (2), 0000-7410 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:12 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:98 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

melas, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:429 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] "Querimba-Inseln (Ibo)", Mozambique. Also described as new in Peters 1855:236 [ref. 13448]. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

meleagris, Sebastes Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1864:392 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1864; ref. 3437] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Syntypes: ZMB 198 (4). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:101 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:268 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:239 [ref. 21042], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

mentzelii, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:291 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coast of Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0137 (1), 7368 (1), A-5777 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. For remarks on type see Heemstra 1991:37 [ref. 19323]. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

merou, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:337, 377 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. No types known. New name for Perca gigas Brünnich 1768. Unused senior synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Lowe 1834); name should be suppressed by ICZN (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). •Status uncertain -- (Heemstra 1991:38 [ref. 19323]). •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget & Smith 1986:302 [ref. 6204], Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •In synonymy of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe 1834). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

merra, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:17, Pl. 329 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Japan Sea [probably Indian Ocean]; Ostindien [Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 8716 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB (3, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 15 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:214 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:49 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:111 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:205 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:191 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:130 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:238 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:50 [ref. 26476], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:111 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:193 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2512 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:186 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:87 [ref. 25480], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576] as Bloch 1790, Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:119 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:191 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2014:61 [ref. 33932], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:3 [ref. 35354], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:108 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:75 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:392 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Wake Atoll and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

merus, Perca Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:7 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Perca merus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857 [ref. 17320]. •In genus Epinephelus Bloch 1793. •Incertae sedis, nomen nudum -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:130 [ref. 37354]). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

merus, Perca Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:24 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:7 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. Also appeared as name only in Graells 1887:181 [ref. 30438]. •In genus Epinephelus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

microdon, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1856:86 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 16856] Ora Malang, southeastern Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5510 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus microdon (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Chen et al. 1997:50 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:231 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:214 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2516 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

miliaris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:520 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-7547. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-7641 (1), 0000-7642 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983:407 [ref. 8284]. Based on a specimen collected by Commerson, and a description and specimen provided by Quoy & Gaimard from New Guinea. •Valid as Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:528 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:209 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:193 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Adam et al. 1998:12 [ref. 23610], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:194 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2544 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:160 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Randall et al. 2005:119 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1014 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:194 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:118 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354], Wu et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37525]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus miliaris (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands, south to northern Australia and Fiji. Habitat: marine.

moara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:10, Pl. 4 (fig. 2 [not 1]) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D72 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH D70 and D71 (2, dry), 181 (1, dry?); ZMB 5215 [ex RMNH] (1, dry). Originally as mo-ara, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:28 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Lee 1990:39 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:108 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:119 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2490 [ref. 24815], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480] as mo-ara). •Valid as Epinephelus moara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura et al. 1985:475, 671 [ref. 8056], Liu et al. 2013:1684 [ref. 32705], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:54 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus moara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: South China Sea to Japan. Habitat: marine.

morio, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:285 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] New York; Santo Domingo [= Dominican Republic]. Syntypes: MNHN (1, not found) New York, MNHN A-7675 (1, dry) Santo Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232] with A.7675 as paratype. •Valid as Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:301 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:133 [ref. 23100], Bullock & Smith 1991:109 [ref. 36591], Cervigón 1991:332 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:106 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:428 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:24 [ref. 25512], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:208 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466] with question, Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Heemstra et al. 2003:1344 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:76 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:147 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:30 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:196 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:14 [ref. 34324], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Massachusetts (U.S.A.) (strays) and Bermuda south to southern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; possibly eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

morrhua, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:434 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7431. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31 [ref. 19232]. Based on specimen and manuscript description sent by Desjardins (Julien Desjardins, 1799-1840, French zoologist). •Valid as Mycteroperca morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:200 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Randall & Klausewitz 1986:234 [ref. 11513], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:50 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:211 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:196 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:71 [ref. 21258], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:238 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:505 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:195 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2513 [ref. 24815], Mishra et al. 1999:85 [ref. 25315], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Shinohara et al. 2005:430 [ref. 28370], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:198 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:517 [ref. 38001], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus morrhua (Valenciennes 1833). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Socotra east to Cook Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga and Tuamotu Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

multinotatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:435 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 18495] Mauritius [Île aux Fouquets, 8 kilometers east of Mahébourg] Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9452. Type locality see Möbius 1880 [ref. 30489]. •Valid as Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:145 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:195 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2545 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:166 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:200 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:277 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:199 [ref. 34104] as cf. multinotatus, Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:151 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:392 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to India and Myanmar; Northern Territory (Australia) south to Shark Bay (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

multipunctatus, Serranus celebicus var. Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:382 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Syntypes: (7) SMF 14349 (1). Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:6 [ref. 14246]. •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Dor 1984:99 [ref. 29757]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601] with comments on a syntype, Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042]). •Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870) -- (Randall et al. 2013:527 [ref. 32685], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus geoffroyi (Klunzinger 1870). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nebulosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:313 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7421 (dry skin). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:25 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigriceps, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:517 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7393. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

nigriculus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:375 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Martinique; Antilles; Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-7275 (1) Martinique, 0000-7276 (1) Santo Domingo [=Dominican Republic]; ZMB 241 [ex MNHN] (1) Santo Domingo. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:32 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

oceanicus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:345, 389, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] [Grand Océan] Indo-West Pacific, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Commerson specimens: MNHN A-5734 (2) Mauritius, 7295 (1) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:16 [ref. 19232]. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Epinephelus oceanicus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke et al. 2009:46 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2013:256 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Golani & Fricke 2018:62 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mozambique channel, Mascarenes, etc. [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ongus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:69, Pl. 234 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Japan [erroneous, is Java, Indonesia]. Lectotype: ZMB 5533 (right skin). Paralectotypes: ZMB 5214 (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. Genus spelled Holoncentrus in text. On p. 52 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. See Randall & Heemstra 1991:199-200 [ref. 19601] but with a holotype and wrong number. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:137 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:529 [ref. 5667], Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:490 [ref. 25598], Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:239 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:52 [ref. 25135], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:112 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2514 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:186 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Sakai et al. 2001:94 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:53 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Craig 2007:81 [ref. 29774], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:89 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:202 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:278 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:101 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:393 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Marshall Islands, Fiji and Tonga, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ordinatus, Epinephelus Cope [E. D.] 1871:466 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): ANSP 13457. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:173 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

osbeck, Trachinus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:353, 364 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Ascension Island. No types known. Unecessary replacement name for Trachinus adscensionis Osbeck 1765. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:247, 262 [ref. 30473]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

pantherinus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:345, 389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [Fort Dauphin, Madagascar] No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1970:49 [ref. 20740], Bauchot et al. 1984:41-42 [ref. 19232]. Figured in Lacepède 1801:Pl. 27 (fig. 3) [ref. 2710] but with vernacular name. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:200 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:199 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1848:635 [Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (Singapore) v. 2 (no. 9); ref. 315] Bima, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8324 (1), SMNS 10636 (3 syntypes) Java. Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864] dated 1849. •Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

parkinsonii, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:329 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. Based on a Parkinson drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:166 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:165 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

phaeostigmaeus, Serranus Fowler [H. W.] 1907:255, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 59; ref. 1376] Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: ANSP 13463. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:156 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pirapixanga, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:339, 380 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Brazil. As pira-pixangua on p. 380. Unneeded replacement name for Holocentrus punctatus Bloch 1790. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm. Dec. 2020). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

pixanga, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:383 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. New name for Holocentrus punctatus Bloch 1790:88, pl. 241. On Pira pixanga of Marcgrave 1648. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

plumierii, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:192, 235 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Antilles, western Atlantic. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:38 [ref. 21549]. Unneeded new name for Anthias striatus Bloch 1792:Pl. 324. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

poecilonotus, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:6, Pl. 4A (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D75 (dry). Paralectotypes: RMNH 176 (2). Original as poëcilonotus. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:22 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Mycteroperca poecilonota (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as poecilonotus). •Valid as Epinephelus poecilonotus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:202 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:179 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:530 [ref. 5667], Randall & Klausewitz 1986:234 [ref. 11513], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:51 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:223 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:211 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:134 [ref. 22896], Fricke 1999:197 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2515 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 592 [ref. 26218], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:205 [ref. 31786], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Johnson & Wilmer 2019:346 [ref. 36985], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Sonoyama et al. 2020:55 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus poecilonotus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Socotra east to Fiji and Western Australia, north to central Japan and Ogasawara Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polylepis, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Heemstra [P. C.] 1991:226, Pl. 19C; Fig. 118 [Indo-Pacific Fishes No. 20; ref. 19601] Off Bahrain, 26°55'30"N, 50°58'18"E, Persian Gulf, depth 53-55 meters. Holotype: BPBM 30580. Paratypes: BMNH 1891.2.1.2 (1), 1899.1.24.1 (1), 1945.12.31.19 (1); BPBM 27480 (1); FMNH 98283 (1); ONHM 1606 (1); RMNH 12345 (1); ZMUC P43670 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus polylepis Randall & Heemstra 1991 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:213 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:146 [ref. 23922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:208 [ref. 31786], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Psomadakis et al. 2015:200 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354], Wu et al. 2020:134 [ref. 37525]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus polylepis Randall & Heemstra 1991. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to western India. Habitat: marine.

polyphekadion, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:39 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype: RMNH (not found). •Valid as Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849) -- (Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:231 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:214 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:112 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2516 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:724 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:187 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:724 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:210 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:278 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Motomura et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:152 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker 1849). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Madagascar east to Wake Atoll and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to Queensland (Australia), Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, Tonga and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

polypodophilus, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1849:37 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 22 [13]; ref. 318] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.4.21.1-3 (3), 1840.4.21.13 (1); ?RMNH 5486 (7), SMNS 10637 (2 syntypes). Type catalog: Fricke 1991:19-20 [ref. 13474], Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

polystigma, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1853:244 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 12580] Benculen [Bengkulu], Sumatra, Indonesia; Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH 5491 (1), 29577 [ex RMNH 5491] (1). •Valid as Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:234 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:216 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2517 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:212 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:279 [ref. 31980], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sumatra (Indonesia) east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, south to northern Queensland (Australia). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

posteli, Epinephelus Fourmanoir [P.] & Crosnier [A.] 1964:18, Pl. 16 (fig. C) [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie No. 6 (1963); ref. 5568] Fort Dauphin, Madagascar. Syntypes: IRSMNB (3) probably lost. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:40 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Mycteroperca posteli (Fourmanoir & Crosnier 1964) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100]). •Valid as Epinephelus posteli Fourmanoir & Crosnier 1964 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:530 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:237 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:217 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2011:214 [ref. 31786], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus posteli Fourmanoir & Crosnier 1964. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and southern Mozambique to southern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

praeopercularis, Serranus Boulenger [G. A.] 1888:654 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 4); ref. 14479] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: BMNH 1887.11.11.40. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1887.11.11.37 (1, dry). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:138, 140 [ref. 19601] but their catalog number on p. 138 [1887.11.11.37] is not in agreement with specimens on p. 140. •Synonym of Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:143 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:130 [ref. 22896], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2496 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

pseudomorrhua, Epinephelus Postel [E.], Fourmanoir [P.] & Guézé [P.] 1963:366, Fig. 10 [Mémoires de l'Institut français d'Afrique Noire No. 68; ref. 5208] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: MNHN 1962-1296. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:527 [ref. 5667], Randall & Heemstra 1991:192 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:182 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2510 [ref. 24815], Nakamura et al. 2018:226 [ref. 36354], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus magniscuttis Postel, Fourmanoir & Guézé 1963. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

punctatissimus, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:144 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1983.12.22.1. Also listed was Plate X, fig. A, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 4A in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Objective synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) after the type of punctatissimus was made the neotype of cyanopodus -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Holocentrus Bloch [M. E.] 1790:88, Pl. 241 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 4; ref. 469] Brazil. No types known. On p. 69 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 7 [ref. 21381]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm., Dec. 2020). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

quinquefasciatus, Serranus Bocourt [F.] 1868:223 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 10; ref. 14069] Mouth of Río Nagualate, Pacific coast of Guatemala. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5211. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:34 [ref. 19232]. •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra 1991:35 [ref. 19323]). •Synonym of Epinephelus itajara (Lichtenstein 1822) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:171 [ref. 21042], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:3 [ref. 24110]). •Valid as Epinephalus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Craig et al. 2009:173 [ref. 29773], Craig et al. 2011:216 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:237 [ref. 36362], Fourriére et al. 2016:444 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Reis et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34496], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus quinquefasciatus (Bocourt 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Peru. Replaced in the Atlantic by E. itajara. Habitat: marine.

quoyanus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:519 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] New Guinea. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7422. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:34 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:51 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:240 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:220 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:130 [ref. 23929], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:280 [ref. 24014], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:239 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Kuiter 1997:110 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:113 [ref. 25919] Ikeda 1999:2 [ref. 24398], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2518 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:87 [ref. 25480], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 592 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:89 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:217 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:279 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:100 [ref. 34464], Hata et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35065], Motomura et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:104 [ref. 36460], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:393 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus quoyanus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Myanmar, Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to Korea and southern Japan, south to Western Australia and New South Wales (Australia). Habitat: marine.

radiatus, Serranus Day [F.] 1868:699 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 3); ref. 14045] Near Madras, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1676. Possible holotype: AMS B.8342 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:301 [ref. 25110]. •Valid as Mycteroperca radiata (Day 1868) -- (Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100] as radiatus). •Valid as Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:530 [ref. 5667], Randall & Klausewitz 1986:234 [ref. 11513], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:52 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:243 [ref. 19601], Baranes & Golani 1993:307 [ref. 22372], Heemstra & Randall 1993:222 [ref. 21042], Kramer et al. 1994:73 [ref. 21258], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:506 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:197 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2519 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:716 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:716 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Hoese et al. 2006:1017 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Craig et al. 2011:220 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:200 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:88 [ref. 35490], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:393 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:115 [ref. 37300]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus radiatus (Day 1868). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Comoros and western Mascarenes east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

rahanus, Epinephelus Popta [C. M. L.] 1918:1 [Zweite Fortsetzung der Beschreibung von neuen Fischarten der Sunda-Expedition; ref. 15101] Raha, Muna Island, Sunda Islands, Indonesia. Lectotype: SMF 4904. Paralectotypes: RMNH 10552 (1), SMF 4905 (1). Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:235 [ref. 19601]. •Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:234 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:216 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2517 [ref. 24815], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:78 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus polystigma (Bleeker 1853). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rankini, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1945:24 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4707] Off Onslow, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.2847-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:213 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:198 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1015 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus multinotatus (Peters 1876). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

raymondi, Epinephelus Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:93 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 21; ref. 3287] Cape Moreton, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1565 [ex AFAQ 678]. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

reevesii, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:232 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 3b [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:117 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:127 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus chlorostigma (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

remotus, Serranus Poey [F.] 1860:140 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:195 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus morio (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

reticulata, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:354 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Seba 1759, Pl. 27 (fig. 9). Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322] acted as first reviser selecting Anthias striatus Bloch 1792 over Perca reticulata Walbaum 1792. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

reticulatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:323 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH D113 (dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:47 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

retouti, Epinephelus Bleeker [P.] 1868:339 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 2; ref. 17062] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5415. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227]). •Valid as Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:51 [ref. 9721], Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Winterbottom et al. 1989:25 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:53 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:245 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:224 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:197 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2520 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:715 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:491 [ref. 25191], Nakabo 2002:715 [ref. 26001], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Randall et al. 2005:120 [ref. 28745], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:222 [ref. 31786], Hata & Motomura 2016:1 [ref. 35078], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands, Line Islands and Society islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

rhyncholepis, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1853:749 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 335] Bulucomba [now Bulukumba], Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5465. •Valid as Epinephelus rhyncholepis (Bleeker 1853) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441]). •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

rivulatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:515 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7347. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:34 [ref. 19232]. See Paulin et al. 1989:260 [ref. 24556]. •Valid as Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:531 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:54 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:84 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:113 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:198 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:718 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:187 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:718 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:170 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:224 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:279 [ref. 31980], Roberts 2015:1188 [ref. 34193], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Bogorodsky et al. 2020:517 [ref. 38001], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:394 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Madagascar, western Mascarenes and Socotra east to Tonga, north to Ogasawara Islands, Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) northern New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

robusta, Perca Couch [J.] 1832:21, Fig. 7 [Magazine of Natural History and Journal of Zoology, Botany, Minerology, Gelology, and Meterology v. 5 (no. 23, art. 4); ref. 5557] Polperro, Cornwall, England. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus guaza [or gvaza] (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Smith 1990:700 [ref. 18227]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hiliare 1817) -- (Heemstra 1991:20 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:104 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Uncertain as Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy St. Hilaire 1817). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rosmarus, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:345, 389, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated. Commerson specimens: MNHN A-5726 (1, dry) Indian seas, A-5736 (2, dry) Indian seas, A-7689 (1, dry) Mauritius. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:16-17 [ref. 19232] with syntypes; the drawn specimen is the holotype if identifiable. Based on Commerson drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227] as rosemarus, Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salmoides, Holocentrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:346, 389 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Probably Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Syntypes: MNHN A-5444 (2, dry). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:17 [ref. 19232]. Originally salmoïdes. Figured on Pl. 34 (fig. 3) in Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. Spelled salmonoides by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:343 [ref. 997]. •Valid as Epinephelus salmonoides (Lacepède 1802) -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:240 [ref. 27969]). •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Randall et al. 1990:111 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:192 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salmonoides, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:343 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Emendation and redescription of Holocentrus salmoides Lacepède 1802. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Golani & Fricke 2018:63 [ref. 36273], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

salmonopsis, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:348 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Name in text, misspelling of Serranus salmonoides Valenciennes 1828, not available. Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

salonotus, Epinephelus Smith [J. L. B.] & Smith [M. M.] 1963:15, Pl. 14 (fig. I) [The fishes of Seychelles; ref. 5319] Cape Delgado, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 3. Described in more detail by Smith 1963:34 [ref. 32120]. •Valid as Epinephelus salonotus Smith & Smith 1963 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:212 [ref. 19756]). •Synonym of Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Heemstra & Randall 1993:232 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2524 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

sebae, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1854:488 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Moluccs Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:189 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:181 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:73 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus maculatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

selebardo, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] (ex Forsskål) in Niebuhr 1775:xv [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Alexandria, Egypt, southeastern Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Unavailable, species name not written in Latin letters (see Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Appeared as "PERCA? Σελέβαρδο". Authorship and type locality according to Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]. •Uncertain in genus Epinephelus, probably Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) -- (Fricke 2008:28 [ref. 30182]). Serranidae: Epinephelinae.

sellicauda, Epinephelus Gill [T. N.] 1862:250 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 14; ref. 4909] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 7247. •Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:173 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns 1840). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

semifasciatus, Sparus Shaw [G.] 1803:472 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] American Seas. Unneeded new name for Anthias striatus Bloch 1792. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

semipunctatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:341 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-0743 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. Originally semi-punctatus, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:194 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:385 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:184 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:74 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus malabaricus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sexfasciatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:360 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH D153 (dry). Non-types: MNHN 0000-6872 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:35 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Heemstra 1991:256 [ref. 19601]. Declared a nomen protectum by Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]. •Valid as Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:171 [ref. 19754], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:113 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:255 [ref. 19601], Randall & Heemstra 1991:256 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:229 [ref. 21042], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:240 [ref. 27969] with author as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Chen et al. 1997:50 [ref. 26476], Larson & Williams 1997:355 [ref. 23967], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Machida et al. 1997:53 [ref. 25135], Randall et al. 1997:113 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2522 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:54 [ref. 27510], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Satapoomin in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:90 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:2217 [ref. 31786], Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:100 [ref. 34464], Tucker et al. 2016:661 [ref. 34684], Motomura et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Satapoomin in Kimura et al. 2018:104 [ref. 36460], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:394 [ref. 37272], Ray & Mohapatra 2020:115 [ref. 37300]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Bay of Bengal (India) and Myanmar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to northern Vietnam, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

shihpan, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:231 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Syntypes: BMNH (apparently lost). Type information: Whitehead 1970:212 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

sicana, Cerna Doderlein [P.] 1882:250 [83] [Giornale di scienze naturali ed economiche, Società Naturali ed Economiche di Palermo v. 15; ref. 17414] Palermo, Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MZPA P/46 (dry), AN/1233, AN/440. Type catalog: Bellia et al. 2020:192, 193 [ref. 37558]. On p. 83 of separate. Declared a nomen oblitum by Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354] (if a synonym of Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953)). •Status uncertain -- (Tortonese 1973:361 [ref. 7192]). •Possibly an abnormal specimen of Epinephelus haifensis Ben-Tuvia 1953 -- (Heemstra 1991:33 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:162 [ref. 21042]). •In the synonymy of Hyporthodus haifensis (Ben-Tuvia 1953) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:85 [ref. 37354]). •Valid as Epinephelus sicanus (Doderlein 1882) -- (Bellia et al. 2020:193 [ref. 37558]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus sicanus (Doderlein 1882). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea: Sicily (Italy) and Malta. Habitat: marine.

slacksmithi, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1959:312 [Australian Zoologist v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 4729] Heron Island, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.3871. Paratypes: AMS I.13424 [ex MAMU] (missing in 1990 and 1997). •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:496 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:220 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2514 [ref. 24815], Hoese et al. 2006:1016 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

socialis, Serranus Günther [A.] 1873:7, Pl. 8 (fig. B) [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 14186] Tahiti, Society Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1873.4.3.1. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1865.5.29.9 (1) Samoa, BMNH 1873.4.3.2 (1) Tuamotus. Lectotype selected by Randall 1964:289, fig. 7 [ref. 3600]. •Valid as Epinephelus socialis (Günther 1873) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:258 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:230 [ref. 21042], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2523 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Nakabo 2000:722 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:722 [ref. 26001], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Craig et al. 2011:229 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus socialis (Günther 1873). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western and central Pacific: Insular coral reefs from southern Japan to Pitcairn Islands. Habitat: marine.

spilotoceps, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:357, Figs. 56-57 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef off Namu Island, Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141901. Paratypes: FMNH 62615-16 (1, 1); USNM 141902 (3), 141904-921 (1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 9, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 7, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:35 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953 -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Heemstra & Randall 1993:232 [ref. 21042], Chen et al. 1997:148 [ref. 24620], Kuiter 1997:108 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:114 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:115 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:199 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2524 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Randall 2005:163 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:348 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:231 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:280 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus spilotoceps Schultz 1953. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to the Line Islands, Marshall Islands, Tonga and Cook Islands, north to the Philippines, south to Western Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

spilotus, Epinephelus Schultz [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1953:352, Fig. 55 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 1; ref. 3975] Lagoon reef at Rujoru Island, Eniwetok Atoll, western Pacific. Holotype: USNM 141895. Paratypes: USNM 141896 (2), 150001 (4), 152974 [ex UW] (1). •Synonym of Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:169 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:167 [ref. 21042], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus howlandi (Günther 1873). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

spiniger, Serranus Günther [A.] 1859:146 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 1; ref. 1961] No locality [Apparently Marquesas Islands]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1978.2.1.2. Also listed was Plate X. fig. B, but on preface p. vi it is stated, "The Plates referred to, and executed by Mr. Ford, will be published as a separate volume." The figure apparently is Pl. 4B in Boulenger 1895 [ref. 537]. •Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:174 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:169 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2504 [ref. 24815], Randall 2005:157 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:346 [ref. 28379], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus irroratus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

spiramen, Epinephelus Whitley [G. P.] 1945:25 [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 1); ref. 4707] 30 miles north of Carnarvon, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.2796-001 (head only). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:494 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999]). •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2521 [ref. 24815], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

stathouderi, Serranus Vaillant [L. L.] & Bocourt [F.] 1878:69 [Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique centrale Part 4; ref. 4498] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7360. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:31, 35, 60 [ref. 19232] as stathouderi. Replacement name for Serranus maculosus Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828. •Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:161 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:70 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus guttatus (Linnaeus 1758). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

stellans, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1842:23 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 55); ref. 21245] Melville Island, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1858.4.12.477. Misspelled Epinephelus stellatus by Snyder 1912:498 [ref. 14871]. •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:508 [ref. 12442]). •Questionably a synonym of Epinephelus quayanus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Larson et al. 2013:102 [ref. 32988]). •Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:166 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:165 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:71 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus hexagonatus (Forster 1801). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

stellio, Perca Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Seba) 1792:349 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated (probably Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia) No types known. Based on the 'Perca tota maculis fuscis' of Seba 1759:76, Pl. 27 (fig. 7) [ref. 18716]. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (R. Fricke, pers. comm., Dec. 2020). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

stictus, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:394, Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] About 20 kilometers south of Heywood Shoals, 13°33'S, 124°02'E, Western Australia, depth 138-142 meters. Holotype: WAM P.28277-001. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.1.17.10 (1), BPBM 30913 (1), CSIRO CA 886 (1), ZUMT 10701 (1), 52224 (1, not seen in 1997). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus stictus Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:261 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:234 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2525 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:720 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:720 [ref. 26001], Hoese et al. 2006:1019 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:234 [ref. 31786], Tucker et al. 2016:661 [ref. 34684], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Frable et al. 2018:[9] [ref. 36287], Suzuki et al. 2020:[1] [ref. 37360], Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus stictus Randall & Allen 1987. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: southern Indonesia east to Philippines, north to Taiwan, south to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

stigmogrammacus, Epinephelus Cheng [Q.-T.] & Yang [W.-H.] 1983:506 [English p. 508], Figs. 1-3 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 14 (no. 5); ref. 8359] South China Sea. Holotype: ASIO 64-916. Paratypes: ASIO 40955 (1), 64-612 (1), 64-1023 (1), 64-1400 (1), 35503 (1), 56-8665 to 8670 (6). •Synonym of Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Lee 1990:44 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:137 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:143 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus epistictus (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

stoliczkae, Serranus Day [F.] 1875:11, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [The fishes of India Part 1; ref. 1080] Coast of Sind, Pakistan, Arabian Sea. Lectotype: ZSI 1679. Paralectotypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8157 (1, paralectotype); MNHN 0000-9360 (1); NMW 81226 (1); RMNH 143 [? or 73] (1); ZMB 8885 (1); ZSI 897-899 (3), 1955 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:159 [ref. 23762], Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Ben-Tuvia 1983 [ref. 8284]. •Valid as Epinephelus stoliczkae (Day 1875) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Randall & Heemstra 1991:264 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:235 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Craig et al. 2011:236 [ref. 31786], Psomadakis et al. 2015:200 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus stoliczkae (Day 1875). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

striatus, Anthias Bloch [M. E.] 1792:125, Pl. 324 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 6; ref. 470] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. On p. 109 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 9 [ref. 21381]. Parenti 2003:500 [ref. 27322] acted as first reviser selecting Anthias striatus Bloch 1792 over Perca reticulata Walbaum 1792. •Valid as Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:134 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:335 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:430 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:236 [ref. 21042], Grace et al. 1994:30 [ref. 25512], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Sadovy & Eklund 1999:2 [ref. 24110], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:266 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:211 [ref. 25013], Musick et al. 2000:16 [ref. 24959], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:157 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:107 [ref. 26784], Heemstra et al. 2003:1348 [ref. 27060], Smith et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:128 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:151 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2011:238 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:39 [ref. 33341], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (U.S.A.), Bahamas and, Yucatan (Mexico)south to southern Brazil, including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

subfasciatus, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:389 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 9 (pt 2); ref. 1090] Cardwell, Queensland, Australia. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (Paxton et al. 1989:508 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:147 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1011 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

suborbitalis, Epinephelus Amaoka [K.] & Randall [J. E.] 1990:3, Figs. 1-5 [The J.L.B Smith Institute of Ichthyology Special Publication No. 49; ref. 15984] Minami-Koho Seamount, Kyushu-Palau Ridge, western Pacific, 26°11.5'N, 135°46'E to 26°09.2'N, 135°49.5'E, depth 360-570 meters. Holotype (unique): HUMZ 80533. •Valid as Epinephelus suborbitalis Amaoka & Randall 1990 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:266 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:238 [ref. 21042], Craig et al. 2011:241 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus suborbitalis Amaoka & Randall 1990. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Kyushu-Palau Ridge (south of Japan). Habitat: marine.

suillus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:335 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Coromandel coast of India, Pondicherry, Vizagapathum [Visakhapatnam], India. Syntypes: MNHN A-7710 (1, dry) Puducherry, 7288 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus suillus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:491 [ref. 25598], Lee 1990:55 [ref. 19830]). •Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822) -- (Randall et al. 1990:106 [ref. 15987], Heemstra 1991:25 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:122 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Golani 1993:383 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:130 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2493 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:609 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:82 [ref. 25480], Randall 2005:155 [ref. 28239], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:328 [ref. 28867], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton 1822). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

suitonis, Epinephelus Tanaka [S.] 1915:566 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 27 (no. 325); ref. 4324] Saiki fish market, Ooita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 13309 or 12309 (not seen in 1997). Species originally published in Japanese in above reference, later illustrated and described in more detail in English and Japanese in Tanaka 1916:402, Pl. 109 (fig. 331) [ref. 14938]. •Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:128 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:136 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:66 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus cyanopodus (Richardson 1846). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

summana, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] (ex Forsskål) in Niebuhr 1775:xi, 42 [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] [No locality stated] Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P43569 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588], Fricke 2008:29 [ref. 30182]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 10 [ref. 20847]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:29 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:100 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:131 [ref. 6441], Randall et al. 1990:112 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:267 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:239 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Chen et al. 1997:51 [ref. 26476], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:161 [ref. 28239], DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Valid as Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:29 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus summana (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Socotra. Habitat: brackish, marine.

taeniocheirus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:518 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] No locality. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7644. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:157 [ref. 19601], Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

tankahkeei, Epinephelus Wu [H.-H.], Qu [M.], Lin [H.-D.], Tang [W.] & Ding [S.-X.] 2020:127, Figs. 1-2 [ZooKeys No. 933; ref. 37525] Yongxing Island, Sansha, Hainan, China. Holotype: ZMUA eptan06. Paratypes: ZMUA. •Valid as Epinephelus tankahkeei Wu, Qu, Lin, Tang & Ding 2020. Current status: Valid as Epinephelus tankahkeei Wu, Qu, Lin, Tang & Ding 2020. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: South China Sea and Taiwan Strait, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tarao, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:9 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Papeete, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]) Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

tauvina, Perca Fabricius [J. C.] in Niebuhr (ex Forsskål) 1775:39, xi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P43565 (dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:61 [ref. 9588], Fricke 2008: 29 [ref. 30182]. Holotype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 8 [ref. 20847]. Authorship according to Fricke 2008: 29 [ref. 30182]. •Valid as Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål 1775) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Kyushin et al. 1977:232 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:101 [ref. 29757], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:532 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:56 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Winterbottom et al. 1989:26 [ref. 13251], Lee 1990:56 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:114 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:269 [ref. 19601], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:807 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Heemstra & Golani 1993:387 [ref. 22373], Heemstra & Randall 1993:241 [ref. 21042], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:26 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:129 [ref. 22896], Evseenko 1996:727 [ref. 24666], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:241 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:90 [ref. 23977], Randall et al. 1997:114 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:116 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:199 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2526 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Randall 1999:11 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:725 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:189 [ref. 25191], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:185 [ref. 25703], Randall & Earle 2000:11 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:177 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:725 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:621 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:12 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3319 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:171 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:163 [ref. 28239], Hoese et al. 2006:1019 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Fricke et al. 2011:385 [ref. 31242], Craig et al. 2011:244 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:280 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35354], Fricke et al. 2018:153 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Suresh et al. 2018:189 [ref. 36495], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:109 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:119 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:394 [ref. 37272], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). •Valid as Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775) -- (Fricke 2008: 29 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus tauvina (Fabricius 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Madagascar and Mascarenes Islands east to Wake Atoll and Pitcairn Group, north to southern Japan, south to New South Wales (Australia), Lord Howe Island and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

tearlachi, Anthias Curtiss [A.] 1944:8 [Further notes on the zoology of Tahiti.; ref. 12574] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. •Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793 -- (Fowler 1949:85 [ref. 1462], Parenti & Randall 2020:76 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus merra Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

terraereginae, Oligorus Ramsay [E. P.] 1880:93, Pl. 9 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 18587] Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS A.7506 (skin, not found in 1997). Originally as terrae-reginae, correction mandatory. •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:495 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Hoese et al. 2006:1012 [ref. 28999], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

testudineus, Holocentrus Shaw [G.] 1803:566 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Northern seas. Unneeded new name for Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. •Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793 -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:64 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus bruneus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

thompsoni, Stereolepoides Fowler [H. W.] 1923:382 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 8 (no. 7); ref. 1398] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: BPBM 3406 (cast of head). •Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:176 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:174 [ref. 21042], Mundy 2005:347 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:197 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:327 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:72 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

timorensis, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:399, Fig. 2 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] Base of drilling rig, 11°S, 124°E, Dillon Shoals, Timor Sea, Western Australia. Holotype (unique): WAM P.24794-001. Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus timorensis Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:274 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:243 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2546 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1019 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:247 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus timorensis Randall & Allen 1987. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Timor Sea; Samoa; Phoenix Islands. Habitat: marine.

townsendi, Epinephelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:133 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 2 (no. 8) (art. 20); ref. 14680] Karachi, Sind, Pakistan. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.6.29.4-7 (4). •Synonym of Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:142 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:146 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus erythrurus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

trilobatus, Lutjanus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:196, 246 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1981:39 [ref. 21549], Bauchot et al. 1984:42 [ref. 19232]. Figured in Lacepède 1800: Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [ref. 2709] but with vernacular name. •Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus striatus (Bloch 1792). Serranidae: Serraninae. Habitat: marine.

trimaculatus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes (ex Tilesius) 1828:331 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Japan. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. Based on Pl. 64 (fig. 2) in Tilesius 1814 [ref. 19304]. •Valid as Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Lee 1990:56 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:275 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:244 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2472 [ref. 24815], Nakabo 2000:723 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:88 [ref. 25480], Nakabo 2002:723 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:310, 591 [ref. 26218], Craig et al. 2011:248 [ref. 31786], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:105 [ref. 36460], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam, southern China and Taiwan to Korea and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

trophis, Epinephelus Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 1987:402, Fig. 3 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 6249] Base of drilling rig, 11°S, 124°E, Dillon Shoals, Timor Sea, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.24795-001. Paratypes: BPBM 30279 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:19 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:20 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Epinephelus trophis Randall & Allen 1987 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:277 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:245 [ref. 21042], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2546 [ref. 24815], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:250 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100] as incertae sedis, Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus trophis Randall & Allen 1987. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Timor Sea (off northern Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

truncatus, Epinephelus Katayama [M.] 1957:158, Fig. 4 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 6 (nos 4-6); ref. 12079] Torishima, Izu Islands, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 18222 [ex Katayama's Fish Coll. No. 1940]. Paratypes: Katayama Fish Coll. 1941 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus truncatus Katayama 1957 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:220 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:181 [ref. 19754], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:129 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:51 [ref. 26476]). •Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1986:51 [ref. 9721], Lee 1990:53 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:245 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:224 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:135 [ref. 22896], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2520 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Randall 2005:162 [ref. 28239], Hata & Motomura 2016:2 [ref. 35078], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus retouti Bleeker 1868. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

tsirimenara, Serranus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:7, Pl. 4A (fig. 3) [Fauna Japonica Part 1; ref. 4370] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D64 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D62-D63 and D65 (3, stuffed), 114 (2), 2754 (1); ZMB 5216 [ex RMNH] (1, stuffed). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:331 [ref. 25566]. Originally as Tsirimen-ara, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:23 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tuamotuensis, Epinephelus Fourmanoir [P.] 1971:127, Fig. 1 [Cahiers du Pacifique No. 15; ref. 7672] Rangiroa Atoll, from the village of Avatoru to 2 kilometers east, Tuamotu Archipelago, depth 180-240 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1970-0040. Paratypes: (8) ?MNHN [ex ORSTOM Nouméa] (2). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:15 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus tuamotuensis Fourmanoir 1971 -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:278 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:2464 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2546 [ref. 24815], Randall 1999:12 [ref. 25829], Craig et al. 2011:251 [ref. 31786], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus tuamotuensis Fourmanoir 1971. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: South Pacific: Cook Islands, Rapa, Society Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago and Pitcairn Group. Habitat: marine.

tukula, Epinephelus Morgans [J. F. C.] 1959:651, Pls. 17, 19 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 1 (no. 10) (for 1958); ref. 12011] Mafia Island, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: EAMFRO S.96. Paratypes: EAMFRO. S.88 (1), S.102 (1), S.122 (1). •Valid as Epinephelus tukula Morgans 1959 -- (Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:130 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Randall 1986:533 [ref. 5667], Allen & Swainston 1988:58 [ref. 25477], Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Lee 1990:57 [ref. 19830], Randall et al. 1990:115 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:279 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:248 [ref. 21042], Goren & Dor 1994:27 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:136 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:86 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:51 [ref. 26476] dated 1958, Randall et al. 1997:115 [ref. 25919], Fricke 1999:200 [ref. 24106], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2527 [ref. 24815], Allen 2000:86 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:719 [ref. 25086], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:262 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:30 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:719 [ref. 26001], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:172 [ref. 28072], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Fricke et al. 2009:47 [ref. 30213], Ghanbarifardi & Malek 2009:[4] 498 [ref. 37937], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:90 [ref. 30492], Motomura et al. 2010:98 [ref. 31256], Craig et al. 2011:252 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:280 [ref. 31980] Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Psomadakis et al. 2015:201 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:154 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:64 [ref. 36273], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Fricke et al. 2019:120 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus tukula Morgans 1959. Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Comoros, Madagascar, Seychelles, Comoros and western Mascarenes east to New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan and the Pacific coast of Japanese mainland, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

tumilabris, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:346 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Seychelles. Holotype: MNHN 0000-7336. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:36 [ref. 19232]. •Synonym of Epinephelus summana (Forsskål 1775) -- (Dor 1984:101 [ref. 29757]). •Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:219 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:208 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:77 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus ongus (Bloch 1790). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

undulatostriatus, Serranus Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:518 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 3439] Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5520. •Valid as Epinephelus undulostriatus [sic] (Peters 1866) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:498 [ref. 12442], Allen 1997:88 [ref. 23977]). •Valid as Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866) -- (Randall et al. 1990:115 [ref. 15987], Randall & Heemstra 1991:283 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:249 [ref. 21042], Kuiter 1993:129 [ref. 23929], Randall et al. 1997:115 [ref. 25919], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2528 [ref. 24815], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Hoese et al. 2006:1020 [ref. 28999], Craig et al. 2011:255 [ref. 31786] dated 1867, Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus undulatostriatus (Peters 1866). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland and New South Wales (Australia); ? Lord Howe Island [shown in ref. 31786] Habitat: marine.

undulosus, Bodianus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:310 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Waigiou [Pulau Waigeo, Papua Province, New Guinea, Indonesia]; Rawak Island [Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific]. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:13 [ref. 19171], Bauchot et al. 1984:39 [ref. 19232]. •Valid as Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1986:533 [ref. 5667], Lee 1990:58 [ref. 19830], Randall & Heemstra 1991:284 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:250 [ref. 21042], Randall 1995:137 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:243 [ref. 27969], Anderson et al. 1998:23 [ref. 23611], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2529 [ref. 24815], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:610 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:98 [ref. 25868], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:98 [ref. 26368], Allen & Adrim 2003:31 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S104 [ref. 27377], Motomura in Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:90 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2011:256 [ref. 31786], Allen & Erdmann 2012:281 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:62 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:201 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35490], Ma & Craig 2018:455 [ref. 36100], Zajonz et al. 2019:71 [ref. 36871], Parenti & Randall 2020:83 [ref. 37354], Psomadakis et al. 2020:395 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus undulosus (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa and Socotra east to Philippines and Solomon Islands, north to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

ura, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:332 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 5529 (stuffed). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:48 [ref. 19232]. Spelled ara in Temminck & Schlegel 1842:9 [ref. 4370]. •Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:275 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:244 [ref. 21042], Kottelat 2013:328 [ref. 32989], Parenti & Randall 2020:81 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus trimaculatus (Valenciennes 1828). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Serranus Richardson [J.] 1846:231 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:212, Pl. 4a [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:91 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:106 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel 1843). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

variolosus, Serranus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1828:354 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 2; ref. 997] ?Tahiti, Society Islands. Possible types: BMNH 1979.6.13.4-5 (2) Marqueses, Cook's second voyage. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:48-49 [ref. 19232]. Based on a Forster drawing. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:146 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Fricke 1999:184 [ref. 24106], Parenti & Randall 2020:67 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

varius, Serranus Bocourt [F.] 1868:222 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 10; ref. 14069] Gulf of Mexico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5186 (1), 5190 (1) Bauchot holotype, B-3115 [ex MNHN 0000-5190] (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1984:37 [ref. 19232] with holotype and paratypes. •Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Heemstra 1991:17 [ref. 19323], Smith 1990:696 [ref. 18227], Heemstra & Randall 1993:103 [ref. 21042], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:265 [ref. 24550], Parenti & Randall 2020:61 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus adscensionis (Osbeck 1765). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

viridipinnis, Serranus De Vis [C. W.] 1884:144 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17384] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. •Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:497 [ref. 12442], Randall & Heemstra 1991:248 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:225 [ref. 21042], Johnson 1999:730 [ref. 25471], Hoese et al. 2006:1018 [ref. 28999], Parenti & Randall 2020:79 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus rivulatus (Valenciennes 1830). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

waandersii, Serranus Bleeker [P.] 1858:152 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 16982] Boleling, Bali, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 5509. •Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Heemstra 1991:99 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:112 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:62 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus areolatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

xanthometopon, Epinephelus flavocoeruleum var. Bleeker [P.] 1871:97 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 4; ref. 17077] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean; Sri Lanka. Based on Holocentrus flavocaeruleus Lacepède 1802:331, 367 [ref. 4929] and on Perca flavopurpurea Bennett 1830: p. opp. Pl. 19, Pl. 19 [ref. 16785]. •Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:69 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus flavocaeruleus (Lacepède 1802). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

zapyrus, Epinephelus Seale [A.] 1906:36, Fig. 11 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Tubuai, Austral Islands [Tubuai Islands], French Polynesia. Holotype (unique): BPBM 761. •Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775) -- (Smith 1990:699 [ref. 18227], Randall & Heemstra 1991:147 [ref. 19601], Heemstra & Randall 1993:150 [ref. 21042], Parenti & Randall 2020:68 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål 1775). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zaslavskii, Epinephelus Poll [M.] 1949:223, Fig. 12 [Mémoires, Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 2.Séries, No. 33; ref. 13028] Baie des Eléphants, Angola, depth 14-18 fathoms. Holotype: IRSNB 90. Paratypes: IRSNB 600 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:25 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:39 [ref. 21528]. •Synonym of Epinephelus alexandrinus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Smith 1990:698 [ref. 18227]). •Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878) -- (Heemstra 1991:27 [ref. 19323], Heemstra & Randall 1993:134 [ref. 21042], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2390 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2020:65 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus costae (Steindachner 1878). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Holocentrus Marion de Procé [P.-M.] 1822:132 [Bulletin des Sciences, par la Société Philomathique de Paris [Sér. 3] [v. 9] (for 1822); ref. 17601] Manila Bay, Philippines. No types known. Unusued senior synonym of Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes 1828); declared a nomen oblitum by Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]. •In the synonymy of Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes 1828) -- (Parenti & Randall 2020:80 [ref. 37354]). Current status: Synonym of Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Valenciennes 1828). Holocentridae: Holocentrinae. Habitat: marine.