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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Gymnogeophagus: [ 27 ] records


australe, Geophagus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1907:454, Pl. 23 (fig. 7) [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 8 (for 1906); ref. 10024] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype: Princeton Univ. (whereabouts unknown). Paratypes: CAS 51440 [ex IU 11352] (2, now 3), Princeton Univ. (orig. 6, whereabouts unknown). •Valid as Gymnogeophagus australis (Eigenmann 1907) -- (Gosse 1976:133 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:275 [ref. 6638], Gómez & Chebez 1996:66 [ref. 23791], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Wimburger et al. 1998:510 [ref. 23857], Sverlij et al. 1998:78 [ref. 27632] as Eigenman, Casciotta et al. 2000:53 [ref. 24908], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131], Staeck 2006:104 [ref. 29421], González-Bergonzoni et al. 2009:23 [ref. 30455], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Malabarba et al. 2015:660 [ref. 34105], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus australis (Eigenmann 1907). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Lower Paraná River and Río de la Plata basins, Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

balzanii, Geophagus Perugia [A.] 1891:623 [23] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 10; ref. 3431] Cáceres (formerly Villa María), Río Paraguay, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MSNG 7683. On p. 23 of separate. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia 1891) -- (Gosse 1976:126 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:268 [ref. 6638], Wimburger et al. 1998:510 [ref. 23857], Britski et al. 1999:146 [ref. 24147], Casciotta et al. 2000:53 [ref. 24908], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:155 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131], Staeck 2006:104 [ref. 29421], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:189 [ref. 35004], Malabarba et al. 2015:660 [ref. 34105], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Koerber 2016:142 [ref. 35012], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35267], Casciotta et al. 2017:19 [ref. 35727]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia 1891). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Paraná River basin and lower Uruguay drainage: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

brachyurus, Geophagus Cope [E. D.] 1894:105, Pl. 9 (fig. 18) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: ANSP 21751 (1), 21880-83 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:57 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. •Synonym of Gymnogeophagus rhabdotus (Hensel 1870) -- (Gosse 1976:111 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:270 [ref. 6638], Malabarba 1989:168 [ref. 14217], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnogeophagus rhabdotus (Hensel 1870). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Habitat: freshwater.

bucephalus, Geophagus Hensel [R.] 1870:63 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Rio Cadeia, Nova Petrópolis, Rio Gande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 31373 [ex ZMB 7466]. Paralectotypes: ZMB 7466 (2 or 1), ?22294 (5). Type catalog: Paepke & Schindler 2013:268 [ref. 32895]. Lectotype selected by Reis & Malabarba 1988:280 [ref. 6638]. •Synonym of Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870) -- (Gosse 1976:118 [ref. 7029], Malabarba 1989:168 [ref. 14217]). •Synonym of Geophagus labiatus Hensel 1870 -- (Reis & Malabarba 1988:280 [ref. 6638], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel 1870). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caaguazuensis, Gymnogeophagus Staeck [W.] 2006:100, Figs. 1-3, 5 [Zoologische Abhandlungen, Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde. v. 56; ref. 29421] Upper río Tebicuary-mi, about 25°28'S, 56°10'W, tributary to río Tebicuary, at route no. 7, about 25 kilometers east of Cnel, Oviedo, Caaguazú Province, Paraguay. Holotype: MTD F 30367. Paratypes: MTD F 30384-93 (10). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus caaguazuensis Staeck 2006 -- (González-Bergonzoni et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30455] as caguazuensis, Malabarba et al. 2015:660 [ref. 34105], Koerber et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35267], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus caaguazuensis Staeck 2006. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Lower Paraguay River basin, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

camurus, Geophagus Cope [E. D.] 1894:104, Pl. 9 (fig. 17) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: (7) ANSP 21749-50 (2), 21885-88 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:57 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Gymnogeophagus rhabdotus (Hensel 1870) -- (Gosse 1976:111 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:277 [ref. 6638], Malabarba 1989:167 [ref. 14217]). •Synonym of Gynmogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870) -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Habitat: freshwater.

che, Gymnogeophagus Casciotta [J. R.], Gómez [S. E.] & Toresanni [N. I.] 2000:55, Figs. 1, 3, 4 [Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", n.s. v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 24908] Arroyo Urugua-í and ruta provincial 19 frente a la pasarela en Islas Malvinas Province Park, Paraná River, Basin, northeastern Argentina. Holotype: MLP 8747. Paratypes: MACN 8220 (3); MLP 8748-52 (5, 1, 1, 3, 2), 8758 (17). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:21 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus che Casciotta, Gómez & Toresanni 2000 -- (López et al. 2002:61 [ref. 26808], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131], Malabarba et al. 2015:659 [ref. 34105], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117], Casciotta et al. 2017:20 [ref. 35727]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus che Casciotta, Gómez & Toresanni 2000. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

constellatus, Gymnogeophagus Malabarba [L. R.], Malabarba [M. C.] & Reis [R. E.] 2015:648, Figs. 6c, 9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 34105] Rio Conceição, tributary to Rio Ijuí, middle río Uruguay basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 28°27'48"S, 53°57'17"W. Holotype: MCP 10499. Paratypes: MCP, UFRGS, ZVCP. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus constellatus Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Casciotta et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35497], Říčan et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35634], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529], Koerber et al. 2019:11 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus constellatus Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Ijuí and tributaries, middle río Uruguay basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Chimiray-Miní and Itacaruaré rivers, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

cyanopterus, Gymnogeophagus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:790 [6] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3724] Itaqui, Rio Uruguay, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2549. Type catalog: Britski 1969:211 [ref. 12401]. On p. 6 of separate. •Synonym of Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia 1891) -- (Gosse 1976:127 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:268 [ref. 6638], Wimburger et al. 1998:510 [ref. 23857], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia 1891). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Habitat: freshwater.

duodecimspinosus, Geophagus Boulenger [G. A.] 1895:524 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1895 (pt 3); ref. 14576] Paraguay. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1895.5.17.12. •Synonym of Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia 1891) -- (Gosse 1976:126 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:268 [ref. 6638], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:634 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:155 [ref. 28130], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnogeophagus balzanii (Perugia 1891). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gymnogenys, Geophagus Hensel [R.] 1870:61 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Rio Cadeia, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 7465. Paralectotypes: ZMB 22296 (11), 22299 (4). Type catalog: Paepke & Schindler 2013:268 [ref. 32895]. Lectotype selected by Gosse 1976:119 [ref. 7029]. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870) -- (Gosse 1976:117 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:277 [ref. 6638], Malabarba 1989:167 [ref. 14217], Wimburger et al. 1998:510 [ref. 23857], Casciotta et al. 2000:53 [ref. 24908], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131], Staeck 2006:104 [ref. 29421], González-Bergonzoni et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30455], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Malabarba et al. 2015:660 [ref. 34105], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35632] not from Argentina, Casciotta et al. 2017:20 [ref. 35727], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Southeast Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

jaryi, Gymnogeophagus Alonso [F.], Terán [G. E.], Aguilera [G.], Říčan [O.], Casciotta [J.], Serra [W. S.], Almirón [A.], Benítez [M. F.], García [I.] & Mirande [J. M.] 2019:2, Figs. 1-4 [PLoS ONE v. 14 (no. 2): e0210166; ref. 36529] Cuña Pirú stream, 8.5 km from Aristóbulo del Valle on RP7, Paraná River basin, Misiones, Argentina, 27°5'16.69"S, 54°57'10.60"W. Holotype: CI-FML 7463. Paratypes: CI-FML, IBIGEO, MLP. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus jaryi Alonso, Terán, Aguilera, Říčan, Casciotta, Serra, Almirón, Benítez, García & Mirande 2019 -- (Koerber et al. 2019:11 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus jaryi Alonso, Terán, Aguilera, Říčan, Casciotta, Serra, Almirón, Benítez et al. 2019. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: South America: southern Middle Paraná River basin (Cuña Pirú, Garuhapé and Ñacanguazú subbasins), Misiones, Argentina and possibly the Manduviyú, Pirapó and Ype Curú River basins, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

labiatus, Geophagus Hensel [R.] 1870:64 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Rio Santa Maria, Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7467. Type catalog: Paepke & Schindler 2013:268 [ref. 32895]. •Valid as Geophagus labiatus Hensel 1870 -- (Reis & Malabarba 1988:280 [ref. 6638]). •Synonym of Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870) -- (Gosse 1976:118 [ref. 7029], Malabarba 1989:168 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Gymnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel 1870) -- (Reis & Malabarba 1988:280 [ref. 6638], Casciotta et al. 2000:53 [ref. 24908], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2006:104 [ref. 29421], González-Bergonzoni et al. 2009:23 [ref. 30455], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Malabarba et al. 2015:659 [ref. 34105], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Casciotta et al. 2017:20 [ref. 35727], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel 1870). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim drainages, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

lacustris, Gymnogeophagus Reis [R. E.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1988:282, Fig. 24 [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 6638] Canal between Lagoa da Cerquinha and Lagoa da Rondinha, Pinhal, Tramandai, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 28462. Paratypes: USNM 270289 (1); MCP 8664-73 (10), 8676-8 (3), 8412 (1); MAPA 2216-23 (3, 1, 1, 1, 4, 3, 1, 1); DZUFRGS 1010-1 (1, 1), 1017 (1), 3171 (1); NRM 18007 (1) •Valid as Gymnogeophagus lacustris Reis & Malabarba 1988 -- (Wimburger et al. 1998:513 [ref. 23857], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], Staeck 2006:104 [ref. 29421], Malabarba et al. 2015:660 [ref. 34105], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus lacustris Reis & Malabarba 1988. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Coastal drainages in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lipokarenos, Gymnogeophagus Malabarba [L. R.], Malabarba [M. C.] & Reis [R. E.] 2015:653, Figs. 6e, 11, 12 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 34105] Rio Dourados at Linha Várzea, on road from Severiano de Almeida to Aratiba, upper río Uruguay basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, approx. 27°23'S, 52°13'W. Holotype: MCP 23522. Paratypes: MCP, UFRGS, UMMZ, ZVCP. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus lipokarenos Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Casciotta et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35497], Koerber et al. 2017:9 [ref. 35632], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529], Koerber et al. 2019:11 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus lipokarenos Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: South America: Uruguay River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Misiones, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

mekinos, Gymnogeophagus Malabarba [L. R.], Malabarba [M. C.] & Reis [R. E.] 2015:644, Figs. 6b, 8 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 34105] Rio Piraizinho, on road from Bagé to Dom Pedrito, tributary to rio Negro, lower río Uruguay, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 31°06'S, 54°07'W. Holotype: MCP 19296. Paratypes: MAPA, MCP, UFRGS, UMMZ, ZVCP. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus mekinos Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:7 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus mekinos Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Lower Uruguay River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

meridionalis, Gymnogeophagus Reis [R. E.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 1988:273, Figs. 4-17, 19 [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia v. 4 (no. 4); ref. 6638] Rio Negro Road at BR-153, Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 28461. Paratypes: CIMLP 26.4.84.1 (12), DZUFRGS 3178 (2), HMNG 2169.59 (1), MACN 7466 [ex. MACN 3905] (5), MAPA (4 lots, 14), MCP (6 lots, 38), MCZ 61067 [ex MCP 9317] (1), MZUSP (2 lots, 18), NRM 36603 (1), USNM 270286 (2), ZMB 31372 [ex MCP 9465] (1); MCP 8633 [ex ...] (12).. Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:103 [ref. 23697], Paepke & Schindler 2013:269 [ref. 32895], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:21 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus meridionalis Reis & Malabarba 1988 -- (Reis et al. 1992:266 [ref. 20011], Wimburger et al. 1998:511 [ref. 23857], Casciotta et al. 2000:53 [ref. 24908], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:77 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:87 [ref. 28131], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Malabarba et al. 2015:660 [ref. 34105], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117], Loureiro et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34384], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Casciotta et al. 2017:20 [ref. 35727]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus meridionalis Reis & Malabarba 1988. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Uruguay River drainage in Uruguay and Brazil and smaller drainages in Argentina: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

missioneiro, Gymnogeophagus Malabarba [L. R.], Malabarba [M. C.] & Reis [R. E.] 2015:651, Figs. 6d, 10 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 34105] Arroio Ximbocuzinho, tributary to rio Piratini, middle rio Uruguay basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, approx. 28°27'S, 54°58'W. Holotype: MCP 23495. Paratypes: MCP, UMMZ. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus missioneiro Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Casciotta et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35497]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus missioneiro Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Rio Piratini and tributaries, middle rio Uruguay basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

peliochelynion, Gymnogeophagus Turcati [A.], Serra-Alanis [W. S.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2018:3, Figs. 1-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 16 (no. 4): e180118; ref. 36363] Arroyo de las Tunas on Ruta 31, tributary to río Arapey Grande, Salto, Uruguay, 31°20'4.87"S, 57°19'36.42"W. Holotype: ZVC-P 12493. Paratypes: MHNM, UFRGS, ZVC. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus peliochelynion Turcati, Serra-Alanis & Malabarba 2018 -- (Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus peliochelynion Turcati, Serra-Alanis & Malabarba 2018. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Río Arapey Grande drainage, lower Uruguay River basin, Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudolabiatus, Gymnogeophagus Malabarba [L. R.], Malabarba [M. C.] & Reis [R. E.] 2015:640, Figs. 4, 5, 6a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 4); ref. 34105] Rio Sarandi III, tributary to rio Quaraí, Rio Uruguay basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 30°34'40"S, 56°04'08"W. Holotype: MCP 35027. Paratypes: MCP, UFRGS, UMMZ, ZVCP. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus pseudolabiatus Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:7 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus pseudolabiatus Malabarba, Malabarba & Reis 2015. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Rio Quaraí and its tributaries, along the frontier of Brazil and Uruguay, middle rio Uruguay drainage, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pygmaeus, Geophagus Hensel [R.] 1870:68 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Rio Guaíba, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: ZMB 7469 (2), 22295 (3). Type catalog: Paepke & Schindler 2013:268 [ref. 32895]. •Synonym of Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870) -- (Gosse 1976:118 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:277 [ref. 6638], Malabarba 1989:167 [ref. 14217], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Habitat: freshwater.

rhabdotus, Geophagus Hensel [R.] 1870:60 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Rio Cadeia, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 7461. Paralectotypes: ZMB 7464 (2), 22704 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schindler 2013:269 [ref. 32895]. Lectotype selected by Gosse 1976:114 [ref. 7029]. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus rhabdotus (Hensel 1870) -- (Gosse 1976:110 [ref. 7029], Reis & Malabarba 1988:270 [ref. 6638], Malabarba 1989:168 [ref. 14217], Reis et al. 1992:266 [ref. 20011], Wimburger et al. 1998:510 [ref. 23857], Casciotta et al. 2000:53 [ref. 24908], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27366], González-Bergonzoni et al. 2009:19 [ref. 30455], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622], Malabarba et al. 2015:659 [ref. 34105], Loureiro et al. 2016:[8] [ref. 34384], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Casciotta et al. 2017:20 [ref. 35727]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus rhabdotus (Hensel 1870). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Uruguay River drainage and Laguna dos Patos basin: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

scymnophilus, Geophagus Hensel [R.] 1870:65 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Rio Cadeia, Nova Petrópolis, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 31374. Paralectotypes: ZMB 7468 (3), 31374 (5). Type catalog: Paepke & Schindler 2013:269 [ref. 32895]. Lectotype selected by Reis & Malabarba 1988:280 [ref. 6638]. •Synonym of Gymnogeophagus gymnogenys (Hensel 1870) -- (Gosse 1976:118 [ref. 7029], Malabarba 1989:168 [ref. 14217]). •Synonym of Geophagus labiatus Hensel 1870 -- (Reis & Malabarba 1988:280 [ref. 6638], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:34 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Gymnogeophagus labiatus (Hensel 1870). Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Habitat: freshwater.

setequedas, Gymnogeophagus Reis [R. E.], Malabarba [L. R.] & Pavanelli [C. S.] 1992:267, Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 20011] Río Iguazú reservoir at Juan E. O'Leary, Rio Paraná drainage, Province of Alto Paraná, Paraguay, about 55°30'S, 25°20'W. Holotype: MHNG 2518.19. Paratypes: MCP 14636-38 (2, 3, 3), 14705 (2, c&s); MHNG 2027.67 (1), 2027.68-69 (2), 2027.92-95 (4), 2027.96-98 (2), 2061.83-85 (3), 2237.25 (1), 2237.30 (4), 2237.49 (1), 2237.50 (1), 2269.48 (5), 2269.49 (13), 2269.51 (1), 2395.12-13 (4, 2), 2475.8 (7), 2475.21-22 (2, 1), 2475.24 (4), 2475.55 (3), 2519.44-45 (8, 1); MZUSP 42715 (6); NRM 14257 (4). Type catalog: Weber 1998:13 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus setequedas Reis, Malabarba & Pavanelli 1992 -- (Wimburger et al. 1998:510 [ref. 23857], Casciotta et al. 2000:53 [ref. 24908], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:635 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27366], Koerber 2011:9 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33621], Malabarba et al. 2015:659 [ref. 34105], Mirande & Koerber 2015:58 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:80 [ref. 35267], Casciotta et al. 2017:20 [ref. 35727]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus setequedas Reis, Malabarba & Pavanelli 1992. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Paraná River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

taroba, Gymnogeophagus Casciotta [J. R.], Almirón [A. E.], Piálek [L.] & Říčan [O.] 2017:8, Figs. 1-3, 4A-C, 5A-C, 6A-C, 7A-C [Historia Natural v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 35727] Parque Nacional Iguazú (PNI), boca del arroyo Ñandú, río Iguazú basin, Misiones Province, Argentina, 25°42'10.9"S, 54°25'31.3"W. Holotype: MLP 11258. Paratypes: IBIGEO, MLP. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus taroba Casciotta, Almirón, Piálek & Říčan 2017 -- (Koerber et al. 2019:11 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus taroba Casciotta, Almirón, Piálek & Říčan 2017. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: South America: lower río Iguazú basin, above the Iguazú falls, Misiones, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

terrapurpura, Gymnogeophagus Loureiro [M.], Zarucki [M.], Malabarba [L. R.] & González-Bergonzoni [I.] 2016:[2], Figs. 1, 2A, 3A-F, 4A-C, 5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 14 (no. 1) e150082; ref. 34384] Cañada de la Lana, close to Juanicó Town, rio Santa Lucía basin (Río de la Plata tributary), Canelones Department, Uruguay, 34°35´55"S, 56°14´19"W. Holotype: ZVC-P 12490. Paratypes: MCP, MNHN, UFRGS, ZVC-P. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus terrapurpura Loureiro, Zarucki, Malabarba & González-Bergonzoni 2016 -- (Koerber & Litz 2016:7 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], García et al. 2017:1 [ref. 35261], Casciotta et al. 2017:21 [ref. 35727], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529], Koerber et al. 2019:11 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus terrapurpura Loureiro, Zarucki, Malabarba & González-Bergonzoni 2016. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: South America: middle and lower Uruguay River basin, and eastern coastal drainages, Uruguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

tiraparae, Gymnogeophagus González-Bergonzoni [I.], Loureiro [M.] & Oviedo [S.] 2009:20, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 30455] Pueblo Ansina, río Tacuarembó at Road 26, tributary to río Negro (lower río Uruguay drainage), Tacuarembó, Uruguay, 31°53'01"S, 55°28'38" W. Holotype: ZVC-P 7870. Paratypes: many at MHNM, UFRGS, ZVC. Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:413, 414 [ref. 35150]. González-Bergonzoni et al. 2009:21 [ref. 30455]. •Valid as Gymnogeophagus tiraparae González-Bergonzoni, Loureiro & Oviedo 2009 -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:35 [ref. 33622], Malabarba et al. 2015:660 [ref. 34105], Bertaco et al. 2016:426 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35565], Alonso et al. 2019:S1 [ref. 36529]). Current status: Valid as Gymnogeophagus tiraparae González-Bergonzoni, Loureiro & Oviedo 2009. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Negro and Tacuarí river basins, Rio Uruguay drainage, Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.