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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Scorpaena: [ 118 ] records


afimbria, Scorpaena scrofa infra. Slastenenko [E. P.] 1935:75, Fig. [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS), Leningrad, Nouvelle Série v. 1; ref. 14713] Near Glendzhyk, Russia; Sevastopol and Balaklava, Ukraine, Black Sea. Syntypes: ZIN 30456 (1). Described as an "infraspecies" and probably should be regarded as infrasubspecific and not available. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Parin et al. 2014:224 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

afuerae, Scorpaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:443, Fig. 85 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 128130. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena afuerae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1553 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Gómez C. et al. 2001:200 [ref. 26149], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36248]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena afuerae Hildebrand 1946. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica south to Peru, including Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

agassizii, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1896:247, Pl. 67 (fig. 243) [Special Bulletin U. S. National Museum No. 2; ref. 1848] Gulf of Mexico, 23°13'N, 89°10'W, Blake station 36. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27996. Non-type taken with the holotype: USNM 153583 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. Original type locality in error (see Eschmeyer 1965:144 [ref. 9211]). •Valid as Scorpaena agassizi Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:97 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:421 [ref. 23827], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:72 [ref. 27192]). •Valid as Scorpaena agassizii Goode & Bean 1896 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:141 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:61 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:433 [ref. 14275], Cervigón 1991:286 [ref. 24472], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:64 [ref. 26475], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1250 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:37 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena agassizii Goode & Bean 1896. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

albifimbria, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:275, Fig. 82 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Off Culebra Island, 5.25 miles southwest of Culebritas Light-house, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6093, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49532. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena albifimbria Evermann & Marsh 1900 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:116 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:58 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:273 [ref. 23100], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:64 [ref. 26475], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Collette et al. 2003:105 [ref. 26784], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1251 [ref. 27048], Smith et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:38 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:132 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena albifimbria Evermann & Marsh 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda, Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil), including southeastern Gulf of Mexico and southeastern Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

albofasciata, Scorpaena Metzelaar [J.] 1919:145, Fig. 43 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Bonaire and Aruba. Syntypes: ZMA 110242 (1) Bonaire; RMNH 9771 (1) Aruba. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:82 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

angolensis, Scorpaena Norman [J. R.] 1935:(26) 28, Fig. 10 [Discovery Reports v. 12; ref. 13911] Elephant Bay, Angola. Holotype: BMNH 1910.2.24.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1905.2.24.13 (1), 1935.5.11.199 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena angolensis Norman 1935 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:64 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:669 [ref. 17613], Wirtz et al. 2013:121 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2268 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena angolensis Norman 1935. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

annobonae, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:75, Fig. 8c [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 79; ref. 1274] Annobón Island, Equatorial Guinea, Gulf of Guinea, 1°24'N, 5°38'E, Pillsbury station 275, depth 5-26 fathoms. Holotype (unique): CAS 14214 [ex UMML 22219]. Not treated by Wirtz et al. 2007 [ref. 30263]. •Valid as Scorpaena annobonae Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2269 [ref. 34610], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena annobonae Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Annobón Island, Equatorial Guinea. Habitat: marine.

aplodactylus, Scorpaena Bleeker [P.] 1853:698 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 16833] Wahai, Ceram, Indonesia. Syntypes and/or Bleeker specimens: AMS B.8277 (1); RMNH 5861 (up to 3 of 22 are in size range). Type catalog: Ferraris et al. 2000:295 [ref. 25110]. Spelled aplodactylus on p. 690 and 691 and aplodactylos on p. 698. Scorpaena haplodactylus is an unjustified emendation. •Questionably valid as Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Uncertain as Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

armata, Scorpaenopsella Fowler [H. W.] 1938:68, Fig. 29 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Sombrero Island, Balayan Bay and Verde Island Passage, Philippines, 13°52'22"N, 120°46'22"E, Albatross station D.5117, depth 118 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98893. •Valid as Scorpaenopsella armata Fowler 1938 -- (Poss 1999:2306 [ref. 24796]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Setarchidae. Habitat: marine.

ascensionis, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1971:503, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 17); ref. 894] Off Ascension Island, Discovery station 1, depth 16-27 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1935.5.2.33. Paratypes: BMNH 1935.5.2.34 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena ascensionis Eschmeyer 1971 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Poss 2016:2270 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena ascensionis Eschmeyer 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

atlantica, Scorpaena russula Nichols [J. T.] & Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1924:21, Pl. 7 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 37; ref. 15461] Off Galveston, Texas, U.S.A., 28°56'N, 94°48'W, depth 10.5 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 86167. Paratypes: AMNH 8194 (3), USNM 86150-51 (1, 6). •Synonym of Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:135 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

azorica, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1969:80, Fig. 8a [Occasional Papers California Academy of Sciences No. 79; ref. 1274] Terceira, Azores, northeastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): USNM 94463. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena azorica Eschmeyer 1969 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1215 [ref. 13677], Golani 1996:25 [ref. 22271], Santos et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23531] with question, Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Psomadakis et al. 2012:16 [ref. 33457], Poss 2016:2271 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Carneiro et al. 2019:230 [ref. 37250], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena azorica Eschmeyer 1969. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northeastern Atlantic: Azores. Habitat: marine.

barbata, Scorpaena Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Gronow) 1788:70 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Scorpaena capite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore of Gronow 1754:46, No. 103 [ref. 20783]. See also Scorpaena gronovii Walbaum 1792. Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see ICZN Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precendence in favor of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). •Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precedence in favor of Scorpaena barbara Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barbata, Scorpaena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:116 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. Holotype: BMNH 1853.11.12.8 (skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838. •Scorpaena sp. -- (Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434]). •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). •Homonym of Scorpaena barbata Rüppell 1838 and S. barbata Gronow 1854; not used as valid after 1899 (see Art. 23.9.1.1); therefore permanently invalid due to reversal of precedence in favor of Scorpaena barbara Rüppell 1838 following ICZN Art. 23.9. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bergii, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:276, Fig. 83 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Harbor of Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, Fish Hawk station 6065, depth 4-6 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 49533. Paratypes: USNM 126190 [ex USFC 813, USBF 877] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena bergii Evermann & Marsh 1900 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:101 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100] as bergi, Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827] as bergi, Villamizar 1996:37 [ref. 23496] as bergi, Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1252 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:39 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena bergii Evermann & Marsh 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: New York (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

brachyptera, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:111, Figs 7a-b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Venezuela, 10°50'N, 66°55'W, Oregon station 4461, depth 53 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198153 [ex UMML 13334]. Paratypes: UF 213335 [ex UMML 13335] (3), USNM 198148 [ex UMML 13333] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brachyptera Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:56 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:289 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1253 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:133 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brachyptera Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil), including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:305 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6672 (1), 0000-6688 (1), 0000-7300 (1, dry); ZMB 747 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:11 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:127 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:434 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:288 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:584 [ref. 16204], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:40 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Virginia (U.S.A.) south to northern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

brevispina, Scorpaena Motomura [H.] & Senou [H.] 2008:1762, Figs. 1-5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 72; ref. 29593] Off Futo, Ito City, Shizuoka Prefecture, east coast of Izu Peninsula, Pacific coast of Honshu Island, Japan, 34°52'N, 139°08'E, depth 45 meters. Holotype (unique): KPM-NI 16667 [ex IOP-O-120]. Plus two photographed specimens (Fig. 5) that were not preserved. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena brevispina Motomura & Senou 2008 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena brevispina Motomura & Senou 2008. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Izu Peninsula, Japan. Habitat: marine.

bufo, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Brazil; Martinique Island, West Indies; Cuba. Syntypes (?): ZMB 8750 (1, dry) Martinique, SMF 1703 [ex MNHN] (1) Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:60 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:269 [ref. 19946]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:122 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

bulacephala, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Last [P. R.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2005:19, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1043; ref. 28339] South of Norfolk Island, 28°54'-55'S, 167°40'-41'E, Norfolk Ridge, Tasman Sea, depth 111-113 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 6009-05. Paratypes: AMS I. 43470-001 (1); CSIRO H 6009-06 (1), H 6028-03 (1), H 6028-07 (2); NMV A.25132-005 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena bulacephala Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2005 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:304 [ref. 37166]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena bulacephala Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2005. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, Vanuatu. Habitat: marine.

calcarata, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:422 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Clearwater Harbor, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 23556 [not 23566]. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:134 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:482 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:184 [ref. 14674], Cervigón 1991:290 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:65 [ref. 26475], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1255 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:41 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena calcarata Goode & Bean 1882. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

canariensis, Sebastes (Sebastichthys) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:117, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7031. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:19 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Eschmeyer 1969:79 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Motomura et al. 2005:3 [ref. 28289], Poss 2016:2272 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Carneiro et al. 2019:230 [ref. 37250], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

cardinalis, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] & Richardson [J.] in Richardson 1842:212 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] White Island, 37°30'S, 177°09'E, New Zealand, depth 19-21 meters [Original locality: Motuaro, Queen Charlotte's Sound [probably Bay of Islands], Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand]. Neotype: NMNZ P.044152. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. Taken in large part from Solander manuscript, authorship as above is here suggested. Neotype selected in Motomura et al. 2011:319 [ref. 31618]. •Valid as Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paulin 1982:439 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:119 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Poss 1999:2334 [ref. 24796], Johnson 1999:727 [ref. 25471], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066] with authorship as Richardson, Motomura et al. 2011:65 [ref. 31308], Motomura et al. 2011:317 [ref. 31618], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:112 [ref. 36167], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1097 [ref. 34285], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Zealand to Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec islands. Habitat: marine.

cocosensis, Scorpaena Motomura [H.] 2004:819, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2004 (no. 4); ref. 28049] Off Nuez Island, 5°34'00"N, 86°59'20"W, Cocos Island, eastern Pacific, 31-50 fathoms [57-92 meters]. Holotype (unique): CAS 219506. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena cocosensis Motomura 2004 -- (Motomura & McCosker 2009:135 [ref. 30886], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena cocosensis Motomura 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Cocos Island and Galapágos Islands. Habitat: marine.

colesi, Scorpaena Nichols [J. T.] 1914:537, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 33 (art. 32); ref. 14161] Cape Lookout, Carteret County, North Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): AMNH 4689. •Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:129 [ref. 9211], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

colonensis, Scorpaena Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:844, Pl. 81 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Tide pools, Colón, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81606. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

coloratus, Sebastapistes Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:627, Fig. 243 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] South of Molokai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 3849 [or 3810], depth 43-73 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51631. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8618 (1), USNM 51667 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:122 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena colorata (Gilbert 1905) -- (Eschmeyer & Randall 1975:326 [ref. 6389], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:174 [ref. 30952], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:304 [ref. 37166]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena colorata (Gilbert 1905). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

cookii, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1874:78, Pl. 55 [Andrew Garrett's Fische der Südsee Bd 1 (Heft 3); ref. 18231] Raoul Island [Sunday Island], Kermadec Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.8.16.88. •Valid as Scorpaena cookii Günther 1874 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Paulin 1982:440 [ref. 23678], Kuiter 1993:119 [ref. 23929], Francis 1993:159 [ref. 25479], Poss 1999:2334 [ref. 24796], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066]). •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

cottoides, Scorpaena Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:196 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Not available; manuscript name mentioned under Synanceia papillosus. Based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Forster's description is reproduced in Lichtenstein 1844:128-130 [ref. 17531]. Also appeared in Richardson 1842:95 [ref. 13097] but without distinguishing features. From New Zealand. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801).

cruenta, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:217 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Cape Kidnappers, New Zealand. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider and Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Motomura et al. 2011:330 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

dabryi, Scorpaena Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:124, Pl. 1 (fig. 8) [Nouvelles Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (Série 2) v. 1; ref. 3880] China. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6882 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:11 [ref. 20738]. Scorpaena dabryi Sauvage 1878 is a forgotten name that would be a senior synonym of Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981, but was not used as valid after 1899, therefore reversal of precedence according to ICZN Art. 23.9 in favor of N. procurva. •Synonym of Neomerinthe procurva Chen 1981. •Synonym of Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

decemradiata, Scorpaena Fricke [R.], Golani [D.], Appelbaum-Golani [B.] & Zajonz [U.] 2018:[2] 170, Fig. 1 [Scientia Marina v. 82 (no. 3); ref. 36159] Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 2418. Paratype: HUJ 20671 (1). •Valid as Scorpaena decemradiata Fricke, Golani, Appelbaum-Golani & Zajonz 2018 -- (Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena decemradiata Fricke, Golani, Appelbaum-Golani & Zajonz 2018. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

didymogramma, Holoscorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1944:277, Figs. 214-215 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Saboga, Perlas Islands, (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: ANSP 70109. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789, subspecies mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1556 [ref. 22830], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610] and H. didymogramma). •Synonym of Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

dispar, Scorpaena Longley [W. H.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1940:246, Fig. 12 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 32; ref. 2822] South of Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., depth about 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 108867. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:132 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:60 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:435 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:291 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:585 [ref. 16204], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1256 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:42 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:134 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:11 [ref. 34324], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

elachys, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:114, Fig. 7c [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] North of Puerto Rico, 18°15'N, 67°33'W, Silver Bay station 5192, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198149 [ex UMML 14874]. Paratypes: UF 214872-73 [ex UMML 14872-73] (1, 1); USNM 198151 [ex UMML 14875] (1). Other non-type material: USNM 153127 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena elachys Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:57 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1257 [ref. 27048], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:43 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena elachys Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Panama. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:552, Figs. 1(4), 9 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Cap Blanc, Mauritania, depth about 100 meters. Syntypes: (5) MHNLR P.798 (2). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena elongata Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:67 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1216 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:670 [ref. 17613], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:153 [ref. 25472], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2273 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:107 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:230 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:105 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena elongata Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Namibia, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

ergastulorum, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:217 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia. Holotype: ? BMNH 2004.2.8.1. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:492 [ref. 22532], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

erythraea, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:316 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Egypt, Red Sea [probably erronous, is Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea]. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-6706 (larger specimen). Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-6706 (1, smaller specimen), ZMB 759 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:12 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946]. Lectotype designation by Fricke et al. 2018:[6] [ref. 36159]. Discussion of type locality see Fricke et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 36159]. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159], Golani & Fricke 2018:54 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

exul, Apistes Gosse [P. H.] 1851:207 [A naturalist's sojourn in Jamaica; ref. 18149] Jamaica. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Scorpaena Costa [O. G.] 1842-53:Scorpaena p. 3, Pl. 4 [Fauna del regno di Napoli v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 980] Gulf of Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274] with question, Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fernandeziana, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1875:451 [9], Pl. 1 (figs. 1, 1a) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 71 (1. Abth.); ref. 4222] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Scorpaena fernandeziana Steindachner 1875 -- (Pequeño 1989:56 [ref. 14125], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:68 [ref. 26163], Dyer & Westneat 2010:604 [ref. 31446], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena fernandeziana Steindachner 1875. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands, Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

fimbriata, Scorpaena Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1884:195 [27] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 49 (1. Abth.); ref. 4248] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: MZS 1145 (1); NMW (several). Type information (MZS) from Amaoka & Fujii 1999:154 [ref. 26515], who identified MZS 1145 as Scorpaena picta Cuvier 1829. •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies fimbriata Döderlein 1884 -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:86 [ref. 15964]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

fucata, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-7310. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738]. Genus misspelled Scorpoena by Valenciennes. Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:313 [ref. 4504]. •Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

gaillardae, Scorpaena Roux [C.] 1954:470 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 26 (no. 4); ref. 12469] Marine station at Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1970-0003. •Synonym of Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:66 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:676 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2283 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

gasta, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Last [P. R.] & Yearsley [G. K.] 2006:361, Figs. 1-3 [Copeia 2006 (no. 3); ref. 28789] Kalbarri, off mouth of Murchison River, 27°30'S, 114°25'E, Western Australia, Australia, depth 16-17 meters. Holotype: WAM P.27960-006. Paratypes: AMS I.43480-001 (1); CSIRO H 6186-01 (1); WAM P.26069-002 (1), P.32317-005 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:18 [ref. 30117], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena gasta Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2006 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena gasta Motomura, Last & Yearsley 2006. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

ginsburgi, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1942:105, Fig. [Copeia 1942 (no. 2); ref. 13204] 10 miles southeast of Aransas Pass jetties, Texas, U.S.A., depth 10 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 119016. Paratypes: USNM 119015 (1), 119017-18 (1, 1). Additional material: AMNH 15202 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

grandicornis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:309, Pl. 86 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Martinique Island, West Indies; Puerto Rico; Havana, Cuba; San Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6681 (1) Dominican Republic, 0000-6689 (1) Puerto Rico, 0000-6900 (1) Martinique; SMF 440 [ex RMNH] (1); ZMB 752 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738], Paepke & Fricke 1992:270 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:118 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:58 [ref. 1274], Robins & Ray 1986:276 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:66 [ref. 26475], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:197 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1258 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:44 [ref. 28815], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena grandicornis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western and central Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Bermuda south to southern Brazil, including Gulf of Mexico; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena and Ascension islands. Habitat: marine.

grandisquamis, Scorpaena Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:107 [On some new fishes from the Queensland coast; ref. 3289] North West Islet, Capricorn Group, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS E.1418. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena grandisquamis Ogilby 1910 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena grandisquamis Ogilby 1910. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

grattanica, Scorpaena Trunov [I. A.] 2006:472, Fig. 2 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 46 (no. 4); ref. 28786] Grattan Bank, near Ascension Island, 9°46'S, 12°48'W, depth 120-170 meters. Holotype (unique): ZIN RAN 52148. Additional material: one not preserved. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena grattanica Trunov 2006 - (Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena grattanica Trunov 2006. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Grattan Bank, near Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

gronovii, Scorpaena Walbaum [J. J.] (ex Gronow) 1792:383 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] No locality stated. No types known. Based on Scorpaena capite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore of Gronow 1754:46, No. 103 [ref. 20783]. See also Scorpaena barbata Bonnaterre 1788. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Uncertain as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guadalupae, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1944:429, Figs. 217-218 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] Guadalupe Island, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: ANSP 70298. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Scorpaena Girard [C. F.] 1854:145 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] Monterey, California, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 350. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:132 [ref. 9277], Swift 1986:176 [ref. 20823], Léon-Castro et al. 1993:322 [ref. 24939], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Kells et al. 2016:126 [ref. 35888], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Burton & Lea 2019:57 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

haplodactylus, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1860:117 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Incorrect subsequent spelling of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1852. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena aplodactylus Bleeker 1853. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

hemilepidota, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1938:63, Fig. 26 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 85 (no. 3032); ref. 1426] Off Tubig Point, between Samar and Masbate, Philippines, 12°12'35"N, 124°02'48"E, Albatross station D.5392, depth 135 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 98884. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena hemilepidota Fowler 1938 -- (Poss 1999:2335 [ref. 24796], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899] as hemilepidotus, Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Fricke et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36673]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

histrio, Scorpaena Jenyns [L.] 1840:35, Pl. 8 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Syntypes: BMNH 1917.7.14.73, 1917.7.14.74 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Pequeño 1989:56 [ref. 14125] as hystrio, Allen & Robertson 1994:99 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:290 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Sielfeld K. & Vargas F. 2000:33 [ref. 37222], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:113 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Chile, including some offshore islands, Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

inermis, Scorpaena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:311 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 4; ref. 998] Martinique Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0693. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:13 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:138 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:61 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:436 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:290 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:66 [ref. 26475], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1259 [ref. 27048], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Dutch West Indies. Habitat: marine.

isthmensis, Scorpaena Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:842, Pl. 80 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Porto Bello, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81617. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand 1928 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:103 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:54 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:437 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:274 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:285 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Villamizar 1996:40 [ref. 23496], Acero P. & Navas S. 1997:67 [ref. 26475], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1260 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena isthmensis Meek & Hildebrand 1928. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Panama south to Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

istriensis, Scorpaena Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

izensis, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1904:134, Fig. 10 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 27 (no. 1351); ref. 2527] Suruga Bay, Japan. Holotype: USNM 50909. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7366 (2). Additional material: CAS-SU 7398 (2); USNM 51242 (2), 51266 (1), 51279 (4), 51392 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena izensis Jordan & Starks 1904 -- (Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:563, 715 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:83 [ref. 15964], Cheng & Zhou 1997:415 [ref. 26385], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

jacksoniensis, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1866:50 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 20460] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): NMW 75379. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]. Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:438, Pl. 3 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 4210]; also on p. 15 of separate. •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:447 [ref. 12442], Allen et al. 2006:884 [ref. 29066]). •Valid as Scorpaena jacksoniensis Steindachner 1866 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:323 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena jacksoniensis Steindachner 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland to Victoria (Australia). Habitat: marine.

klausewitzi, Scorpaena Frøiland [Ø.] in Dor 1984:82 [Checklist of the fishes of the Red Sea. CLOFRES.; ref. 29757] Not available. Described in an unpublished thesis [ref. 33847] as Frøiland 1972, and was intended to be published but the manuscript was withdrawn. Cited in synonymy of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 by Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757]. From Eilat, Israel, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, based on TAU P.2578. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

lacrimata, Scorpaena Randall [J. E.] & Greenfield [D. W.] 2004:391, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 55 (no. 19); ref. 27899] Tahiti, Society Islands, depth 400 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 31706. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena lacrimata Randall & Greenfield 2004 -- (Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena lacrimata Randall & Greenfield 2004. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: South Pacific: Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Scorpaena Troschel [F. H.] 1866:206 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 32 (pt. 1); ref. 4465] Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): NMW 5632. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:71 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:76 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:71 [ref. 25466], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2274 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Carneiro et al. 2019:231 [ref. 37250], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Azores and Madeira south to Gulf of Guinea, including Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

loppei, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:541, Figs. 1(3), 3 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Gulf de Gascogne, depth about 200 meters. Syntypes: (33) MHNLR P.797 (4); MNHN 1947-0002 to 0003 (2), 1887-0305 to 0306 (2), 1887-0307 to 0308 (2), 1887-0310 (1). Type catalog: Aloncle 1968:690 [ref. 20713], Blanc & Hureau 1968:14 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena loppei Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:74 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Uiblein et al. 1999:64 [ref. 24045], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:176 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Bañon et al. 2010:15 [ref. 31029], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2275 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:109 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:231 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena loppei Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Western Sahara, including Azores and Madeira. Habitat: marine.

luckei, Scorpaena Fowler [H. W.] 1941:87, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 13237] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 69716. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:139 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

lutea, Scorpaena Risso [A.] 1810:190 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:70 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1221 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:675 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

madurensis, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:463 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Madeira. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6682 [ex BMNH] (4), 0000-6683 [ex BMNH] (4). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:14-15 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Original spelling usually corrected to maderensis; that spelling can be retained to maintain current usage. •Valid as Sebastapistes maderensis (Valenciennes 1833) -- (Dor 1984:84 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:76 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1218 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:115 [ref. 24952], Vacchi et al. 1999:326 [ref. 24369], Cardona & Elices 2000:36 [ref. 25633], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:32 [ref. 37112], Motomura et al. 2005:14 [ref. 28289], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2276 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Carneiro et al. 2019:231 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Encarnação et al. 2019:3 [ref. 37002], Bariche & Fricke 2020:106 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519] as madrensis). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Senegal, including Azores, Madeira, Canary and Cape Verde islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marmoratus, Scorpaenopsis von Bonde [C.] 1923:30, Pl. 7 [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 386, depth 38 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI]. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Uncertain as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

massiliensis, Cottus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:24, x [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Marseille, France. No types known. Authorship and type locality see Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182]. Gmelin's (1789:1213 [ref. 18139]) use of this name apparently refers to this species, although Forsskål not mentioned. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274] with question, Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melasma, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:109, Fig. 6c [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Brazil, 2°10'S, 41°33'W, Oregon station 4243, depth 36 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198154. Paratypes: UF 213330 [ex UMML 13330] (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena melasma Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena melasma Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: off Brazil. Habitat: marine.

mellissii, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1868:228, Pl. 19 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1868 (pt 2) (art. 4) (for 26 Mar. 1868); ref. 1991] Saint Helena Island, Southern central Atlantic (15°58'S, 5°43'W). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1867.10.8.6. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena mellissii Günther 1868 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:79 [ref. 1274], Edwards & Glass 1987:634 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Trunov 2006:472 [ref. 28786], Poss 2016:2277 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Brown et al. 2019:179 [ref. 36444], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena mellissii Günther 1868. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena endemic. Habitat: marine.

mercatoris, Scorpaena Delsman [N. C.] 1941:74, Fig. 11 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] Cay Sal Bank, Bahamas, depth 5-7 fathoms. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 57. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:24 [ref. 20755]. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:139 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1948:162, Pl. 2 [Copeia 1948 (no. 3); ref. 13055] Eastern Pacific [erroneously as off Englewood, Florida, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): UMMZ 110161. •Synonym of the eastern Pacific Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Bailey 1970 [ref. 21186], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1554 [ref. 22830], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena guttata Girard 1854. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

miles, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:18 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 55); ref. 21245] Unknown locality. No types known. •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442] as papillosus, Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

militaris, Scorpaena Richardson [J.] 1842:90 (71) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 3 (pt 1) (art. 5); ref. 13097] Tasmania. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) [with authors as Bloch & Schneider] -- (Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442] as papillosus, Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

miostoma, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1877:435 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Yokohama (market), Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.235. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Also described as new in Günther 1880:65 [ref. 2011]. •Synonym of Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843, but a valid subspecies -- (Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:86 [ref. 15964]). •Valid as Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Shimizu & Hatooka 1997:3 [ref. 24377], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 565 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166], Sonoyama et al. 2020:44 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena miostoma Günther 1877. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: China to Japan. Habitat: marine.

mystes, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] in Jordan 1895:491, Pl. 52 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 5; ref. 2394] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: ?CAS-SU [old no.] 2919 (missing). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1895.5.27.81 (1) from Jordan; CAS-SU 2980 (1), 11601 (1), 11616-17 (1, 1), 18083 (2); USNM 47450 (1); ZMB 14150 [ex CAS-SU 2919] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Paepke & Fricke 1992:271 [ref. 19946], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 277, p. 3288 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789, but a valid subspecies -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:100 [ref. 22193], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1556 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:239 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895 -- (Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Franke & Acero P. 1996:766 [ref. 22923], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:291 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Thomson et al. 2000:69 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:443 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:126 [ref. 35888], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena mystes Jordan & Starks 1895. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) and Gulf of California (Mexico) south to Chile, including offshore islands, Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

nasicornua, Scorpaena Fricke [R.] & Zhukov [M. Yu.] 2020:118, Figs. 1-3 [Cahiers de Biologie Marine v. 61 (no. 1); ref. 37314] Gulf of Aden, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZIN 56300. •Valid as Scorpaena nasicornua Fricke & Zhukov 2020. Current status: Valid as Scorpaena nasicornua Fricke & Zhukov 2020. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Gulf of Aden, northwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Scorpaena Regan [C. T.] 1906:5, Pl. 5 [Annals of the Natal Government Museum v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 3628] KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.6.8.49. •Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:70 [ref. 1274] with question, Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

neglecta, Scorpaena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:43, Pl. 17 (fig. 4) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Nagasaki, Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D619 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D618, D620-623 (5, stuffed). Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:24 [ref. 12876], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Lectotype designation by Wibowo & Motomura 2019:325 [ref. 36828]. •Valid as Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:330 [ref. 19756], Kanayama in Okamura et al. 1982:273, 394 [ref. 8256], Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Yatou in Okamura et al. 1985:565, 716 [ref. 8056], Lindberg & Krasyukova 1987:83 [ref. 15964] as neglecta neglecta, Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Chen et al. 1997:165 [ref. 26476] dated 1844, Cheng & Zhou 1997:414 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Poss in Randall & Lim 2000:605 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 565 [ref. 26218], Takahashi et al. 2003:19 [ref. 27520], Motomura et al. 2005:866 [ref. 28254], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Fricke et al. 2014:51 [ref. 33932], Shinohara et al.2014:245 [ref. 33330], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo & Motomura 2019:312 [ref. 36828], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Sonoyama et al. 2020:45 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena neglecta Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Philippines east to Papua New Guinea, north to central Japan, south to northern Western Australia and southern New South Wales (Australia) Habitat: marine.

normani, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:539, Fig. 2 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Coast of Mauritania, depth 90-100 meters. Syntypes: (17) MNHN B-2548 (2). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:16 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. Based in part on Scorpaena canariensis of Norman 1935. •Valid as Scorpaena normani Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:62 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2278 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena normani Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

notata, Scorpaena Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:33 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicilia [Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea]. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:27 [ref. 3595]. •Valid as Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Golani 2005:33 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:79 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:224 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:110 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:232 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117], Bariche & Fricke 2020:106 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Senegal, including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nuttingi, Scorpaena Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1924:39, Pl. 1 [University of Iowa Studies in Natural History v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 15444] Carlisle Bay, Barbados, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MSUI (whereabouts unknown). •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

occipitalis, Scorpaena Poey [F.] 1860:171 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 13894 (4), 13897 (2); USNM 153576 [ex MCZ 13894] (1), 153577 [ex MCZ 13897] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:206 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 13894 as types and largest as the holotype. •Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:138 [ref. 9211], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena inermis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

onaria, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1900:365, Pl. 16 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1213); ref. 2502] Misaki, Japan. Holotype: USNM 49405. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6275 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena onaria Jordan & Snyder 1900 -- (Shimizu in Masuda et al. 1984:314 [ref. 6441], Motomura & Iwatsuki 1997:129 [ref. 23963], Nakabo 2000:580 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:313 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:580 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:242, 566 [ref. 26218], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:865 [ref. 28254], Shinohara et al. 2005:425 [ref. 28370], Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066], Motomura & Peristiwady 2010:127 [ref. 31100], Fricke et al. 2011:378 [ref. 31242], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Shinohara et al. 2014:245 [ref. 33330], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1098 [ref. 34285], Koeda et al. 2016:21 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159], Wibowo et al. 2019:308 [ref. 37166], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214], Sonoyama et al. 2020:45 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena onaria Jordan & Snyder 1900. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Andaman Sea; Taiwan to southern Korea and Japan; northern Western Australia to Queensland (Australia), east to New Caledonia and northern New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

orgila, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Allen [G. R.] 1971:517, Figs. 1a, 2 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 19); ref. 893] Off Ahu Akapu, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 70 feet. Holotype: CAS 24809 [ex BPBM 6770]. Paratypes: BPBM 6771-72 (1, 1), 6774 (1), 6776-77 (1, 1); CAS 24810-11 (2, 1); LACM 31198-1 [ex UBC 65-421] (1); UBC 65-438 (1), 65-439 (1), 65-457 (1); USNM 205209 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena orgila Eschmeyer & Allen 1971 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2011:330 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena orgila Eschmeyer & Allen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

pannosa, Scorpaena Cramer [F.] in Gilbert 1897:446, Pl. 52 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 19 (no. 1115); ref. 1629] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 47573. Author is F. Cramer. •Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840 -- (Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1555 [ref. 22830]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena histrio Jenyns 1840. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

papillosus, Synanceia Schneider [J. G.] & Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:196 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] New Zealand. No types known. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. Name attributable to Schneider, description taken from Forster manuscript (reproduced in Lichtenstein 1844:128-130 [ref. 17531] as "Scorpaena cottoides"). Genus spelled Synanceja on p. 195 but corrected in Corrigenda. •Valid as Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801) -- (Paulin 1982:438 [ref. 23678], Paxton et al. 1989:448 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:168 [ref. 24556] as papillosus, Paulin & Roberts 1992:137 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:120 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:491 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Allen et al. 2006:885 [ref. 29066] with authors as Boch & Schneider, Johnson & Motomura 2008:488 [ref. 30648], Motomura & Struthers 2015:1099 [ref. 34285], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena papillosa (Schneider & Forster 1801). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southeastern Australia and New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

parvus, Scorpaena De la Blanchère [H.] 1868:621 [La Pêche et les Poissons; ref. 36060] Probably a misspelling of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus, not an original description. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

pascuensis, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Allen [G. R.] 1971:523, Figs. 1b, 3 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 37 (no. 19); ref. 893] Offshore between Hanga Roa and Hanga Piko, Easter Island, southeastern Pacific, depth 10-15 feet. Holotype: CAS 24812 [ex BPBM 6783]. Paratypes: BPBM 6782 (3), 6784 (5); CAS 24813 (3), 24814 (1 c&s), 24815-16 (1, 3); LACM 6560-14 (6); UBC 65-417 (1), 65-451 (4); USNM 205210 (2). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pascuensis Eschmeyer & Allen 1971 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena pascuensis Eschmeyer & Allen 1971. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Easter Island endemic. Habitat: marine.

patriacha, Scorpaena Berthelot [S.] (ex Valenciennes) 1840:120 [De la pêche dur la côte occidentale d'Afrique; ref. 30346] Not available, name only. Source given as 'Val.' (A. Valenciennes) from Canary Islands. •In the synonymy of Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena canariensis (Sauvage 1878). Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

pele, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] & Randall [J. E.] 1975:320, Figs. 24, 25a [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 40 (no. 11); ref. 6389] North coast of Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands, 21°40'N, 158°08'W, depth 176-202 meters. Holotype: USNM 214046. Paratypes: ANSP 130800 (1); BPBM 29363 [ex BPBM 4350] (1), 13635 (1), 17247 (2); CAS 15707 (1), 30236-39 (1, 2, 3, 1); USNM 214042-45 (1, 1, 2, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:153 [ref. 13621], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pele Eschmeyer & Randall 1975 -- (Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Mundy 2005:328 [ref. 28379], Motomura et al. 2007:42 [ref. 29012], Randall 2007:174 [ref. 30952], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena pele Eschmeyer & Randall 1975. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

pepo, Scorpaena Motomura [H.], Poss [S. G.] & Shao [K.-T.] 2007:36, Figs. 1, 2A [Zoological Studies v. 46 (no. 1); ref. 29012] Off northeastern coast of Taiwan, Taipei fish market, depth about 200 meters (market purchase). Holotype: ASIZP 65020. Paratypes: AMS I.43631-001 (1); ASIZP 65021 (1); NTUM 4555 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena pepo Motomura, Poss & Shao 2007 -- (Motomura et al. 2009:139 [ref. 30729], Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena pepo Motomura, Poss & Shao 2007. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

petricola, Scorpaena Eschmeyer [W. N.] 1965:107, Fig. 6b [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9211] Off Brazil, 1°59'S, 42°05'W, Oregon station 4239, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 198150 [ex UMML 13336]. Paratypes: UF 212311 [ex UMML 12311] (1), 213328 [ex UMML 13328] (1), 213332 [ex UMML 13332] (7); USNM 198152 [ex UMML 13337] (2); plus additional material (12). •Valid as Scorpaena petricola Eschmeyer 1965 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:55 [ref. 1274], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1238 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena petricola Eschmeyer 1965. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

phorcus, Scorpaena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:117 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Apparently an incorrect subsequent spelling of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae.

plebeia, Scorpaena Solander [D. C.] in Richardson 1842:214 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (New Series) v. 9 (no. 57); ref. 21246] Tolaga, New Zealand [not Australia]. No type known. Based on a Solander manuscript. •Questionably a synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Paulin 1982:439 [ref. 23678]). •Incertae sedis -- (Allen et al. 2006:892 [ref. 29066]). •Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842 -- (Motomura et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31618], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena cardinalis Solander & Richardson 1842. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

plumieri, Scorpaena Bloch [M. E.] 1789:234, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 10; ref. 17256] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. •Valid as Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 [sometimes as subspecies plumieri] -- (Eschmeyer 1965:121 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer 1969:59 [ref. 1274], Uyeno & Sato in Uyeno et al. 1983:438 [ref. 14275] as plumierii, Swift 1986:176 [ref. 20823], Robins & Ray 1986:275 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:634 [ref. 9166], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Cervigón 1991:287 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:98 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:422 [ref. 23827], Andreata & Séret 1996:585 [ref. 16204], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:292 [ref. 24023], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:271 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:198 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1643 [ref. 25634], Rocha & Rosa 2001:989 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:145 [ref. 27639], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1261 [ref. 27048], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:73 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:20 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:46 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:29 [ref. 30263], García-Hernández et al. 2009:92 [ref. 37265], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:37 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:5 [ref. 33516], Pinheiro et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34324], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36103], Brown et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:232 [ref. 37250], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico; southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands. Habitat: marine.

porcus, Scorpaena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:266 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic. Possible syntypes: NRM 22 (21), 23 (1), 123 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:232-233 [ref. 20707] who regard only LP 23a as porcus of current authors. •Valid as Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:83 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1220 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:757 [ref. 24702], Reshetnikov 1998:149 [ref. 23570], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26753], Parin et al. 2002:S64 [ref. 28300], Golani 2005:33 [ref. 37112], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:184 [ref. 28369], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:79 [ref. 30517], Fricke 2008:24 [ref. 30182], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:38 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:225 [ref. 33547], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[4] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:108 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:232 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:107 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Morocco, including Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rascacio, Scorpaena Poey [F.] 1860:169 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 13889 (1), 13947-49 (1, 2, 1), 13957 (1); USNM 153578 [ex MCZ 13950] (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:206 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rascasio, Scorpoena Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:7 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. No types known. Based on the 'Rascacio' of Parra 1787:34, Pl. 18 (fig. 1) [ref. 6840] which Castelnau treated as valid; apparently Castelnau's treatment can stand as an available name with authorship as Castelnau 1855. Later described by Poey 1860 as Scorpaena rascacio. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

rascassa, Scorpaena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1801:275 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] Mediterranean Sea and other seas. Unnecessary replacement name for Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blanc & Hureau 1973:579 [ref. 7218], Poss 2016:2281 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena porcus Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

regina, Scorpaena Wibowo [K.], Johnson [J. W.] & Motomura [H.] 2019:297, Figs. 1, 3 [Zootaxa 4706 (no. 2); ref. 37166] Tangalooma Wrecks, Moreton Bay, Queensland, 27°10'S, 153°22'E, depth 3 - 9 meters. Holotype: QM I. 37447. Paratypes: AMS, CSIRO, KAUM, QM. •Valid as Scorpaena regina Wibowo, Johnson & Motomura 2019. Current status: Valid as Scorpaena regina Wibowo, Johnson & Motomura 2019. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: East coast of Queensland (from Palm to Stradbroke Islands), Australia. Habitat: marine.

rubellio, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gunn [J. A., Jr.] 1898:344 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 50; ref. 10630] Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 4291. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:76 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:672 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2276 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena maderensis Valenciennes 1833. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

russula, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:165 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia, depth 33 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.189 (1) from Jordan; NMW 8864 (1); CAS-SU 384 (4); USNM 41138 (1), 41140 (1), 41146 (1), 41154 (1) 41160 (1), 41191 (1), 41208-09 (1, 1), 41366 (1), 41379 (1), 41487-88 (1, 1), 205651 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena russula Jordan & Bollman 1890 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:100 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:82 [ref. 23101], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1557 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:268 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:238 [ref. 24550], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Barriga Salazar 2014:117 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:402 [ref. 34894], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], González-Murcia et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena russula Jordan & Bollman 1890. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico) south to northern Peru. Habitat: marine.

scrofa, Scorpaena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:266 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea: Rome (Italy) and Marseille (France). No types known. Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:237 [ref. 13434], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. Based on “Scorpaena tota rubens, cirris plurimis ad os“ of Artedi 1738:47 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:76 [ref. 30349], and “Scorpaena cavite cavernoso, cirris geminis in maxilla inferiore“ of Gronow 1754:v. 1, p. 46, no. 103 [ref. 20783]; Artedi’s compilation based on various pre-Linnaean sources. Species name misspelled scropha by Cuvier 1831:122 [ref. 30376]. •Valid as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:69 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Dor 1984:82 [ref. 29757], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1221 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer 1986:471 [ref. 5652], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:675 [ref. 17613], Goren & Dor 1994:22 [ref. 25356], Santos et al. 1997:77 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:116 [ref. 24952], Caputo & Sorice 1999:81 [ref. 25260], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466] with question, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:70 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:33 [ref. 37112], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Fricke et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29533], Fricke 2008:25 [ref. 30182], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972], Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:133 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Martins & Carneiro 2018:106 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:555 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:233 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864], Fricke & Zhukov 2019:466 [ref. 36990], Bariche & Fricke 2020:107 [ref. 37515], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214], Fricke et al. 2020:358 [ref. 37738], Kovačić et al. 2020:40 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena scrofa Linnaeus 1758. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Cape Verde Islands including Azores and Madeira; Red Sea; western Indian Ocean; Somalia south to South Africa, east to Saya de Malha Bank and Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scrofina, Scorpaena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:465 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): not MNHN 0000-6702. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738]. •Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:123 [ref. 9211], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:674 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2280 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena plumieri Bloch 1789. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

senegalensis, Scorpaena Steindachner [F.] 1881:159 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 16) (for 23 June 1881); ref. 20482] Rufisque, Senegal. Holotype (unique): NMW 35556 [=89881]. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:31 [p. 15 of separate], Pl. 4 [ref. 13333]. •Synonym of Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:72 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:580 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1217 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:671 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2274 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena laevis Troschel 1866. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

similis, Scorpaena Gunter [G.] 1948:161, Pl. 1 [Copeia 1948 (no. 3); ref. 13055] East of mouth of Mississippi River, U.S.A., 29°04'N, 88°44.5'W, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 124332. •Synonym of Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:132 [ref. 9211], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:240 [ref. 24550], Fricke et al. 2018:[13] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena dispar Longley & Hildebrand 1940. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

sonorae, Scorpaena Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:150 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 39644. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena sonorae Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:101 [ref. 22193], Poss in Fischer et al. 1995:1558 [ref. 22830], Thomson et al. 2000:70 [ref. 25640], Nelson et al. 2004:114 [ref. 27807], Motomura 2004:821 [ref. 28049], Page et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32708], Victor 2013:30 [ref. 32943], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34871], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena sonorae Jenkins & Evermann 1889. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Baja California, Gulf of California and western Mexico. Habitat: marine.

stearnsii, Scorpaena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:421 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 30169. Additional material: USNM 30185 (1). •Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Eschmeyer 1965:128 [ref. 9211], Poss & Eschmeyer 2003:1254 [ref. 27048], Fricke et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena brasiliensis Cuvier 1829. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: marine.

stephanica, Scorpaena Cadenat [J.] 1943:550, Figs. 1(5), 8 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 13 (nos 1-4); ref. 13043] Port-Etienne, Cap Blanc, Mauritania, depth 95-100 meters. Syntypes: (15) MNHN 1947-0004 (1), 1947-0005 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:66 [ref. 1274], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:676 [ref. 17613], Zenetos et al. 2010:413 [ref. 31201], Wirtz et al. 2013:122 [ref. 32972] record needs checking, Poss 2016:2282 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Carneiro et al. 2019:233 [ref. 37250], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:123 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena stephanica Cadenat 1943. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, inclduing Madeira. Habitat: marine.

sumptuosa, Scorpaena Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:17 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Fremantle, Western Australia. Syntypes: MNHN A-4409 (1, dry), B-2570 (1). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1968:17 [ref. 20738] as somptuosa with a holotype, Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena sumptuosa Castelnau 1875 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:449 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:492 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:86 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:27 [ref. 25847], Motomura et al. 2005:867 [ref. 28254], Motomura et al. 2005:29 [ref. 28339], Motomura et al. 2006:367 [ref. 28789], Allen et al. 2006:886 [ref. 29066], Johnson & Motomura 2008:489 [ref. 30648], Motomura et al. 2011:66 [ref. 31308], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159], Hoschke et al. 2019:155 [ref. 36626], Fricke & Zhukov 2020:122 [ref. 37214]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena sumptuosa Castelnau 1875. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Shark Bay south to Albany (Western Australia). Habitat: marine.

teneriffea, Scorpaena Jordan [D. S.] & Gunn [J. A., Jr.] 1898:345 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 50; ref. 10630] Teneriffa, Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 3111. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:121 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

thomsoni, Scorpaena Günther [A.] 1880:24, Pl. 12 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Juan Fernández Islands. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.232. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. Spelled thomsoni in text and on p. 77, thomsonii on plate. •Valid as Scorpaena thomsoni Günther 1880 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125] as thompson, Randall & Greenfield 2004:393 [ref. 27899], Dyer & Westneat 2010:604 [ref. 31446], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena thomsoni Günther 1880. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Juan Fernández Islands, Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

tierrae, Scorpaena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:441, Fig. 84 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Tierra Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128128. Paratypes: USNM 88775 (1), 128129 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena tierrae Hildebrand 1946 -- (Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena tierrae Hildebrand 1946. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Peru south to Chile. Habitat: marine.

uncinata, Scorpaena de Buen [F.] 1961:32, Fig. 9 [Montemar No. 1; ref. 698] Isla de San Ambrosio, Chile, depth 75 fathoms (137 meters). Holotype (unique): EBMC 10478. Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena uncinata de Buen 1961 -- (Eschmeyer & Allen 1971:521 [ref. 893], Pequeño 1989:57 [ref. 14125] as unicincta, Pequeño & Sáez 2000:31 [ref. 24590], Pequeño & Lamilla 2000:434 [ref. 24906], Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena uncinata de Buen 1961. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Chile. Habitat: marine.

ustulata, Scorpaena Lowe [R. T.] 1841:36 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1840 (pt. 8, no. 89); ref. 2830] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype: BMNH 1917.7.14.87. •Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810 -- (Eschmeyer 1969:81 [ref. 1274], Blanc & Hureau 1973:581 [ref. 7218], Hureau & Litvinenko in Whitehead et al. 1986:1219 [ref. 13677], Eschmeyer & Dempster 1990:673 [ref. 17613], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:69 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:39 [ref. 36649], Poss 2016:2279 [ref. 34610], Fricke et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Synonym of Scorpaena notata Rafinesque 1810. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

wellingtoni, Scorpaena Victor [B. C.] 2013:32, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32943] Galápagos Islands, Isla Isabela, Tagus Cove, 0°15'36''S, 91°22'12''W. Holotype: SIO 13-2. Paratypes: CAS 90378 (1). Type catalog: Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]. •Valid as Scorpaena wellingtoni Victor 2013 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:[16] [ref. 36159]). Current status: Valid as Scorpaena wellingtoni Victor 2013. Scorpaenidae: Scorpaeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.