California Academy of Sciences Library

Skulls & Skeletons

Skeletal Articulation



Animal Skull Collection

An extensive collection of skulls and skeletons collected by a high school biology/zoology teacher and his students over many years.


The Big Story on Bones

The Big Story on bones, for kids.  Simple and informative.


The eSkeletons Project

Website featuring the bones of a human, gorilla and baboon , and information about them.


Fossil Vertebrates at the Burke Museum

An on-line collection (catalogs and images) of mammals, birds, dinosaurs, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.


Glossary of Skeletal Anatomy

The glossary defines terms used to describe the skeleton.


Human Skeletons and Society in Prehistoric Italy

Human skeletons and society in prehistoric Italy.


Introductory Anatomy: Bones

More than you ever thought you wanted to know about bones.


The Mammal Skeleton

The skeletal system of mammals is examined in this page that includes images.


Skeletal System

Move your mouse over the skeleton to learn the names of the bones.


Skeletons and Bones at Enchanted Learning: Rhymes, Crafts, Coloring Printouts, and a Quiz

Skeletons, bones and related activities for age K-3 children.


Skeletons & Skulls

A small selection of skulls provided by the Ipswich Borough Council Museums and Galleries.


Trissaic Skulls

Announcement and pictures of four skulls of reptiles that lived about 200 million years ago that recently were found in Pennsylvania.

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Bass, William M. Human Osteology: A Laboratory and Field Manual of the Human Skeleton. Columbia, MO: Missouri Archaeological Society, 1971. Main GN70 .B37 1971.


Brown, C. H. Structural Materials in Animals. New York, NY:  Wiley, 1975.  IZ&G QL799 .B76 1975.


Cohen, Alan and Dale Serjeantson. A Manual for the Identification of Bird Bones from Archaeological Sites. London: Archetype Publications, 1996. M&O CC79.5.A5 C65 1996.


De Beer, Gavin R. The Development of the Vertebrate Skull. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1985. M&O QL822 .D35 1985.


Gilbert, B. Miles. Mammalian Osteology. Laramie, WY: B.M. Gilbert, c1980. M&O REF CC76.5 .A5 G5 1980.


Gregory, William K. Fish Skulls: A Study of the Evolution of Natural Mechanisms. Laurel, FL: Eric Lundberg, 1959. Ichthy QL639 .G7 1959.


Hanken, James and Brian K. Hall. The Skull. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Main  QL822 .S58 1993   


Howells, W. W. Who's Who in Skulls: Ethnic Identification of Crania from Measurements. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, 1995. Main GN71 .H68 1995.


Jones, J. Knox. Illustrated Key to Skulls of Genera of North American Land Mammals. Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University Press, c1992. M&O QL715 .J66 1992.


Katzenberg, M. Anne and Shelley R. Saunders. Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton.  New York, NY:  Wiley, c2000.  Main GN70 .B55 2000.


Lahr, Marta Mirazón. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity: A Study of Cranial Variation. Cambridge, MA;  New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Main GN71 .L35 1996.


Larsen, Clark Spencer. Skeletons in Our Closet: Revealing Our Past Through Bioarchaeology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, c2000. Main CC77.B8 L375 2000.


Manning, T. H. Variations in the Skull of the Bearded Seal, Erignathus barbatus (Erxleben). [Fairbanks: AK: University of Alaska, 1974]. Main Serials QH105.A4 U557 no.16.


Norell, Mark and Peter J. Makovicky. Important Features of the Dromaeosaur Skeleton: Information from a New Specimen. New York: American Museum of Natural History, c1997. Main Serials QH1 .A5 A16 no.3215.


Orr, Robert Thomas, Jacqueline Schonewald and Karl W. Kenyon. “The California Sea Lion: Skull Growth and a Comparison of Two Populations.” Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, v. 37, #11, 1969-1970. REF CAS Pubs Q11 .C25.


Salles, Leandro O. Felid Phylogenetics: Extant Taxa and Skull Morphology (Felidae, Aeluroidea). New York, NY: American Museum of Natural History, c1992. Main Serials QH1.A5 A16 no.3047.


Smit van Dort, M. Skin, Skull, and Skeleton Characters of Mouse Deer (Mammalia, Tragulidae), with Keys to the Species. [Amsterdam]: The Museum, 1989. Main Serials QL1 .A47 v.12:5.


Thomason, Jeff, ed. Functional Morphology in Vertebrate Paleontology. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Main QE841 .F86 1995.


Vertebrate Paleontological Techniques. Cambridge; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Main QE841.V388 1994.


Wells, Morris Miller. The Collection and Preservation of Animal Forms. Chicago: General Biological Supply House, c1932. Main QL61 .W45 1932.

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Diccionario Visual Altea de los Animales. Madrid: Altea, 1992. Pub Juv QL806.5 .V5718 1992.


Moss, Jeffrey. Bone Poems. New York: Workman Pub., c1997. Pub Juv QE765 .M67 1997.


Parker, Steve. The Body and How it Works. New York: DK Publishing, 1998, c1987. Pub Juv QM27 .P365 1998.


Parker, Steve. Esqueletos. Madrid: Altea, c1990. Pub Juv QL821 .P218 1990.


Parker, Steve. Eye Witness Books: Skeleton. New York: Knopf, 1988. Pub Juv QL821 .P2 1988.


Kahney, Regina. The Glow-in-the-Dark Book of Animal Skeletons. New York: Random House, c1992. Pub.Juv. QL821.K28 1992.


VanCleave, Janice Pratt. Janice VanCleave's Play and Find Out About the Human Body: Easy Experiments for Young Children. New York: Wiley, c1998. Pub Juv QP37 .V364 1998.


The Visual Dictionary of the Skeleton. London;  New York, NY: Dorling Kindersley; Boston, MA: Distributed by Houghton Mifflin, Inc., 1995. Pub Juv QL821 .V57 1995.

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In Search of Human Origins. Boston, MA: WGBH Educational Foundation, c1994. Pub AV&M GN283.25 .I5 1994.


The Ultimate 3D Skeleton. New York, NY: DK Multimedia, c1996. Pub AV&M QM101 .U48 1996.

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Articulation Page

The site provides guidelines for constructing a posed or articulated skeleton, with detailed instructions covering all aspects of the articulation process.


Cat Dissection Online

From the Human Anatomy class of Berkeley High, uses cats to learn about the anatomy of mammals.


Mounting Frog Skeleton

Materials and procedure for mounting a frog skeleton.


Virtual Frog Dissection Kit

Interactive program, science education related to virtual interactive frog dissection kit. (Not really articulation related)


Teaching Tool for Articulation


Site of the Phillips Exeter Academy, explaining recovery, preparation and articulation process of a Humpback whale.

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Aliki. Digging Up Dinosaurs. New York: T.Y. Crowell, 1988. Public Juv. QE 862.D5 A34 1988.


Anderson, Rudolph Martin. Methods of Collecting and Preserving Vertebrate Animals. Ottawa: Dept. of the Secretary of State, 1960. M&O QL 67.A43 1960.


Brothwell, Don R. Digging Up Bones. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1963. Ref. GN70 .B76 1963.


Chapin, James Paul. The Preparation of Birds for Study: Instructions for the Preparation of Bird Skins and Skeletons for Study and Future Mounting, 3rd Edition. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1940. M&O QL677.7 .C5 1940.


Collection and Preservation of Animals. Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India, 1990. Main QL61 .C64 1990.


Collection Forum. [Ottawa]: Society for Scientific Collections, [1985]-. Main Serials QH61 .C62.


Cornwall, Ian Wolfram. Bones for the Archaeologist. London: Phoenix House, 1968. IZ&G QL 821. C6 1968.


Davidson, Alvin. Mammalian Anatomy With Special Reference to the Cat. Philadelphia, PA: P. Blakiston's Sons and Co., Inc., c1937. Main QL 739. D3 1937.


Duckworth, W. Donald., Hugh H. Genoways, and Carolyn L. Rose. Preserving Natural Science Collections: Chronicle of our Environmental Heritage. Washington, D.C.: National Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Property, c1993. Main QH61 .D82 1993.


Hangay, George and Michael Dingley. Biological Museum Methods. Sydney; Orlando: Academic Press, c1985. Main QH61. H36 1985.


Hildebrand, Milton. Anatomical Preparations. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1968. M&O Ref. QL814 .H5 1968a.


Knudsen, Jens W. Biological Techniques: Collecting, Preserving, and Illustrating Plants and Animals. New York: Harper & Row, c1966. Main QH318.5 .K68 1966.


Knudsen, Jens W. Collecting and Preserving Plants and Animals. New York: Harper and Row, c1972. Main REF QH61 .K67 1972


Leach, William James. Functional Anatomy of the Mammal: A Guide to the Dissection of the Cat and an Introduction to the Structural and Functional Relationship Between the Cat and Man. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1946. Main QL739 .L4 1946.


Stansfield, Geoff , John Mathias, and Gordon Reid. Manual of Natural History Curatorship. London: HMSO, c1994. Main QH70 .A1 M36 1994.


Miller, E. H., ed. Museum Collections: Their Roles and Future in Biological Research. [Victoria, B.C.]: British Columbia Provincial Museum, 1985. Main QH70 .A1 M87 1985.


Nagorsen, David W. and R. L. Peterson. Mammal Collector's Manual: A Guide for Collecting, Documenting, and Preparing Mammal Specimens for Scientific Research. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum, 1980. Main QL708.4 .N34 1980


Rose, Carolyn L., Catharine A. Hawks, and Hugh H. Genoways, eds. Storage of Natural History Collections. Washington, D.C.: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, 1995. Main QH61 .S75 1995.


Wells, Morris Miller. The Collection and Preservation of Animal Forms. Chicago, IL: General Biological Supply House, c1932. Main QL61 .W45 1932.


Williams, Stephen L., René Laubach, and Hugh H. Genoways. A Guide to the Management of Recent Mammal Collections. Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1977. M&O QL708.4 .W45 1977.

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All materials above with a call number beginning Biodiv, Biodiv Juv, Pub, or Pub Juv are available for loan to Academy members.






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March 2002