California Academy of Sciences Library
Books Children's Books Journal Articles Videotapes Web Resources
Venomous Creatures on the Web
Caras, Roger. Venomous Animals of the World. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974. S.A. QL100.C3 1974.
Cogger, H. G., & Zweifel, R. G. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Reptiles & Amphibians, 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998. HERP QL641 .E528 1998
Cox, M. J. et al. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Thailand and Southeast Asia. Bangkok: Asia Books, 1998. HERP QL661.M4 P48 1998
Culotta, W. A., & Pickwell, G. V. The Venomous Sea Snakes : A Comprehensive Bibliography. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1993. HERP QL666.O645 C84 1993
Edström, A. Venomous and Poisonous Animals. Malabar, FL.: Krieger Pub. Co., 1992. REF QL100 .E37 1992.
Ernst, C. H., and Zug, G. R. Snakes in Question : The Smithsonian Answer Book. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996. Herp QL666.O6 E74 1996
Ernst, C. H. Venomous Reptiles of North America. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992. HERP QL666.O6 E77 1992
Frazier, C. A., & Brown, F. K. Insects and Allergy: And What to Do About Them. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980. ENT RC598.A76 F73 1980
Free, J. B. Bees and Mankind. Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1982. ENT QL568.A6 F548 1982
Freiberg, M. and Walls, J. G. The World of Venomous Animals. Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publication, Inc. Ltd., 1984. QL100 .F74 1984
Gibbons, W. Poisonous Plants and Venomous Animals of Alabama and Adjoining States. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1990. REF QL100 .G53 1990
Golay, P. et al. Endoglyphs and Other Major Venomous Snakes of the World: A Checklist. Geneva, Switzerland: Azemiops, 1993. HERP QL666.O6 E52 1993
Gopalakrishnakone, P. Sea Snake Toxinology. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1994. HERP QP632.S65 S4 1994
Halstead, B. W. & Halstead, L. G. Poisonous and Venomous Marine Animals of the World. Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press, 1988. MAIN QL100 .H3 1988
Harding, K. A. & Welch, K. R. G. Venomous Snakes of the World: A Checklist. Oxford, New York : Pergamon Press, 1980. HERP QL666.O6 H37 1980
Hare, T. Poisonous Dwellers of the Desert: Description, Habitat, Prevention, Treatment. Tucson, AZ: Southwest Parks and Monuments Association, 1995. REF RC86.8 .H38 1995
Keegan, H. L. Scorpions of Medical Importance. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1980. MAIN QL458.7 .K44 1980
Lowe, C. H., Schwalbe, C. R., & Johnson, T. B. The Venomous Reptiles of Arizona. Phoenix, AZ : Arizona Game and Fish Dept., 1986. HERP QL666.O6 L68 1986
McKay, A., & McKay J. Poisonous Snakes of East Africa: and the Treatment of Their Bites. Nairobi, Kenya : Ines May-Publicity, 1985. HERP QL666.O6 M35 1985
Nichol, J. Bites & Stings:The World of Venomous Animals. New York: Facts On File, 1989. Main QL100.N52 1989.
Nutting, W. B. Mammalian Diseases and Arachnids. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1984. ENT RA641.A65 M36 1984.
Picton, B. E. A Field Guide to the Shallow-Water Echinoderms of the British Isles. London: Immel Pub., 1993. IZ&G QL383. 4 .B65 P535 1993
Polis, G. A. (Ed.) The Biology of Scorpions. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990. IZ&G QL458.7 .B56 1990
Royston, H. The Book of Spiders. England: Eagle Editions, 1998. ENT QL451 .P73 1998
Rubio, Manny. Rattlesnake: Portrait of a Predator. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. S.A. QL666.O69 R835 1998
Russell, F. E. Snake Venom Poisoning. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1980. HERP RA1242.S53 R87 1980.
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies: Echinoderms of Florida and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995. MAIN QL383.1 .U6 S43 1995
United States Defense Intelligence Agency. Poisonous Snakes of Europe. Washington, D.C.: Defense Intelligence Agency, 1986. HERP QL666.O6 P597 1986
United States Defense Intelligence Agency. Venomous Snakes of the Middle East: Identification Guide. Washington, D.C.: Defense Intelligence Agency, 1991. HERP QL666.O6 V46 1991
Welch, K. R. G. Snakes of the World: A Checklist. Somerset, England : KCM Books, 1994. HERP QL666.O6 W46 1994 2 Volumes
White, R. An Introduction to Cnidaria. Mendocino, CA: Mendocino Academy of Science, 1986. MAIN Q11 .O25 no.39 1986
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Amato, Carol A. Adios, Chi Chi: The Adventures of a Tarantula. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's, 1996. PUB JUV QL458.42.T5 A47 1996.
Brust, Beth Wagner & Bob Dorn. Rattlesnakes. Mankato, Minn.: Creative Education, 1991. PUB JUV QL666.O69 H87 1991.
Collard, S. B. Creepy Creatures: Do they Scare You? Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge Pub., 1997. PUB JUV QL100 .C6725 1997
Collard, Sneed B. Sea Snakes. Honesdale, PA: Bell Books/Boyds Mills Press; New York: Distributed by St. Martin's Press, 1993. PUB JUV & BIODIV JUV QL666.O645 C6 1993.
Collard, S. B. Te Asustan?: Criaturas Espeluznantes. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge Pub., 1992. PUB JUV QL100 .C672518 1992
Dewey, Jennifer. Poison Dart Frogs. Honesdale, PA: Boyds Mills Press, 1998. PUB JUV QL668.E233 D48 1998.
George, Michael. Coral Reef. Mankato, Minn.: Creative Education, 1992. PUB JUV QL125 .G46 1992.
Hillyard, P. D. A Look Inside Spiders and Scorpions. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Young Families, 1995. PUB JUV QL452.2 .H55 1995.
Kite, L. Patricia. The Jellyfish. Morton Grove, IL: A. Whitman, 1993. PUB JUV QL377.S4 K62 1992.
Kite, L. Patricia. The Octopus. Morton Grove, IL: Albert Whitman & Co., 1993. PUB JUV QL430.3.O2 K57 1993
Kite, L. Patricia. The Sea Slug. Morton Grove, IL: A. Whitman, 1994. PUB JUV QL430.4 .K57 1994
Parsons, A. Amazing Poisonous Animals. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. PUB JUV QL100 .P36 1990
Parsons, A. Asombrosos Animales Venenosos. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991. PUB JUV QL100 .P3718 1991
Pringle, Laurence P. Scorpion Man: Exploring the World of Scorpions. New York: C. Scribner's Sons , 1994. PUB JUV QL458.7 .P75 1994.
Reeve, Kirk. Lolo & Red-Legs. Flagstaff, AZ: Rising Moon, 1998. PUB JUV PZ7.R25575 Lo 1998.
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Amato, I. "Scorpion Toxin Tells an Evolutionary Tale." Science News, 139 (85-6), February 9, 1991. MAIN SERIALS Q1.S76
Arnett, J., and Cooper Jr., W. E. "Strike Induced Chemosensory Searching in the Gila Monster." Copeia 1 (89-96), February 15 1995. HERP, ICHTHY and S.A. SERIALS QL1 .C655
Axell, B. et al. "Life History and Fishery of the California Scorpionfish, Scorpaena Guttata, Within the Southern California Bight." US Fish and Wildlife Service Fishery Bulletin, 85, 1, 99-116, 1987. ICHTHY, MAIN, S.A. SERIALS SH11 .A2
Beck, D. D. "Ecology and Behaviour of the Gila Monster in Southwestern Utah." Journal of Herpetology, 24, 1 (54-68), 1990. HERP SERIALS
Beck D. "Heloderma Suspectum Cinctum (Banded Gila Monster). Pattern/Coloration." Herpetological Review, 16, 2 (53), 1985. HERP SERIALS
Bey, T. A., Fernandez, M. C., Russell, F. E., and Walter, F. G. "Snakes and Snakebite in Central America." Toxicon, 35, 10 (1469-1522), October 1997. MAIN SERIALS QP941.A1 T69
Bogert, C. M., and Russell, Findlay E. "Gila Monster: Its Biology, Venom and Bite--A Review." Toxicon, 19, 3 (341-359), 1981. MAIN SERIALS QP941.A1 T69
Bruce, J. K. "Movement Patterns and Foraging Ecology of Gila Monsters (Heloderma Suspectum Cope) in Northwestern Arizona." Herpetologica, 39, 3 (247-253), September 1983. HERP SERIALS QL640 .H46
Cantrell, A. C., Newlands, G. "A Re-Appraisal of the Rock Scorpions (Scorpionidae: Hadogenes)". Koedoe, 2,(35-45), 1985. MAIN SERIALS QL337.S65 K63
Cattaert, D. "The Myth of Scorpion Suicide: Are Scorpions Insensitive to Their Own Venom?" Journal of Experimental Biology, 201, 1, (2625-2636), September, 1998. MAIN SERIALS Unclassified
Chadwick, D. H. "Coral in Peril." National Geographic, 195 (31-37) January 1994. MAIN SERIALS G1 .N38
Daltry, J. C., Thorpe, R. S.; and Wuster, W. "Diet and Snake Venom Evolution." Nature, 379 (537-40), February 8, 1996. MAIN SERIALS Q1.N28
Da Silva, Wilson. "Spider Gives Kiss of Death to Pests." New Scientist, 154 (23) May 17, 1997. MAIN SERIALS Q1.N52
Demeter, B. J. "Combat Behavior in the Gila Monster (Heloderma Suspectum Cinctum)." Herpetological Review, 17, 1, (9-11), 1986. HERP SERIALS
Donovan, P. "The Respectable Poisoner." Practical Fishkeeping, 68-69, May 1991. MAIN SERIALS SF456 .P4
Doubilet D. "Scorpionfish: Danger in Disguise." National Geographic Magazine, 172, 5, 634-643, 1987. MAIN SERIALS G1 .N38
Doubilet, D. "Coral Eden." National Geographic, 195 (2-29), January 1994. MAIN SERIALS G1 .N38
Egen, N. B., Schmidt, J. O.; and Schumacher, M. J. "Lethality of 'Killer' Bee Stings." Nature, 337 (413), February 2, 1989. MAIN SERIALS Q1.N28
Gibbs, W. Wayt. "A New Way to Spell Relief." Scientific American, 274 (28), February 1996. MAIN SERIALS Q1.S38
Gibbs, M. "Weedy Scorpionfish Rhinopias Aphanes." Practical Fishkeeping, 65-67, April 1994. MAIN SERIALS SF456 .P4
Gildart, B. "Modern Science Takes a Look at an Ancient Monster." National Wildlife, 36, 2 (12-13), 1998. MAIN SERIALS 333.06 N213n
Greene, H. W. "A Sound Defense of the Rattlesnake: The Quintessential Western Critter." California Wild, 43 (10-19), Fall 1990. MAIN SERIALS Q1 .P3
Greene, H. W. "Variations on a Venomous Theme." California Wild, 43 (16-17), Fall 1990. MAIN SERIALS Q1 .P3
Grilley-M, et al. "Strategy for Rapid Immobilization of Prey by a Fish-Hunting Marine Snail." Nature (London), 381, 6578 (148-151) May 1996. MAIN SERIALS Q1 .N28
Hargrove, M. "The Scorpaeniformes - Scorpionfish, Rockfish, Lionfish, and their Relatives." Tropical Fish Hobbyist, 46, 11, 40-48, July 1998. ICTHY & S.A. SERIALS
Hart, S. "Cone Snail Toxins Take Off." Bioscience, 47, 3 (131-134) March 1997. MAIN SERIALS QH301 .B58
James, D. B. "An Annotated Bibliography on Sea-Cucumbers." CMFRI Special Publication, 58, i-iv (1-92), 1994. MAIN SERIALS CAT. IZ&G QL384.H7 J35 1994
Kardong, K.V., and Lavin-Murcio, P. A. "Venom Delivery of Snakes as High-Pressure and Low-Pressure Systems." Copeia, 3 (644-650), August 18 1993. HERP, ICHTHY, S.A. QL1 .C655
"Killer Snails. Healer Snails." Discover, 15 (18), May 1994. MAIN SERIALS Q1.D57
Lopez, J. L. F. and Mateo J. A. "Communications from the Mammal Society - No. 72. Evidence of Venom in the Canarian Shrew (Crocidura canariensis): Immobilizing Effects on the Atlantic lizard (Gallotia atlantica)." Journal of Zoology (London), 239, 2, June 1996 (394-395). MAIN SERIALS QL1 .L662
Martin, I. G. "Venom of the Short-Tailed Shrew (Blarina Brevicauda) as an Insect Immobilizing Agent." Journal of Mammalogy, 62, 1 (189-192). March 31, 1981. M&O SERIALS
Nobbe, George. "Spider Venom." Wildlife Conservation, 101: 5 (16) September/October 1998. MAIN SERIALS QL1.A55
Phanuel, G. J., and Waller R. M., "Functional Morphology of the Poison Apparatus and Histology of the Venom Glands of Three Indian Spiders." Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 86, 3 (344-353), 1989. MAIN SERIALS QH183 .J68
de Plater G., Martin R. L., and Milburn P. J. "A Pharmacological and Biochemical Investigation of the Venom from the Platypus (Ornithorhynchus Anatinus." Toxicon, 33, 2 (157-169), 1995. MAIN SERIALS QP941.A1 T69
Spiess, P. "The Gila Monster (Heloderma Suspectum)." Reptile & Amphibian Magazine, 54 (22-27), 1998. S.A. SERIALS
Stewart, Doug. "Which Animal's Venom is Most Lethal to Humans?" National Wildlife, 32 (52) April/May 1994. MAIN SERIALS 333.06 N213n
Swift, C. C. "First Record of the Spotted Scorpionfish, Scorpaena Plumieri, from California: the Curtain Falls on 'a Comedy of Errors'." California Fish and Game, 72,3, 176-178, 1986. MAIN & S.A. SERIALS SK373 .C2 A2
Tennesen, Michael. "A Benefit from Snake Bite." Wildlife Conservation, 100 (18), September/October 1997. MAIN SERIALS QL1.A55
"Will Snakes Shed Their Poisonous Image?" New Scientist, 131, (16), August 3, 1991. MAIN SERIALS Q1.N52
Wolf, P. S. "A New Genus and Species of Interstitial Sigalionidae and a Report on the Presence of Venom Glands in Some Scale-Worm Families." Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 99, 1, 1986 (79-83). HERP SERIALS QH1 .B56 copy 3
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Amazing Coral Reef. Ben Lomand, CA: Video Project, 1996. BIODIV MEDIA QH541.5.C7 A43 1996.
Amazing Poisonous Animals. New York: DK Vision, 1996. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL100 .A43 1996
The Biology of Annelids. Loomis, CA: Biomedia Associates, 1976. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL391.A6 B56 1976.
The Biology of Coelenterates. Loomis, CA: BioMedia Associates, 1976. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL375.B56 1976.
Bug City Video Series. New York: DK Vision, 1997. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL467.2.B83 1997.
Canary of the Ocean. Ben Lomand, CA: Video Project, 1997. BIODIV MEDIA QH541.5.C7 C35 1997.
Coral Reef Teacher’s Guide. Key West, FL: Reef Relief, 1998. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL45.2.C53 1998.
Coral Reefs: Rainforests of the Sea. Ben Lomand, CA Video Project, 1996. BIODIV MEDIA QH541.5.C7 C67 1996.
Coral Reefs Their Health, Our Wealth. Mangilao, Guam: Department of Agriculture, 1996. BIODIV MEDIA QH541.5.C7 C677 1996, Public QH541.5.C7 C677 1996.
Incredible Suckers. New York, NY: Thirteen/WNET, 1995. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL430.2 .I52 1995.
Jellies and Other Ocean Drifters. Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, 1996. BIODIV MEDIA or PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL377.S4 J45 1996
Little Creatures Who Run the World. Boston: WGBH Education Foundation, 1995. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL568.F7 L58 1995.
Monster. New York: Eyewitness, 1997. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL100 .M66 1977.
Reptile. London: Dorling Kindersley Vision, 1994. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA QL644.R47 1994.
Secrets of the Ocean Realm. Alexandria, VA: PBS Home Video, 1997. PUB AV/MULTIMEDIA GC11.2 .S42
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General Information Sources:
Dangerous Sea Creatures
This site describes a number of dangerous sea creatures that have the capacity to severely injure or even kill people. Some of these creatures are venomous. Illustrations of the featured creatures are included. http://www.ricgroup.com.au/netschoolaus/netschoolpages/dangersofthesea.html
Hawaii's Ocean Waters: Some Dangerous and Venomous Organisms
The Hawaiian Lifeguard Association produces this site. It contains information on dangerous and venomous marine life. For some creatures only a brief illustrated chart on medical advice is offered while others link to a descriptive text, images and a bibliography.
Venom & Toxin Database
This database divides venomous creatures by geographic location so you can search on what sort of creatures live on a specific continent. The site provides descriptive texts, images and extensive bibliographies. It also includes an electronic bulletin board, a forum and a list of the most toxic snakes in the world. http://www.kingsnake.com/toxinology/
Provides safety information on a variety of venomous marine creatures and text for each venomous creature.
– Neuroscience for Kids
This houses a chart of neurotoxins that list their names, their sources and what they do to the body.
of the Ocean Realm - Venom! Creatures of Darkness
This is produced by PBS. The site describes several different types of venomous creatures. http://www.pbs.org/oceanrealm/seadwellers/venomdwellers/index.html
This site is produced by the California Academy of Sciences and features creatures from its venom exhibit. The site contains photographs, text, and games.
is Venom Made of?
This is part of a feature called Ask a Scientist or Engineer and describes what venom is.
Jellies and Anemones
An Introduction to Coral Reefs
and Coral Reefs
This Sea World Busch Gardens site describes the physical chatacteristics of the coral polyp. http://www.seaworld.org/animalbytes/coralab.html
Marine Animals of Northern Australia
The Australian Institute of Marine Science produces this site which describes the SeaWasp, its season and habitat.
Creature: Sea Wasp
Elizabeth Keller provides text on Sea Wasps and explains why their stings can be deadly
to the Actinaria
Describes anemones. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cnidaria/actinaria.html
Phantoms of the Deep Facts
The Tennessee Aquarium provides a list of interesting facts about jellies. http://www.tennis.org/newsroom/jelliesfacts.html
- Sea Science Series
The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources includes diagrams of jellyfish bodies, life cycles and venom apparatus in addition to descriptive text. It also describes different types of jellyfish. http://www.dnr.state.sc.us/marine/pub/seascience/jellyfi.html
Life History and Ecology
The University of California, Berkeley's Museum of Paleontology provides information on the life and ecology of jellies. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/cnidaria/scyphozoalh.html
and Sky: Corals & Anemones
This site has great photos and blurbs about different species of anemones and corals. http://www.seasky.org/reeflife/sea2b.html
Anemones of the World
This database chronicles over 1,000 species of sea anemones known to humankind.
Dangerous and Venomous Hawaiian Ocean Organisms
This Hawaiian Lifeguard Association site describes the jellyfish that inhabit the waters around Hawaii. Site links allow you to bring up more information on specific types of jellyfish. It also contains a suggested bibliography. http://www.aloha.com/~lifeguards/jelyfish.html
Urchins, Star Fish and Sea Cucumbers:
Anatomy & Physiology
This describes the anatomy & physiology of the sea urchin. http://www.stanford.edu/group/Urchin/anaphys.html
Safe In and On The Ocean: Creatures That Bite, Cut, or Sting
This focuses on the perils of encountering sea urchins and jelly fish. Find out what to do if stung and how to identify them. http://www.maui.net/~tkern/Beaches/BeachSafetyCreatures2.html
CAS Echinoderm Web Page
The California Academy of Sciences presents an introduction to Echinodermata. http://www.calacademy.org/research/izg/echinoderm/
Scorpions, Bees and Other Insects:
Bailey, Stephanie "Get This Bug off of Me!"
The University of Kentucky Department of Entomology provides this article that distinguishes several common insects and insect relatives in Kentucky that are or are not harmful. http://www.uky.edu/Agriculture/Entomology/ythfacts/stories/hurtrnot.htm
Dietel. "Hidden in the Flowers"
California Wild, Spring 1999. - The article features crab spiders. http://www.calacademy.org/calwild/spring99/lives.htm
Check The Spencer Entomological Museum's Bugs of the Month section for August: Yellow-jacket wasp and September: Bald-faced "hornet".
to Wolf Spiders
Access Excellence provides an introduction to wolf spiders. It describes how to house them, how to find them, activities, a message board and includes a list of references, resources and websites. http://www.accessexcellence.org/LC/SS/wolf_spider/spider_section1.html
Sean Henahan wrote this article describing killer bees and efforts to use geneology to alter their behavior. The site is produced byAccess Excellence. http://www.accessexcellence.org/WN/SUA12/bee498.html
Access Excellence provides this interactive educational science mystery on killer bees in the Amazon. It encourages problem-solving and inquiry. http://www.accessexcellence.org/rov/
and Gila Monsters:
This depicts alphabetical listing by common names (Adapted from: Snake Venom Poisoning, pages 15-20, by Dr. Findlay E. Russell. Philadelphia: J.P. Lippincott Co., 1980) http://www-surgery.ucsd.edu/ent/davidson/Snake/3cnames.htm
Bee Venom Therapy by Glenn Rothfield
Contains information on bee venom therapy, presented by Glenn S. Rothfield, an assistant professor at the Tufts University School of Medicine. http://www2.shore.net/~spectrum/apitherapy.html
Davis Phillips. "Study of Rattle Snake Venom May Lead to Anti-Cancer Drug."
April 4, 1996. - The striking molecular resemblance of enzymes from rattlesnake venom and human cancer cells may help nature bite back at the deadly disease with potent new drugs. http://agnews.tamu.edu/stories/BICH/venom.htm
Oil" By Sean Henahan
Access Excellence explores the medical benefits of venom. http://www.accessexcellence.org/WN/SUA02/snake_oil.html
From About.com (02/11/99)A substance called ANCROD, derived from snake venom, allows stroke victims to recover their mental and physical abilities. http://biology.about.com/science/biology/library/weekly/aa021199.htm?terms=stroke+venom
One Snail And Call Me In The Morning...continued Attack Of The Killer Snails
This Access Excellence site provides in depth information on the toxicology of cone snails and the possible medical benefits.
Links to individual species in the Venoms Exhibit can be found in the Venomous Creatures on the Web page.
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Last update: July 5, 2000 -- url update July 2003