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Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2694   CAS 0389-2694; Yarn
Category Textiles; Tools & Implements
Object Name Yarn
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Handspun cotton yarn; Handspun camelid hair
Description
Dimensions (cm) Max Diam = 4.8 (ball)

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1498   CAS 0389-1498; Needle case
Category Tools & Implements
Object Name Needle case
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wood
Description
Dimensions (cm) Max Diam = 2.0, Length = 13.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2363   CAS 0389-2363; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Chimu or Chimu-Inka
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool; Cotton
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = ca. 100.0, Length = ca. 158.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2409   CAS 0389-2409; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Rectangle cut from the upper part of a tunic. The clavi bands have semicircular ends and borders of jewel inlay with epsilon-shaped cells. Each band is ornamented with a haloed figure wearing an elaborate robe and carrying a lyre. The space remaining is occupied by four symmetrical plant motifs. The tapestry bands are worked in dark yellow, dull red, dark blue, light green, and tan. The plain foundation textile is a brownish yellow. The weave of both the ground and the clavi is tapestry, wool warp and weft, 8-10 x 34 [warp : weft per square cm]. The clavi are whip-stitched to the plain tapestry textile. All yarn is S-twist. Seventh century. Related examples: Figures depicted in the same style appear on a piece in Washington, D.C., Textile Museum (Riefstahl 1941:257). See also Kybelova (1967:130, pl. 86). Remarks: From this point onward the human figure becomes increasingly stylized, moving farther and farther away from Greek anatomical canons. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 42, pp. 136-138; color plate, p. 139.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 34.0, Length = 43.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2410   CAS 0389-2410; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Strip cut from a patterned tunic. The original textile of which this is a portion appears to have had an overall design organized around rows of battlement meander. The meander is dark blue and is decorated with six-petaled rosettes. The spaces delineated by the bends in the meander are filled with tau motifs, with bifurcated bases, and are flanked by large, six-petaled rosettes. The ground is tan, and the motifs are worked in black, tan, red, yellow, light blue, and pink. The weave is tapestry, wool and linen [S-twist] weft on linen two-ply Z-twist warp, 9 x 56 [warp : weft per square cm]. Tenth century. Remarks: Much of what characterizes Coptic art is absent from this colorful textile with its completely nonrepresentational decoration. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 63, pp. 136, 170-171.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 5.0, Length = 39.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2411   CAS 0389-2411; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data al-Bahnas (al-Bahnasa aka Oxyrhynchus)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 1000-1100 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic yoke fragment from al-Bahnas . The dull purple band ornament is bordered with a spiral-wave design. The interior is divided into three small bands, two plain ones framing a third containing symmetrical linear motifs representing stylized grapevines. Shortly past the point where the band turns the corner is a different motif, perhaps an amphora. These designs are worked in cream color. A small fragment of the body of the tunic remains, indicating that it was dark orange. The tunic was woven in the tapestry technique with wool warp and weft, 6 x 40 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Eleventh century (?) (sic). Remarks: When complete, this garment must have been both colorful and elegant with its color scheme of dull purple and dark orange. The amphora and vine symbol was a common Christian motif. Al-Bahnas , better known as Oxyrhynchus, was one of the great weaving centers of Egypt in the Coptic period. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 68, pp. 136, 178, 193.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.0, Length = 41.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2412   CAS 0389-2412; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-900 CE, possibly
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Fragments of tunic clavi. The design is worked in brownish purple on a beige ground. The band has spiral-wave edge borders enclosing motifs of warriors and lions. The warriors hold their right hands in the air. The lions are positioned at right angles to the ground lines of the warriors. The piece was woven in tapestry with wool warp and weft, 7 x 40 [warp : weft per square cm]. The details are worked in weft floats. There are some grouped wefts in the ground. All yarn is S-twist. [A] late example of a common sixth-century design. It may be ninth century in date. Remarks: The two fragments belong to the same garment but are not continuous. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 32, pp. 116, 124-125.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.5, Length = 27.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2413   CAS 0389-2413; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 300-400 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Pair of tunic clavi sewn together to form a wide band. The clavi are dull purple bands with scalloped edges. Their decoration consists of a small, undulating ladder band down the centers with filler-motifs of circles in two sizes. The larger circles contain various ornaments: circles with dot-clusters, rings of dots, four-petaled rosettes, hooked crosses, and a motif suggesting a laurel wreath. The ground is linen rep, 28 x 20 [warp : weft per square cm]; the clavi are woven in tapestry warps, 9 x 68 [warp : weft per square cm]. The design of the bands is carried out principally in an erratic weft-float technique. All yarn is S-twist. Fourth century. Related example: Paris, Louvre X4392 (Du Bourguet 1964). Remarks: The piece is composed of two bands sewn together, possibly in antiquity. One band retains a strip of rep along one edge and a portion of the selvedge. The tunic to which the clavi belonged must have been a sober and dignified garment made in the best Roman tradition. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 5, pp. 15, 82, 86-87.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 35.0, Length = 13.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2414   CAS 0389-2414; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Decorated band fragment. The piece has borders ornamented with motifs of fish. In one section the fish motif is interrupted by a rectangular panel containing six ovals. The latter may depict gems in broad settings. The middle of the band is filled with an overall pattern of symmetrical floral motifs. The ground is red; the jewels are green; and the design is worked in tan, blue-green, and black. The weave is tapestry, wool and linen [S-twist] weft on two-ply Z-twist warp, 10 x 66 [warp : weft per square cm]. Tenth century. Remarks: The fish may or may not symbolize Christ; their association with jewels suggests that their meaning has religious connotations. The tight placement of the motifs and the minimum of background are in marked contrast to earlier Coptic design habits and may be the result of Arabian influence. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 45, pp. 136, 149.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 33.0, Length = 8.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2415   CAS 0389-2415; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Section cut from a banded textile. The design scheme consists of a decorated red band between two plain dark-blue ones. The red band has double borders, the outer border ornamented with tan Greek crosses, the inner border with linked tricolor ivy leaves on a tan ground. The center of the band contains a procession of quadrupeds, some with horns. Between each animal is a formal plant motif. The animals and plants are worked in dull yellow, pink, light green, and medium green. The piece is tapestry, with wool warp and weft, 9 x 32 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth or tenth century. Remarks: Processions of animals have a long history in Classical art and derive from the Near East. This example represents an early Medieval version of an ancient theme. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 44, pp. 75, 136, 148; color plate, p. 140.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 33.0, Length = 13.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2416   CAS 0389-2416; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic clavus fragment. The clavus has a rounded end and a border of reverse arcade. The interior contains a three-part cartouche composed of a lozenge flanked by circles, all with foliage embellishments and a dwarf (?) (sic) enclosed in an oval frame of oak leaves and acorns. The clavus terminates in a short stem ending in an oval containing a cluster of three leaves. The design is carried out in brownish purple on a tan ground. Linen rep, 11 x 8 [warp : weft per square cm]; wool tapestry, 7 x 48 [warp : weft per square cm]. The rep foundation textile has shadow stripes made of pairs of bundled weft shots. Three shadow (sic) stripes lie under the clavus, a fourth lies directly alongside. The tapestry clavus was cut from another garment, the edges turned under and then stitched to the rep ground. All yarn is S-twist. Seventh century or later. Remarks: The decoration of the clavus is descended from the monochrome ornaments of the early period of Coptic weaving, but the quality of the design is closer to the early Medieval period. The monochrome textile ornament had a long life in Egypt. The human figure is nearly overwhelmed by the large scale of the surrounding foliage and the boldly outlined cartouches. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 48, pp. 136, 152-153.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 11.0, Length = 43.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2417   CAS 0389-2417; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data al-Faiy m (Al Fayoum aka Piom aka Arsinoë)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Band fragment from al-Faiy m. One edge of this dark pink band has a dark blue zigzag border. Filler motifs are of two types, cream-colored rectangles placed on diagonals slanting in opposite directions and angular, dull yellow birds with black spots and one black bird with yellow spots. The rectangles are ornamented with motifs resembling birds with pink bodies and large yellow beaks. Spaces around the principal motifs are filled with dots and eight-petaled rosettes. The material is wool, woven in tapestry on two-ply Z-twist warp, 6 x 64 [warp : weft per square cm]. A surviving portion of selvedge shows that it was formed of double-paired [S-twist] wefts. Ninth or tenth century. Related examples: Brooklyn, Brooklyn Museum of Art acc. no. 38.754 (Thompson 1971:80, no. 35); Paris, Louvre 836 (Du Bourguet 1964:286, no. I F 105). Remarks: al-Faiy m is the modern name of Piom, more anciently, Arsinoë. In the Coptic period it was an important weaving center. This textile was anciently cut and sewn together so as to form either a gamma, a common form of tunic ornament, or a textile edging. A piece in similar style is in Brooklyn (see above). About it Thompson states, ‘Examples closely related in style to this textile are preserved with woven Arabic inscriptions datable to the ninth to tenth century’ (Thompson 1971:80). [This] piece is undoubtedly of the same date. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 62, pp. 136, 170-171, 187.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 19.0, Length = 35.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2418   CAS 0389-2418; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic fragment with clavus section. The clavus band is bordered with a spiral-wave pattern and filled with lozenges, solid lozenges alternating with outlined ones. At one point, the band is interrupted by a rectangle containing a motif representing a dolphin. The band terminates with a pendant leaf on a long stem. The design is entirely worked in purple. The ground is yellowish, perhaps the natural color of the wool discolored by time. This piece was woven entirely in wool. The basic weave is tabby, 13 x 13 [warp : weft per square cm]. The tapestry insert was woven on grouped warps. From the reverse side of the piece it is evident that the spiral border was woven as a series of lopsided scallops. ‘Stitches’ in the center of the upper parts of the scallops produce the effect of a spiral-wave motif. (These are not actually stitches in the true sense, but extensions of the background weave.) The dots in the ground are connected by long weft floats. Short, self-colored bands were formed in the weft by putting a weft bundle partway (sic) through the shed and then returning it in the counter-shed. About 5 cm of three of these bands are extant. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Dolphins, believed by ancient and some modern peoples to save humans from drowning, are symbols of salvation in several religions. In ancient times, dolphins were thought to be fish. A depiction of a fish was frequently used to symbolize Christ because in Greek, the word for fish, ’IX Y ,* can be read as an acrostic for a sentence that translated means ‘Jesus Christ Son of God Savior.’ The dolphin-fish motif could have been worn by both pagans and Christians for much the same purpose, protection. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 19, pp. 102, 106-107.] *Non-Roman alphabet characters are not legible in the online listing. Greek letters, such as those included here, appear as Roman letters but may be inaccurately transcribed. Other scripts, such as Japanese, appear as a series of question marks.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 16.0, Length = 38.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2419   CAS 0389-2419; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 970-1035 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Fragment of a curtain with a false kufic inscription. In the center of the fragment is a polychrome insert band. It is surrounded by a dark blue area ornamented by rows of meaningless kufic letters in yellow and pink. The insert has pearl borders and contains roundels alternating with quatrefoils that may represent jeweled ornaments. The roundels contain, respectively, a bird motif, a six-pointed star, a second, different bird motif, an animal head, a building (?) (sic), a floral motif, and another star. The motifs are woven in red, medium green, yellow, light blue, pinkish white, and black. Woven entirely in wool, the ground is tabby, 12 x 12 [warp : weft per square cm], the insert band, tapestry, 12 x 42 [warp : weft per square cm]. The quality of the weaving is excellent. All yarn is S-twist. Late tenth or early eleventh century. Related examples: A wool textile with similar motifs and inscription is in New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art (Dimand 1931:89, fig. 2). Remarks: Textiles with real inscriptions were a feature of Arabic weaving from about the tenth century on. Some very fine ones were made in Egypt in the eleventh century and later. This example and a number of related pieces may represent early attempts by Coptic weavers to conform to Muslim taste (sic). [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 64, pp. 136, 172-173; color plate, p. 142.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 41.0, Length = 18.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2420   CAS 0389-2420; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic sleeve fragment. Originally there were two bands with similar ornamentation; now, only a ragged portion of one remains. The bands were divided by a strip of battlement meander. The outer edge of the extant band is decorated by a wave meander. The decorative motifs consist of guineafowl (sic), plants, and fish (?) (sic) worked in medium brown on a beige ground. Woven entirely in wool, the part remaining is tapestry, with some double warps, 10 x 24 [warp : weft per square cm]. The warp yarn was dyed a dark yellow. It does not show in the extant fragment because of the closely packed weft yarns characteristic of the tapestry technique, but the use of colored warp implies that the body of the textile was woven in rep or tabby in weft dyed to match. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: The yellow color postulated for the missing body of the tunic may indicate that this piece was woven during the Ikhshidid dynasty [935-969 CE] when Coptic Christians were required to wear yellow garments. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 53, pp. 136, 158-159.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 26.0, Length = 10.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2421   CAS 0389-2421; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Segment cut from a mantle or curtain. The plain, off-white ground is ornamented with a broad purple band and three narrow ones. The broad band has wide borders of double rinceau and a center with a knot interlace. The narrow bands are plain. The ground is linen rep, 20 x 11 [warp : weft per square cm], the broad band is tapestry, wool and linen weft, linen warp, 6 x 52 [warp : weft per square cm],with weft-float patterning. In the tapestry areas the weft has been deliberately displaced in order to follow the curves of the design. The bottom of the piece ends in warp fringe: above it is a section of bare warp. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Remarks: The color of the wool yarn appears to be especially well preserved; this specimen gives a good idea of the purple and white color scheme favored for Coptic textiles of the early period. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 12, pp. 56, 82, 98; color plate, p. 69.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 48.0, Length = 45.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2422   CAS 0389-2422; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Rectangle cut from a tunic. The design motifs are contained in a roundel [from the shoulder region] and a clavus. Both roundel and clavus have spiral-wave borders and contain motifs depicting human figures in violent action [Isaac and Abraham, perhaps] and spotted [running] animals, possibly leopards. The clavus band ends in leaf-form pendants. The ornamentation is rendered in dark red-purple on a plain ground, now discolored but originally the creamy white color of undyed wool. Woven entirely of wool, the ground has a count of 9 x 18 [warp : weft per square cm], the tapestry inserts, 9 x 23 [warp : weft per square cm]. Two lines of twining, double rows on paired warps, may have helped to prepare the area in which the clavus was woven and to keep it straight. The area for the roundel was prepared by weaving the ground first, leaving an open space in the warp shaped like a slice cut from one side of a circle that was of greater diameter than the planned roundel. Next the roundel was started, filing in the space on either side with yarn that matched the rest of the ground. When the shape of the roundel was established, the weaving of both ground and roundel was carried out more or less simultaneously, areas awkward for the shuttle being filled in with needle-woven tapestry. When completed, the roundel appeared enclosed in a shadowy lentoid, barely discernable (sic), and not intended to be a decorative element. While the roundel and clavus were woven neatly enough, some details indicate carelessness on the part of the weaver; for example, one warp end was left down for nearly 10 cm before the defective heddle was noticed and corrected, and there are sections of doubled wefts that appear to be accidental, too. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: Two of the figures may be enacting the story of the interrupted sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham, being observed by an angel flying overhead. The theme was a popular one in the late period, but through repetition the design became increasingly debased and nearly unrecognizable, as in the example here. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 56, pp. 136, 162-163, 165.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 29.0, Length = 55.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2423   CAS 0389-2423; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-900 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Rectangle cut from the shoulder area of a tunic. Most of the piece is the natural color of undyed wool. The ornamentation, now in dark-brown (sic) yarn, may have been purple originally. Detached, linear cartouches interrupted by a rectangular panel containing the figure of a snake, light on a dark ground, compose the clavus decoration. The roundel has a spiral wave frame and contains the figure of a bird (a guineafowl? (sic)), with one leaf in its beak and another filling the space behind its head. The material is wool, woven in a near-tabby, 16-15 x 13-11 [warp : weft per square cm], with tapestry inserts, 8 x 38 [warp : weft per square cm]. The tapestry roundel is set in a lentoid, a fact not immediately obvious because the points of the figures are woven in the same color and material as the main ground, but in tapestry, not tabby. The purpose of this was not decorative, but rather a means to avoid an abrupt transition between the ground and the insert that might weaken the textile. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth century. Remarks: The use of a lentoid as a technical, not a decorative, feature occurs on several other Rietz textiles and may be an indication of a particular weaver, workshop, or region. Serpents were important symbols in several first-millenium (sic) religions, often symbolizing wisdom. They had a special place in Gnosticism, in part due to the serpent in the Garden of Eden who instructed Eve. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 51, pp. 82, 136, 156-157.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 22.0, Length = 9.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2424   CAS 0389-2424; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-900 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a tunic clavus. The multicolor clavus band has borders of reverse scallops, each scallop containing a trefoil. The center motifs are quatrefoils and roundels in alternation. Each quatrefoil has a dot rosette, composed of nine dots, in the center. The roundels contain, respectively, a bird with a large spoon-shaped bill, the bust of a woman, robed and wearing a wreath, and a butterfly. The design motifs are worked in brown, dull medium-red, blue-green, light green, and pink on a beige ground. The clavus is woven in tapestry, wool and linen weft on paired linen warps, 8 x 60 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth century. Remarks: The strong degree of stylization of this piece makes its subject matter difficult to recognize at first sight. The elements of the quatrefoil are particularly obscure, but from similar, more realistic examples it can be determined that the motifs are, in fact, rolled acanthus leaves. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 61, pp. 136, 168-169.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.5, Length = 26.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2425   CAS 0389-2425; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a clavus. The clavus has a tan ground, originally white, and is decorated with an inhabited rinceau worked in light brown. The inhabitants are running animals - a hare, a lion, and an antelope. The basic weave is linen rep, 20 x 10 [warp : weft per square cm], with a wool and linen tapestry insert woven on grouped warps, 7 x 32 [warp : weft per square cm]. The tapestry wefts are curved to help define the design. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Related examples: An entire tunic with similar motifs is in London, Victoria and Albert Museum (Kendrick 1920:41, pl. 2). Remarks: Scroll motifs in the form of leafy vines incorporating various zoomorphic motifs have late antique origins but continued to be popular in Early Christian and Medieval art. Running animals sometimes symbolize a hunt, the assumption being that something or someone is chasing them. The hunt, in turn, has its symbolism: the chase refers to the attempt to drive out various evils from an individual’s life and psyche. Note that the lion in this context has a very different meaning than the isolated lion in [specimen CAS 0389-2586]. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 15, pp. 82, 100-101.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 30.0, Length = 10.0
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