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Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1394   CAS 0389-1394; Awl
Category Tools & Implements
Object Name Awl
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Bone
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 1.4, Thickness = 0.7, Length = 16.7

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1395   CAS 0389-1395; Bone implement
Category Tools & Implements
Object Name Bone implement
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Bone
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 1.3, Thickness = 0.8, Length = 13.3

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1396A,B   CAS 0389-1396A,B; Needle (2 pieces)
Category Tools & Implements
Object Name Needle (2 pieces)
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Bone
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 1.1, Thickness = 0.5, Length = 11.7

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1397   CAS 0389-1397; Needle
Category Tools & Implements
Object Name Needle
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Bone
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 1.3, Thickness = 0.3, Length = 9.3

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1495   CAS 0389-1495; Weaving implement (batten)
Category Textiles; Tools & Implements
Object Name Weaving implement (batten)
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wood
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 2.0, Thickness = 0.7, Length = 29.6

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1496   CAS 0389-1496; Weaving implement (batten)
Category Textiles; Tools & Implements
Object Name Weaving implement (batten)
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wood
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 2.4, Thickness = 0.8, Length = 34.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1497A,B   CAS 0389-1497A,B; Needle case
Category Tools & Implements
Object Name Needle case
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wood; Bone
Description
Dimensions (cm) Max Diam = 2.8, Length = 14.9

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-1498   CAS 0389-1498; Needle case
Category Tools & Implements
Object Name Needle case
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture unknown
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wood
Description
Dimensions (cm) Max Diam = 2.0, Length = 13.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2357   CAS 0389-2357; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 72.3, Thickness = 0.5, Length = 82.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2358   CAS 0389-2358; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture Huari
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Camelid fiber
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 80.5, Thickness = 0.2, Length = 103.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2359   CAS 0389-2359; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Gauze
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = ca. 68.4, Length = ca. 86.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2360   CAS 0389-2360; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Coastal
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 94.5, Thickness = 0.3, Length = 79.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2361   CAS 0389-2361; Shirt (modern fabrication)
Category Textiles
Object Name Shirt (modern fabrication)
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist. unknown
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Cotton; Macaw (Arinae sp.) feathers
Description Shirt fabricated from 3 fragments of same or different textiles, each done in plainweave technique with macaw feathers stitched to surfaces of end panels; One panel is predominantly blue with narrow orange band along end; Other panel is predominantly orange with narrow blue band along end and yellow triangular design near center; Center panel with neck slit is undecorated.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 68.5, Thickness = 0.2, Length = 128.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2362   CAS 0389-2362; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 108.0, Thickness = 0.2, Length = 110.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2363   CAS 0389-2363; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Chimu or Chimu-Inka
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool; Cotton
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = ca. 100.0, Length = ca. 158.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2364   CAS 0389-2364; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data “Area down below Nazca - Acari - Ocona”
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture post-Spanish
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description Matches CAS 0389-2578.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 73.7, Thickness = 0.2, Length = 153.3

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2365   CAS 0389-2365; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Highland Andes region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 88.5, Thickness = 0.5, Length = 39.2

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2366   CAS 0389-2366; Sling
Category Textiles; Tools & Implements
Object Name Sling
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast, Nazca Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 5.2, Thickness = 1.7, Length = ca. 303.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2367   CAS 0389-2367; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 125.5, Length = ca. 78.7

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2368   CAS 0389-2368; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Recuay
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Intermediate: 200 BCE - 1400 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 87.0, Length = ca. 151.7

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2370   CAS 0389-2370; Textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile fragment
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian; possibly Chimu or Chancay
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Cotton; Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = ca. 42.0, Thickness = 0.1, Length = ca. 87.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2371   CAS 0389-2371; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Coastal
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture Middle Horizon: 500-800 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 76.6, Thickness = 0.2, Length = 93.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2372   CAS 0389-2372; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Cotton; Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 93.4, Length = 93.2

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2373   CAS 0389-2373; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = ca. 101.0, Length = ca. 153.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2374   CAS 0389-2374; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 69.0, Thickness = 0.3, Length = 60.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2375   CAS 0389-2375; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 370-435 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Piece cut from a woman’s mantle or veil. This piece is decorated with four dark purple squares symmetrically arranged on a plain, light tan ground. The squares are patterned with geometric designs worked in tan. The ground is linen rep, 26 x 20 [warp : weft per square cm], the tapestry squares are wool on linen warp. The yarn is fine and so densely packed that the thread count cannot be determined. The weft-float patterning of the surface was worked in two gauges of linen yarn. The rep ground has fringed edges and decorative ridges made from groups of bundled weft yarns placed at intervals. The sequence is as follows, from one preserved edge to the other: fringe, 2 cm, plain weave, 2 cm. In the center of this latter is a ridge composed of four shots of bundled wefts. Next is 2 cm of bare warp followed by 1 cm of plain weave. Last there is a group of ridges about 2 cm wide containing three smaller groups, each formed from three shots of bundled weft. After this is 59 cm of plain weave, and then the edge treatment is repeated in reverse, ending with fringe. The other two edges have been cut with shears, most certainly in recent times. The tapestry squares are approximately 13 x 13 cm and are placed in the corners of an imaginary square 48 cm on a side. Their decoration was precisely worked in two gauges of natural-color linen yarn. They originally were part of [an older] linen textile that was slightly coarser than the one they now decorate. The cut edges were neatly turned under and the square whip-stitched in place. At some point in this operation the cloth behind the squares was trimmed away. All yarn is S-twist. Late fourth or early fifth century. Remarks: Fringed veils sparsely ornamented with colored squares are worn by the female martyrs shown in procession on the upper left side of the nave of Sant’Appollinare Nuovo, Ravenna, Italy; this depiction lends support to the identification of [this] fragment as part of a woman’s garment (Paolucci 1978:58). The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 9, pp. 82, 94-95.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 68.0, Length = 70.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2376   CAS 0389-2376; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Rectangle cut from a mantle (?) (sic). The principal motif is a star, dark purple on a plain ground, originally white but now discolored. The eight-pointed star was constructed from two overlapping squares. The top square has a cable border and a center roundel containing an intricate knot pattern delineated in linen thread. The corners contain ivy leaves and tendrils worked in two colors of yarn, saffron and cream. The colors were woven in separate shots, two saffron, one cream, and repeat (sic). The small roundel in the center was worked in the same way and in the same colors. Only the corners of the bottom square are visible - they contain vine leaves. From one of these depends, or extends, a rinceau band with a vase motif at the end. The ground is linen rep, 18-26 x 9 [warp : weft per square cm]; the motif is tapestry, wool and linen weft on grouped linen warps, 5 x 36 [warp : weft per square cm]. The surface of the tapestry motif is ornamented in weft-float patterning carried out in two gauges of linen yarn. The piece retains one selvedge, most probably the right-hand one. The sequence of weaving appears to have been as follows: (1) An area of rep was woven up to the bottom of the main motif. (2) Warps to be used for the tapestry portions were selected and a second set of heddles put in place. In doing this, the selected warps were doubled or tripled, in no obvious sequence, and the unneeded warps left to float at the back. (3) Woven next were a few centimeters of tapestry, complete with weft-float ornament. (4) Concurrent with the weaving of the tapestry, a corresponding number of centimeters of rep were woven, filling the space on either side of the tapestry insert. The shots for the rep cross the warp in a straight line and pass under the tapestry insert and behind the unused warps. A number of these are still extant; others appear to have been cut away. Small, irregular spaces around the tapestry inserts are filled in with tapestry worked in the same linen yarn used for the rep portions of the piece in order to make these filler areas less conspicuous. (5) Steps 3 and 4 were repeated until the tapestry insert was completed. After the shape of the insert was established, the weaver appears to have woven the tapestry in sections in order to define the inner forms of the design; for example, the two lower corners of the square section were worked slightly ahead of the center roundel, building up an arc into which the center roundel fits. This helps retain the symmetry of the roundel, always in danger of becoming an oval under the downward action of the beater as the weft is compressed. The use of grouped linen warps for the tapestry portions of a two-fiber textile are clearly visible in [this specimen] where the wool weft has disintegrated. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Related examples: Paris, Louvre AC 181 (Du Bourguet 1964) and Moscow, Pushkin Museum inv. #320 (Shurinova 1967:54). Remarks: A star motif of identical form decorates the mantle of the principal court lady of the empress Theodora shown in the sixth-century apse mosaic of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy. [This] textile may have been part of a similar, though earlier, woman’s mantle. Note the protective interlace in the middle, here relegated to a relatively minor part of the design, The ivy leaves are a Classical motif that refers sometimes to the god Dionysus and his maenad followers, and sometimes to his follower, Orpheus, around whom an important cult developed in the late Roman period. Orphism is related to Pythagoreanism, which holds that numbers and geometric constructions have esoteric meanings and powers. Some late Roman or Coptic geometric ornaments may have been inspired by Pythagorean philosophy. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 8, pp. 82, 92-93.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 33.0, Length = 54.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2377   CAS 0389-2377; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 300-350 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tapestry insert cut from a linen textile. The design is a dark, purple-tinged brown, eight-pointed star composed of two separate, never-ending knots, interlaced together. The bands of the interlace are double; one half is plain, the other filled with a spiral-wave design. The square and triangular spaces not covered by the bands are filled with trefoils; the octagon in the middle is filled with an allover (sic) design of lozenges. What little remains of the ground is cream-colored and the patterning is tan. The insert is made from wool and linen wefts woven on grouped linen warp, 6 x 58 [warp : weft per square cm], with weft-float patterning in two sizes of linen yarn. Originally part of a large (?) (sic) linen textile, now all that remains is this tapestry insert. It was woven in segments, horizontal and vertical bars and triangles. The outlines of these forms correspond to the lines of the interlace and its filler motifs. Slits were whip-stitched closed with linen yarn, an application that is at once practical and decorative. The wool yarn may have been purple originally. Color changes indicate that at least two different dye lots of yarn were used. These changes also testify to the section-by-section method of weaving described. All yarn is S-twist. First half of the fourth century. Related examples: Paris, Louvre AC 150 (Du Bourguet 1964, no. A 11) and Washington D.C. (sic), Textile Museum 71.104 (Trilling 1982, no. 82). Remarks: A patch pasted on the back in recent times could be a scrap of the original linen that surrounded the insert. The intact textile may have been an altar cloth. The southern lunette of the sanctuary of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy contains a mosaic depicting the sacrifices of Abel and Melchizedek (Grabar 1966:156). The cloth on their alter is ornamented with an eight-pointed star very similar in form to [this] specimen. Complex interlace patterns are almost universally believed to have protective powers, guarding against the evil eye. The tendency when looking at such a pattern is to trace the path of the interlace visually, thus keeping the eye moving. (It was a fixed stare that was considered dangerous.) Some ancient beliefs held that even sacred things needed protection from the evil eye. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 4, pp. 82, 86-87.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 28.0, Length = 30.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2378   CAS 0389-2378; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-535 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a decorated textile. The framework of the design is a simple rinceau. In the roundels formed by the stems are a kneeling man, a basket, and a large-eyed hound wearing a broad collar. Vine and figures are purple with touches of yellow, and the basket is red, yellow, and green. The background is cream. What remains of the textile is tapestry weave, wool and linen wefts on paired linen warps, 7 x 14 [warp : weft per square cm]. The weft shots follow the curves of the design rather than crossing in straight lines. The warps are strictly divided, two by two. All yarn is S-twist. Early sixth century. Remarks: Like Number 28 [CAS 0389-2385], this fragment may have been a part of a square cushion ornament. For the symbolism of the dog wearing a collar see remarks [for CAS 0389-2433]. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 30, pp. 116, 120-121.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 8.0, Length = 27.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2379   CAS 0389-2379; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tunic fragment. The design areas on this fragment are a rectangular motif from the shoulder portion of the tunic and a part of one clavus. The rectangle has a spiral-wave border. Inside is an oval framing an armed man, perhaps a gladiator. The clavus is decorated with a well-formed stylized grapevine with leaves and grape clusters. Level with the shoulder motif is a small, equal-armed, dark purple cross with dots in the angles. A second cross, this one light on dark (sic) appears in a small rectangle at one end of the clavus. The design was executed in linen and wool yarns. The latter is now dark purple tinged with brown, but the color may have been brighter originally. The ground is natural linen rep, 20 x 13 [warp : weft per square cm]. The clavus and the shoulder rectangle are tapestry, woven on grouped warps in wool and linen yarns. The rep ground has shadow weft stripes formed of bundles of weft. The shots forming the stripes occur in pairs or in groups of three. Tapestry ornaments have curved wefts that follow the lines of the design. Small details were picked out in linen yarn worked as erratic weft floats while weaving was in progress. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Remarks: While the decorative motifs on this fragment are Classical in origin, the crosses may indicate that the original owner of the tunic was a Christian or someone who believed that the cross served as a protective device. The fully dressed and armed warrior is set to fight mortal dangers, not spiritual ones, yet may also have a protective intent. The size of the decorative elements indicates that the tunic was a small one, no doubt intended for a child. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 20, pp. 29, 102, 108-109.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 13.0, Length = 34.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2380   CAS 0389-2380; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Bawit (Baweet), probably
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-600 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Fragment of an ecclesiastical tapestry from Bawit (?) (sic). The elements of the design were worked in two shades of dull yellow, a (sic) brick red, dull green, and indigo blue. What remains of the design is a portion of a decorated band framed by two narrower plain ones. In the center of the main is a strangely formed quadruped with hooves, large ears, and a long, thick tail. On the right is a jeweled cross with four birds in the angle formed on the upright and crossbar. On the left is an unoccupied jeweled throne, only partly preserved, with a bird above the remaining arm. Four small beasts with long ears and tails fill the remaining areas of the background. The fragment was woven in tapestry weave, entirely in wool, 9 x 20 [warp : weft per square cm]. It was carefully worked; the back of the piece appears nearly the same as the front, with no hanging threads and almost no weft floats. All yarn is S-twist. Sixth century. Related examples: Jeweled crosses with birds in the angles appear on textiles in London, Victoria and Albert Museum (Kendrick 1921: no. 313 pl. 5, no. 314 pl. 6). Remarks: The themes on this textile fragment are decidedly Christian in nature and are often found in Byzantine art. The empty throne symbolizes the preparation for the second coming of Christ. The jeweled cross signifies the Transfiguration of Christ. The beast may represent one of the Evangelists, Saint Luke, in his symbolic form of a bull. If so, the other three Evangelists were undoubtedly also present on the tapestry when it was complete. The theme of the vacant jeweled throne, the Hetoimasia, appears in the cupola mosaics of the Arian Baptistery in Ravenna, built in the last fifth century (Paolucci 1978:55). [This] tapestry is slightly later in date. Since it was woven with both sides nearly alike, the piece may have belonged to a church or baptistery door curtain. Bawit, where the piece is thought to have been found, is the site of a large and important monastery that grew and flourished for nearly a millennium. It was founded by a follower of Saint Pachomius the Great in the early fifth century. A large burial ground associated with it has been a rich source of textile remains. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 37, pp. 116, 130-131; color plate, p. 73.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 19.0, Length = 12.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2381   CAS 0389-2381; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Fragment of a tunic sleeve. The fragment has a dark yellow ground with figures and borders in dark brown. The design is a band with spiral-wave borders framing a row of figures. The figures that remain on the fragment are two warriors and, between them, a small lion. The ground line along which the lion runs is at a right angle to that of the warriors. The entire piece is woven in tapestry, wool weft on wool warp, 8 x 20-50 [warp : weft per square cm]. The weaving is fine and even and the reverse is unusually neat with short weft floats. All yarn is S-twist. A ninth- or tenth-century version of a sixth-century motif. Remarks: The yellow ground and certain features of the design indicate that the piece may have been made during a period of persecution after the Arab conquest when Coptic Egyptians were required to wear yellow garments, either during the time of Tulunid governors, 868-906 [CE], or the succeeding Ikhshidid dynasty, 935-969 [CE]. The piece is another member of the class of Coptic textiles discussed in the remarks for Number 16 [CAS 0389-2426]. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 25, pp. 102, 114-115; color plate, p. 70.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.0, Length = 20.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2382   CAS 0389-2382; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 1000-1100 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Decorated roundel from a tunic. The dark pink ground of this piece is slightly faded (the reverse is darker than the front). The design is worked in linen that has darkened with time and dirt. The main motif is a starlike (sic), linear floral interlace with a small, spirited lion occupying the center. Around the edge is a row of small crosses attached by their bases to the narrow band that encircles the roundel. The roundel is woven on two-ply Z-twist linen warp, with S-twist wool and linen weft, 11 x 76 [warp : weft per square cm]. The technique is tapestry, worked with curving wefts that follow the line of the design. There are long weft floats on the back. Like so many of the extant textiles, this roundel was cut from another, probably worn-out, garment and reused. The edges were turned under and the piece was attached to the new garment by rather long, judging from the spacing of the needle holes, running stitches. All yarn is S-twist. Eleventh century. Remarks: Lions, as mentioned previously [CAS 0389-2431], have protective attributes. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 69, pp. 136, 180-181.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 11.0, Length = 11.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2383   CAS 0389-2383; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 470-535 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a textile ornament. The fragment retains a group of figures rendered in dark brown on a linen ground that is considerably discolored. The design is a roundel delineated by a plain, solid-color band enclosing a group of men and lions. The men are armed with large stones and small shields, and they wear short mantles. Each attacks a lion. The lion-man groups face in opposite directions and are set one above the other on a diagonal. What remains of the piece is tapestry on grouped linen warps, linen and wool weft 15 x 40 [warp : weft per square cm]. Curving wefts help to accentuate the design. A few small details appear to be embroidered. All yarn is S-twist. Late fifth or early sixth century. Related examples: The style and form of ornamentation on a child’s tunic in Brooklyn, acc. # 749 (Thompson 1971:44, no. 17) is quite similar to [this] fragment. Remarks: The appearance of the textile of which this is a fragment may be inferred from the Brooklyn child’s tunic. In the Brooklyn example, the roundel (really more nearly an oval) that contains the figures is set in a rectangle that is in turn framed with a rinceau. Battles between men and animals are thought to signify the struggle between the good and evil in human nature. The idea is an ancient one, retained in later times. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 21, pp. 102, 110.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.0, Length = 10.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2384   CAS 0389-2384; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Oval garment ornament. The ornament has a wide, outer border with dark pink ground and a linear rinceau worked in linen, now beige in color, but originally white. In a smaller oval in the center is a stylized flower in a wreath of multicolored leaves, dark pink, dull yellow, and two shades of green. The ground is beige. The weave is tapestry with linen warp, wool and linen weft, 9 x 50 [warp : weft per square cm]. The work is exceptionally fine with short weft floats on the back. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: Multicolored leaves arranged in bands or garlands form a common motif in architectural mosaics. An early example appears in the mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna, Italy, built in the fifth century. [This] textile version is more rigid and is certainly later in date. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 70, pp. 136, 180-181.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.0, Length = 12.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2385   CAS 0389-2385; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-600 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a tapestry square from a cushion (?) (sic). This fragment is part of a square motif with a wide, compound border enclosing five roundels, a small one in each corner, a large one in the center. The pattern is worked in purple, green, orange, and red on a cream-colored ground. The main part of the border contains a braid delineated in white on a purple ground. At the outer edge is an inverted arcade with a small roundel under each arch. What remains of the large central roundel indicates that it may have contained a representation of a centaur. The one extant corner roundel contains a male figure wearing a short cloak and apparently trampling grapes, represented by thirteen purple dots. Next to this corner roundel is a vase from which grows a grapevine. This piece was woven entirely in tapestry with wool and linen weft on wool warp, 11 x 40 [warp : weft per square cm]. Details and the pattern of the border were worked in weft floats. All yarn is S-twist. Sixth century. Remarks: The 3.4 cm of surviving selvedge indicates that the piece may have been woven as a single unit that was then stitched to a larger textile. Similar specimens have been discovered attached to weft-loop-pile textiles intended to cover cushions. This piece belongs to a large group of polychrome textiles that retain design elements derived from Greek art but which have acquired Christian symbolism. Vintage scenes showing the crushing of the grapes to make wine can be understood as a symbol for the sacrifice of Jesus. An overflowing vase, here overflowing with grapevines, sometimes signifies one of the rivers of Paradise. When complete, the design may have included a total of four vases, one for each of the four rivers of Paradise. A centaur or a horseman is a symbol of good, controlling or attempting to control one’s baser instincts. Colorful as this piece is, it should be noted that the disposition of the colors is not at all realistic. Purple is the dominant color, used for the border, the rinceau, and the figures, while red, green, and orange enliven the minor details. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 28, pp. 116-118, 194; color plate, cover page.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 15., Length = 9.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2386   CAS 0389-2386; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Akhmîm (Panopolis)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE, possibly
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Silk; Linen
Description “Tunic shoulder-band pendant medallion from Akhmîm. Cream-colored warp, light green and cream-colored weft. Symmetrical floral design composed of small block-shaped units. The back of the textile shows the design in reverse. A silk, weft-faced drawloom twill, there is one main warp between two binder warps with three main warps to a pattern unit. The warp is single-ply Z-twist; the weft yarns appear to have no twist at all. The piece is heavily damaged and has been crudely and wrongly restored by pasting small pieces of linen cloth to the back. Its original form can be conjectured by the observation of related textiles in other collections. Edges of the piece have been folded under, indicating that it was appliquéd to a garment. Fifth century in style, but perhaps later in construction. Related examples: London, Victoria and Albert Museum, 798, 799 (Kendrick 1922); Textile Museum, Washington D.C. (sic), 721.10 (Bellinger 1950-52:15). Remarks: A linen garment with silk appliqués woven in a similar style is extant, London, Victoria and Albert Museum, 794 (sic) (Kendrick 1922). Drawloom textiles of the class to which [this] specimen belongs had a long life (see Grube 1962). The complexity of the weave was such that it discouraged creativity or even experimentation with modest variations, so once drafted, a pattern tended to remain unchanged for generations. Akhmîm is the modern name for the ancient city of Panopolis. It may have been a center for the production of drawloom silks. In the Early Christian period a large monastery was founded nearby, the White Monastery, which still stands and is used as a place of worship. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 34, pp. 116, 125, 128.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 11.0, Length = 12.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2387   CAS 0389-2387; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a square tunic ornament. The brown pattern elements that decorate this fragment have a beige, originally white, ground. The motif is square, and it is bordered with small roundels, ‘pearls,’ seven on a side. A large roundel in the center contains a depiction of a running hound surrounded by leafy sprays. Most of what remains of this fragment was woven in tapestry on grouped linen warps, wool and linen weft, 6 x 24-48 [warp : weft per square cm], and rep, all linen, 16 x 14 [warp : weft per square cm]. Normal tapestry technique with weft shots curved to accentuate lines of design (sic). All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Remarks: The ‘pearl’ border of this piece is a common design feature of Persian silks. In Eastern art, jeweled frames imply that the subject so decorated is special in some way - magical or spiritual. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 23, pp. 102, 112-113.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 11.0, Length = 10.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2388   CAS 0389-2388; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-600 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Square decorative garment insert. The ground of the square is dark blue, with a border of red hooks. The center motif of four birds seated in a fanciful symmetrical plant, is worked in pink, green, and off-white. The weave is tapestry, wool warp, linen and wool weft, 14-16 x 27 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Sixth century. Related examples: Washington D.C. (sic), Textile Museum (Riefstahl 1941, no. 178). Remarks: Essentially, this is a tree-of-life motif in abbreviated form. The motif refers to a tree in the garden of Eden and also to the Tree, that is the cross, of the Crucifixion. (The connection between this cross and the tree of life is sometimes indicated by placing birds in the angles made by the cross arm, as can be seen in another textile in the Rietz Collection, Number 37 [CAS 0389-2380].) Different varieties of birds have particular meanings in Early Christian art. Doves, perhaps the smaller of the two [types of] birds depicted here, signify deliverance and the Holy Ghost. Peacocks, the two larger birds, are symbols of immortality. The tree-of-life motif is fairly common in Coptic textiles, usually rendered in a style related to that of Sassanian silks. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 36, pp. 116, 130-131; color plate, p. 72.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 6.5, Length = 6.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2389   CAS 0389-2389; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Akhmîm (Panopolis)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-900 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tunic roundel from Akhmîm. The roundel has a wide, dark pink border decorated with an arcade, each arch containing a ‘pearl.’ In the center is a dark pink motif on a tan ground that may represent a man attacking a lion. There is one filler-motif, a small quatrefoil. Made of wool and linen weft on dyed linen warp, 7 x 50 [warp : weft per square cm], the roundel was woven in a normal tapestry technique. The dyed warps are of three different colors, dark blue, dark yellow, and light brown, regularly arranged. Since this has no visible effect so far as the tapestry roundel is concerned, it is probable that the garment ornamented by the roundel was woven in a pattern weave, for example, a three-rod twill, which would have made effective use of the three colors. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth century (?) (sic). Remarks: At present, the roundel is mounted on a linen textile, possibly ancient, but not related to it. For information about the site, see remarks for Number 34 [CAS 0389-2386]. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 58, pp. 136, 166-167.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 15.5, Length = 15.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2390   CAS 0389-2390; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a tunic clavus. What remains is a multicolored band with double jewel inlay borders framing a variety of motifs: two nude dancers, a winged child, a winged dog, and a fragmentary motif that may represent the lower part of a standing, robed figure. On a dark pink ground, figures and border are worked in medium pink, black, light green, gray, beige, and dull yellow. The fragment is tapestry, woven in wool and linen weft, linen warp, 8 x 36 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Seventh century. Remarks: This clavus fragment is mounted on a linen cloth, perhaps ancient, but unrelated. Turned-under edges indicate that the piece was reused in antiquity. The theme of the motif could be Dionysian, the robed figure representing this god. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 41, pp. 136-137.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 8.5, Length = 18.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2391   CAS 0389-2391; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic sleeve fragment. The dark yellow ground is decorated with bands and figures in dull purple and dark green. The design is organized as two identical bands, each with a single line of reverse arcade on the outermost edge. The filler motif, a fish nibbling the stem of a floating water plant, is repeated nine times on each band. The motifs are disposed in double rows on each band, forming two processions of fish swimming in opposite directions. The weave is tapestry with wool warp and weft, 10 x 78 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century (?) (sic). Related example: London, Victoria and Albert Museum (Kendrick 1920, no. 18 pl. 26; Baginski and Tidhar 1980:79, no. 97). Remarks: The fish and water plant motif was a common one in ancient Egyptian art and continued in use during the Coptic period, one of the few ancient motifs to be retained by Coptic artists. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 52, pp. 136, 158-159; color plate, p. 141.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 22.0, Length = 15.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2392   CAS 0389-2392; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 700-800 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Fragment of a tunic sleeve. The sleeve is decorated with brown bands and figures on a cream-colored ground. The design is composed of two bands filled with figures and separated by a narrow band with a simple cable pattern. The outer border bands are edged with a reverse scallop, each point terminating with a vine leaf. (One border band is missing, but presumably it matched the other.) In the center of the figured bands are ovals, each containing the figure of a hare. Flanking the ovals are pairs of lozenges with vine scrolls at the corner, containing, respectively, a smaller lozenge with vine leaves, a pair of fish, a single fish, and a standing bird (a guineafowl? (sic)). The sleeve is tapestry, woven on paired warps with wool warp and weft, 16 x 24 [warp : weft per square cm]. There are many short slits left open. All yarn is S-twist. Eighth century. Remarks: The figured elements suggest a heraldic or zodiacal symbolism with possible significance to the original owner or the textile. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 50, pp. 136, 154-155.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 27.0, Length = 15.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2393   CAS 0389-2393; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 1000-1200 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a decorated textile. This multicolored square ornament is composed of geometric motifs. In the center is a circle framed by a square. In each corner a smaller circle is connected to the middle square by a short length of cable pattern. A band containing a braid connects the small roundels at top and bottom, a wider band with a species of twined pattern (sic) connects the roundels at the sides. The middle circle is filled with small geometric motifs, the outer circles by lozenges. The piece is tapestry weave with linen warp and wool and linen weft, 8 x 32 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Eleventh or twelfth century. Remarks: The design bears a resemblance to designs found on some early medieval jeweled book covers. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 72, pp. 136, 182-183.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 13.0, Length = 12.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2394   CAS 0389-2394; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 370-435 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Square cut from a woman’s tunic. A formal, monochrome rinceau with filler-motifs, originally purple but now brown, decorates this piece. Three of its roundels contain symmetrical plants, three others animals. Two of the animals are hounds and one is a lion. The backgrounds of the animals are shaded; backgrounds of the plants, plain. Leaves, or possibly lotus pods, sprout from the vine stalks. The leaves of the small plants resemble vine leaves. The linen tabby ground, 16 x 16 [warp : weft per square cm], has tapestry inserts woven in wool on grouped linen warps, 9 x 48 [warp : weft per square cm]. The weaving reflects considerable skill - the threads are fine and placed with precision. All yarn is S-twist. Late fourth or early fifth century. Related example: An entire garment in Moscow, Pushkin Museum inv. #5823 (Shurinova 1967:5). Remarks: The piece could be a part of a garment resembling the tunic in the Pushkin Collection, cited above, which is ornamented with motifs nearly identical to those of [this] specimen. The Moscow tunic has been identified as a woman’s dress. From depictions in art it appears that the garments of women were more extensively decorated than those of men and were more likely to feature figured or floral motifs in their decorations. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 13, pp. 82, 99.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 27.0, Length = 17.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2395   CAS 0389-2395; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Square tunic ornament. The ground is tan, the ornament dull purple and cream. The design is based upon a square. This has a reversed arcade border and smaller square in its center with a cruciform-knot filler motif. The remainder of the basic square is filled with four gammulae, two of them decorated with filler motifs of disks and fish-form blobs, two with a pattern composed of cruciform rosettes. The technique is tapestry on grouped linen warps with wool and linen weft, 11 x 48 [warp : weft per square cm]. Some of the ornament is done in weft floats. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Remarks: The knot motif used on this piece may be a form of cross. The design organization is the same as that of the squares on Number 9 [CAS 0389-2375], but the filler motifs are much coarser. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 17, pp. 102, 105.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 11.5, Length = 13.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2396   CAS 0389-2396; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Section of a tunic neck band (?) (sic). The fragment is a polychrome band with one plain border and one jeweled border of rectangular ‘gems’ in plain settings. The design motifs are flower sprays and a nude female dancer with a narrow, green scarf draped over her left arm and a basket or cornucopia of flowers held in her raised right hand. The figure and the borders are worked in beige, light green, and black on a dark rose-red ground. The band is woven in tapestry on linen warp with wool and linen weft, 10 x 58 [warp : weft per square cm]. One border is worked in such a manner as to give a three-dimensional effect, accomplished by overpacking (sic) the weft, thus causing the surface to pucker. There is a double row of twining on one end. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth or tenth century. Remarks: The piece was reused in antiquity. Nudity, as mentioned earlier [CAS 0389-2539], had connotations of purity. A tunic fragment in Brooklyn, Brooklyn Museum of Art acc. no. 38.753, is decorated with a nude woman dancing in an area defined by a representation of a chain supporting a jeweled cross (Thompson 1971:82-83). [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 54, pp. 136, 160.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 5.0, Length = 17.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2397   CAS 0389-2397; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 270-335 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Square emblem cut from a pallium (?) (sic). The square has a red-purple ground with a pattern worked in white. The design consists of a border of stylized grape leaves surrounding a center block composed of four similar grape leaves. At the top and bottom of the square is a cable pattern that degenerates at the sides, becoming a sketchy design suggesting chicken scratches. The little that remains of the ground was woven in linen rep, 22 x 9 [warp : weft per square cm]. The background of the emblem was woven in tapestry, wool weft on grouped linen warps, 16 x 13 [warp : weft per square cm]. The details of the design were worked in a combination of embroidery and weft floats. The tapestry background of the emblem was woven in evenly placed straight shots; the weft-float surface pattern was worked over it as the background weaving progressed. All yarn is S-twist. Late third or early fourth century. Remarks: The pallium, as it is shown worn by ordinary men in Early Christian art, is commonly decorated with square purple emblems. Such emblems may have signified social position or office. The simple design of this specimen might have been intended to appeal to a follower of one of the more austere schools of philosophy. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 1, pp. 82-84.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 18.5, Length = 18.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2398   CAS 0389-2398; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 270-335 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Oval dress ornament. The ornament is an orbiculum with a linear pattern of diagonally-placed (sic) meander bands, delineated in tan on a red-purple ground. The motif was woven in the tapestry technique, in fine wool yarn on paired linen warps, 8 x 50 [warp : weft per square cm]. The surface patterning was created from weft floats of undyed linen thread. The ground motif was woven in sections that conform to the main lines of the surface patterning. All yarn is S-twist. Late third or early fourth century. Related examples: Paris, Louvre (Du Bourguet 1964, no. A 23). Remarks: Tunics in Early Christian and Byzantine art were often decorated with matching sets of round, square, or oval motifs, one motif over each shoulder and two others placed in the region of the knees. It is possible that they were intended to guard the vital arm and knee joints from real or imagined dangers. The delicate, restrained linear decoration is typical of the period. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 3, pp. 82, 84-85.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 18.5, Length = 16.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2399   CAS 0389-2399; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Bawit (Baweet), probably
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Part of a coverlet or hanging from Bawit (?) (sic). The allover (sic) design is composed of plain band alternating with figured ones. The figured bands have compound borders consisting of a plain band and one occupied by trefoils linked by half-circles. Fabulous beings and symmetrical plant forms comprise the motifs of the figured bands. The ground is dark pink, and the dividing borders and figures are worked in dull red, beige, medium pink, blue-green, and black. The weave is tapestry, worked entirely in wool, 7 x 38 [warp : weft per square cm]. The warp has been dyed. All yarn is S-twist. Seventh century. Remarks: The fanciful nature of the figures, the trefoil borders, and the general organization of the design all recall the much earlier banded embroidered textile found in Noin Ula, which has Hellenistic elements in its design (Trever 1932, pl. 3, 7). For notes on the presumed find site of [this] textile see the remarks for Number 37 [CAS 0389-2380]. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 43, pp. 45, 136, 147; color plate, p. 146.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 15.0, Length = 26.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2400   CAS 0389-2400; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Assy t (Assuit)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Two fragments of a tunic from Assy t [CAS 0389-2400, 0389-2404]. One fragment is from the sleeve of the tunic and is ornamented with a polychrome design organized in bands on a beige ground. The lower two bands are decorated with a pink-and-green lozenge pattern with Greek crosses as filler motifs. These have yellow and green borders of spiral-wave design (sic). The upper band [CAS 0389-2400] contains two rows of dark blue and light green flying genii wearing derbylike (sic) hats and carrying large bowls in their outstretched arms. The other fragment [CAS 0389-2404] is from the yoke. This fragment contains three figured bands separated by rows of geometric motifs resembling spearheads and hooks in shades of yellow, green, and pink. The upper two figured bands contain pink and dark blue running hounds, each in a cartouche. The lower bands contain green creatures with long snouts, crocodiles (?) (sic). The technique of both pieces is tapestry, wool and linen [S-twist] weft on two-ply Z-twist linen warps. The thread count of the sleeve piece is 5 x 54 [warp : weft per square cm], of the yoke piece, 6 x 50 [warp : weft per square cm]. Portions of both side selvedges are preserved on the sleeve fragment. Seventh century. Remarks: Assy t, the presumed provenance of this piece, may not have been its place of manufacture. The figure style of the textile places it in a class of textiles produced in a weaving center believed to have been located farther south, in Upper Egypt. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 35A, pp. 116, 128-129.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 22.0, Length = 27.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2401   CAS 0389-2401; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Assuit
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 1000-1100 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Section of a tunic sleeve. The sleeve has a plain beige ground with a rectangular red-purple insert. The insert is bordered top and bottom with a band of small crosses and is divided into three parts. An oval in the middle panel contains an equal-armed cross, a lesser oval with (sic) a small cross at the center. The arms of the main cross are decorated with a stylized vine with leaves, grape clusters, and tendrils. The side panels are divided down the center by a band of small crosses and are filled with motifs that vaguely suggest crosses and anchors. The piece is wool, tapestry weave with different thread counts in the ground and ornament, [respectively] 12 x 32 [warp : weft per square cm] and 11 x 64 [warp : weft per square cm]. There are some embroidered details. Three selvedges are preserved. The side selvedges were woven over two warp bundles to make a firm edge. The upper selvedge was finished by twisting unused warp ends in such a way as to form a corded edge. All yarn is S-twist. Eleventh century. Remarks: The somewhat obscure nature of the Christian symbols may have been a response to a ruling that required Christians to signify their religion by their dress combined with a desire on the part of the wearer to make such indicators as inconspicuous as possible. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 67, pp. 136, 176, 179; color plate, p. 145.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 25.0, Length = 28.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2402   CAS 0389-2402; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 300-335 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Section cut from a tunic sleeve. The tan ground, originally white, bears two bands decorated with dark purple, double-scroll motifs alternating with small roundels. Each roundel is ornamented with a small rosette. The ground is linen rep, 24 x 15 [warp : weft per square cm], the inserts wool tapestry, 10 x 26 [warp : weft per square cm], with weft-floated ornament. Both right and left selvedges are preserved. The weaving of the ornamental motifs appears to have started at the left, and each motif was completed before the next one was started. Above the decorated bands is a shadow band composed of four shots of bundled wefts. The method of inserting weft floats can be clearly seen on the reverse side. All yarn is S-twist. Early fourth century. Remarks: White tunics with plain or simply ornamented, double purple sleeve bands occur frequently in Early Christian art. Usually the tunics also carried matching bands descending vertically from the shoulders on both the front and the back. Like the [textile CAS 0389-2397], the modest design might have been considered suitable for a person of philosophical bent. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 2, pp. 1, 82, 84-85; color plate, p. 67.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 20.0, Length = 33.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2403   CAS 0389-2403; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tunic sleeve ornament. The ornament consists of two dark purple bands, each bearing an identical angular knot interlace. Between the bands is a row of two varieties of symmetrical cartouches, dark purple in color. The ground is tan linen rep. The linen rep ground has a count of 13 x 8 [warp : weft per square cm], and is ornamented with a ridged band made from three shots of bundled wefts. The tapestry insert was woven in wool and linen weft on linen warp, 11 x 54 [warp : weft per square cm], in a normal tapestry weave with weft-float ornamentation. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century (?) (sic). Remarks: This sleeve ornament was reused in antiquity. At present, it is lightly glued to the plain rep textile. This latter is ancient, and may be part of the tunic to which the sleeve ornament last belonged. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 10, pp. 82, 96-97.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 22.0, Length = 33.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2404   CAS 0389-2404; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Assy t (Assuit)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Two fragments of a tunic from Assy t [CAS 0389-2400, 0389-2404]. One fragment is from the sleeve of the tunic and is ornamented with a polychrome design organized in bands on a beige ground. The lower two bands are decorated with a pink-and-green lozenge pattern with Greek crosses as filler motifs. These have yellow and green borders of spiral-wave design (sic). The upper band [CAS 0389-2400] contains two rows of dark blue and light green flying genii wearing derbylike (sic) hats and carrying large bowls in their outstretched arms. The other fragment [CAS 0389-2404] is from the yoke. This fragment contains three figured bands separated by rows of geometric motifs resembling spearheads and hooks in shades of yellow, green, and pink. The upper two figured bands contain pink and dark blue running hounds, each in a cartouche. The lower bands contain green creatures with long snouts, crocodiles (?) (sic). The technique of both pieces is tapestry, wool and linen [S-twist] weft on two-ply Z-twist linen warps. The thread count of the sleeve piece is 5 x 54 [warp : weft per square cm], of the yoke piece, 6 x 50 [warp : weft per square cm]. Portions of both side selvedges are preserved on the sleeve fragment. Seventh century. Remarks: Assy t, the presumed provenance of this piece, may not have been its place of manufacture. The figure style of the textile places it in a class of textiles produced in a weaving center believed to have been located farther south, in Upper Egypt. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 35B, pp. 116, 128-129; color plate, p. 71.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 20.0, Length = 22.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2405   CAS 0389-2405; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Upper portion of a tunic front. The polychrome design on a dark pink ground is organized as a rectangular panel framed on three sides by plain and figured dark blue bands. Some of the figures appear to represent butterflies: the other are nude dancer. At the upper end of the panel is a rectangle containing stylized figures that could represent satyrs and maenads. Standing in the center is an imposing, robed figure. The technique is tapestry, 7 x 30 [warp : weft per square cm], woven entirely in wool and so carefully worked that the front and the back are nearly identical. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: The figure in the center may be Dionysus or Orpheus. Some late antique religious cults worshipped Dionysus or Orpheus in connection with Neopythagoreanism, interpreting them as representations of sacrifice and rebirth. The figures in the border, butterflies and putti, are emblems of Eros and Psyche, mythical figures whose story was given meaning on a metaphysical level by certain pagan-influenced thinkers of the early Christian era. The form of the dot-cluster filler motifs is typical of textiles known to have been woven during the Fatimid period which helps date this piece. The dark pink ground is also a late feature. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 55, pp. 136, 160-163.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 38.0, Length = 27.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2406   CAS 0389-2406; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 370-435 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Pallium ornament. The dark purple rectangle has a wide border of two plain bands edging a third band decorated with widely spaced circles. The circles contain four-petaled rosette filler-motifs. In the center of the rectangle is an elaborate curvilinear geometric interlace. The rectangle was worked in wool and linen on grouped linen warps, 6 x 40 [warp : weft per square cm]. The weave is tapestry. The lines of the design were carried out in weft floats and embroidery done during the course of the weaving. Three techniques: tapestry, ressort, and embroidery, are skillfully combined in the decoration of [this specimen]. All yarn is S-twist. Late fourth or early fifth century. Remarks: In antiquity, this piece was cut from the garment it decorated originally and applied to another. White pallia ornamented with large purple rectangles were worn by court officials in late antique times, as evidenced by works of art; for example, the apse mosaic of the emperor Justinian and his court in San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy (Grabar 1966:158-164; Paolucci 1978:46, 47, 50, 51). [This] example is earlier, judging from the style of the interlace design. The interlace design, like that of Number 4 [CAS 0389-2377], may have been intended to avert, or divert, the evil eye, protecting the wearer of the ornament from its baleful effects. A highly placed official would need such protection, given the rough nature of the politics of the period. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 7, pp. 82, 90-91; color plate, p. 68.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 34.0, Length = 39.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2407   CAS 0389-2407; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 300-400 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Oval pallium ornament. The design is based upon a slightly distorted dark purple circle with a tan, originally white, spiral-wave border. Its center is filled with a grid design. Alternate intersections of the grid lines are decorated with four-petaled rosettes. Figure-eight motifs occupy the grid rectangles. The ground has been completely removed; it was most probably linen rep. The ornament itself is tapestry, wool and linen weft on linen warp, 8 x 28 [warp : weft per square cm]. There is an extraordinary displacement of warp threads. The fine linear details of the design were worked in weft floats, the solid areas were carried out in tapestry. Abrupt changes in the warp direction are clearly visible in the border region. All yarn is S-twist. Fourth century. Related example: Moscow, Pushkin Museum inv. #362 (Shurinova 1967:64). Remarks: The warp displacement suggests that this piece was woven on a warp-weighted loom. The warp-weighted loom was retained by the Romans for weaving the garments worn by brides and those worn by young men when they came of age. Also, special types of weaving techniques are easier to carry out on this most ancient loom, a fact which might account for its continued preservation. The handsome appearance of this roundel, with its fine linear pattern, would certainly make it an appropriate decoration for a garment worn during a serious, formal ceremony. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 6, pp. 82, 88-89.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 34.0, Length = 35.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2408A,B   CAS 0389-2408A,B; Coptic textile fragments (2)
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragments (2)
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-600 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Pair of tunic sleeve ornaments. Each sleeve ornament consists of two nearly identical bands, with brownish purple figures and borders on the tan, originally white, ground. The same design elements occur on both sleeves. Each band has inverted arcade borders and crenellated ends. At the upper end of three of the bands is a nude warrior carrying a shield, at the lower another nude warrior wearing a sword-belt and holding the left hand aloft. The same warriors appear on the fourth band, but their positions are reversed. Between the two warriors, and placed at a right angle to their line or march, is a small running lion. Dots act as filler motif. The foundation is linen rep, 16 x 12 [warp : weft per square cm]; the ornamentation is tapestry, wool and linen on linen warp, 8 x 36 [warp : weft per square cm], with weft float details. Normal tapestry technique was used with a minimal use of weft floats. The tapestry elements are whip-stitched to the rep textile pieces, an indication that the pieces were originally part of another garment. All yarn is S-twist. Sixth century. Remarks: See remarks for Number 16 [CAS 0389-2426], which has some of the same motifs but which is earlier in style. The raised hand is an ancient gesture of blessing or protection. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 24, pp. i, 102, 112-113.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 25.0; 30.0, Length = 20.0; 21.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2409   CAS 0389-2409; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Rectangle cut from the upper part of a tunic. The clavi bands have semicircular ends and borders of jewel inlay with epsilon-shaped cells. Each band is ornamented with a haloed figure wearing an elaborate robe and carrying a lyre. The space remaining is occupied by four symmetrical plant motifs. The tapestry bands are worked in dark yellow, dull red, dark blue, light green, and tan. The plain foundation textile is a brownish yellow. The weave of both the ground and the clavi is tapestry, wool warp and weft, 8-10 x 34 [warp : weft per square cm]. The clavi are whip-stitched to the plain tapestry textile. All yarn is S-twist. Seventh century. Related examples: Figures depicted in the same style appear on a piece in Washington, D.C., Textile Museum (Riefstahl 1941:257). See also Kybelova (1967:130, pl. 86). Remarks: From this point onward the human figure becomes increasingly stylized, moving farther and farther away from Greek anatomical canons. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 42, pp. 136-138; color plate, p. 139.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 34.0, Length = 43.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2410   CAS 0389-2410; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Strip cut from a patterned tunic. The original textile of which this is a portion appears to have had an overall design organized around rows of battlement meander. The meander is dark blue and is decorated with six-petaled rosettes. The spaces delineated by the bends in the meander are filled with tau motifs, with bifurcated bases, and are flanked by large, six-petaled rosettes. The ground is tan, and the motifs are worked in black, tan, red, yellow, light blue, and pink. The weave is tapestry, wool and linen [S-twist] weft on linen two-ply Z-twist warp, 9 x 56 [warp : weft per square cm]. Tenth century. Remarks: Much of what characterizes Coptic art is absent from this colorful textile with its completely nonrepresentational decoration. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 63, pp. 136, 170-171.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 5.0, Length = 39.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2411   CAS 0389-2411; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data al-Bahnas (al-Bahnasa aka Oxyrhynchus)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 1000-1100 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic yoke fragment from al-Bahnas . The dull purple band ornament is bordered with a spiral-wave design. The interior is divided into three small bands, two plain ones framing a third containing symmetrical linear motifs representing stylized grapevines. Shortly past the point where the band turns the corner is a different motif, perhaps an amphora. These designs are worked in cream color. A small fragment of the body of the tunic remains, indicating that it was dark orange. The tunic was woven in the tapestry technique with wool warp and weft, 6 x 40 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Eleventh century (?) (sic). Remarks: When complete, this garment must have been both colorful and elegant with its color scheme of dull purple and dark orange. The amphora and vine symbol was a common Christian motif. Al-Bahnas , better known as Oxyrhynchus, was one of the great weaving centers of Egypt in the Coptic period. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 68, pp. 136, 178, 193.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.0, Length = 41.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2412   CAS 0389-2412; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-900 CE, possibly
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Fragments of tunic clavi. The design is worked in brownish purple on a beige ground. The band has spiral-wave edge borders enclosing motifs of warriors and lions. The warriors hold their right hands in the air. The lions are positioned at right angles to the ground lines of the warriors. The piece was woven in tapestry with wool warp and weft, 7 x 40 [warp : weft per square cm]. The details are worked in weft floats. There are some grouped wefts in the ground. All yarn is S-twist. [A] late example of a common sixth-century design. It may be ninth century in date. Remarks: The two fragments belong to the same garment but are not continuous. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 32, pp. 116, 124-125.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.5, Length = 27.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2413   CAS 0389-2413; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 300-400 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Pair of tunic clavi sewn together to form a wide band. The clavi are dull purple bands with scalloped edges. Their decoration consists of a small, undulating ladder band down the centers with filler-motifs of circles in two sizes. The larger circles contain various ornaments: circles with dot-clusters, rings of dots, four-petaled rosettes, hooked crosses, and a motif suggesting a laurel wreath. The ground is linen rep, 28 x 20 [warp : weft per square cm]; the clavi are woven in tapestry warps, 9 x 68 [warp : weft per square cm]. The design of the bands is carried out principally in an erratic weft-float technique. All yarn is S-twist. Fourth century. Related example: Paris, Louvre X4392 (Du Bourguet 1964). Remarks: The piece is composed of two bands sewn together, possibly in antiquity. One band retains a strip of rep along one edge and a portion of the selvedge. The tunic to which the clavi belonged must have been a sober and dignified garment made in the best Roman tradition. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 5, pp. 15, 82, 86-87.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 35.0, Length = 13.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2414   CAS 0389-2414; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Decorated band fragment. The piece has borders ornamented with motifs of fish. In one section the fish motif is interrupted by a rectangular panel containing six ovals. The latter may depict gems in broad settings. The middle of the band is filled with an overall pattern of symmetrical floral motifs. The ground is red; the jewels are green; and the design is worked in tan, blue-green, and black. The weave is tapestry, wool and linen [S-twist] weft on two-ply Z-twist warp, 10 x 66 [warp : weft per square cm]. Tenth century. Remarks: The fish may or may not symbolize Christ; their association with jewels suggests that their meaning has religious connotations. The tight placement of the motifs and the minimum of background are in marked contrast to earlier Coptic design habits and may be the result of Arabian influence. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 45, pp. 136, 149.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 33.0, Length = 8.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2415   CAS 0389-2415; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Section cut from a banded textile. The design scheme consists of a decorated red band between two plain dark-blue ones. The red band has double borders, the outer border ornamented with tan Greek crosses, the inner border with linked tricolor ivy leaves on a tan ground. The center of the band contains a procession of quadrupeds, some with horns. Between each animal is a formal plant motif. The animals and plants are worked in dull yellow, pink, light green, and medium green. The piece is tapestry, with wool warp and weft, 9 x 32 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth or tenth century. Remarks: Processions of animals have a long history in Classical art and derive from the Near East. This example represents an early Medieval version of an ancient theme. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 44, pp. 75, 136, 148; color plate, p. 140.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 33.0, Length = 13.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2416   CAS 0389-2416; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic clavus fragment. The clavus has a rounded end and a border of reverse arcade. The interior contains a three-part cartouche composed of a lozenge flanked by circles, all with foliage embellishments and a dwarf (?) (sic) enclosed in an oval frame of oak leaves and acorns. The clavus terminates in a short stem ending in an oval containing a cluster of three leaves. The design is carried out in brownish purple on a tan ground. Linen rep, 11 x 8 [warp : weft per square cm]; wool tapestry, 7 x 48 [warp : weft per square cm]. The rep foundation textile has shadow stripes made of pairs of bundled weft shots. Three shadow (sic) stripes lie under the clavus, a fourth lies directly alongside. The tapestry clavus was cut from another garment, the edges turned under and then stitched to the rep ground. All yarn is S-twist. Seventh century or later. Remarks: The decoration of the clavus is descended from the monochrome ornaments of the early period of Coptic weaving, but the quality of the design is closer to the early Medieval period. The monochrome textile ornament had a long life in Egypt. The human figure is nearly overwhelmed by the large scale of the surrounding foliage and the boldly outlined cartouches. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 48, pp. 136, 152-153.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 11.0, Length = 43.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2417   CAS 0389-2417; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data al-Faiy m (Al Fayoum aka Piom aka Arsinoë)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Band fragment from al-Faiy m. One edge of this dark pink band has a dark blue zigzag border. Filler motifs are of two types, cream-colored rectangles placed on diagonals slanting in opposite directions and angular, dull yellow birds with black spots and one black bird with yellow spots. The rectangles are ornamented with motifs resembling birds with pink bodies and large yellow beaks. Spaces around the principal motifs are filled with dots and eight-petaled rosettes. The material is wool, woven in tapestry on two-ply Z-twist warp, 6 x 64 [warp : weft per square cm]. A surviving portion of selvedge shows that it was formed of double-paired [S-twist] wefts. Ninth or tenth century. Related examples: Brooklyn, Brooklyn Museum of Art acc. no. 38.754 (Thompson 1971:80, no. 35); Paris, Louvre 836 (Du Bourguet 1964:286, no. I F 105). Remarks: al-Faiy m is the modern name of Piom, more anciently, Arsinoë. In the Coptic period it was an important weaving center. This textile was anciently cut and sewn together so as to form either a gamma, a common form of tunic ornament, or a textile edging. A piece in similar style is in Brooklyn (see above). About it Thompson states, ‘Examples closely related in style to this textile are preserved with woven Arabic inscriptions datable to the ninth to tenth century’ (Thompson 1971:80). [This] piece is undoubtedly of the same date. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 62, pp. 136, 170-171, 187.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 19.0, Length = 35.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2418   CAS 0389-2418; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic fragment with clavus section. The clavus band is bordered with a spiral-wave pattern and filled with lozenges, solid lozenges alternating with outlined ones. At one point, the band is interrupted by a rectangle containing a motif representing a dolphin. The band terminates with a pendant leaf on a long stem. The design is entirely worked in purple. The ground is yellowish, perhaps the natural color of the wool discolored by time. This piece was woven entirely in wool. The basic weave is tabby, 13 x 13 [warp : weft per square cm]. The tapestry insert was woven on grouped warps. From the reverse side of the piece it is evident that the spiral border was woven as a series of lopsided scallops. ‘Stitches’ in the center of the upper parts of the scallops produce the effect of a spiral-wave motif. (These are not actually stitches in the true sense, but extensions of the background weave.) The dots in the ground are connected by long weft floats. Short, self-colored bands were formed in the weft by putting a weft bundle partway (sic) through the shed and then returning it in the counter-shed. About 5 cm of three of these bands are extant. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Dolphins, believed by ancient and some modern peoples to save humans from drowning, are symbols of salvation in several religions. In ancient times, dolphins were thought to be fish. A depiction of a fish was frequently used to symbolize Christ because in Greek, the word for fish, ’IX Y ,* can be read as an acrostic for a sentence that translated means ‘Jesus Christ Son of God Savior.’ The dolphin-fish motif could have been worn by both pagans and Christians for much the same purpose, protection. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 19, pp. 102, 106-107.] *Non-Roman alphabet characters are not legible in the online listing. Greek letters, such as those included here, appear as Roman letters but may be inaccurately transcribed. Other scripts, such as Japanese, appear as a series of question marks.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 16.0, Length = 38.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2419   CAS 0389-2419; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 970-1035 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Fragment of a curtain with a false kufic inscription. In the center of the fragment is a polychrome insert band. It is surrounded by a dark blue area ornamented by rows of meaningless kufic letters in yellow and pink. The insert has pearl borders and contains roundels alternating with quatrefoils that may represent jeweled ornaments. The roundels contain, respectively, a bird motif, a six-pointed star, a second, different bird motif, an animal head, a building (?) (sic), a floral motif, and another star. The motifs are woven in red, medium green, yellow, light blue, pinkish white, and black. Woven entirely in wool, the ground is tabby, 12 x 12 [warp : weft per square cm], the insert band, tapestry, 12 x 42 [warp : weft per square cm]. The quality of the weaving is excellent. All yarn is S-twist. Late tenth or early eleventh century. Related examples: A wool textile with similar motifs and inscription is in New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art (Dimand 1931:89, fig. 2). Remarks: Textiles with real inscriptions were a feature of Arabic weaving from about the tenth century on. Some very fine ones were made in Egypt in the eleventh century and later. This example and a number of related pieces may represent early attempts by Coptic weavers to conform to Muslim taste (sic). [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 64, pp. 136, 172-173; color plate, p. 142.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 41.0, Length = 18.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2420   CAS 0389-2420; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic sleeve fragment. Originally there were two bands with similar ornamentation; now, only a ragged portion of one remains. The bands were divided by a strip of battlement meander. The outer edge of the extant band is decorated by a wave meander. The decorative motifs consist of guineafowl (sic), plants, and fish (?) (sic) worked in medium brown on a beige ground. Woven entirely in wool, the part remaining is tapestry, with some double warps, 10 x 24 [warp : weft per square cm]. The warp yarn was dyed a dark yellow. It does not show in the extant fragment because of the closely packed weft yarns characteristic of the tapestry technique, but the use of colored warp implies that the body of the textile was woven in rep or tabby in weft dyed to match. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: The yellow color postulated for the missing body of the tunic may indicate that this piece was woven during the Ikhshidid dynasty [935-969 CE] when Coptic Christians were required to wear yellow garments. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 53, pp. 136, 158-159.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 26.0, Length = 10.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2421   CAS 0389-2421; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Segment cut from a mantle or curtain. The plain, off-white ground is ornamented with a broad purple band and three narrow ones. The broad band has wide borders of double rinceau and a center with a knot interlace. The narrow bands are plain. The ground is linen rep, 20 x 11 [warp : weft per square cm], the broad band is tapestry, wool and linen weft, linen warp, 6 x 52 [warp : weft per square cm],with weft-float patterning. In the tapestry areas the weft has been deliberately displaced in order to follow the curves of the design. The bottom of the piece ends in warp fringe: above it is a section of bare warp. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Remarks: The color of the wool yarn appears to be especially well preserved; this specimen gives a good idea of the purple and white color scheme favored for Coptic textiles of the early period. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 12, pp. 56, 82, 98; color plate, p. 69.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 48.0, Length = 45.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2422   CAS 0389-2422; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Rectangle cut from a tunic. The design motifs are contained in a roundel [from the shoulder region] and a clavus. Both roundel and clavus have spiral-wave borders and contain motifs depicting human figures in violent action [Isaac and Abraham, perhaps] and spotted [running] animals, possibly leopards. The clavus band ends in leaf-form pendants. The ornamentation is rendered in dark red-purple on a plain ground, now discolored but originally the creamy white color of undyed wool. Woven entirely of wool, the ground has a count of 9 x 18 [warp : weft per square cm], the tapestry inserts, 9 x 23 [warp : weft per square cm]. Two lines of twining, double rows on paired warps, may have helped to prepare the area in which the clavus was woven and to keep it straight. The area for the roundel was prepared by weaving the ground first, leaving an open space in the warp shaped like a slice cut from one side of a circle that was of greater diameter than the planned roundel. Next the roundel was started, filing in the space on either side with yarn that matched the rest of the ground. When the shape of the roundel was established, the weaving of both ground and roundel was carried out more or less simultaneously, areas awkward for the shuttle being filled in with needle-woven tapestry. When completed, the roundel appeared enclosed in a shadowy lentoid, barely discernable (sic), and not intended to be a decorative element. While the roundel and clavus were woven neatly enough, some details indicate carelessness on the part of the weaver; for example, one warp end was left down for nearly 10 cm before the defective heddle was noticed and corrected, and there are sections of doubled wefts that appear to be accidental, too. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: Two of the figures may be enacting the story of the interrupted sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham, being observed by an angel flying overhead. The theme was a popular one in the late period, but through repetition the design became increasingly debased and nearly unrecognizable, as in the example here. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 56, pp. 136, 162-163, 165.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 29.0, Length = 55.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2423   CAS 0389-2423; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-900 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Rectangle cut from the shoulder area of a tunic. Most of the piece is the natural color of undyed wool. The ornamentation, now in dark-brown (sic) yarn, may have been purple originally. Detached, linear cartouches interrupted by a rectangular panel containing the figure of a snake, light on a dark ground, compose the clavus decoration. The roundel has a spiral wave frame and contains the figure of a bird (a guineafowl? (sic)), with one leaf in its beak and another filling the space behind its head. The material is wool, woven in a near-tabby, 16-15 x 13-11 [warp : weft per square cm], with tapestry inserts, 8 x 38 [warp : weft per square cm]. The tapestry roundel is set in a lentoid, a fact not immediately obvious because the points of the figures are woven in the same color and material as the main ground, but in tapestry, not tabby. The purpose of this was not decorative, but rather a means to avoid an abrupt transition between the ground and the insert that might weaken the textile. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth century. Remarks: The use of a lentoid as a technical, not a decorative, feature occurs on several other Rietz textiles and may be an indication of a particular weaver, workshop, or region. Serpents were important symbols in several first-millenium (sic) religions, often symbolizing wisdom. They had a special place in Gnosticism, in part due to the serpent in the Garden of Eden who instructed Eve. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 51, pp. 82, 136, 156-157.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 22.0, Length = 9.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2424   CAS 0389-2424; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-900 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a tunic clavus. The multicolor clavus band has borders of reverse scallops, each scallop containing a trefoil. The center motifs are quatrefoils and roundels in alternation. Each quatrefoil has a dot rosette, composed of nine dots, in the center. The roundels contain, respectively, a bird with a large spoon-shaped bill, the bust of a woman, robed and wearing a wreath, and a butterfly. The design motifs are worked in brown, dull medium-red, blue-green, light green, and pink on a beige ground. The clavus is woven in tapestry, wool and linen weft on paired linen warps, 8 x 60 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth century. Remarks: The strong degree of stylization of this piece makes its subject matter difficult to recognize at first sight. The elements of the quatrefoil are particularly obscure, but from similar, more realistic examples it can be determined that the motifs are, in fact, rolled acanthus leaves. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 61, pp. 136, 168-169.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.5, Length = 26.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2425   CAS 0389-2425; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Fragment of a clavus. The clavus has a tan ground, originally white, and is decorated with an inhabited rinceau worked in light brown. The inhabitants are running animals - a hare, a lion, and an antelope. The basic weave is linen rep, 20 x 10 [warp : weft per square cm], with a wool and linen tapestry insert woven on grouped warps, 7 x 32 [warp : weft per square cm]. The tapestry wefts are curved to help define the design. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Related examples: An entire tunic with similar motifs is in London, Victoria and Albert Museum (Kendrick 1920:41, pl. 2). Remarks: Scroll motifs in the form of leafy vines incorporating various zoomorphic motifs have late antique origins but continued to be popular in Early Christian and Medieval art. Running animals sometimes symbolize a hunt, the assumption being that something or someone is chasing them. The hunt, in turn, has its symbolism: the chase refers to the attempt to drive out various evils from an individual’s life and psyche. Note that the lion in this context has a very different meaning than the isolated lion in [specimen CAS 0389-2586]. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 15, pp. 82, 100-101.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 30.0, Length = 10.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2426   CAS 0389-2426; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic sleeve band fragment. The decorated area is occupied by dark, brownish purple figures and motifs on a dull yellow ground. The band has crenellated ends and reverse-arcade side borders. At each end is the figure of a man, nude except for a diagonal belt and long scarf, with one hand raised as if in a salute. Between the men are two lions, facing in opposite directions. The fragment is woven in a normal tapestry technique, 9 x 30-40 [warp : weft per square cm], entirely in wool. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Remarks: This is a sophisticated version of a very common Coptic textile motif that combines nude warriors (identified as such by sword-belts) and lions. The nudity of the warriors signifies that their battle is one of the spirit, a fight with the bestial side of their natures, symbolized here by the lions. The unnatural orientation of the lions in relation to the warriors is typical of the large class of Coptic textiles to which this example belongs. This design feature is also found on some drawloom textiles of the fifth century (Trilling 1982, no. 108). On these textiles, the position of the animals could have been dictated by certain technical limitations of the drawloom. The tapestry pieces with lions or other quadrupeds placed in a vertical position may derive from designs intended for drawloom weaving or from actual textiles woven on this loom. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 16, pp. 82, 102-103.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 28.0, Length = 8.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2427   CAS 0389-2427; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 600-700 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Mantle (?) (sic) fragment. What remains of the garment is a band with dark yellow ground and brownish purple ornamentation. It has a compound border composed of a plain solid-color band edged with an outer band of two-pronged forks alternating with triple-dot clusters. The interior motifs consist of repeated units: an amphora from which grows a double vine with long, elaborate tendrils, which form enclosures for a mythical monster and a centaur. Each amphora sits on a rounded base decorated with a pair of fish and a pair of birds. The piece is tapestry, normal in weave, but exceptionally fine. All yarn is S-twist. Seventh century or later. Remarks: The design recalls Roman architectural plaster decoration. Like the previous example [CAS 0389-2416], the figures are subordinate to the geometric and floral motifs. The figures appear to have no special significance but are completely decorative in intent. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 49, pp. 136, 153-154.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 12.5, Length = 27.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2428   CAS 0389-2428; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tunic ornament. The square design is worked in brown on a beige background. The center motif is a small dove framed by a square composed of eight circles, each with a filler motif of an equal-armed cross. Around the edge is a spiral-wave border. The foundation is linen tabby, 12 x 12 [warp : weft per square cm]. The wool and linen tapestry ornament was woven on paired warps, 9 x 60 [warp : weft per square cm]. The square ornament was either made separately or cut from another, possibly worn-out, garment. The edges are turned under and the piece neatly whip-stitched to the linen tabby foundation. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Remarks: Doves, in Early Christian art, symbolize the Holy Ghost and also, because of the dove in the Noah story, deliverance from danger. This piece is a straightforward example of a Coptic textile with a Christian motif. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 18, pp. 102, 104.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.5, Length = 19.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2429   CAS 0389-2429; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-600 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Composite textile fragment. The foundation textile is red brown (sic) and ornamented with a large roundel flanked by two smaller ones, medium red in color, one containing a Greek cross in a circle, the other an eight-petaled rosette, both worked in dark yellow. The large roundel has a yellow ground and originally may have contained the motif of a peacock with outspread tail. The circle was cut out of the center of this roundel, leaving a yellow band and the ‘eyes’ of the peacock’s tailfeathers (sic). The band encloses two figures wearing halos worked in white, black, light green, and yellow on a pink ground. The weave is linen and wool tapestry on linen warp, some of it dyed, 9 x 32 [warp : weft per square cm]. This textile is actually made up of parts from two or three textiles trimed (sic) to shape and pasted together. The warp of the figured portion runs at right angles to the warp of the foundation textile and is of a different color. All yarn is S-twist. Sixth century (?) (sic). Remarks: At first glance this pastiche appears to show a depiction of Christ and a disciple. The piece is a model example of the pitfalls that await collections who fail to inspect textile specimens through a magnifying glass, examining both sides and paying special attention to repairs that may disguise the addition of unrelated material. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 38, pp. 116, 132-133.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 12.5, Length = 21.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2430   CAS 0389-2430; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-600 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Square tunic ornament. The reddish brown ornamentation has a tan ground. The design is organized as a circle contained in a square, the corners filled with simple plant motifs. In the center is a wide-eyed running warrior carrying a shield. The foundation is linen tabby, 15 x 15 [warp : weft per square cm]; the decoration is wool and linen tapestry on grouped linen warps, 10 x 52 [warp : weft per square cm]. The square ornament was cut from another garment, the edges turned under and whip-stitched to the tabby foundation. All yarn is S-twist. Sixth century. Remarks: This piece may have been cut from a larger textile ornament with a number of figures contained in a rinceau. The drawing is too sketchy to be certain, but the warrior appears to be nude, hence, a warrior of the spirit rather than of the flesh. His antagonist may have occupied an adjacent compartment in the rinceau. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 27, pp. 116-117.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.0, Length = 9.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2431   CAS 0389-2431; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tunic fragment with insert roundel. The roundel has a border of triangles and contains the motif of a lion cub along with leafy-spray filler motif. The design elements were worked in purple on an ecru ground. The ground is linen in a near-tabby weave, 22 x 19 [warp : weft per square cm]. The insert is wool and linen tapestry with weft float details. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth century. Remarks: As mentioned in the remarks for Number 14 [CAS 0389-2586], single lion motifs may have a protective purpose. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 22, pp. 102, 111.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 14.0, Length = 14.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2433A,B   CAS 0389-2433A,B; Coptic textile fragments (2)
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragments (2)
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-635 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Two square garment ornaments. The ground is ecru and the design elements are purple with touches of crimson. In the center of each square is a smaller square of solid purple. This is bordered by an inhabited rinceau, the tendrils forming roundels. Each of these contains either a lion wearing a red collar or a hound with red ribbons streaming from its neck. Interstices are filled with small floral motifs. The ground is linen near-tabby, 25 x 22 [warp : weft per square cm], and the ornamentation is wool and linen tapestry woven on grouped linen warps, 10 x 80 [warp : weft per square cm]. From the reverse of the better-preserved square it can be seen that the tapestry section was woven on a limited number of the available warps, the unused ones left to float at the back of the tapestry portion. The tapestry was woven with weft that was separate from that of the tabby ground. The unwoven tabby weft was allowed to float behind the unused warp, making two layers of floats and one layer of tapestry, three layers in all. All yarn is S-twist. Sixth or early seventh century. Remarks: The streamers worn by the hounds reflect Persian influence. They are thought to indicate that the wearers possessed supernatural or other special attributes. Collars on animals - in this example, lions - have a different meaning; they represent control of the wilder aspects of animal nature. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 29, pp. 116, 118-119.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 18.0, Length = 12.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2434   CAS 0389-2434; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Square tunic ornament. What little remains of the tunic has a dark yellow ground. The square ornament is dark blue with cream-colored motifs. It has a narrow, spiral-wave border and a center design of a small square containing a tiny Greek cross framed by a larger one in outline. Twelve squares fill the remainder of the space, each with a filler motif, hooked crosses alternating with a motif of a four-petaled rosette with symmetrical tendrils. The material is wool and the weave tapestry, 9 x 70 [warp : weft per square cm]. Single rows of twining accentuate some of the straight lines of the design, and the whole ornament is edged by a double row of twining. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: The dark yellow ground may signify that this was made during one of the periods after the Arab Conquest when Christians were expected to wear distinctive garments. The inconspicuous cross motif and the hooked cross, a disguised form of cross, indicate that the original owner was most probably a Christian. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 66, pp. 136, 176-177; color plate, p. 144.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 14.0, Length = 14.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2435   CAS 0389-2435; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Bawit (Baweet)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic fragment with roundel ornament. What remains of the tunic body is beige, while the ground of the ornament is dark yellow. The roundel carries a narrow border of rhomboids and a wider border with filler-motifs of paired dots. Within the inner circle is a formal arrangement of four birds, two chrysalises or locusts (cicadas), and two symmetrical floral motifs. In the center is a disk containing a stylized insect motif. The colors are blue-green, yellow, brown, and dull red. The roundel is a separate piece that was whip-stitched to the body of the tunic. The warp of the roundel lies at right angles to the warp direction of the tunic. Both parts are wool tapestry. The thread count of the body is 10 x 22 [warp : weft per square cm], of the ornament, 6 x 48 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth or tenth century. Remarks: Insects were sometimes depicted on late antique gems. A personal or a family symbol may be represented on [this] textile. The unusual life cycle of some cicadas, called seventeen-year locusts, have made them symbols of longevity or immortality, an idea expressed in the myth of Tithonos. He wished for eternal life, but forgot to wish for lasting youth. Eventually he turned into a cicada and chirped on into eternity. In Plato’s beautiful little dialogue about love, the Phaedrus, Socrates tells about cicadas, how they live without nourishment and when their time to die arrives they are able to overcome death, becoming instead messengers and informers for the Muses. Jeweled effigies of cicadas were made in the early Medieval period, perhaps in reference to one of these concepts. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 59, pp. 136, 166-167.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 12.5, Length = 18.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2436   CAS 0389-2436; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Assuit
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tunic clavus fragment. The clavus has borders of dark gray and green triangles. Repeated down the center is a symmetrical floral motif woven in tan, light green, dark gray, yellow, light orange, and dark blue on a pink ground. Most of the piece was woven in tapestry, wool and linen weft on grouped linen warps, 8 x 30 [warp : weft per square cm]. Fragments of the surrounding linen textile have a count of 12 x 18 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: The highly stylized floral motif may refer to one of the trees of paradise. Motifs of this nature are thought to have Persian or Near Eastern origins. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 46, pp. 136, 150-151.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 5.0, Length = 17.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2437   CAS 0389-2437; Textile band
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile band
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast, Nazca or Chincha Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Intermediate to Late Horizon: 800-1500s CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 4.0, Thickness = 0.7, Length = 88.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2439   CAS 0389-2439; Textile band
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile band
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Early to Late Intermediate Horizon: 200 BCE - 800 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Camelid fiber
Description Textile band; Discontinuous weft with slit joins, oblique interlacing, and embroidery.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 5.0, Thickness = 0.5, Length = 76.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2441   CAS 0389-2441; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast, Nazca Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Early Intermediate Horizon: 200 BCE - 500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Camelid wool; Cotton
Description Turban straps; Discontinuous weft with slit joins and weft wrapping; Dawson 1980: “Part of tapestry band, prob. M.H. [Middle Horizon], color combination commonly M.H., diamonds in color.”
Dimensions (cm) Width = 4.0, Length = 56.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2445   CAS 0389-2445; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast, Nazca Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 18.0, Thickness = 1.8, Length = 10.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2449   CAS 0389-2449; Textile band
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile band
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Central or North Coast; possibly Lambayeque
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Intermediate: 800-1460 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description Textile; Discontinuous weft with slit joins, some warp wrapping and embroidery.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 3.3, Thickness = 1.3, Length = 172.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2451   CAS 0389-2451; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 700-800 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “A pair of fragmentary sleeves with decorated inserts [CAS 0389-2451, 0389-2452]. The decorative motifs are worked in brown on a tan ground. The organization of the design of each sleeve forms a rectangle consisting of two bands with borders of reversed scallops. Each band is divided into two sections, each section containing depictions of a pair of worshippers (?) (sic) inside of an Ionic building with a decorated pediment. At least three of the pediments contain female busts, possibly of goddesses. A second pair of figures (spirits) floats vaporlike (sic) in the air above the roof. The peak of the roof is ornamented with a palmate acroterion. All of the full-length figures have one hand raised, and the ones at ground level are depicted with crossed legs. The technique is tapestry, woven entirely in wool, 10 x 28-34 [warp : weft per square cm]. The selvedges were woven with extra warps, for reinforcement. All yarn is S-twist. Eighth century or later. Related examples: Two similarly decorated textiles are in Moscow, Pushkin Museum inv. #6962 and 610 (Shurinova 1967, no. 137, 168). Remarks: There are several possible interpretations of the subject matter used to ornament these sleeves. Figures with crossed legs are fairly common in Coptic textiles: the position is believed to indicate the activity of dancing. A Gnostic text, the Acts of John, tells how the disciples under the direction of Jesus danced with him the night before his arrest (Pagels 1981:89). The purpose of this dance was to make the individual one with Christ. It is therefore probably that the representations of dancers, both male and female, referred to such a belief. In this example there is, in addition to the dancers, a sense of dualism conveyed by the many pairs of beings and buildings in the design. Manichaeanism, which in Egypt merged with Gnosticism in the later Coptic period, stressed dualism, and may have been the religion of the wearer for whom the garment was woven. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 33A, pp. 116, 124, 126-127.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 22.8, Length = 30.2

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2452   CAS 0389-2452; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 700-800 CE, probably
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “A pair of fragmentary sleeves with decorated inserts [CAS 0389-2451, 0389-2452]. The decorative motifs are worked in brown on a tan ground. The organization of the design of each sleeve forms a rectangle consisting of two bands with borders of reversed scallops. Each band is divided into two sections, each section containing depictions of a pair of worshippers (?) (sic) inside of an Ionic building with a decorated pediment. At least three of the pediments contain female busts, possibly of goddesses. A second pair of figures (spirits) floats vaporlike (sic) in the air above the roof. The peak of the roof is ornamented with a palmate acroterion. All of the full-length figures have one hand raised, and the ones at ground level are depicted with crossed legs. The technique is tapestry, woven entirely in wool, 10 x 28-34 [warp : weft per square cm]. The selvedges were woven with extra warps, for reinforcement. All yarn is S-twist. Eighth century or later. Related examples: Two similarly decorated textiles are in Moscow, Pushkin Museum inv. #6962 and 610 (Shurinova 1967, no. 137, 168). Remarks: There are several possible interpretations of the subject matter used to ornament these sleeves. Figures with crossed legs are fairly common in Coptic textiles: the position is believed to indicate the activity of dancing. A Gnostic text, the Acts of John, tells how the disciples under the direction of Jesus danced with him the night before his arrest (Pagels 1981:89). The purpose of this dance was to make the individual one with Christ. It is therefore probably that the representations of dancers, both male and female, referred to such a belief. In this example there is, in addition to the dancers, a sense of dualism conveyed by the many pairs of beings and buildings in the design. Manichaeanism, which in Egypt merged with Gnosticism in the later Coptic period, stressed dualism, and may have been the religion of the wearer for whom the garment was woven. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 33B, pp. 116, 124, 127.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 26.5, Length = 25.8

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2453   CAS 0389-2453; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Three fragments of a tunic [CAS 0389-2453, 0389-2454, 0389-2457]. Originally the tunic had clavus bands that ran from the shoulders to the hem. At the neckline a matching band connected the clavus bands, and the usual double bands decorated the wrist area of the sleeves. All the bands are bordered by narrower bands containing lozenges and are filled with multicolored squares, each containing a fanciful, vaguely zoomorphic figure. In addition, the neck band is embellished with a row of pendant motifs. The fragments all have a discolored cream ground with decorative motifs in red, dark yellow, dark blue, and red-purple. The material is wool, and the whole tunic was woven in tapestry, 7 x 28 [warp : weft per square cm], with a few minor design details added in embroidery, worked with long stitches on the reverse side. The unused warp of the sleeve was formed into a corded edge (for a diagram illustrating the technique see Start [1914:9, fig. 6]). All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: Possibly made for a Muslim Copt, the designs appear to avoid resemblances (sic) to living creatures and yet to give the illusion of an ordinary Coptic tunic with figured ornament. A number of native Egyptians converted to the Muslim faith, in part for the economic advantages it offered; members of the Christian faith were heavily taxed. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 65A, pp. 136, 172, 175.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 15.1, Length = 31.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2454   CAS 0389-2454; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Three fragments of a tunic [CAS 0389-2453, 0389-2454, 0389-2457]. Originally the tunic had clavus bands that ran from the shoulders to the hem. At the neckline a matching band connected the clavus bands, and the usual double bands decorated the wrist area of the sleeves. All the bands are bordered by narrower bands containing lozenges and are filled with multicolored squares, each containing a fanciful, vaguely zoomorphic figure. In addition, the neck band is embellished with a row of pendant motifs. The fragments all have a discolored cream ground with decorative motifs in red, dark yellow, dark blue, and red-purple. The material is wool, and the whole tunic was woven in tapestry, 7 x 28 [warp : weft per square cm], with a few minor design details added in embroidery, worked with long stitches on the reverse side. The unused warp of the sleeve was formed into a corded edge (for a diagram illustrating the technique see Start [1914:9, fig. 6]). All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: Possibly made for a Muslim Copt, the designs appear to avoid resemblances (sic) to living creatures and yet to give the illusion of an ordinary Coptic tunic with figured ornament. A number of native Egyptians converted to the Muslim faith, in part for the economic advantages it offered; members of the Christian faith were heavily taxed. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 65B, pp. 136, 172, 174; color plate, p. 143.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 35.8, Length = 47.2

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2456   CAS 0389-2456; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description Matches CAS 0389-2466 and 0389-2524.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 68.5, Thickness = 0.2, Length = 78.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2457   CAS 0389-2457; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Three fragments of a tunic [CAS 0389-2453, 0389-2454, 0389-2457]. Originally the tunic had clavus bands that ran from the shoulders to the hem. At the neckline a matching band connected the clavus bands, and the usual double bands decorated the wrist area of the sleeves. All the bands are bordered by narrower bands containing lozenges and are filled with multicolored squares, each containing a fanciful, vaguely zoomorphic figure. In addition, the neck band is embellished with a row of pendant motifs. The fragments all have a discolored cream ground with decorative motifs in red, dark yellow, dark blue, and red-purple. The material is wool, and the whole tunic was woven in tapestry, 7 x 28 [warp : weft per square cm], with a few minor design details added in embroidery, worked with long stitches on the reverse side. The unused warp of the sleeve was formed into a corded edge (for a diagram illustrating the technique see Start [1914:9, fig. 6]). All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: Possibly made for a Muslim Copt, the designs appear to avoid resemblances (sic) to living creatures and yet to give the illusion of an ordinary Coptic tunic with figured ornament. A number of native Egyptians converted to the Muslim faith, in part for the economic advantages it offered; members of the Christian faith were heavily taxed. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 65C, pp. 136, 172, 175.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 18.5, Length = 26.4

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2458   CAS 0389-2458; Bag
Category Textiles
Object Name Bag
Culture Ica
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Central or South Coast region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Intermediate to Late Horizon: 800-1500s CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Cotton; Camelid fiber
Description Bag; Warp face plain weave.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 19.5, Thickness = 0.3, Length = 20.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2460   CAS 0389-2460; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast, Nazca Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Camelid fiber
Description Bag or fringe fragment of quiver; Weft wrapping.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 33.0, Length = 27.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2466   CAS 0389-2466; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Ica, probably
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Andes
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture Late Middle Horizon: 500-800 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description Matches CAS 0389-2524 and 0389-2456.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 13.5, Thickness = 0.2, Length = 44.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2467A   CAS 0389-2467A; Belt
Category Accessories/Ornaments; Textiles
Object Name Belt
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region, Yauca Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Camelid fiber
Description Wide belt with wide dark brown band along each outside edge that is woven as double-cloth fabric; Central striped design running length of belt is woven as double-faced cloth with a repeating design of small geometric units (mostly diamonds) in white and dark brown; One end of belt is woven entirely in plain tapestry technique with the central design changing to a series of alternating brown and white stripes; This belt is virtually identical in construction and design to CAS 0389-2459, -2467C, -2481, -2482, -2508, and -2542.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 10.0, Thickness = 0.9, Length = ca. 255.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2471   CAS 0389-2471; Textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile fragment
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Cotton
Description Tie-dye textile fragment; Plain weave, tie-dye whipping stitched together.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 21.2, Thickness = 0.1, Length = 35.4

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2480   CAS 0389-2480; Loincloth fragment
Category Accessories/Ornaments; Textiles
Object Name Loincloth fragment
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data North or Central Coast regions
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Intermediate: 800-1460 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 54.0, Thickness = 0.4, Length = 40.7

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2483   CAS 0389-2483; Belt
Category Accessories/Ornaments; Textiles
Object Name Belt
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region, Yauca Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.4, Thickness = 0.7, Length = 127.8

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2491   CAS 0389-2491; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 65.5, Thickness = 0.3, Length = 54.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2493   CAS 0389-2493; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Inca, possibly
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region, possibly
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Intermediate: 800-1460 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Camelid fiber
Description Bag; Complementary weft patterning with some three strand oblique interlacing.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.0, Length = 9.3

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2496   CAS 0389-2496; Belt
Category Accessories/Ornaments; Textiles
Object Name Belt
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast, Yauca Valley, probably
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description Belt; Warp faced double cloth with complementary warp patterning with four strand oblique interlacing of the tie cords.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.8, Thickness = 0.3, Length = 12.8

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2499   CAS 0389-2499; Tunic
Category Textiles
Object Name Tunic
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 71.3, Thickness = 0.1, Length = 126.7

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2501   CAS 0389-2501; Belt
Category Accessories/Ornaments; Textiles
Object Name Belt
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region, Yauca Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.5, Thickness = 0.3, Length = 116.3

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2502   CAS 0389-2502; Textile band
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile band
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Early Intermediate to Late Horizon: 200 BCE - 1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 3.0, Thickness = 0.2, Length = ca. 420.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2503   CAS 0389-2503; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data North Coast region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Middle to Late Intermediate Horizon: 700-900 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description Complete plainweave cloth.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 72.0, Length = 70.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2509   CAS 0389-2509; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Nazca or Wari
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Early Intermediate to Middle Horizon: 200 BCE - 800 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 1.9, Thickness = 0.5, Length = 285.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2524   CAS 0389-2524; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture Late Middle Horizon: 500-800 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description Matches CAS 0389-2456 and 0389-2466.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 52.3, Length = 135.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2533   CAS 0389-2533; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 18.1, Thickness = 2.3, Length = 19.4

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2537   CAS 0389-2537; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Early Intermediate Horizon: 200 BCE - 500 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Camelid fiber
Description Plainweave.
Dimensions (cm) Width = ca. 75.5, Thickness = 0.1, Length = ca. 210.0

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2539   CAS 0389-2539; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-600 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tunic fragments, yoke and shoulder ornaments. The pieces are extremely discolored. The original color scheme was undoubtedly white with purple figures accented in red. The purple has now turned dark brown. From the remains it can be determined that the tunic had a deep yoke with several horizontal bands. The principal band holds an arcade, really a series of aediculae, each occupied by a dancer, nude except for a floating scarf worn over the shoulders. Two bands above this contain lozenges, the band below it, a chain of trefoils. On either side of the yoke were clavi of which but one now remains. These contained two sizes of linked cartouches, the larger enclosing dancers similar to those in the yoke arcade, the smaller, busts. A second fragment of the same tunic has the remains of a square that may be from the shoulder area. It bears a geometric pattern of lozenges. The technique used is tapestry in wool and linen on paired linen warps. Open slits in the uppermost yoke band enhance the decorative effect of the ornamentation. All yarn is S-twist. Sixth century. Related example: Paris, Louvre inv. 4307 (Du Bourguet 1964, no. C 32). Remarks: Nude dancers as decorative motifs area a common feature in Coptic textiles, persisting even after the Muslim conquest. Nudity symbolizes spiritual purity when it appears in a religious context as may be the case here, indicated by the placement of the figures in an architectural context that suggests a side aisle of a church nave. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 31, pp. 116, 120-123.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 39.7, Length = 46.6

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2544   CAS 0389-2544; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South or Central Coast
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Camelid fiber
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 3.8, Length = 95.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2547   CAS 0389-2547; Bag
Category Textiles
Object Name Bag
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region, possibly Acari Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Late Horizon: 1460-1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 24.7, Thickness = 0.7, Length = 26.8

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2565   CAS 0389-2565; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 41.0, Length = 42.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2572   CAS 0389-2572; Feather tassel
Category Accessories/Ornaments; Textiles
Object Name Feather tassel
Culture Nazca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data South Coast region, Ica Valley
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Early Intermediate to Late Horizon: 200 BCE - 1534 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Feathers; Plant fiber
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 17.0, Thickness = 1.2, Length = 26.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2577   CAS 0389-2577; Textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile fragment
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 86.0, Thickness = 0.2, Length = ca. 106.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2578   CAS 0389-2578; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description Matches CAS 0389-2364.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 78.5, Thickness = 0.3, Length = ca. 110.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2579   CAS 0389-2579; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Belt (?) (sic) fragment. The design is organized as a continuous band with spiral-wave borders. The center is divided into alternate squares and rectangles, each containing an amoeba-like motif ornamented with X and O figures. Colors are yellow, red, medium green, and dark gray. The textile is a narrow tapestry weave with edge selvedges, one strongly reinforced with extra warp threads. The textile is made of wool and linen weft on linen warp, 9 x 39 [warp : weft per square cm]. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: This piece would have been equally useful as a belt or as garment trimming. The one heavily reinforced edge would make the band suitable for edging a tunic neck. The design is, perhaps, derived from a floral motif of the type decorating the previous specimen [CAS 0389-2436], but considerably debased. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 47, pp. 136, 150-151.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 6.2, Length = 20.2

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2580   CAS 0389-2580; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Two fragments of a tunic clavus [CAS 0389-2580, 0389-2581]. The clavus decoration consists of rectangles with groups of dancers alternating with rectangles containing an elaborate, symmetrical flowering tree. The dancers are worked in beige, dark brown, tan, green, pink, and light blue on a medium red ground. The tree is worked in the same colors but on a tan ground. Both rectangles have dark blue borders edged with spiral waves for the dancers’ panels, ornamented with linked cartouches for the tree panels. The weave is tapestry, wool and linen weft on linen warp, 8 x 64 [warp : weft per square cm]. The clavus appears to have been assembled by cutting a banded, tapestry-woven textile into rectangles and sewing sections from different bands together to provide ornamentation for a tunic. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth or tenth century. Related example: Baginski and Tidhar 1980:141, no. 214. Remarks: The dumpy little figures are barely recognizable as human forms. Their drawing contrasts greatly with that of the elaborate, symmetrical plants associated with them. At work here is the turning away from Classical canons that started around the time of the Arab conquest as a reaction against nearly everything Byzantine. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 60B, pp. 136, 168-169.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 5.9, Length = 17.9

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2581   CAS 0389-2581; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 800-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Two fragments of a tunic clavus [CAS 0389-2580, 0389-2581]. The clavus decoration consists of rectangles with groups of dancers alternating with rectangles containing an elaborate, symmetrical flowering tree. The dancers are worked in beige, dark brown, tan, green, pink, and light blue on a medium red ground. The tree is worked in the same colors but on a tan ground. Both rectangles have dark blue borders edged with spiral waves for the dancers’ panels, ornamented with linked cartouches for the tree panels. The weave is tapestry, wool and linen weft on linen warp, 8 x 64 [warp : weft per square cm]. The clavus appears to have been assembled by cutting a banded, tapestry-woven textile into rectangles and sewing sections from different bands together to provide ornamentation for a tunic. All yarn is S-twist. Ninth or tenth century. Related example: Baginski and Tidhar 1980:141, no. 214. Remarks: The dumpy little figures are barely recognizable as human forms. Their drawing contrasts greatly with that of the elaborate, symmetrical plants associated with them. At work here is the turning away from Classical canons that started around the time of the Arab conquest as a reaction against nearly everything Byzantine. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 60A, pp. 136, 168-169, 184.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 6.6, Length = 26.5

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2582   CAS 0389-2582; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 1000-1200 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Mantle or coverlet fragment. The design is organized into bands, decorated ones interspersed with plain ones. Two bands contain quatrefoils with leaf motifs filling the triangular spaces between the quatrefoils. The third band is half as wide as the other two and is decorated with triangles and leaves. It is in fact a repeat of half the design of the other two bands divided down the center. Tapestry, woven entirely in wool, 9 x 22 [warp : weft per square cm]. One edge is corded. All yarn is S-twist. Eleventh or twelfth century. Remarks: This piece may be Islamic in origin, though not too different, technically, from Coptic work. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 71, pp. 136, 182-183.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 22.8, Length = 89.1

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2583   CAS 0389-2583; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-535 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Pallium fragment. The fragment has a tan ground and a large, purplish black roundel. The roundel has a border of small circles separated by pairs of smaller circles. Its center is filled by regularly spaced clusters of nine dots each. The entire fragment is weft loop pile carried out in linen and wool, 20 x 11 [warp : weft per square cm], on a linen warp. Every fourth shot in the area of the motif is a weft bundle. Dyed wool threads added to the motif area form the colored pile. Every seventh and eighth shot is a weft bundle but only the eighth shot provides pile. The pile was formed by looping sections of the weft around a smooth rod. The size of the rod was determined by the depth of pile desired. The pile surface of [this specimen] is velvet-like in areas with wool weft, rougher, like bath-toweling (sic), in the all-linen portion. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth or early sixth century. Remarks: As mentioned [in other descriptions], white pallia with large purple medallions were worn by dignitaries of church and state in the fifth and sixth centuries. Wear marks on this example indicate that it may have been worn inside-out, perhaps after having been discarded by the original, distinguished owner, or used as a chair or couch cover. The technique for weaving a textile with a pile surface evolved in Dynastic Egypt. Riefstahl [1941 or 1944] cites an eleventh-dynasty example found at Deir el-Bahri (1944:17, fig. 19), which already shows a perfect grasp of the method. The technique is an important one for the region. See Bellinger (1956). The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 11, pp. 82, 96-97.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 59.0, Length = 55.1

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2584   CAS 0389-2584; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 500-700 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Garment ornament. The form is a roundel. In the center is a representation of a mermaid holding a conch shell and being accompanied by a fish. The border is a stair-step jewel inlay design. The colors are light brown, cream, black, dark yellow, dull red, dull light green, and dull medium green. The weave is tapestry, wool and linen [S-twist] weft on two-ply Z-twist linen warp. Sixth or seventh century. Remarks: Representations of mermaid have a long history in ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern art. As symbols of belief, their significance is not clear, especially in Christian contexts. The stair-step border design is not particularly suitable for a woven roundel and may be derived from another form of art entirely. Stair-step inlays occur in gold and garnet jewelry of the fifth and sixth centuries, a fact that suggests a metalwork source for the motif. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 40, pp. 116, 134; color plate, p. 74.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.4, Length = 8.7

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2585   CAS 0389-2585; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 570-635 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Garment ornament. The form is a roundel with a double border ornamented with a rope pattern. In the center is a half-length figure of a crowned, nimbate woman with dark, wavy hair and elaborate earrings. One hand, holding an object of uncertain identity, is upraised. Colors are tan, black, cream, dark yellow, dull red, and dull medium green. The piece is tapestry, wool and linen weft on linen warp. The latter is two-ply Z twist [the former S-twist]. The count is 11 x 48 [warp : weft per square cm]. Late sixth or early seventh century. Remarks: Women with halos are common in Coptic art. This example may represent Isis, or a Christian saint, perhaps Mary Magdalene, a popular figure for Copts because of her later life spent as a hermit. Coptic Christians consider living a life devoted to religious practices, apart and alone, to be particularly meritorious. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 27-40 (CAS 0389-2378, -2380, -2385, -2386, -2388, -2400, -2404, -2412, -2429, -2430, -2433, -2451, -2452, -2539, -2584, -2585):] By the sixth century two basic types of textile ornaments were used to decorate garments. One, which was in use before the fourth century, was essentially monochrome. Designs in the monochrome class were both non-representational and figurative - the latter included a wide range of subject matter: plant, animal, human, and mythological. The second type is polychrome. Polychrome textiles had been made earlier, but not for use as garments. Extant examples are thought to have been decorative hangings, woven pictures as it were, that are commonly called tapestries. The use of what are essentially miniature tapestries for embellishing clothing is believed to have begun in the sixth century and to have lasted well into the Muslim period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 39, pp. 116, 132, 135.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 7.8, Length = 8.4

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2586   CAS 0389-2586; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-435 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Garment ornament. The ornament is rendered in brown on a beige ground. It is square with a reverse scallop border around the edge. In the center is a small square with a lion motif. The space between the outer and inner square is filled with an elaborate lozenge pattern. The weaving was done in a normal tapestry technique with wool and linen wefts on paired linen warps, 9 x 52 [warp : weft per square cm]. Weft floats were used to indicate details. All yarn is S-twist. Early fifth century. Remarks: The piece was reused in antiquity, a common practice that illustrates the value placed on textile decoration. Lions have many symbolic meanings, some good, some evil. The Greek hero Herakles [Hercules] wore the pelt of the nearly invulnerable Nemean lion, a trophy he gained from the first of his 12 labors. The animal had a hide so tough it could only be killed by strangling; weapons could not penetrate it. The pelt of this lion became a symbol of the hero, who himself was sometimes given the surname ‘soter,’ which means savior. The depiction of a lion could thus refer to invulnerability, salvation, or both. Since the lion was also the symbol of Saint Mark, Evangelist and first patriarch of the church in Egypt, the motif of a lion could be worn by either a pagan or a Christian with perfect confidence in its efficacy. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 1-16 (CAS 0389-2375, -2376, -2377, -2394, -2397, -2398, -2402, -2403, -2406, -2407, -2413, -2421, -2425, -2426, -2583, -2586)] are the earliest in the collection and belong to the period dominated by Rome. A number of them represent types of garments that could have indicated social rank or would have been appropriate wear for persons with high positions in the extensive bureaucracy of the period.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 14, pp. 82, 100-101.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 11.9, Length = 12.7

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2587   CAS 0389-2587; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Antinoöpolis (Shaikh Abada aka El Sheik Abara)
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 400-535 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Linen; Wool
Description “Tunic ornament. An ovoid medallion forms the base for the ornament. In the center is a depiction of an eagle with outspread wings, dull purple on a tan ground. It is surrounded by a wide purple border. Within this is a narrower band with a net-pattern filler. The weave is tapestry, wool and linen wefts on paired linen warps, 9 x 22 [warp : weft per square cm]. Weft floats define details of the plumage and the intricate pattern of the border. All yarn is S-twist. Fifth or early sixth century. Related examples: A larger fragment with a similar medallion is in Washington D.C. (sic), Textile Museum 71.128 (Trilling 1982, no. 40). It includes a section of the clavus, decorated with a net pattern that matches the border of the medallion. Remarks: The eagle as a symbol has an important place in several religions. The Roman legions marched under a standard bearing the image of an eagle. For Christians, it is the symbol of Saint John the Evangelist. The textiles in this group [DL Carroll # 17-26 (CAS 0389-2379, -2381, -2383, -2387, -2395, -2408A,B, -2418, -2428, -2431, -2587)] are reportedly from Shaikh Abada, or El Sheik Abara - the Arabic name for the site is transliterated variously. The ancient city was named Antinoöpolis after a beautiful Greek youth who drowned near there. It was founded in his memory by the emperor Hadrian around A.D. 13. A major weaving center in antiquity, some of its products have a classical flavor that may derive from Hadrian’s interest in early Greek art. The archaic style of Greece was revived during his reign. Later, in the Christian period, Antinoöpolis became the site of a famous monastery founded by Saint Samuel. While it is impossible to place total reliance on antique dealers’ attributions, the textiles in this group have similarities that make a common source believable. It is assumed that Rietz purchased them as a group, perhaps from a dealer in the vicinity.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 26, pp. 102, 114-115.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 13.6, Length = 14.8

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2588   CAS 0389-2588; Bag
Category Textiles
Object Name Bag
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Central or South Coast region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Middle Horizon: 500-800 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.9, Thickness = 0.4, Length = 7.9

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2593   CAS 0389-2593; Weaving basket with tools and 3 textiles
Category Basketry; Textiles
Object Name Weaving basket with tools and 3 textiles
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Height = 7.0, Width = 10.0, Length = 24.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2594   CAS 0389-2594; Weaving basket
Category Basketry; Textiles
Object Name Weaving basket
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Height = 7.0, Width = 10.0, Length = 24.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2595   CAS 0389-2595; Weaving basket
Category Basketry; Textiles
Object Name Weaving basket
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Height = 7.0, Width = 10.0, Length = 24.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2596A   CAS 0389-2596A; Weaving basket
Category Basketry; Textiles
Object Name Weaving basket
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description Rectangular woven basket for holding weaving implements. Possible contents: CAS 0389-2596B-F.
Dimensions (cm) Height = 9.0, Width = 16.2, Length = 36.1

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2596B-F   CAS 0389-2596B-F; Weaving implements
Category Textiles; Tools & Implements
Object Name Weaving implements
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wood; Other plant materials
Description Weaving implements, including spindle whorls and spindle rods; Possibly the contents of basket CAS 0389-2596.
Dimensions (cm) Max Diam = 1.6 to 3.0, Length = 0.9 to 32.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2597A-DD   CAS 0389-2597A-DD; Batons, yarn-wrapped (30)
Category Tools & Implements
Object Name Batons, yarn-wrapped (30)
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture Middle Horizon 3-4: 500-800 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Reeds; Cotton yarn; Camelid fiber
Description
Dimensions (cm) Max Diam = 1.7, Length = 51.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2598   CAS 0389-2598; Textile on loom
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile on loom
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 32.8, Thickness = 1.7, Length = 236.5

Catalog Number CAS 0389-2599   CAS 0389-2599; Coptic textile fragment
Category Textiles
Object Name Coptic textile fragment
Culture Coptic Egyptian
Global Region North Africa
Country Egypt
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data unknown
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture ca. 900-1000 CE
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Wool
Description “Tunic fragment with shoulder ornament. The ground is dark yellow. At one edge of the fragment is a segment of a plain, dark red clavus. The ornament, a roundel, has a dark brown spiral-wave border and contains the figures of two dancers, wearing only scarves, each with one upraised hand. They are worked in brown and dull orange. Woven entirely of wool, the ground thread count is 8 x 26 [warp : weft per square cm], the tapestry insert 7 x 46-50 [warp : weft per square cm]. Like the preceding example [CAS 0389-2422], the roundel was woven as a circle in a nearly invisible lentoid. The tips of the lentoid are tapestry, woven with the same yarn as the main ground of the tunic. On the reverse, the remains of weft floats indicate that the weft shots of the ground passed behind the tapestry portion of the textile and were completed before the ground was filled in around it. All yarn is S-twist. Tenth century. Remarks: For the possible symbolism of the dancers see the remarks for Number 33 [CAS 0389-2451]. [Regarding textiles in this group, DL Carroll # 41-72 (CAS 0389-2382, -2384, -2389, -2390, -2391, -2392, -2393, -2396, -2399, -2401, -2405, -2409, -2410, -2411, -2414, -2415, -2416, -2417, -2419, -2420, -2422, -2423, -2424, -2427, -2434, -2435, -2436, -2453, -2454, -2457, -2579, -2580, -2581, -2582, -2599):] After the Arab conquest in the mid-seventh century, Coptic textile design changed its character, moving ever more distant from its classical Roman and Greek sources. In part, this was a reaction against Byzantine culture, associated in the Coptic mind with oppression. Contributing to the change may have been Islamic prohibitions against depicting human and animal figures. Such figures when they appear in Coptic textiles of the later periods become increasingly abstract to the point of being virtually unrecognizable.” [From Looms and Textiles of the Copts by Diane Lee Carroll (San Francisco, CA: Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, No. 11, 1988); Catalog # 57, pp. 136, 164.]
Dimensions (cm) Width = 16.2, Length = 18.2

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2694   CAS 0389-2694; Yarn
Category Textiles; Tools & Implements
Object Name Yarn
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Handspun cotton yarn; Handspun camelid hair
Description
Dimensions (cm) Max Diam = 4.8 (ball)

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2695   CAS 0389-2695; Textile on loom
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile on loom
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials
Description
Dimensions (cm) Width = 9.0, Thickness = 0.7, Length = 32.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2696   CAS 0389-2696; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Cotton; Wood
Description A “god's eye,” woven of white and blue cotton on two crossed reed sticks.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 13.0, Length = 11.0

Catalog Number

CAS 0389-2712   CAS 0389-2712; Textile
Category Textiles
Object Name Textile
Culture Inca
Global Region South America
Country Peru
State/Prov./Dist.
County
Other Geographic Data Central Coast; possibly Chancay Valley region
Maker's Name Unknown
Date of Manufacture pre-Columbian
Collection Name Rietz Collection of Textiles
Materials Cotton
Description Plainweave panel, generally rectangular in overall shape, with horizontal and diagonal, and triangular panels of bird figures on multicolored, banded background; Bird figures are woven with supplementary weft yarns; Triangular panels at either end incorporate decorative vertical slits.
Dimensions (cm) Width = 45.0, Length = 62.5
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