Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 8 June 2021

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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severus, Heros Heckel [J. J.] 1840:362 [Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte v. 2; ref. 2064] Maribitanos, Río Negro, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): NMW 17638. See Staeck & Schindler 2015 for comments on a unique holotype. •Valid as Cichlasoma severum (Heckel 1840) -- (Lee et al. 1980:769 [ref. 22416], Page & Burr 1991:333 [ref. 18983], Minckley & Marsh 2009:263 [ref. 31114]). •Valid as Heros severus Heckel 1840 -- (Fuller et al. 1999:432 [ref. 25838], Lasso & Machado-Allison 2000:114 [ref. 27968], Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:636 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:153 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2009:8 [ref. 30400], Page & Burr 2011:611 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:156 [ref. 32708], Sarmiento et al. 2014:128, 189 [ref. 35004], Staeck & Schindler 2015:129, 133 [ref. 33952], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:100 [ref. 35633], Robins et al. 2018:379 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Heros severus Heckel 1840. Cichlidae: Cichlinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin and Amazon River basin: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia and Venezuela; established in Florida, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.