Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 8 June 2021

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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pugnax, Macropodus Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1066 [84], Pl. 2 (figs. 1-3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Penang, Malaysia. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.3.19.930. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.317-318 (2, skins). Type catalog: Alfred 1961:183 [ref. 20551]. Lectotype selected by Alfred 1964; see Hui & Ng 2005:63 [ref. 28354]. •Valid as Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849) -- (Vierke 1986:94 [ref. 36452], Vierke 1988:134 [ref. 36453], Roberts 1989:173 [ref. 6439], Lim et al. 1990:49 [ref. 16753], Witte & Schmidt 1992:327 [ref. 14256], Ng & Kottelat 1994:593 [ref. 22076], Kottelat 1994:300 [ref. 21572], Kottelat 1995:63 [ref. 21728], Tan & Tan 1996:419 [ref. 22754], Tan & Kottelat 1998:46 [ref. 23543], Ng & Tan 1999:363 [ref. 24159], Tan & Lim 2004:111 [ref. 27716], Tan & Ng 2005:60 [ref. 28354], Tan & Ng 2005:125 [ref. 28283], Schindler & Schmidt 2006:48 [ref. 28865], Schindler & Schmidt 2008:43 [ref. 30459], Kottelat 2013:452 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Betta pugnax (Cantor 1849). Osphronemidae: Macropodusinae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (West Malaysia) and Singapore. Habitat: freshwater.