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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Albulidae: [ 35 ] records


argenteus, Esox Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:395 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tahiti, Society Islands [or New Zeland]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4515 [not 5415]. Appeared as Esox argenteus without distinguishing features in Forster 1777:282. Repeated as Synodus argenteus in Bloch & Schneider 1801:398 [ref. 471], based on description in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). Preoccupied by Esox argenteus Gmelin 1789; replaced by Albula forsteri Valenciennes 1847. The replacement name forsteri was becoming established as the valid name until authors recently began to use argentea on the basis of Art. 23.9.5 in the Code in effect on 1 Jan. 2000 that allowed use of secondary primary homonyms. We suggest using argentea, but note that the species of Albula are very uncertain (see Pfeiler et al. 2011[ref. 31589]). Kottelat dates to Bloch [Bloch & Schneider] 1801. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:216 [ref. 5733]). •Synonym of Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994]). •Synonym of Albula forsteri Valenciennes 1847 -- (Paxton et al. 2006:227 [ref. 28995]). •Valid as Albula argentea (Forster 1801) [or Bloch & Schneider]-- (Randall 2007:51 [ref. 30952], Hidaka et al. 2008:56 [ref. 29526], Fricke et al. 2011:348 [ref. 31242], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589], Larson et al. 2013:24 [ref. 32988] as argenteus, Kottelat 2013:36 [ref. 32989], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:144 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2019:49 [ref. 36673]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Valid as Albula argentea (Forster 1801). Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Society and Marquesas islands, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

argenteus, Synodus Schneider [J. G.] in Bloch & Schneider (ex Forster) 1801:398 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: MNHN 0000-4515. Based on Esox argenteus Forster as treated on p. 395. Not considered as an available name but a new combination. See account of Esox argenteus. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:217 [ref. 5733]). •Valid as Albula argenteus (Schneider 1801) -- (Randall 1995:53 [ref. 22896], Randall et al. 1997:32 [ref. 25919] as argentea). •Synonym of Albula argentea (Forster 1801) -- (Hidaka et al. 2008:56 [ref. 29526], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589]). Current status: Synonym of Albula argentea (Forster 1801). Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Western Australia east to Fiji and French Polynesia; Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

bahiensis, Engraulis Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:49, Pl. 24 (fig. 2) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Type information: Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733]. Not available, name first published in the synonymy of Glossodus forskalii. •In the synonymy of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae.

bananus, Butyrinus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1803:45, 46 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-2166 (dry on sheet, no head). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:261 [ref. 293] but dating to later publication. Based on Commerson manuscript. Type information: Whitehead 1986:222 [ref. 5733]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:25 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1986:221 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). •Unidentifiable -- (Randall & Bauchot 1999:82 [ref. 23836]). •Questionably a synonym of Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 1999:35 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:36 [ref. 32989]). •Mention -- (Hidaka et al. 2008:62 [ref. 29526]). Current status: Uncertain as Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

belloci, Pterothrissus Cadenat [J.] 1937:443, Figs. 8-9 [Revue des Travaux de l'Institut des Pêches Maritimes v. 10 (fasc. 4, no. 40); ref. 17134] Senegal. Lectotype: MNHN 1938-0002. Paralectotype: MHNLR P. 386 (1), MSNG 36335 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:262 [ref. 293], Aloncle 1968:684 [ref. 20713]. Lectotype selected by Hidaka et al. 2016:[2] [ref. 34592]. •Valid as Pterothrissus belloci Cadenat 1937 -- (Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:65, 173 [ref. 8379], Smith 1986:157 [ref. 5712], Whitehead 1990:125 [ref. 19325], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:136 [ref. 25472], Tsukamoto 2002:267 [ref. 26336], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:99 [ref. 28072], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Smith 2016:1592 [ref. 34556], Reiner 2019:56 [ref. 38139]). •Valid as Nemoossis belloci (Cadenat 1937) -- (Hidaka et al. 2016:[2] [ref. 34592]). Current status: Valid as Nemoossis belloci (Cadenat 1937). Albulidae: Pterothrissinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

bonuk, Argentina Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:365, 366 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Surviving syntype: ZMUC P 17152 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733]. Unneeded new name for Argentina glossodonta Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:222-223 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). •Synonym of Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775) -- (Fricke 2008:14 [ref. 30182], Hidaka et al. 2011:543 [ref. 29526], Kottelat 2013:36 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

brasiliensis, Clupea Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:427 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Brazil [presumed Recife]. For type and locality information see Whitehead 1986:218 [ref. 5733]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:218 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

conorynchus, Albula Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:432 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Mediterranean Sea [? in error]; Antilles. No types known. Type information: see Whitehead 1986:219 [ref. 5733]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:25 [ref. 29757] as conorhynchus, Whitehead 1986:219 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:127 [ref. 25013] as conorhynchus). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

costai, Esunculus Kaup [J. J.] 1856:144, Pl. 16 (fig. 3) [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] No locality, erroneously as Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3580 (6 larval fishes, poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:262 [ref. 293]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:225 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

dorsalis, Bathythrissa Günther [A.] 1877:443 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Inoshima, Kanagawa Pref., Japan, Inland Sea, depth 345 fathoms? Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.532. Also appeared in Günther 1887:222, Pl. 56 (fig. A). •Synonym of Pterothrissus gissu Hilgendorf 1877 -- (Hidaka et al. 2016:[5] [ref. 34592]). Current status: Synonym of Pterothrissus gissu Hilgendorf 1877. Albulidae: Pterothrissinae. Habitat: marine.

erythrocheilos, Albula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:352, Pl. 574 [not 540] [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 19; ref. 4883] Tonga Islands [Tongatapu]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3593. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:261 [ref. 293]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:224 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). •Synonym of Albula forsteri Valenciennes 1847 -- (Randall & Bauchot 1999:82 [ref. 23836], Randall 2005:25 [ref. 28239]). •Mention -- (Hidaka et al. 2008:62 [ref. 29526]). •Synonym of Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775) -- (Kottelat 2013:36 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

esunculus, Atopichthys Garman [S.] 1899:327, Pl. 65 (figs. 2-2a) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Off Acapulco, Mexico. Syntypes: MCZ 28430 (2). •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:225 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). •Valid as Albula esuncula (Garman 1899) -- (Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:236 [ref. 36362]). •Valid as Albula esunculus (Garman 1899) -- (Pfeiler et al. 2008:763 [ref. 29949], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Kwun & Kim 2011:57 [ref. 31334], Pfeiler et al. 2011:9 [ref. 31589], Page et al. 2013:59 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:88 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Albula esuncula (Garman 1899). Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern Gulf of California, Mexico south to Ecuador. Habitat: marine.

forskalii, Glossodus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:49, Pls. 23 (fig. 2), 24 (fig. 2) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733]. As Engraulis sericus and Engraulis bahiensis on plates 23 and 24, respectively. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

forsteri, Albula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:354 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 19; ref. 4883] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype: MNHN 0000-4525. Type catalog: Bauchot 1969:129 [ref. 20807] as holotype. Type information: Whitehead 1986:224 [ref. 5733] as holotype. Currently treated as a synonym of argentea; see account of Albula argentea (Forster 1801). •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). •Synonym of Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Wheeler 1991:761 [ref. 15994]). •Valid as Albula forsteri Valenciennes 1847 -- (Randall & Bauchot 1999:81 [ref. 23836], Smith & Randall 1999:1624 [ref. 24662], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:584 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:16 [ref. 25847], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Randall 2005:25 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:108 [ref. 28379], Pfeiler et al. 2006:781 [ref. 28922], Paxton et al. 2006:227 [ref. 28995], Motomura et al. 2010:69 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:70 [ref. 31980]). •See Colborn et al. 2001:807 [ref. 25230]. •Synonym of Albula argentea (Forster 1801) -- (Hidaka et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29526], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589], Kottelat 2013:35 [ref. 32989]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Albula argentea (Forster 1801). Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Western Australia east to Fiji and French Polynesia; Hawaiian Islands [if valid]. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gilberti, Albula Pfeiler [E.] & van der Heiden [A. M.] in Pfeiler, van der Heiden, Ruboyianes & Watt 2011:6, Figs. 1A-2A [Zootaxa No. 3088; ref. 31589] Isla Venados (exposed side) El Playón, Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico. Holotype: CNP-IBUNAM 16880 [ex CIAD 10-03/TB 03.ALG-36]. CNP-IBUNAM 16881 [ex CIAD 10-03/TB 03.ALG-33, -37] (2); CIAD 10-01/TB 01.ALG-29, -30 (2), 10-02/TB 02.ALG-31, -32 (2), 05-3/TB 02.ALG-07 to -11, -13, -16, -18, -20, -21, -23 to -27 (15). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Albula gilberti Pfeiler & van der Heiden 2011 -- (Page et al. 2013:59 [ref. 32708], Palacios-Salgado et al. 2014:236 [ref. 36362], Kells et al. 2016:88 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:34 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Albula gilberti Pfeiler & van der Heiden 2011. Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: California (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

gissu, Pterothrissus Hilgendorf [F. M.] 1877:127 [Leopoldina, Amtliches Organ der Kaiserlich Leopoldinisch-Carolinisch-Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher. v. 13 (no. 15-16); ref. 2165] Tokyo, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9890. •Valid as Pterothrissus gissu Hilgendorf 1877 -- (Tameka in Okamura et al. 1982:57, 316 [ref. 8256], Shirai in Amaoka et al. 1983:65, 173 [ref. 8379], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:79, 314 [ref. 8057], Uyeno in Masuda et al. 1984:21 [ref. 6441], Shinohara et al. 1996:154 [ref. 26605], Nakabo 2000:189 [ref. 25086], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:16 [ref. 25650], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Zhang 2001:51 [ref. 26586], Nakabo 2002:189 [ref. 26001], Tsukamoto 2002:267 [ref. 26336], Shinohara et al. 2005:399 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2011:39 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:235 [ref. 33330], Parin et al. 2014:46 [ref. 33547], Hidaka et al. 2016:[5] [ref. 34592], Carneiro et al. 2019:55 [ref. 37250], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:60 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Pterothrissus gissu Hilgendorf 1877. Albulidae: Pterothrissinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific; possibly northeastern Atlantic (off Portugal). Habitat: marine.

glossodonta, Argentina Forsskål [P. S.] in Niebuhr 1775:68, xiii [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea; [Lohajæ] Al-Luhayya, Yemen, Red Sea. Surviving syntype: ZMUC P17152 (1, dry skin). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:10 [ref. 9588] with ZMUC P17152 as holotype. Surviving syntype figured in Klausewitz & Nielsen 1965:Pl. 36 [ref. 20847] as holotype. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:14 [ref. 30182]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dor 1984:24 [ref. 29757], Whitehead 1986:216 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:122 [ref. 19325]). •Valid as Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:5 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:32 [ref. 15987], Kottelat et al. 1993:5 [ref. 23448], Randall 1995:53 [ref. 22896], Randall & Bauchot 1999:80 [ref. 23836], Myers 1999:40 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:35 [ref. 24106], Smith & Randall 1999:1624 [ref. 24662], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:342 [ref. 25191], Randall in Randall & Lim 2000:584 [ref. 25122], Randall & Earle 2000:5 [ref. 25806], Colborn et al. 2001:807 [ref. 25230], Zhang 2001:50 [ref. 26586], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S94 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:610 [ref. 27495], Lobel & Lobel 2004:67 [ref. 27576], Hidaka et al. 2004:62 [ref. 27805], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:99 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:26 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:109 [ref. 28379], Pfeiler et al. 2006:781 [ref. 28922], Randall 2007:51, 52 [ref. 30952], Fricke 2008:14 [ref. 30182], Hidaka et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29526], Fricke et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30213], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Fricke et al. 2011:348 [ref. 31242], Kwun & Kim 2011:57 [ref. 31334], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589], Allen & Erdmann 2012:70 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:251 [ref. 32706], Kottelat 2013:36 [ref. 32989], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:4 [ref. 33988], Miesen et al. 2016:80 [ref. 34492], Fricke et al. 2018:29 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:19 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775). Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Red Sea, Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Hawaiian Islands, north to southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Lord Howe Island. Habitat: brackish, marine.

goreensis, Albula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:342 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 19; ref. 4883] Gorée, Senegal. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3586 (1), 0000-3587 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:261 [ref. 293]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). •See Randall 1995:53 [ref. 22896]. •Valid as Albula goreensis Valenciennes 1847 -- (Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:117 [ref. 32972], Wallace & Tringali 2016:6 [ref. 34691], Almeida & Alves 2019:269 [ref. 37509]). Current status: Valid as Albula goreensis Valenciennes 1847. Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

gronovii, Albula Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:654 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm.). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

immaculata, Amia Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:451 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Macabí' Parra 1787:88, Pl. 35 (figs. 1, 3, 5) Based on the 'Macabí' Parra 1787:88, Pl. 35 (figs. 1, 3, 5) (translation given in Whitehead 1986:221 [ref. 5733]). •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:220 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

koreana, Albula Kwun [H. J.] & Kim [J. K.] 2011:58, Figs. 1A-B, 2A [Zootaxa No. 2903; ref. 31334] 35°11'N, 129°13'E, Sirang-ri, Gijang-gun, Busan, Korea. Holotype: PKU 3394. Paratypes: ASIZP 0067114 (1), 0067133 (1), 0067192 (1), 0067194 (1). •Valid as Albula koreana Kwun & Kim 2011 -- (Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [31589], Sonoyama et al. 2020:16 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Albula koreana Kwun & Kim 2011. Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Taiwan to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

lacustris, Albula Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:655 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Not available, name mentioned in account of Albula gronovii. Nomen Nudum. Albulidae: Albulinae.

macrocephala, Clupea Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:426, 460, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Valenciennes specimens: MNHN 0000-3584 (1), 0000-3585 (1). Type information: Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733]. Albula macrocephala Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:324 on "Clupée macrocéphale, Lacédède" not regarded as independent. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

nemoptera, Dixonina Fowler [H. W.] 1911:652, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 62 (for 1910); ref. 1381] Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ANSP 1597. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:18 [ref. 13621]. The same or a similar species occurs in the e. Atlantic (Smith 2003:684 [ref. 26989]). •Valid as Albula nemoptera (Fowler 1911) -- (Rivas & Warlen 1967:254 [ref. 23666], Uyeno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:100 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:48 [ref. 23100], Smith 1989:972 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:24 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:252 [ref. 23827], Bussing & López S. 1994:36 [ref. 23101], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:851 [ref. 22829], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:51 [ref. 24545] as nhemoptera, Randall & Bauchot 1999:79 [ref. 23836], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:93 [ref. 24550], Colborn et al. 2001:807 [ref. 25230], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:32 [ref. 27192], Smith & Crabtree 2003:684 [ref. 35183], Smith et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:59 [ref. 27807], Randall 2005:25 [ref. 28239], Pfeiler et al. 2006:778 [ref. 28922], Pfeiler 2008:839 [ref. 29805] but restricted to the w. Atlantic, Hidaka et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29526], Kwun & Kim 2011:57 [ref. 31334], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589]). Current status: Valid as Albula nemoptera (Fowler 1911). Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic and eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

neoguinaica, Albula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:350 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 19; ref. 4883] Northwestern Irian Jaya. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3591 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:261 [ref. 293]. See account of Esox argenteus. See account in Kottelat 2013:35 [ref. 32989]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:853 [ref. 22829]). •Valid as Albula neoguinaica Valenciennes 1847 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:106 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:32 [ref. 15987], Kottelat et al. 1993:6 [ref. 23448], Francis 1993:157 [ref. 25479], Allen & Robertson 1994:41 [ref. 22193], Randall 1995:53 [ref. 22896], Allen 1997:50 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:346 [ref. 23967], Fricke 1999:36 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:93 [ref. 24550], Johnson 1999:720 [ref. 25471], Nakabo 2000:189 [ref. 25086], Kimura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:107 [ref. 27511], Colborn et al. 2001:807 [ref. 25230], Nakabo 2002:189 [ref. 26001]). •See Grove & Lavenberg 1997:141 [ref. 24023]. •Synonym of Albula forsteri Valenciennes 1847 -- (Randall & Bauchot 1999:81 [ref. 23836], Randall 2005:26 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:108 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:227 [ref. 28995]). •Synonym of Albula argentea (Forster 1801) -- (Hidaka et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29526], Randall 2007:51 [ref. 30952], Kottelat 2013:35 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Albula argentea (Forster 1801). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

oligolepis, Albula Hidaka [K.], Iwatsuki [Y.] & Randall [J. E.] 2008:59, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Research v. 55 (no. 1); ref. 29526] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB 54385. Paratypes: BMNH 1863.12.15.12 (1), 1927.4.14.1 (1), 1962.3.26.9 (1); BPBM 20270 (1), 27994 (1); NSMT-P 60194 (1); SAIAB 16545 (1), 17632 (2), 17633 (2), 18221 (1); USNM 176897 (2). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Albula oligolepis Hidaka, Iwatsuki & Randall 2008 -- (Fricke et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30213], Iwatsuki 2009:16 [ref. 30433], Kwun & Kim 2011:57 [ref. 31334], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589], Kottelat 2013:36 [ref. 32989], Zajonz et al. 2019:61 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:270 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Albula oligolepis Hidaka, Iwatsuki & Randall 2008. Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Socotra and Réunion (western Mascarenes) east to western Thailand and southeastern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

pacifica, Dixonina Beebe [W.] 1942:43 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 27 (no. 8); ref. 12324] Port Culebra, Costa Rica, 10°31'N, 85°40'W. Holotype: CAS-SU 46486 [ex NYZS]. Paratypes: ["Study material"]: (19) CAS-SU 46385 [ex NYZS 28051] (5); NYZS 26046a-f (6), 26123-25 (1, 1, 1), 26131 (1), 26131a (1, lost), 28736a-c (3). Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648]. •Synonym of Albula nemoptera (Fowler 1911) -- (Rivas & Warlen 1967:254 [ref. 23666], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:93 [ref. 24550]). •Valid as Albula pacifica (Beebe 1942) -- (Pfeiler 2008:839 [ref. 29805], Kwun & Kim 2011:57 [ref. 31334], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589], Page et al. 2013:59 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:143 [ref. 34871]). Current status: Valid as Albula pacifica (Beebe 1942). Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Tropical Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

parrae, Albula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:339 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 19; ref. 4883] Martinique Island, West Indies; Bahia; Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN A-0823 (1, dry) Martinique, A-9740 (1, dry) Martinique. Type catalog: Bertin 1940:261 [ref. 293]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

plumieri, Albula Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:no page number, Pl. 86 (upper fig.) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Martinique Island, West Indies. Based on a Plumier drawing; name on plate but treated as a name in synonymy of Albula conorhynchus (see index p. LI) -- (Whitehead 1986:219 [ref. 5733]). •In the synonymy of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:219 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae.

rostrata, Albula Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:189 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea; western Atlantic; Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Whitehead 1986:224 [ref. 5733]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:225 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

seminuda, Albula Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1847:351 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 19; ref. 4883] Irian Jaya [or New Guinea]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3592 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1940:261 [ref. 293]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:224 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:123 [ref. 19325]). •Synonym of Albula glossodonta (Forsskål 1775) -- (Randall & Bauchot 1999:82 [ref. 23836]). •Synonym of Albula argentea (Forster 1801) -- (Hidaka et al. 2008:58 [ref. 29526], Kottelat 2013:35 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Albula argentea (Forster 1801). Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

sericus, Engraulis Spix [J. B. von] in Spix & Agassiz 1829:49, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Type and locality information: Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733]. Not available, name first published in the synonymy of Glossodus forskalii; from Brazil. •In the synonymy of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:223 [ref. 5733], Whitehead 1990:122 [ref. 19325]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae.

unbarana, Albula Castelnau [F. L.] (ex Marcgrave) 1855:53 [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Bahia, Brazil. No types known. Based on Marcgrave 1648:154 [ref. 19651]. Albulidae: Albulinae. Habitat: marine.

virgata, Albula Jordan [D. S.] & Jordan [E. K.] 1922:6, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 2487] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype: FMNH 55190 [ex CM 3896]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 23288 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:52 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:11 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:6 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Whitehead 1986:225 [ref. 5733]). •Valid as Albula virgata Jordan & Jordan 1922 -- (Randall 2007:52 [ref. 30952], Hidaka et al. 2008:60 [ref. 29526], Kwun & Kim 2011:57 [ref. 31334], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589]). Current status: Valid as Albula virgata Jordan & Jordan 1922. Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

vulpes, Esox Linnaeus [C.] (ex Catesby) 1758:313 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America (Bahamas). No types known. Based on the "Vulpes bahamensis" of Catesby 1743: Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [ref. 774]. •Valid as Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Rivas & Warlen 1967:255 [ref. 23666], Tameka in Okamura et al. 1982:57, 316 [ref. 8256], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:62 [ref. 9277], Uyeno & Aizawa in Uyeno et al. 1983:99 [ref. 14275], Dor 1984:24 [ref. 29757], Uyeno in Masuda et al. 1984:21 [ref. 6441], Robins & Ray 1986:48 [ref. 23100], Smith 1986:157 [ref. 5712], Whitehead 1986:216 [ref. 5733], Allen & Swainston 1988:30 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:74 [ref. 25518], Pequeño 1989:24 [ref. 14125], Smith 1989:970 [ref. 13285], McAllister 1990:44 [ref. 14674], Whitehead 1990:122 [ref. 19325], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:70 [ref. 20764], Cervigón 1991:22 [ref. 24472], Boschung 1992:31 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:253 [ref. 23827], Bussing & López S. 1994:36 [ref. 23101], Goren & Dor 1994:6 [ref. 25356], Whitehead & Rodriguez-Sánchez in Fischer et al. 1995:853 [ref. 22829], Randall 1995:53 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:94 [ref. 27969], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:51 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:139 [ref. 24023], Murdy et al. 1997:58 [ref. 23144], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:209 [ref. 23897], Aguilera 1998:46 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:181 [ref. 24555], Randall & Bauchot 1999:79 [ref. 23836], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:94 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:127 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:68 [ref. 25466], Fuller et al. 1999:35 [ref. 25838], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:119 [ref. 25206], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:147 [ref. 27754], Colborn et al. 2001:807 [ref. 25230], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639], Choi et al. 2003:138, 489 [ref. 26218], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:32 [ref. 27192], Smith & Crabtree 2003:684 [ref. 35183], Smith et al. 2003:6 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:59 [ref. 27807], Pfeiler et al. 2006:779 [ref. 28922], Randall 2007:51 [ref. 30952], Hidaka et al. 2008:53 [ref. 29526], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:58 [ref. 35264], Kwun & Kim 2011:57 [ref. 31334], Pfeiler et al. 2011:3 [ref. 31589], Page et al. 2013:59 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:989 [ref. 33194], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:22 [ref. 33341], Smith 2016:1590 [ref. 34556], Wallace & Tringali 2016:6 [ref. 34691] and cf. vulpes, Petry et al. 2016:299 [ref. 34966] as cf. vulpes, Nión et al. 2016:24 [ref. 35565], Reiner 2019:55 [ref. 38139], Ribeiro et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Albula vulpes (Linnaeus 1758). Albulidae: Albulinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: southern Florida (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Trinidad and Tobago, including western and southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2012): NT. Previously supposed to be circumglobal in warm seas (but apparently a species complex). Habitat: marine.