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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Aphaniidae: [ 90 ] records


airebejensis, Cyprinodon zaccarinii var. Gianferrari [L.] 1933:86, Figs. 1-2 [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali di Milano v. 72 (no. 1); ref. 16488] Pool at Uadi Airebeje, Migiurtinia [Mijertins], Somalia. Holotype (unique): MSNM 55 [ex MSNM 4575]. Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:227-228 [ref. 21560]. •Synonym of Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829, subspecies dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Lazara 2001:183 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:167 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:43 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

aksaranus, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:131 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Esmekaya Pinari (38°46'N, 33°47'E), spring near Sultanhani and water sources near Aksaray (38°32'N, 34°02'E), southeast of Lake Tuz, Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:27 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:23 [ref. 26378], Freyhof et al. 2017:573 [ref. 35477]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

alexandri, Aphanius cypris Akşiray [F.] 1948:119 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Coastal creek near Iskenderun, Turkey (36°35'N, 36°10'E). No types known. •Synonym of Lebias mento Heckel 1843 -- (Lazara 2001:187 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Wildekamp 1993:58 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:37 [ref. 26561]). •Valid as Aphanius alexandri Akşiray 1948 -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:22 [ref. 36267], Kärst et al. 2020:151 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Paraphanius alexandri (Akşiray 1948) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2020:12 [ref. 37446], Bayçelebi 2020:761 [ref. 37964], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:438 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Paraphanius alexandri (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Mediterranean costal region of Ceyhan River basin (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

almiriensis, Aphanius Kottelat [M.], Barbieri [R.] & Stoumboudi [M. Th.] 2007:15, Figs. 1-2 (left) [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 114 (no. 1); ref. 29116] Brackish water spring Kokosi at southern end of Almiri beach, at Kato Almiri, about 4 kilometers south of Loutra Elenis, 37°50'32"N, 23°00'58"E, Korinthia District, Peloponnese, Greece. Holotype: MHNG 2654.087. Paratypes: CMK 17296 (3); HCMR 1064 (14), 1473 (5). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Aphanius almiriensis Kottelat, Barbieri & Stoumboudi 2007 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:485 [ref. 29996], Barbieri et al. 2015:94 [ref. 35029], Esmaeili et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36738], Valdesalici et al. 2019:[2] [ref. 36498], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:433 [ref. 37656], Kärst et al. 2020:118 [ref. 38165]). Current status: Valid as Aphanius almiriensis Kottelat, Barbieri & Stoumboudi 2007. Aphaniidae. Distribution: Southern Europe: Calabria (Italy), Greece, western Turkey. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

altus, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:127, Pl. 3 (figs. 33-34) [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Karapinar spring (37°32'N, 29°46'E), near Yesilova, Burdur District, Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:23 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Aphanius fontinalis Akşiray 1948 -- (Freyhof et al. 2017:574 [ref. 35477]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys fontinalis (Akşiray 1948). Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys fontinalis (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

anatoliae, Cyprinodon Leidenfrost [G.] 1912:159, Fig. 1, p. 130 of Hungarian text [Állatani Közlemények, Budapest v. 11; ref. 31916] Near the village Jazla Jayla, near the Kradzsa Da mountain, Asia Minor. No types known. •Valid as Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Wildekamp 1993:22 [ref. 26378]). •Valid as Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:180 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561], Doadrio et al. 2002:74 [ref. 26616], Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003:140 [ref. 26764], Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685], Fricke et al. 2007:70 [ref. 29533], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:2 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:321 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:46 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:427 [ref. 37656], Kelleci et al. 2021:282 [ref. 38359]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: central Anatolia (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

apoda, Tellia Gervais [F. L. P.] 1853:15 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie) (Sér. 3) v. 19; ref. 1575] Springs of Tell, south of Constantine, Algeria. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4307 (12), ZMB 3497 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:27 [ref. 19576], Paepke & Seegers 1986:148 [ref. 19981]. Also appeared as new in Gervais 1853:84 [ref. 33801]. Earliest publication not researched. •Valid as Aphanius apodus (Gervais 1853) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:165 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:34 [ref. 26378], Poll & Gosse 1995:207 [ref. 24781], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711], Doadrio et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26616], Esmaeili et al. 2018:3 [ref. 36738], Kärst et al. 2020:131 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Tellia apoda Gervais 1853 -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:439 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Tellia apoda Gervais 1853. Aphaniidae. Distribution: North Africa: stream south of Ain M'Lila (northern Algeria). Habitat: freshwater.

arakensis, Aphanius Teimori [A.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Gholami [Z.], Zarei [N.] & Reichenbacher [B.] 2012:62, Figs. 2A, B, 5 [ZooKeys No. 215; ref. 32136] Small pond, Namak Lake basin, 34°00'N, 49°50'E, 5 km southeast of the city of Arak, Iran, elevation 1786 meters. Holotype: ZM-CBSU 10999. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU 110000, 11051-11118 (70). •Valid as Aphanius arakensis Teimori, Esmaeili, Gholami, Zarei & Reichenbacher 2012 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2014:29 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:137 [ref. 33004], Esmaeili et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33345], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:892 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:71 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:257 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:164 [ref. 38165]). •Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

asquamatus, Kosswigichthys Sözer [F.] 1942:308, Fig. 2 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 7 (f. 4); ref. 4171] Lake Hazer, Elazig District (38°30'N, 39°25'E), Anatolia, Turkey. Syntypes: (20) MSNG 36472 (3). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:313 [ref. 10351]. •Valid as Lebias asquamatus (Sözer 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius asquamatus (Sözer 1942) -- (Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:36 [ref. 26378], Coad 1995:25 [ref. 23608], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Wildekamp et al. 1999:31 [ref. 26561], Doadrio et al. 2002:73 [ref. 26616], Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003:143 [ref. 26764], Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685], Fricke et al. 2007:70 [ref. 29533], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36738], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:92 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Kosswigichthys asquamatus Sözer 1942 -- (Parenti 1981:524 [ref. 7066], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:435 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Kosswigichthys asquamatus Sözer 1942. Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Lake Hazer endemic, eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

baeticus, Aphanius Doadrio [I.], Carmona [J. A.] & Fernández-Delgado [C.] 2002:74, Figs. 3, 4a [Folia Zoologica: international journal of vertebrate zoology. v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 26616] Salgado River (Guadalquivir basin), Lebrija, Sevilla, Spain; elevation 20 meters. Holotype: MNCN 170691. Paratypes: MNCN 16145-155 (12), 114693-728 (65), 170692-719 (29), 170720-764 (45), 170765-798 (34), 170886-913 (28), 170914-948 (35); UCOBA 1-96 (96), 97-126 (30), 127-146 (50), 147-351 (55). •Valid as Aphanius baeticus Doadrio, Carmona & Fernández-Delgado 2002 -- (Blanco et al. 2006:49 [ref. 28598], Kottelat et al. 2007:21 [ref. 29116], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:486 [ref. 29996], Esmaeili et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36738], Kärst et al. 2020:135 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Apricaphanius baeticus (Doadrio, Carmona & Fernández-Delgado 2002) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:442 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Apricaphanius baeticus (Doadrio, Carmona & Fernández-Delgado 2002). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Southwestern Europe: Guadalquivir basin, Atlantic coastline (southern Spain). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

blanfordii, Cyprinodon Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:124, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (pt 2) (art. 12); ref. 14478] East of Shiraz, southern Iran. Syntypes: ZSI F9416-18 (3). •Questionably a synonym of Aphanius punctatus (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608]). •Synonym of Lebias sophiae Heckel 1849 -- (Lazara 2001:189 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:63 [ref. 26378], Coad 1996:170 [ref. 23604], Teimori et al. 2011:55[ref. 31612] with question, Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254] with question). •Synonym of Aphanius persicus (Jenkins 1910) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391]). •Synonym of Aphanius farsicus Teimori, Esmaeili & Reichenbacher 2011. •Synonym of Esmaeilius persicus (Jenkins 1910). Current status: Synonym of Esmaeilius persicus (Jenkins 1910). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

boulengeri, Aphanius cypris Akşiray [F.] 1948:118, Figs. 13-14 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Lake Gösbasi, in an area of three small lakes west of Besni, Malatya District, Turkey (37°45'N, 37°35'E). No types known. •Synonym of Lebias mento Heckel 1843 -- (Lazara 2001:187 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Wildekamp 1993:57 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:37 [ref. 26561]). •Valid as Aphanius boulengeri Akşiray 1948 -- (Kärst et al. 2020:153 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Paraphanius boulengeri (Akşiray 1948) -- (Bayçelebi 2020:761 [ref. 37964], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:438 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Paraphanius boulengeri (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Mediterranean drainages of Turkey. Habitat: freshwater.

burdurensis, Anatolichthys Ermin [R.] (ex Akşiray) 1946:235, Figs. 22-37 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 19978] Burdur Lake, Burdur District, Central Anatolia, Turkey. No types known. Also appeared in Akşiray 1948:287, Pl. 4 (figs. 54-55); Figs. 7-8 [ref. 13036]. •Synonym of Lebias sereyanus (Neu 1937) -- (Lazara 2001:190 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Lebias burdurensis (Ermin 1946) -- (Getahun & Lazara 2001:152 [ref. 25127]). •Valid as Kossiwigichthys burdurensis (Ermin 1946) -- (Parenti 1981:524 [ref. 7066]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies sureyanus (Neu 1937) -- (Wildekamp 1993:29 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:29 [ref. 26561], Fricke et al. 2007:70 [ref. 29533]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys sureyanus (Ney 1937). Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys sureyanus (Neu 1937). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

burduricus, Aphanius Akşiray [F.] 1948:132, Pl. 2 (figs. 12-15); Figs. 22-23 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Burdur Lake and springs near its banks (37°45'N, 30°15'E), Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias sureyanus (Neu 1937) -- (Lazara 2001:190 [ref. 25711], Huber 2006:18, 21 [ref. 28935]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies sureyanus (Neu 1937) -- (Wildekamp 1993:29 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:29 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys sureyanus (Ney 1937). Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys sureyanus (Neu 1937). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

calaritana, Poecilia Cuvier [G.] (ex Bonelli) 1829:280 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Syntypes: MNHN 0187 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:15 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) [sometimes with author as Nardo 1827] -- (Tortonese 1973:270 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:624 [ref. 13676], Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:48 [ref. 26378] with author as Bonelli, Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561] with author as Bonelli, Kottelat et al. 2007:26 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

chantrei, Cyprinodon Gaillard [C.] 1895:10, Figs. 8-9 [Archives du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle de Lyon v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 14581] Spring in Sandarémek village, Evérek, Asia Minor. Syntypes: BMNH 1896.1.29.1-5 (5). •Valid as Aphanius chantrei (Gaillard 1895) -- (Wildekamp 1993:38 [ref. 26378], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Doadrio et al. 2002:74 [ref. 26616], Esmaeili et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36738]). •Valid as Lebias chantrei Gaillard 1895 -- (Getahun & Lazara 2001:152 [ref. 25127]). •Synonym of Lebias danfordii (Boulenger 1890) -- (Lazara 2001:182 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius danfordii (Boulenger 1890) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:32 [ref. 26561], Huber 2006:77 [ref. 30603], Fricke et al. 2007:71 [ref. 29533], Huber 2015:34 [ref. 34044]). •Possibly valid as Aphanius chantrei (Gaillard 1895) -- (Huber 2015:35 [ref. 34044]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys danfordii (Boulenger 1890). Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys danfordii (Boulenger 1890). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Central Turkey [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cilensis, Cyprinodon Gianferrari [L.] 1930:94, Figs. [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali di Milano v. 69 (no. 2); ref. 16083] Pool at Eil, Somalia. Syntypes: MSNM 53 [ex MSNM 4468] (2). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:227 [ref. 21560] as eilensis. Often emended to eilensis; spelled consistently four times as cilensis, but named after "Pozzo di Eil." •Synonym of Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829, subspecies dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Lazara 2001:183 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:166 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:42 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

crystallodon, Lebias Heckel [J. J.] 1847:269, Pl. 22 (fig. 4) [Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 2068] Nemek-Deria Lake, below Schiraz, Iran. Holotype (unique): NMW 15175. Locality is apparently Lake Maharlu, Iran (Temori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136]). •Synonym of Lebias sophiae Heckel 1849 -- (Lazara 2001:189 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:63 [ref. 26378] dated 1846, Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254]). •Synonym of Aphanius punctatus (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:265 [ref. 37983]). •Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Current status: Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Aphaniidae.

cyanogaster, Cyprinodon Guichenot [A.] 1859:378 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 11; ref. 18165] Freshwaters of Biskra, Algeria (34°52'N, 05°18'E). Syntypes: BMNH 1883.7.4.65-71 [ex MNHN] (7) Biskra, MNHN 0000-3218 (5). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:17 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:49 [ref. 26378], Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561], Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

cypris, Lebias Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1090 [100] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Mossul, northern Iraq. Lectotype: NMW 59598:1. Paralectotypes: NMW 59598:2-5 (4) On p. 100 of separate [ref. 2067]. Lectotype selected by Krupp & Schneider 1989:390 [ref. 13651]. •Synonym of Lebias mento Heckel 1843 -- (Lazara 2001:187 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Goren 1974:98 [ref. 7502], Krupp & Schneider 1989:390 [ref. 13651], Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:57 [ref. 26378], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Wildekamp et al. 1999:36 [ref. 26561], Fricke et al. 2007:71 [ref. 29533], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:73 [ref. 36089]). •Synonym of Paraphanius mento (Heckel 1843). Current status: Synonym of Paraphanius mento (Heckel 1843). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

danfordii, Cyprinodon Boulenger [G. A.] 1890:169 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 32) (art. 19); ref. 17026] Albistan [= Elbistan-Kahramanmaras], Asia Minor. Lectotype: BMNH 1879.6.7.5. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1879.6.7.5-12 (8?). Lectotype selected by Wildekamp et al. 1999:34 [ref. 26561] and comments made on type locality, which is regarded as "Elbistan District". •Valid as Lebias danfordi (Boulenger 1890) -- (Lazara 2001:182 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius danfordii (Boulenger 1890) -- (Wildekamp 1993:40 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:32 [ref. 26561], Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003:139 [ref. 26764], Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685], Huber 2006:77 [ref. 30603], Fricke et al. 2007:71 [ref. 29533], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Huber 2015:32 [ref. 34044], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:321 [ref. 35893], Çiçek & Sungur 2020:117 [ref. 38064], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:50 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys danfordii (Boulenger 1890) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:427 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys danfordii (Boulenger 1890). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Sultan Marshes, Kayseri Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

darabensis, Aphanius Esmaeili [H. R.], Teimori [A.], Gholami [Z.] & Reichenbacher [B.] 2014:254, Figs. 2-3, 4A-E [Zootaxa 3786 (no. 3); ref. 33345] Fars, Darab, Korsiah Banaki spring-stream system, Kol River, 28°46'24.96"N, 54°23'35.48"E, Iran, altitude 1027 meters. Holotype: ZM-CBSU 9713. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU 8600, 9601-9739 (69). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Aphanius darabensis Esmaeili, Teimori, Gholami & Reichenbacher 2014 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:893 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:71 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:257 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:167 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Esmaeilius darabensis (Esmaeili, Teimori, Gholami & Reichenbacher 2014) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Esmaeilius darabensis (Esmaeili, Teimori, Gholami & Reichenbacher 2014). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Hormuz (Kol River drainage), Iran. Habitat: freshwater.

darrorensis, Cyprinodon Gianferrari [L.] 1933:210 [1], Figs. 1-3 [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali di Milano v. 71 (nos 3-4); ref. 16485] Pool at Uadi Darror near Scusciuban, Somalia. Syntypes: AMNH 36442 (1); MSNM 45 (5), 46 (11), 47 (18), 48 (1), 49 (many, poor condition) 50 (4); USNM 93129 (1). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:227 [ref. 21560]. On p. 1 of separate. The original description lacks a diagnosis, so the name could be treated as unavailable, Huber 2017:21 [ref. 35720]. •Synonym of Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829, subspecies dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Lazara 2001:183 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:166 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:43 [ref. 26378] dated 1932). •Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

desioi, Cyprinodon Gianferrari [L.] 1933:214 [1], Figs. 1-3 [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali di Milano v. 71 (nos 3-4); ref. 16486] Sulphoreous spring of Ain el-Braghi near Agheila (Sirtica), Libya (30°11'N, 19°06'E). Syntypes: MSNM 51 [ex MSNM 4546] (6), 52 (4); USNM 93128 (1). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:227 [ref. 21560]. On p. 1 of separate. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:186 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius desioi (Gianferrari 1933) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:167 [ref. 6198], Poll & Gosse 1995:207 [ref. 24781]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:36 [ref. 26561] dated 1932, Kottelat et al. 2007:29 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Libya [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

dispar, Lebias Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1829:66, Pl. 18 (figs. 1-2) [Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Africa. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3843] Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 821. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.11.9.152 (3) Abyssinia, Rüppell coll., SMF 1988 (10). Lectotype selected by Villwock et al. 1983:246 [ref. 8267]. •Valid as Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Coad 1996:6 [ref. 23831], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Getahun & Lazara 2001:152 [ref. 25127], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:175 [ref. 26753], Mirza 2003:22 [ref. 27265]). •Valid as Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829, subspecies dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Lazara 2001:182 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Tortonese 1973:270 [ref. 7192], Banister & Clarke 1977:144 [ref. 7232], Coad 1980:35 [ref. 21046], Alkahem & Behnke 1983:563 [ref. 8384], Dor 1984:66 [ref. 29757], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:624 [ref. 13676], Wildekamp et al. 1986:165 [ref. 6198], Krupp 1983:617 [ref. 8320], Coad 1988:115 [ref. 11814], Krupp 1988:403 [ref. 13859], Krupp & Schneider 1989:388 [ref. 13651], Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:755 [ref. 20764], Wildekamp 1993:42 [ref. 26378], Poll & Gosse 1995:207 [ref. 24781], Goren & Dor 1994:16 [ref. 25356], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Randall 1995:92 [ref. 22896], Lotan & Ben-Tuvia 1996:203 [ref. 22648], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1996:85 [ref. 25304], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Carpenter et al. 1997:131 [ref. 23922], Coad & Abdoli 2000:87 [ref. 25295], Menon 1999:270 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:326 [ref. 25220], Golani 2005:28 [ref. 37112], Coad 2009:152 [ref. 30643], Coad 2010:243 [ref. 36620], Stiassny et al. 2010:43 [ref. 31055], Esmaeili et al. 2010:374 [ref. 33391], Teimori et al. 2011:53 [ref. 31612], Esmaeili et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31822], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136], Gholami et al. 2013:136 [ref. 33004], Esmaeili et al. 2014:29 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Borkenhagen 2014:97 [ref. 33432], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:893 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2015:122 [ref. 35030], Esmaeili et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:565 [ref. 35649], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Esmaeili et al. 2018:4 [ref. 36738], Golani & Fricke 2018:43 [ref. 36273], Teimori et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35934], Zajonz et al. 2019:66 [ref. 36871], Freyhof et al. 2020:194 [ref. 37658], Kärst et al. 2020:96 [ref. 38165], Golani 2021:30 [ref. 38303]). •Valid as Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:432 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Shores of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, and easternmost Mediterranean Sea basin; Socotra (northwestern Indian Ocean). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

doliatus, Cyprinodon Guichenot [A.] 1859:379 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 11; ref. 18165] Fresh waters of Biskra, Algeria. Syntypes: BMNH 1883.7.4.26-32 [ex MNHN] (7), 1911.5.27.1 (1); MNHN 0000-4392 (8). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:17 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:49 [ref. 26378], Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561], Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

farsicus, Aphanius Teimori [A.], Esmaeili [H. R.] & Reichenbacher [B.] 2011:55, Figs. 2-3 [Zootaxa No. 3096; ref. 31612] Spring on the edge of Shiraz [Maharlu] Lake, southern Iran. Syntypes: ZSI F9403-04 (2). Replacement name for Aphanius persicus (Jenkins 1910), once preoccupied by Aphanius persicus (Priem 1908) in fossil fishes. Treated as a noun. •Valid as Aphanius farsicus Teimori, Esmaeili & Reichenbacher 2011 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31822], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136], Esmaeili et al. 2014:29 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:137 [ref. 33004], Esmaeili et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33345], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:893 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:89 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:260 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:168 [ref. 38165]). •Synonym of Esmaeilius persicus (Jenkins 1910) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:444 [ref. 37656]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Esmaeilius persicus (Jenkins 1910). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciata, Lebias Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:160, Pl. 51 (fig. 4) [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Salt works of Cagliari, Sardinia. Neotype: MNHN 2005-1975. Non-types: MNHN 0092 (1) Cagliari, A-3968 (1) Sardinia. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:15 [ref. 19576]. See Kottelat et al. 2007:23-24 [ref. 29116] for information on types. Neotype dessignated by Kottelat et al. 2007:24 [ref. 29116]. Name was placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology (Opinion 2057). •Valid as Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:184 [ref. 25711], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26753]). •Valid as Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:624 [ref. 13676], Wildekamp et al. 1986:167 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:48 [ref. 26378], Poll & Gosse 1995:207 [ref. 24781], Mrakovcic et al. 1995:185 [ref. 23079], Bianco et al. 1996:54 [ref. 26724], Kottelat 1997:161 [ref. 22952], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Maltagliati 1998:303 [ref. 24965], Wildekamp et al. 1999:34 [ref. 26561], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Doadrio et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26616], Golani 2005:28 [ref. 37112], Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685], Kottelat et al. 2007:13 [ref. 29116], Fricke et al. 2007:71 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:487 [ref. 29996], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:34 [ref. 36649], Khalaf 2013:4 [ref. 37897], Barbieri et al. 2015:94 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Neumann et al. 2016:306 [ref. 35036], Esmaeili et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36738], Ćaleta et al. 2019:184 [ref. 37026], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:95 [ref. 36864], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Valdesalici et al. 2019:[2] [ref. 36498], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Freyhof et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37614], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:433 [ref. 37656], Kärst et al. 2020:123 [ref. 38165], Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519], Golani 2021:31 [ref. 38303], Langeneck et al. 2021:[10] [ref. 38379]). Current status: Valid as Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea basin endemic. Introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

fasciatus, Aphanius Nardo [G. D.] 1827:34, 39 (no. 154) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Near Venice, Italy. No types known. Appeared first in Nardo 1824:259 [ref. 3144] as Ciprinoides nanofasciatus, but without distinguishing features. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 482 and 488 [ref. 19740]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Aphanius by Lebias fasciata Valenciennes 1821. •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26753]). •Treated as valid as Aphanius fasciatus Nardo 1827 -- (Tortonese 1973:270 [ref. 7192], Lotan & Ben-Tuvia 1996:203 [ref. 22648]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flava, Lebias Costa [O. G.] 1838:Cyprinoides p. 35, Pl. 17 (fig. 1) [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] Varano Lake (41°54'N, 15°44'E), Italy. Syntypes: ?NMW 91330 (1). •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Tortonese 1973:270 [ref. 7192] with author and date as Nardo 1827, Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198], Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561], Kottelat et al. 2007:28 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

flavianalis, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:130 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Ilica Pinari (37°59'N, 34°46'E) and Akkaya Pinari (37°56'N, 34°37'E), two small springs near Nigde, Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:27 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:23 [ref. 26378], Freyhof et al. 2017:573 [ref. 35477]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

foemina, Lebias dispar Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:170 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] No types known. Rüppell manuscript name mentioned under account of Cyprinodon hammonis. Not available. •In the synonymy of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Wildekamp 1993:42 [ref. 26378]). •In the synonymy of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae.

fontinalis, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:128, Pl. 3 (figs. 28-32) [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Spring near Lake Yarisli (37°34'N, 29°53'E), southwest of Lake Burdur, Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:23 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561]). •Valid as Aphanius fontinalis Akşiray 1948 -- (Geiger et al. 2014:Table S2 [ref. 37408], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:320 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:54 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys fontinalis (Akşiray 1948) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys fontinalis (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Burdur Gölü tributary, Burdur Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

furcatus, Aphanius Teimori [A.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Erpenbeck [D.] & Reichenbacher [B.] 2014:329, Figs. 2a-b, 3, 4a-d, 5a-e, 6a [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 253; ref. 33203] Shur River, along road Bandar Abbas - Minab, 20 km east of Bandar Abbas, Hormuzgan Province, Iran, 27°19'37.6''N, 56°28'10.2''E, altitude 2 meters. Holotype: ZM-CBSU 225. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU (14). Appeared in the key of Gholami et al. 2013:136 [ref. 33004] without a description. •Valid as Aphanius furcatus Teimori, Esmaeili, Erpenbeck & Reichenbacher 2014 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:893 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2015:122 [ref. 35030], Esmaeili et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:561 [ref. 35649], Esmaeili et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36738], Kärst et al. 2020:100 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Aphaniops furcatus (Teimori, Esmaeili, Erpenbeck & Reichenbacher 2014) -- (Charmpila et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37697], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops furcatus (Teimori, Esmaeili, Erpenbeck & Reichenbacher 2014). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Salty rivers and hot sulphuric springs, Hormuz and Makran basins (Hormuzgan and Fars, southern Iran). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ginaonis, Cyprinodon Holly [M.] 1929:63 [2] [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 66 (no. 7); ref. 16087] Hot spring at Ginao, north of Bandar Abbas, southeastern Iran. Syntypes: (3 in original) NMW 13800-03 (1, 1, 1, 1). On p. 2 of separate. •Valid as Lebias ginaonis (Holly 1929) -- (Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Lazara 2001:186 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius ginaonis (Holly 1929) -- (Coad 1980 [ref. 21046], Coad 1988:115 [ref. 11814], Wildekamp 1993:52 [ref. 26378], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Coad & Abdoli 2000:87 [ref. 25295], Coad 2009:152 [ref. 30643], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Teimori et al. 2011:53 [ref. 31612], Esmaeili et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31822], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136], Esmaeili et al. 2014:30 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:136 [ref. 33004], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:893 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35254], Freyhof et al. 2017:561 [ref. 35649], Esmaeili et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:5 [ref. 36738], Teimori et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 35934], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:262 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:101 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Aphaniops ginaonis (Holly 1929) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:432 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops ginaonis (Holly 1929). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Genow hot spring near the Persian Gulf, Hormuz basin (Khuzestan, southeastern Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

guentheri, Aphanius cypris Özarslan [S.] 1958:67, 71-72, 74 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 23 (nos 1-2); ref. 25876] No types known. Name spelled güntheri originally but here corrected to guentheri. Apparently an available name. •In the synonymy of Lebias mento Heckel 1843 -- (Lazara 2001:188 [ref. 25711] as sophiae güntheri and nomen nudum). •Synonym of Paraphanius mento (Heckel 1843). Current status: Synonym of Paraphanius mento (Heckel 1843). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

hammonis, Cyprinodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:169 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Oasis of Jupiter Ammon [= Siwa Oasis (29°12'N, 25°29'E)], Egypt; other parts of Syria and Egypt. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-2346 (8), A-3822 (3), A-3961 (4), A-3979 to 3982 (1, 4, 7, 7); ZMB 3479 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:17 [ref. 19576], Paepke & Seegers 1986:147 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198], Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829), subspecies richardsoni (Boulenger 1907), in part -- (Wildekamp 1993:46 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821), in part -- (Wildekamp 1993:48 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561]). •Uncertain status -- (Kottelat et al. 2007:29 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

hormuzensis, Aphanius Teimori [A.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Hamidan [N. A.] & Reichenbacher [B.] 2018:[7], Figs. 3, 4, 5a-f [Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research = Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung v. 56 (no. 4); ref. 35934] Mahran River, Gotab village, 15 km south of Bastak, Hormuzgan Province, Iran, 27°08'39.8"N, 54°15'46.1"E, elevation 330 meters. Holotype: ZM-FISBUK 157. Paratypes: ZM-FISBUK. Treated as a nomen nudum by Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:430 [ref. 37656], who claim that repository ZM-FISBUK was not formally explained in original publication. However, Teimori et al. 2018:[7] [ref. 35934] provide ZooBank registration number, and repository is explained on ZooBank web page. We therefore treat Aphanius hormuzensis Teimori, Esmaeili, Hamidan & Reichenbacher 2018 as available, and Aphaniops teimorii Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020 as an unneeded replacement name. See also comments by Teimori et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37826]. •Valid as Aphanius hormuzensis Teimori, Esmaeili, Hamidan & Reichenbacher 2018 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36089], Teimori 2018:[4] 222 [ref. 36215], Kärst et al. 2020:103 [ref. 38165]). •In the synonymy of Aphaniops teimorii Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020 -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:430 [ref. 37656]). •Valid as Aphaniops hormuzensis (Teimori, Esmaeili, Hamidan & Reichenbacher 2018) -- (Charmpila et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37697], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Teimori et al. 2020:16 [ref. 37826]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops hormuzensis (Teimori, Esmaeili, Hamidan & Reichenbacher 2018). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: coastal drainages, Hormuzgan basin (Hormozgan and Kerman, southern Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

ibericus, Lebias Steindachner [F.] 1865:483 [1], Pl. 1 (figs. 1-3) [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 52; ref. 13955] Not available; an incorrect subsequent spelling of Lebias iberus Valenciennes 1846. On p. 1 of separate. Name spelled only as ibericus with authorship as Val. •In the synonymy of Lebias iberus Valenciennes 1846 as a misspelling -- (Lazara 2001:186 [ref. 25711]). •In the synonymy of Aphanius iberus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Tortonese 1973:271 [ref. 7192]). •In the synonymy of Apricaphanius iberus (Valenciennes 1846). Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Apricaphanius iberus (Valenciennes 1846). Aphaniidae.

iberus, Cyprinodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:160, Pl. 528 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Spain. Syntypes: MNHN 0185 (8). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:15 [ref. 19576]. •Valid as Lebias iberus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Lazara 2001:186 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius iberus (Valenciennes 1846) -- (Tortonese 1973:271 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:625 [ref. 13676], Wildekamp et al. 1986:169 [ref. 6198], García-Berthou & Moreno-Amich 1991:71 [ref. 37893], Wildekamp 1993:54 [ref. 26378], Poll & Gosse 1995:207 [ref. 24781], Kottelat 1997:163 [ref. 22952], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Maltagliati 1998:303 [ref. 24965], Torralva et al. 2001:63 [ref. 26162], Doadrio et al. 2002:67 [ref. 26616], Blanco et al. 2006:49 [ref. 28598], Kottelat et al. 2007:21 [ref. 29116], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:488 [ref. 29996], Esmaeili et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36738], Kärst et al. 2020:140 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Apricaphanius iberus (Valenciennes 1848) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:442 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Apricaphanius iberus (Valenciennes 1846). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Southwestern Europe: Mediterranean coastline (Spain). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

iconii, Aphanius burduricus Akşiray [F.] 1948:134, Pl. 4 (figs. 43-46) [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Spring Karaot at shore of Lake Eğirdir, about 4 km north of Yenice, Isparta province, Turkey, 38°08.094'N, 30°54.443'E. Neotype: IUSHM 2017-1272. Type catalog: Özuluğ & Saç 2018:45 [ref. 35782]. Lectotype selected (male pictured in Plate 3 number 23) and neotype designated by Freyhof et al. 2017:578 [ref. 35477]. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:180 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:23 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:27 [ref. 26561]). •Valid as Aphanius iconii Akşiray 1948 -- (Geiger et al. 2014:Table S2 [ref. 37408], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151] as icoii, Çiçek et al. 2016:116 [ref. 35152], Freyhof et al. 2017:578 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:320 [ref. 35893], Bayçelebi et al. 2020:143 [ref. 37381] as cf. iconii, Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:58 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys iconii (Akşiray 1948) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys iconii (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Eğirdir Gölü and Kovada Gölü tributaries, Isparta Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

irregularis, Aphanius Yoğurtçuoğlu [B.] & Freyhof [J.] 2018:321, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4410 (no. 2); ref. 35893] Spring Kaklık, Denizli province, Turkey, 37°51.36'N, 29°23.11'E. Holotype: FFR 08653. Paratypes: FFR, FSJF. •Valid as Aphanius irregularis Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018 -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:61 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys irregularis (Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys irregularis (Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Büyük Menderes River drainage, Aegean Sea tributary, Denizli Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

isfahanensis, Aphanius Hrbek [T.], Keivany [Y.] & Coad [B. W.] 2006:245, Figs. 2A, B [Copeia 2006 (no. 2); ref. 28685] Zayandeh Rud (Zayandeh River) at Varzaneh bridge, 32°25'32"N, 52°39'14E, Isfahan Province, Iran. Holotype: CMNFi 2004-0001. Paratypes: AMNH 233639 (2); CMNFI 2004-0002 (36); MRAC 2004-05-P-01-02 (2). •Valid as Aphanius isfahanensis Hrbek, Keivany & Coad 2006 -- (Coad 2009:152 [ref. 30643], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Esmaeili et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31822], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136], Esmaeili et al. 2014:30 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:136 [ref. 33004], Esmaeili et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33345], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:893 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:72 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:262 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:171 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Esmaeilius isfahanensis (Hrbek, Keivany & Coad 2006) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Esmaeilius isfahanensis (Hrbek, Keivany & Coad 2006). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Zayandeh Rud basin (Isfahan Province, Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

kavirensis, Aphanius Esmaeili [H. R.], Teimori [A.], Gholami [Z.] & Reichenbacher [B.] 2014:259, Figs. 4F-J, 6-7 [Zootaxa 3786 (no. 3); ref. 33345] Semnan, Damghan, Cheshmeh Ali Spring, Kavir Basin, 36°16'45.6"N, 54°05'01.6"E, Iran, altitude 1569 meters. Holotype: ZM-CBSU 9587a. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU 9587b, 9587-9600, 1141-1199, 11200 (74). •Valid as Aphanius kavirensis Esmaeili, Teimori, Gholami & Reichenbacher 2014 -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:893 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:73 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446]). •Synonym of Aphanius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:266 [ref. 37983]). •Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kruppi, Aphanius Freyhof [J.], Weissenbacher [A.] & Geiger [M. F.] 2017:561, Figs. 2-5 [Zootaxa 4338 (no. 3); ref. 35649] Spring in Al Mudayrib, Oman, 22°36'46"N, 58°40'31"E. Holotype: ZFMK-ICH 103668. Paratype: FSJF. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Aphanius kruppi Freyhof, Weissenbacher & Geiger 2017 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36738], Teimori et al. 2018:[15] [ref. 35934], Freyhof et al. 2020:198 [ref. 37658], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:262 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:104 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Aphaniops kruppi (Freyhof, Weissenbacher & Geiger 2017) -- (Charmpila et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37697], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:432 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops kruppi (Freyhof, Weissenbacher & Geiger 2017). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Wadi Bani Khalid drainage (northern Oman and eastern Yemen). Habitat: freshwater.

lineatopunctata, Lebias Wagner [R.] 1828:1055, Pl. 12 (figs. 1-6) [Isis (Oken) v. 21 (no. 10); ref. 17823] In streams and salty ponds of Cagliari, Sardinia. Neotype: MNHN 2005-1975. Original as lineato-punctata. Neotype designated by Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:48 [ref. 26378], Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561]). •Objective synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116] as lineopunctata). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

litoralis, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:126, Pl. 2 (figs. 16-17) [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Lake Bahçeözü [= present Lake Karatas (37°23'N, 29°57'E)], near Tefenni, Burdur District, Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:22 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Aphanius fontinalis Akşiray 1948 -- (Freyhof et al. 2017:574 [ref. 35477]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys fontinalis (Akşiray 1948). Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys fontinalis (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lunatus, Cyprinodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:161 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Eritrea, Red Sea; Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: MNHN A-3971 to 3978 (1, 3, 1, 2, 9, 9, 6, 1), B-908 (5), 4393 (10); ZMB 3477-78 (3, 3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:16 [ref. 19576], Paepke & Seegers 1986:147 [ref. 19981]. •Synonym of Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829, subspecies dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Lazara 2001:182 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:166 [ref. 6198], Dor 1984:66 [ref. 29757], Krupp 1983:617 [ref. 8320], Wildekamp 1993:42 [ref. 26378], Menon 1999:270 [ref. 24904], Golani & Fricke 2018:43 [ref. 36273]). •Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lunatus, Lebias Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:161 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. No types known. Name mentioned in passing; species described as Cyprinodon lunatus by Valenciennes 1846. •In the synonymy of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Wildekamp 1993:42 [ref. 26378]). •In the synonymy of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae.

lykaoniensis, Cyprinodon Leidenfrost [G.] 1912:159, Fig. 2, p. 132 of Hungarian text [Állatani Közlemények, Budapest v. 11; ref. 31916] Jazla Jayla, near the Kradzsa Da mountain, Asia Minor. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:180 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:22 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561] as lykaonlensis). •Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

macrogaster, Micromugil Gulia [G.] 1861:11 [Tentamen ichthyologiae Melitensis; ref. 1956] Malta, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

maeandricus, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:125, Pl. 3 (figs. 35-37); Figs. 20-21 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Springs of the Büyük Menderes River, near Isikli (38°19'N, 29°50'E) and Karakuyu (38°11'N, 29°55'E), Dinar, Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:22 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561] as meandricus). •Valid as Aphanius maeandricus Akşiray 1948 -- (Geiger et al. 2014:Table S2 [ref. 37408], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:321 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:64 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys maeandricus (Akşiray 1948) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys maeandricus (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Büyük Menderes River basin, Aegean Sea tributary, Denizli Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

marassantensis, Aphanius Pfleiderer [S. J.], Geiger [M. F.] & Herder [F.] 2014:571, Figs. 2-4, 5F, 6G [Zootaxa 3887 (no. 5); ref. 33587] Ankara Province, Hirfanı Reservoir, 39°11'19"N, 33°34'45'E, Turkey. Holotype: ZFMK 66342 [ex FSJF 3455]. Paratypes: ZFMK 66343-66371 [ex FSJF 3444] (29). Plus additional non-type material. •Possible synonym of Aphanius chantrei (Gaillard 1895) -- (Huber 2015:35 [ref. 34044]). •Valid as Aphanius marassantensis Pfleiderer, Geiger & Herder 2014 -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Benzer 2018:42 [ref. 36318], Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:321 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:67 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys marassantensis (Pfleiderer, Geiger & Herder 2014) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys marassantensis (Pfleiderer, Geiger & Herder 2014). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak River basins (Black Sea tributary), Ankara and Yozgat provinces (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

mento, Lebias Heckel [J. J.] 1843:1089 [99] [Ichthyologie [von Syrien]. In Russegger v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 2066] Mossul, northern Iraq (36°18'N, 43°18'E). Possible syntypes: NMW 21699-704 (6), 59832 (21). Illustraed by Heckel 1843: Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [ref. 2067]. On p. 99 of separate [ref. 2067]. •Valid as Lebias mento Heckel 1843 -- (Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Lazara 2001:187 [ref. 25711], Getahun & Lazara 2001:152 [ref. 25127]). •Valid as Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Goren 1974:98 [ref. 7502], Coad 1988:115 [ref. 11814], Krupp & Schneider 1989:390 [ref. 13651], Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:57 [ref. 26378], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Coad & Abdoli 2000:87 [ref. 25295], Wildekamp et al. 1999:36 [ref. 26561], Fricke et al. 2007:71 [ref. 29533], Coad 2009:152 [ref. 30643], Coad 2010:248 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Khalaf 2013:4 [ref. 37897], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:893 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Esmaeili et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:73 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36738], Kärst et al. 2020:154 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Paraphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Bayçelebi 2020:762 [ref. 37964], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:438 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Paraphanius mento (Heckel 1843). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Tigris River basin (southern Turkey, Iraq and Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

mentoides, Aphanius sophiae Akşiray [F.] 1948:110, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2); Figs. 7-8 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Kirk Göz, northwestern of Antalya, Turkey (37°06'N, 30°35'E). No types known. •Synonym of Lebias mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Lazara 2001:188 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Wildekamp 1993:57 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:37 [ref. 26561]). •Valid as Aphanius mentoides Akşiray 1948 -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:23 [ref. 36267], Kärst et al. 2020:155 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Paraphanius mentoides (Akşiray 1948) -- (Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Esmaeili et al. 2020:12 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:438 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Paraphanius mentoides (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Mediterranean Sea tributaries, Antalya and Bitlis Provinces (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

meridionalis, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:131, Pl. 4 (figs. 47-48) [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Lake Sögüt (37°04'N, 29°53'E) at border between Burdur District and Antalya District, Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:27 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:23 [ref. 26378], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151]). •Valid as Aphanius meridionalis Akşiray 1948 -- (Geiger et al. 2014:Table S2 [ref. 37408], Freyhof et al. 2017:574 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:321 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:71 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys meridionalis (Akşiray 1948) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys meridionalis (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Lake Söğüt, Burdur and Antalya provinces (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

mesopotamicus, Aphanius Coad [B. W.] 2009:150, Fig. 1 [ZooKeys No. 31; ref. 30643] Khuzestan, canal branch of Karkheh River, 31°40'N, 48°35'E, Iran. Holotype: CMNFI 1979-0360A. Paratypes: (37) CMNFI. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Aphanius mesopotamicus Coad 2009 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Esmaeili et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31822], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136], Esmaeili et al. 2014:30 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:137 [ref. 33004], Esmaeili et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33345], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894 [ref. 34062], Esmaeili et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:73 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:266 [ref. 37983]). •Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

moseas, Cyprinodon Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:168, Pl. 529 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Red Sea; Moses Bay, at El-Tor, Sinai coast, Gulf of Suez, ca. 28°14'N, 33°36'E; Siwa Oasis, Matruh Governorate, Egypt, ca. 29°11'N, 25°33'E. Syntypes: MNHN A-3821 (4) Suez, 3963 (3, poor condition) Bains de Moise, 4380 (2, poor condition) Egypt, 5745 (3) Ethiopia. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:16-17 [ref. 19576]. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Dor 1984:66 [ref. 29757], Wildekamp 1993:42 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nanofasciatus, Ciprinoides Nardo [G. D.] 1824:259 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) v. 7; ref. 3144] Not available, see Aphanius fasciatus Nardo 1827. •In the synonymy of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:184 [ref. 25711]). •In the synonymy of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae.

nanus, Aphanius Nardo [G. D.] 1827:34, 39 (no. 154) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 482 and 488 [ref. 19740]. Appeared first as Ciprinoides nanus (name only) in Nardo 1824:259 [ref. 3144]. •In the synonymy of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) as a nomen oblitum (forgotten name) -- (Tortonese 1973:270 [ref. 7192]). •Mentioned as Aphanius nanus Nardo 1827 -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198]). •Tentatively a synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Kottelat 1997:161 [ref. 22952]). •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:184 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp 1993:48 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:34 [ref. 26561], Kottelat et al. 2007:28 [ref. 29116], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:433 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

nigropunctata, Lebias Bonaparte [C. L.] 1841:Introduzione (p. 10) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 515] Probably an error for Lebias lineatopunctata Wagner 1828 / Lebias nigropunctata Schinz 1840, the same species. Not available, name only, credited to Wagler [= Wagner]. In Bonaparte 1846:25 [ref. 519], the name appears in synonymy and credited to "Wagn". •In the synonymy of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Huber 2006:18 [ref. 28935]). Misspelling. Aphaniidae.

nigropunctata, Lebias Schinz [H. R.] 1840:334 [Europaïsche Fauna; ref. 18695] In streams and salty ponds of Sardinia. Neotype: MNHN 2005-1975. Probably an error for Lebias lineatopunctata Wagner 1828, the same species. Neotype designated by Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp 1993:49 [ref. 26378] with author and date as Bonaparte 1846, Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561] with author and date as Bonaparte 1846, Huber 2006:18 [ref. 28935]). •Objective synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

obrukensis, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:129, Pl. 3 (figs. 26-27) [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Small lake in the salt steppe, south of Lake Tuz, Obruk (38°03'N, 33°06'E), central Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:23 [ref. 26378], Freyhof et al. 2017:573 [ref. 35477]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912). Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

orontis, Aphanius cypris Akşiray [F.] 1948:116, Pl. 2 (figs. 5-6); Figs. 11-12 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Small ditches near Lake Amik near Antakya, Turkey (36°17'N, 36°20'E). No types known. •Synonym of Lebias mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Lazara 2001:187 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Wildekamp 1993:57 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:37 [ref. 26561]). •Valid as Aphanius orontis Akşiray 1948 -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36267], Kärst et al. 2020:157 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Paraphanius orontis (Akşiray 1948) -- (Bayçelebi 2020:762 [ref. 37964], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Esmaeili et al. 2020:12 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:438 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Paraphanius orontis (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Orontes River basin and Titreyengöl, Hatay and Antalya Provinces (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

parvus, Aphanius chantrei Akşiray [F.] 1948:127, Pl. 2 (figs. 18-20) [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Small streams near Lake Gölhisar (37°07'N, 29°36'E), south to Tefenni, Burdur District, Turkey. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:181 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:22 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Aphanius meridionalis Akşiray 1948 -- (Freyhof et al. 2017:574 [ref. 35477]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys meridionalis (Akşiray 1948). Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys meridionalis (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

persicus, Cyprinodon Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:125, Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (pt 2) (art. 12); ref. 14478] Spring on the edge of Shiraz Lake, southern Iran. Syntypes: ZSI F9403-04 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:141 [ref. 20743]. Secondarily preoccupied in Aphanius by Brachylebias persicus Priem 1908 (fossil), replaced by Aphanius farsicus Teimori, Esmaeili & Reichenbacher 2011. No longer needed. •Questionably a synonym of Aphanius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702]). •Questionably a synonym of Aphanius punctatus (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608]). •Valid as Lebias persicus (Jenkins 1910) -- (Lazara 2001:188 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Wildekamp 1993:63 [ref. 26378]). •Valid as Aphanius persicus (Jenkins 1910) -- (Coad 1996:171 [ref. 23604], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Coad & Abdoli 2000:87 [ref. 25295], Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685], Coad 2009:152 [ref. 30643], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391]). •Objective synonym of Aphanius farsicus Teimori, Esmaeili & Reichenbacher 2011 -- (Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136], Esmaeili et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35254], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:260 [ref. 37983]). •Valid as Esmaeilius persicus (Jenkins 1910) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:444 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Esmaeilius persicus (Jenkins 1910). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Maharlu Lake basin, Fars Province, southern Iran. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pluristriatus, Cyprinodon Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:125, Pl. 6 (fig. 5) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (pt 2) (art. 12); ref. 14478] East of Shiraz, stream running to Fussa [Fasa], southern Iran, elevation 5000 feet. Syntypes: ZSI F9408-9411 (4), F9412 (?). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:141 [ref. 20743]. •Synonym of Lebias sophiae Heckel 1847 -- (Lazara 2001:189 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:64 [ref. 26378], Coad 1996:170 [ref. 23604]). •Questionably a synonym of Aphanius punctatus (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608]). •Status uncertain, in Aphanius -- (Teimori et al. 2011:55[ref. 31612]). •Valid as Aphanius pluristriatus (Jenkins 1910) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31822], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136], Ghlolami et al. 2013:131 [ref. 33004] as cf. pleuristratus, Esmaeili et al. 2014:30 [ref. 33250], Esmaeili et al. 2014:33 [ref. 33250] as cf. pleuristratus for Khonj population, Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:67 [ref. 33293], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:137 [ref. 33304], Esmaeili et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33345], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:73 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:266 [ref. 37983]). •Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatus, Lebias Heckel [J. J.] 1847:268, Pl. 22 (fig. 3) [Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 2068] Nemek-Deria or Salt Lake, flowing into the Saadi below Schiraz, Iran. Syntypes: NMW 15070 (5), 15156 (14), 59609 (6), 59837 (5), 76509 (7). Locality is apparently Maharlu Lake, Iran (Temori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136]). •Valid as Lebias punctatus Heckel 1847 -- (Lazara 2001:188 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:63 [ref. 26378] dated 1846, Coad 1996:167 [ref. 23604] possibly with incorrect locality, Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136] with remarks on locality, Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254]). •Valid as Aphanius punctatus (Heckel 1847) -- (Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:265 [ref. 37983]). •Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Current status: Synonym of Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

richardsoni, Cyprinodon Boulenger [G. A.] 1907:412 [Zoology of Egypt: The fishes of the Nile; ref. 6510] Brine spring near Usdum, Dead Sea, 31°51'N, 35°25'E. Lectotype: BMNH 1856.5.2.4. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1856.5.2.5 (8). Based on three literature sources. Lectotype selected by Krupp & Schneider 1989:389 [ref. 13651]. •Synonym of Lebias dispar Rüppell, but a valid subspecies -- (Lazara 2001:183 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829), but a valid subspecies richardsoni (Boulenger 1907) -- (Goren 1974:100 [ref. 7502], Krupp 1983:619 [ref. 8320], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:624 [ref. 13676], Krupp & Schneider 1989:389 [ref. 13651], Wildekamp 1993:46 [ref. 26378], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Hamidan 2004:390 [ref. 37679], Khalaf 2013:4 [ref. 37897]). •Valid as Aphanius richardsoni (Boulenger 1907) -- (Geiger et al. 2014:Table S2 [ref. 37408], Freyhof et al. 2017:566 [ref. 35649], Esmaeili et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36738], Teimori et al. 2018:[12] [ref. 35934], Kärst et al. 2020:105 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Aphaniops richardsoni (Boulenger 1907) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:432 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops richardsoni (Boulenger 1907). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: springs in the Dead Sea basin (Israel and western Jordan). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

saldae, Anatolichthys splendens Akşiray [F.] 1955:58, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2); Figs 1-2 [Publications of the Hydrobiological Research Institute, Series B, Istanbul =İstanbul Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Hidrobiologi Araştırma Enstitüsü Yayınlarından Seri B. v. 3 (nos. 2-3); ref. 12260] Lake Salda near Yesilova (37°31'N, 29°39'E), Burdur District, Turkey. Holotype: male (Männchen, not researched). Paratypes: Sammlung des Zool. Inst. Istanbul. (not researched). •Synonym of Lebias splendens (Kosswig & Sözer 1945) -- (Lazara 2001:189 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies splendens (Kosswig & Sözer 1945) -- (Wildekamp 1993:26 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:28 [ref. 26561]). •Valid as Aphanius saldae Akşiray 1955 -- (Geiger et al. 2014:Table S2 [ref. 37408], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:320 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:75 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys saldae (Akşiray 1955) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys saldae (Akşiray 1955). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Lake Salda, Burdur Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

saourensis, Aphanius Blanco [J. L.], Hrbek [T.] & Doadrio [I.] 2006:43, Figs. 1, 4-5 [Zootaxa No. 1158; ref. 28598] La tombe de Moché, Wadi (= Oued) Saoura, Mazzer, Algeria, 30°19'N, 02°16'W. Holotype: MNCN 246655. Paratypes: MNCN 246649-54 (6), 246656-57 (2); MRAC A4-24-8-1-3 (3). Plus non-types. •Valid as Aphanius saourensis Blanco, Hrbek & Doadrio 2006 -- (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:489 [ref. 29996], Esmaeili et al. 2018:7 [ref. 36738], Kärst et al. 2020:146 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Apricaphanius saourensis (Blanco, Hrbek & Doadrio 2006) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:442 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Apricaphanius saourensis (Blanco, Hrbek & Doadrio 2006). Aphaniidae. Distribution: North Africa: western and north-western Algeria. Habitat: freshwater.

sarda, Lebias Wagner [R.] 1828:1055, Pl. 12 (fig. 7) [Isis (Oken) v. 21 (no. 10); ref. 17823] Salty water of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. Neotype: MNHN 2005-1975. Neotype designated by Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:168 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:48 [ref. 26378], Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561]). •Objective synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

shirini, Aphanius Gholami [Z.], Esmaeili [H. R.], Erpenbeck [D.] & Reichenbacher [B.] 2014:132, Figs. 3a-b [Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research = Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung v. 52 (no. 2); ref. 33004] Paselari spring of the Khosroshirin spring-stream system, Khosroshirin Village, Abadeh City, Fars, uppermost reaches of Kor River Basin, 30°53'29.5"N, 52°00'36.8"E, Iran, altitude 2327 meters. Holotype: ZM-CBSU, ZG151. Paratypes: ZM-CBSU, ZG225, 267-273 (8). •Valid as Aphanius shirini Gholami, Esmaeili, Erpenbeck & Reichenbacher 2014 -- (Esmaeili et al. 2014:30 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:137 [ref. 33004], Esmaeili et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33345], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:73 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:265 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:175 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Esmaeilius shirini (Gholami, Esmaeili, Erpenbeck & Reichenbacher 2014) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Esmaeilius shirini (Gholami, Esmaeili, Erpenbeck & Reichenbacher 2014). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Kor River Basin, Iran; translocated to Helleh River basin (Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

similis, Aphanius sophiae Akşiray [F.] 1948:111, Pl. 4 (figs. 38-42); Figs. 9-10 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 13035] Akgöl between Konya and Ereglisi, Turkey (37°31'N, 33°45'E). No types known. •Synonym of Lebias mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Lazara 2001:188 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Wildekamp 1993:57 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:37 [ref. 26561]). •Valid as Aphanius similis Akşiray 1948 -- (Çiçek et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36267], Kärst et al. 2020:158 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Paraphanius similis (Akşiray 1948) -- (Bayçelebi 2020:762 [ref. 37964], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Esmaeili et al. 2020:12 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:439 [ref. 37656], Kelleci et al. 2021:282 [ref. 38359]). Current status: Valid as Paraphanius similis (Akşiray 1948). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Mediterranean tributaries, Konya, Adana and Nigde Provinces (south-central Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

sirhani, Aphanius Villwock [W.], Scholl [A.] & Krupp [F.] 1983:260, Figs. 3-4 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 80; ref. 8267] Azraq oasis, Jordan, 31°49'59.0"N, 36°49'19.1"E [corrected]. Holotype: ZMH 6444. Paratypes: NMBE-WT 78-79/83 (2); NMC 83-0135 (2); SMF 14015 (4), 16445 (26); ZMH 6445-46 (5, 16). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:415 [ref. 21161]. •Valid as Lebias sirhani (Villwock, Scholl & Krupp 1983) -- (Lazara 2001:188 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius sirhani Villwock, Scholl & Krupp 1983 -- (Krupp 1983:622 [ref. 8320], Krupp & Schneider 1989:390 [ref. 13651], Wildekamp 1993:61 [ref. 26378], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Borkenhagen 2014:97 [ref. 33432], Freyhof et al. 2017:561 [ref. 35649], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36738], Kärst et al. 2020:109 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Aphaniops sirhani (Villwock, Scholl & Krupp 1983) -- (Hamidan 2004:390 [ref. 37679], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:432 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops sirhani (Villwock, Scholl & Krupp 1983). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Azraq Oasis (Jordan). Habitat: freshwater.

sophiae, Lebias Heckel [J. J.] 1847:267, Pl. 22 [Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 2068] Accepted locality: endorheic Kor River basin north of Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran. Syntypes: NMW 14496 (6), 33616-23 (8), 60327 (8), 68283 (8), 75067 (7); ZMB 31377 (9). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:148 [ref. 19981]. •Valid as Lebias sophiae Heckel 1847 -- (Lazara 2001:188 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Berg 1949:987 [ref. 20662], Coad 1988:115 [ref. 11814], Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:63 [ref. 26378] dated 1846, Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:167 [ref. 23604], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Coad & Abdoli 2000:87 [ref. 25295], Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685], Coad 2009:150 [ref. 30643], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Teimori et al. 2011:53 [ref. 31612], Esmaeili et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31822], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136] dated 1849, Esmaeili et al. 2014:30 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:137 [ref. 33004], Esmaeili et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33345], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:74 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:265 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:176 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Esmaeilius sophiae (Heckel 1847). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Lower Shat-al-Arab River drainage (Iraq and Iran); translocated to Persis and Tigris basins (Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

splendens, Anatolichthys Kosswig [C.] & Sözer [F.] 1945:77, Fig. 2 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 2664] Lake Gölçük, west of Isparta (37°44'N, 30°30'E), central Anatolia, Turkey. Lectotype: ZMH 3505. Paralectotypes: (27). Lectotype mentioned in Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], selection not researched. •Valid as Kosswigichthys splendens (Kosswig & Sözer 1945) -- (Parenti 1981:524 [ref. 7066]). •Valid as Lebias splendens (Kosswig & Sözer 1945) -- (Lazara 2001:189 [ref. 25711], Getahun & Lazara 2001:152 [ref. 25127]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), but a valid subspecies splendens (Kosswig & Sözer 1945) -- (Wildekamp 1993:26 [ref. 26378], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Wildekamp et al. 1999:28 [ref. 26561], Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003:140 [ref. 26764], Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685]). •Valid as Aphanius splendens (Kosswig & Sözer 1945) -- (Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:320 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:79 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys splendens Kosswig & Sözer 1945 -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys splendens Kosswig & Sözer 1945. Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Lake Gölçük, Isparta Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

stiassnyae, Lebias Getahun [A.] & Lazara [K. J.] 2001:150, Fig. 1 (lower) [Copeia 2001 (no. 1); ref. 25127] Lake Afdera, 80 meters below sea level, southwestern part of lake where one of the hot springs joins the lake, about 13°10'N, 40°50'E, Afar Region, Ethiopia. Holotype: AMNH 223755. Paratypes: AMNH 229122 (1, c&s). •Valid as Lebias stiassnyae Getahun & Lazara 2001 -- (Lazara 2001:189 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius stiassnyae (Getahun & Lazara 2001) -- (Freyhof et al. 2017:561 [ref. 35649], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36738], Kärst et al. 2020:113 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Aphaniops stiassnyae (Getahun & Lazara 2001) -- (Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops stiassnyae (Getahun & Lazara 2001). Aphaniidae. Distribution: East Africa: Lake Afdera (Ethiopia). Habitat: freshwater.

stoliczkanus, Cyprinodon Day [F.] 1872:258 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 41 (pt 2, nos 1-4); ref. 18377] Stream at the village Joorun and along edge of the Rann River, Lodai, India, 22°30'N, 69°20'E. Syntypes: (28) AMS B.7730-31 (2), BMNH 1889.2.1.2065-2074 (orig. 21), ZSI 1477-78 (1, 1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:158 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:302 [ref. 25110]. •Synonym of Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829, subspecies dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Lazara 2001:183 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Krupp 1983:617 [ref. 8320], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:755 [ref. 20764], Wildekamp 1993:42 [ref. 26378], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Menon 1999:270 [ref. 24904]). •Valid as Aphanius stoliczkanus (Day 1872) -- (Freyhof et al. 2017:567 [ref. 35649], Esmaeili et al. 2018:74 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36738], Teimori 2018:[3] 221 [ref. 36215], Teimori et al. 2018:[14] [ref. 35934], Eagderi et al. 2019:31 [ref. 37020], Freyhof et al. 2020:201 [ref. 37658], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:267 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:114 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Aphaniops stoliczkanus (Day 1872) -- (Charmpila et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37697], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:432 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Aphaniops stoliczkanus (Day 1872). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East, South Asia: coastal areas of Persian Gulf and northern Arabian Sea east to Pakistan and Gujarat (India). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

striptus, Aphanius mento Goren [M.] 1974:99 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 23 (no. 2); ref. 7502] Rosh Hanikra, springs near Amiqam, Israel. Holotype: TAU 3280 [= SMNHTAU]. Paratypes: TAU [= SMNHTAU] 3142 (6). Additional material: TAU [= SMNHTAU] 2690 (1), 3125 & 3150 (19), 3129-31 (18), 3133 (11), 3134-35 (1, 1). Wildekamp et al. 1999:39 [ref. 26561] included the name Cyprinodon striptus Lortet [1883] as a nomen nudum in the synonymy of Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843), but this name has not been used by Lortet 1883 [ref. 14341]. •Synonym of Lebias mento Heckel 1843 -- (Lazara 2001:188 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius mento (Heckel 1843) -- (Krupp & Schneider 1989:390 [ref. 13651], Wildekamp 1993:58 [ref. 26378], Wildekamp et al. 1999:39 [ref. 26561], Fricke et al. 2007:71 [ref. 29533] as scriptus). •Valid as Aphanius striptus Goren 1974 -- (Kärst et al. 2020:161 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Paraphanius striptus (Goren 1974) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:437 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Paraphanius striptus (Goren 1974). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Israel and southwestern Syria. Habitat: freshwater.

sureyanus, Cyprinodon Neu [W.] 1937:109 [1] [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 15291] Lake Burdur (37°45'N, 30°15'E), southwestern Turkey. No types known. On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Lebias sureyanus (Neu 1937) -- (Lazara 2001:189 [ref. 25711], Huber 2006:21 [ref. 28935]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), but a valid subspecies -- (Wildekamp 1993:29 [ref. 26378], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Wildekamp et al. 1999:29 [ref. 26561], Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003:140 [ref. 26764]). •Valid as Aphanius sureyanus (Neu 1937) -- (Fricke et al. 2007:71 [ref. 29533], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Çiçek et al. 2015:150 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:8 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:320 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:80 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys sureyanus (Ney 1937). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys sureyanus (Neu 1937). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Burdur Gölü, Burdur Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

teimorii, Aphaniops Freyhof [J.] & Yoğurtçuoğlu [B.] 2020:430, Fig. 6 [Zootaxa 4810 (no. 3); ref. 37656] Govdar River near Kahoorestan, Hormuzgan Province, Iran. Holotype: ZFMK-ICH 122627. Paratypes: FSFJ. Unneeded replacement name for Aphanius hormuzensis Teimori, Esmaeili, Hamidan & Reichenbacher 2018; see comments under Aphanius hormuzensis. •Synonym of Aphaniops hormuzensis (Teimori, Esmaeili, Hamidan & Reichenbacher 2018) -- (Teimori et al. 2020:16 [ref. 37826]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops hormuzensis (Teimori, Esmaeili, Hamidan & Reichenbacher 2018). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater.

thermarum, Lebias Eichwald [C. E. von] 1851:446 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 9; ref. 23772] Warm springs between Setif and Bathna, Algeria. No types known. •Valid as "Lebias" thermarum Eichwald 1851, not a synonym of Lebias apodus (Gervais 1853) -- (Lazara 2001:190 [ref. 25711]). •Unidentifiable in the synonymy of Aphanius apodus (Gervais 1853) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:165 [ref. 6198]). •Unused senior synonym of Aphanius apodus (Gervais 1853) -- (Wildekamp 1993:34 [ref. 26378]). •Family placement uncertain -- (K. Lazara, pers. comm. Apr. 1999). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Huber 2000:47 [ref. 24475]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Unknown. Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

timidus, Micromugil Gulia [G.] 1861:11 [Tentamen ichthyologiae Melitensis; ref. 1956] Malta, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias fasciatus Valenciennes 1821 -- (Lazara 2001:185 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:169 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:49 [ref. 26378], Kottelat 1997:162 [ref. 22952], Wildekamp et al. 1999:35 [ref. 26561], Kottelat et al. 2007:27 [ref. 29116]). Current status: Synonym of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes 1821). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

transgrediens, Turkichthys Ermin [R.] 1946:244, Figs. 38-45 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 19978] Stream, fed by the Acipinar spring at the west end of Lake Aci, Denizli District (37°49'N, 29°43'E), Turkey. Also appeared as new in Akşiray 1948:288 [ref. 13036] as Anatolichthys transgrediens. •Valid as Lebias transgrediens (Ermin 1946) -- (Lazara 2001:190 [ref. 25711], Getahun & Lazara 2001:152 [ref. 25127]). •Valid as Kosswigichthys transgrediens (Ermin 1946) -- (Parenti 1981:516 [ref. 7066]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), but a valid subspecies -- (Wildekamp 1993:32 [ref. 26378], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Wildekamp et al. 1999:30 [ref. 26561], Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003:140 [ref. 26764] as trangrediens). •Valid as Aphanius transgrediens (Ermin 1946) -- (Fricke et al. 2007:72 [ref. 29533], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:320 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:84 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys transgrediens (Ermin 1946) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys transgrediens (Ermin 1946). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Acιgöl tributary, Denizli Province (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

velifer, Lebias Ehrenberg [C. G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1846:163 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 18; ref. 1011] Eritrea, Red Sea. Name mentioned in passing in text and not available. •In the synonymy of Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829, subspecies dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Lazara 2001:182 [ref. 25711]). •In the synonymy of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Dor 1984:66 [ref. 29757], Wildekamp 1993:42 [ref. 26378]). •In the synonymy of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae.

venustus, Aphanius chantrei Kosswig [C.] & Sözer [F.] 1945:81, Fig. 3 [Revue de la Faculté des Sciences de l'Université d'Instanbul, Série B: Sciences Naturelles v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 2664] Insuyu, creek near Cihanbeyli [= present Inevi] at the west bank of Lake Tuz [Tuz gölü], west central Turkey, 38°39'N, 32°56'E. No types known. •Synonym of Lebias anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Lazara 2001:180 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912) -- (Wildekamp 1993:22 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphanius anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912), subspecies anatoliae -- (Wildekamp et al. 1999:26 [ref. 26561]). •Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912). Current status: Synonym of Anatolichthys anatoliae (Leidenfrost 1912). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

villwocki, Aphanius Hrbek [T.] & Wildekamp [R. H.] 2003:138, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 26764] Pinarbasi, about 10.5 kilometers east of Emirdag, drainage canal of small spring pond, 39°02'53"N, 31°19'38"E, Turkey. Holotype: MRAC A1-30-P-1. Paratypes: MRAC A1-30-P-2-3 (2), 99-072-P-0001-0006 (6). •Valid as Aphanius villwocki Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003 -- (Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685], Fricke et al. 2007:72 [ref. 29533], Pfleiderer et al. 2014:580 [ref. 33587], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Freyhof et al. 2017:583 [ref. 35477], Çiçek et al. 2018:24 [ref. 36267], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36738], Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof 2018:320 [ref. 35893], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Kärst et al. 2020:89 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Anatolichthys villwocki (Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:428 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Anatolichthys villwocki (Hrbek & Wildekamp 2003). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Asia Minor: Akgöl tributary, Afyonkarahisar and Konya Provinces (Turkey). Habitat: freshwater.

vladykovi, Aphanius Coad [B. W.] 1988:115, Fig. 1 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 23 (no. 1-2); ref. 11814] Large pool in Shahrestan-e Bakhtiari va Chahar Mahall, 3 kilometers west of Boldaji, Iran, 31°57'N, 51°01'E, elevation about 2380 meters. Holotype: NMC 79-0247. Paratypes: NMC 79-0247A (51), 79-0248 (1). •Valid as Lebias vladykovi (Coad 1988) -- (Lazara 2001:190 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Aphanius vladykovi Coad 1988 -- (Coad 1991:20 [ref. 15702], Wildekamp 1993:66 [ref. 26378], Coad 1995:26 [ref. 23608], Seegers 1997:16 [ref. 23895], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Coad & Abdoli 2000:87 [ref. 25295], Hrbek et al. 2006:250 [ref. 28685], Coad 2009:152 [ref. 30643], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Teimori et al. 2011:53 [ref. 31612], Esmaeili et al. 2012:58 [ref. 31822], Teimori et al. 2012:56 [ref. 32136], Esmaeili et al. 2014:30 [ref. 33250], Keivany & Esmaeili 2014:68 [ref. 33293], Gholami et al. 2013:136 [ref. 33004], Esmaeili et al. 2014:248 [ref. 33345], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:894 [ref. 34062], Teimori et al. 2015:90 [ref. 34095], Esmaeili et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:74 [ref. 36089], Esmaeili et al. 2018:9 [ref. 36738], Esmaeili et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37446], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:269 [ref. 37983], Kärst et al. 2020:181 [ref. 38165]). •Valid as Esmaeilius vladykovi (Coad 1988) -- (Freyhof & Yoğurtçuoğlu 2020:445 [ref. 37656]). Current status: Valid as Esmaeilius vladykovi (Coad 1988). Aphaniidae. Distribution: Middle East: Upper Karun River drainage, Tigris basin, Zagros Mountains (Iran). Habitat: freshwater.

zaccarinii, Cyprinodon Gianferrari [L.] 1933:82 [1], Figs. 1-3 [Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali di Milano v. 72 (no. 1); ref. 16487] Cal Gallohan, Mijertins, Somalia. Syntypes: MSNM 54 [ex MSNM 4574] (4), USNM 93130 (1). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:227 [ref. 21560]. On p. 1 of separate. •Synonym of Lebias dispar Rüppell 1829, subspecies dispar Rüppell 1829 -- (Lazara 2001:183 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Aphanius dispar (Rüppell 1829) -- (Wildekamp et al. 1986:166 [ref. 6198], Wildekamp 1993:43 [ref. 26378]). •Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Current status: Synonym of Aphaniops dispar (Rüppell 1829). Aphaniidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.