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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Cetopsidae: [ 53 ] records


amazonae, Helogenes Delsman [H. C.] 1941:80 [Mémoires du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique (Ser. 2) No. 21; ref. 13171] Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: IRSNB 545. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:16 [ref. 20755], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Helogenes marmoratus Günther 1863 -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Helogenes marmoratus Günther 1863. Cetopsidae: Helogeninae. Habitat: freshwater.

amphiloxus, Hemicetopsis Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:14 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Creek near San Lorenzo, Río Patía basin, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56519 [ex CM 5332]. Paratypes: CAS 77028 [ex IU 13009] (1), 77027 [ex IU 13040] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:81 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemicetopsis amphiloxus Eigenmann 1914 -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis amphiloxa (Eigenmann 1914) -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cetopsis amphiloxa (Eigenmann 1914) -- (Vari et al. 2005:150 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34894], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis amphiloxa (Eigenmann 1914). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

arcana, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:153, Fig. 13 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Boca da Lapa de Bezerra, 13°32'43"S, 46°22'35"W, Parque Estadual de Terra Ronca, São Domingos, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 58637. Paratypes: MCP 16002 (1); MHNG 2593.99 (1); MNRJ 12772 (1), 16942 (1); MZUSP 55965 (3, 1 c&s); USNM 372765 (1). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis arcana Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis arcana Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Middle and upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aspis, Cetopsis Abrahão [V.], Mol [J.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2019:224, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4664 (no. 2); ref. 36957] Mauritie Creek, tributary of upper Tempati River, upper Commewijne River basin, Sipaliwini District, Suriname, 05°06'12.9"N, 54°35'24.9"W. Holotype: USNM 432561. Paratypes: MZUSP, ROM, USNM. •Valid as Cetopsis aspis Abrahão, Mol & de Pinna 2019. Current status: Valid as Cetopsis aspis Abrahão, Mol & de Pinna 2019. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Guiana Shield: central and northern Guyana and northern Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

atahualpa, Paracetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:223, Fig. 54 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Río Tumbes, Cabo Inga (3°58'00"S, 80°24'59"W), Tumbes, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 11560. Paratypes: MUSM 5507 (1), 5508 (1), 16360 (2); USNM 83530 (1), 361717 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Paracetopsis atahualpa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:192 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Paracetopsis atahualpa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Peru and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

baudoensis, Pseudocetopsis Dahl [G.] 1960:452, Fig. [Caldasia v. 8 (no. 39); ref. 9310] Quitasol, Río Baudó, western Colombia. Holotype: ICN-MHN 118. Paratypes: (6) ICN-MHN 100 (6) (lost). Type catalog: Cala 1981:4 [ref. 23525], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:44 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Pseudocetopsis baudoensis Dahl 1960 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cetopsis baudoensis (Dahl 1960) -- (Vari et al. 2005:155 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis baudoensis (Dahl 1960). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Pacific versant, Baudó River basin, western Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bleekeri, Paracetopsis Bleeker [P.] (ex Guichenot) 1862:16 [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 393] Guayaquil, Ecuador. Neotype: NMW 47377. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155]. Regarded as available; appeared with genus description as, "Spec. typ. Paracetopsis bleekeri Guich. (Mus. Paris.)." No original locality, no type at MNHN. Neotype designated by Vari et al. 227 [ref. 28270]; they designated the holotype of occidentalis as neotype for bleekeri. •Valid as Paracetopsis bleekeri Bleeker 1862 -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], Vari et al. 2005:224 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:194 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Paracetopsis bleekeri Bleeker 1862. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

caecutiens, Silurus Günther [A.] 1864:199 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Cupai [= Rio Cupari], Rio Tapajós basin, Amazon River drainage, Pará State, Brazil. Unjustified emendation of Cetopsis coecutiens. •Synonym of Cetopsis coecutiens (Lichtenstein 1823) -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:257 [ref. 27061]) Current status: Synonym of Cetopsis coecutiens (Lichtenstein 1819). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

caiapo, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:157, Fig. 15 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] At location of the future dam of the Usina Hidroeléctrica Serra da Mesa, 13°50'S, 48°19'W, Município de Minaçu/Cavalcante, Goiás State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 13236. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis caiapo Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis caiapo Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

candiru, Cetopsis Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:13, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Equatorial rivers of Brazil [= lower Amazon basin]. Lectotype: MHNG 210.05. Paralectotypes: MHNN 735 (1), 736 (1), 737 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:149 [ref. 21784], Weber 1998:9 [ref. 23532], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]. Type information: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. Lectotype designated by Vari et al. 2005:161 [ref. 28270] Name first published in Cuvier 1829 [ref. 995]. As Silurus candiru on plate. Lectotype selected by Vari et al. 2005:161 [ref. 28270]. •Valid as Hemicetopsis candiru (Spix & Agassiz 1829) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860], de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Oliveira et al. 2001:575 [ref. 25604], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], Vari et al. 2005:159 [ref. 28270]). •Valid as Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Vari et al. 2005:159 [ref. 28270], Proudlove 2006:268 [ref. 28992], de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz 1829. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: South America: Amazon River basin (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

castaneus, Leyvaichthys Dahl [G.] 1960:302, Figs. [Novedades Colombianas v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 5836] Small pond in a brook tributary to Río Guayabero, about 1 kilometer from mouth of the brook, Orinoco System, Colombia. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (2, 1 dissected). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Helogenes castaneus (Dahl 1960) -- (Burgess 1989:288 [ref. 12860], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], de Pinna et al. 2007:801 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Helogenes castaneus (Dahl 1960). Cetopsidae: Helogeninae. Distribution: Upper Orinoco, Guaviare and Meta River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

chalmersi, Cetopsis Norman [J. R.] 1926:116 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 17 (no. 97) (art. 15); ref. 15603] Rio das Velhas about 32 miles north of Bello Horizonte, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1925.10.1.4. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1925.1.12.2-3 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Vari et al. 2005:171 [ref. 28270]. •Valid as Cetopsis chalmersi Norman 1926 -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pseudocetopsis gobioides (Kner 1858) -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Cetopsis gobioides Kner 1858 -- (Vari et al. 2005:168 [ref. 28270], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Cetopsis gobioides Kner 1858. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

coecutiens, Silurus Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1819:61 [Zoologisches Magazin (Wiedemann) 1819, v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 17526] Rivers of Equatorial Brazil. Holotype: ZMB 3093 (no longer extant). Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]. Silurus caecutiens Günther 1864:199 [ref. 1974] is an unjustified emendation. Also appeared in Lichtenstein 1823:112 [ref. 17525]. •Valid as Cetopsis coecutiens (Lichtenstein 1819) [not Spix & Agassiz 1829] -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860], de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Oliveira et al. 2001:575 [ref. 25604], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:257 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27366] with authors as Spix & Agassiz 1829, Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131], Vari et al. 2005:162 [ref. 28270], Aguilera & Mirande 2006:1 [ref. 28894], Proudlove 2006:268 [ref. 28992] with author as Spix & Agassiz, de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957], Silvano et al. 2020:225 [ref. 38135]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis coecutiens (Lichtenstein 1819). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: South America: Amazon, Tocantins and Orinoco River basins (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

epa, Denticetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:206, Fig. 45 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Igarapé do Limão, rio Tocantins, Baião (2°41'S, 49°41'W), Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 24060. Paratypes: MZUSP 22279 (3), 24183 (7), 83228 (7); USNM 372767 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Denticetopsis epa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Denticetopsis epa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Lower Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

esmeraldas, Paracetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:228, Fig. 57 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Río Blanco, 4 kilometers above junction with río Quininde (0°20'N, 79°28'W), río Esmeraldas basin, Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Holotype: MCZ 48768. Paratypes: CAS 162438 (1); MCZ 48769 (10), 48770 (1), 162749 (10); MEPN 1530 (3); MZUSP 22328 (3, 1 c&s); USNM 372749 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Paracetopsis esmeraldas Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:196 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Paracetopsis esmeraldas Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Pacific versant rivers, Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

ferreirai, Cetopsidium Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:133, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Last cachoeira before rio Trombetas, about 1°05'S, 57°01'W, rio Mapuera, rio Trombetas basin, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 10194. Paratypes: INPA 6501 (3), 10193 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:130 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsidium ferreirai Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:130 [ref. 29155], Vari & Ferraris 2009:290 [ref. 30494]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsidium ferreirai Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Trombetas River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fimbriata, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:165, Fig. 20 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Creek of upper río Nercua, about 7°01'N, 77°30'W, large tributary of río Trunando, Choco, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 305348. Paratypes: ICNMHN 7272 (2); USNM 372825 (4), 372826 (2, c&s). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:44 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Cetopsis fimbriata Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis fimbriata Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Atrato River basin, Caribbean versant of northwestern Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

gobioides, Cetopsis Kner [R.] 1858:407 [37], Pl. 6 (fig. 16) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Irisanga, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 47378 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. On p. 37 of separate. •Valid as Pseudocetopsis gobioides (Kner 1858) -- (Burgess 1989:291 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:61 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:115 [ref. 24147], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:37 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:79 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Cetopsis gobioides Kner 1857 -- (Vari et al. 2005:168 [ref. 28270] dated to 1857, Aguilera & Mirande 2006:1 [ref. 28894], de Pinna et al. 2007:803 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], Koerber 2011:4 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:416 [ref. 34561], Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957], Reis et al. 2020:465 [ref. 38364]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis gobioides Kner 1858. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: South America: upper São Francisco, Paraná and Uruguay River basins (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

gouldingi, Helogenes Vari [R. P.] & Ortega [H.] 1986:7, Figs. 2-4 [Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology No. 442; ref. 5837] Igarapé, 15 kilometers from Humaitá along Rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brazil, 7°31'S, 63°02'W. Holotype: MZUSP 28854. Paratypes: MZUSP 28855 (3), USNM 269446 (4, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:17 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Helogenes gouldingi Vari & Ortega 1986 -- (Burgess 1989:288 [ref. 12860], de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], de Pinna et al. 2007:801 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Helogenes gouldingi Vari & Ortega 1986. Cetopsidae: Helogeninae. Distribution: Madeira River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iwokrama, Denticetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:208, Fig. 47 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Siparuni River at Tumble Creek, Essequibo River basin (4°48'39"N, 58°51'11'W), Essequibo, Guyana. Holotype: ANSP 177215. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Denticetopsis iwokrama Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Denticetopsis iwokrama Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Siparuni River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

jurubidae, Pseudocetopsis Fowler [H. W.] 1944:235, Figs. 7-9 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1452] Clear waters of Río Jurubidá, Nuquí, 5°42'N, 77°17'W, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71430 (poor condition). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:40 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudocetopsis jurubidae Fowler 1944 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cetopsis jurubidae (Fowler 1944) -- (Vari et al. 2005:172 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis jurubidae (Fowler 1944). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Jurubidá River basin, Pacific versant, western Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

macilentus, Hemicetopsis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:211, Pl. 23 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Creek below Potaro Landing (5°23'N, 59°08'W), Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53260 [ex CM 1726]. Paratypes: CAS 64605 [ex IU 12100] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:82 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemicetopsis macilentus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis macilentus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061] as macilenta). •Valid as Denticetopsis macilenta (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Vari et al. 2005:210 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:539 [ref. 34727], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Denticetopsis macilenta (Eigenmann 1912). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Potaro River, Essequibo River basin, Guyana and ? Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

macroteronema, Cetopsis Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:8 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 13 (no. 329); ref. 14677] Río Zamora, eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.11.4.11 (1), ZMUT 1548 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:137 [ref. 21559], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudocetopsis macroteronema (Boulenger 1898) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Burgess 1989:291 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pseudocetopsis plumbea (Steindachner 1882) -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Cetopsis plumbea Steindachner 1882 -- (Vari et al. 2005:191 [ref. 28270], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Cetopsis plumbea Steindachner 1882. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

marmoratus, Helogenes Günther [A.] 1863:443 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 12 (no. 72); ref. 1973] Essequibo River, Guyana. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.21.83. Paralectotypes (?): BMNH 1864.1.21.84 (1, lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Vari & Ortega 1986:16 [ref. 5837]. •Valid as Helogenes marmoratus Günther 1863 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:16 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:288 [ref. 12860], de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Le Bail et al. 2000:148 [ref. 24549], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], de Pinna et al. 2007:801 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Brosse et al. 2019:134 [ref. 38320]). Current status: Valid as Helogenes marmoratus Günther 1863. Cetopsidae: Helogeninae. Distribution: South America. Atlantic drainages of Guianas, upper Orinoco and Negro systems and upper Amazon River basin (Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Hemicetopsis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:211, Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk Cataract, Guyana. Holotype (unique): FMNH 53262 [ex CM 1728]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:82 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:130 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemicetopsis minutus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis minutus (Eigenmann 1912) -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Le Bail et al. 2000:146 [ref. 24549] as cf. minutus). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis minuta (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061], Vari et al. 2003:694 [ref. 27329]). •Valid as Cetopsidium minutum (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Vari et al. 2005:136 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:130 [ref. 29155], Vari & Ferraris 2009:290 [ref. 30494], DoNascimiento 2016:539 [ref. 34727]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsidium minutum (Eigenmann 1912). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Potaro River and middle portion of the Essequibo River, Guyana and ? Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

montana, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:174, Fig. 26 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] 100 meters upriver frm Caterpiza (ca. 3°55'S, 77°42'W), Amazonas, Peru. Holotype: LACM 41989-1. Paratypes: ANSP 178173 (1); LACM 39887-3 (1), 39922-1 (1), 41893-1(1), 41895-1 (1), 41945-2 (1); mepn UNCAT. (1); MUSM 20298 (2); USNM 177224 (1), 372759 (1). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis montana Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis montana Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin in northeastern Peru and southern Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

morenoi, Hemicetopsis Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1972:19, Fig. [Lagena No. 30; ref. 7596] Río Aguaro, Estado Guárico, Venezuela. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:130 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemicetopsis morenoi Fernández-Yépez 1972 -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis morenoi (Fernández-Yépez 1972) -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cetopsidium morenoi (Fernández-Yépez 1972) -- (Vari et al. 2005:138 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:130 [ref. 29155], Vari & Ferraris 2009:290 [ref. 30494], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsidium morenoi (Fernández-Yépez 1972). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

motatanensis, Pseudocetopsis plumbeus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:255, Pl. 5 (fig. B) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Motatán, 4 kilometers above Motatán, 9°24'N, 70°36'W, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121265. Paratypes: MCZ 37266 [ex USNM 121269, not 121266] (1); UMMZ 142495 [ex USNM 121269] (1); USNM 121266-68 (1, 2, 2), 121269 (5, now 3). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:16 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Hemicetopsis plumbeus Steindachner 1882, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:75 [ref. 23651]). •Synonym of Pseudocetopsis plumbeus (Steindachner 1882) -- (authors). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis motatanensis Schultz 1944 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cetopsis motatanensis (Schultz 1944) -- (Vari et al. 2005:176 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957], Abrahão et al. 2019:231 [ref. 36957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis motatanensis (Schultz 1944). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

occidentalis, Cetopsis Steindachner [F.] 1880:99 [47], Pl. 8 (figs. 2-2a) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 42; ref. 14403] Guayaquil, Ecuador. Holotype (unique): NMW 47377. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155]. On p. 47 of separate. •Valid as Cetopsogiton occidentalis (Steindachner 1880) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Paracetopsis bleekeri Bleeker 1862 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], Vari et al. 2005:225 [ref. 28270], Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Paracetopsis bleekeri Bleeker 1862. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

oliveirai, Bathycetopsis Lundberg [J. G.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 1994:383, Figs. 1, 3-4 [Copeia 1994 (no. 2); ref. 21515] Rio Solimões north of Ilha da Marchantaria, about 15 kilometers from mouth of Rio Negro at Manaus (3°15'S, 60°00'W), Amazonas, Brazil, elevation about 15 meters. Holotype: INPA 4439. Paratypes: DU F1170 (1, c&s); INPA 4533 (1), 4668-69 (1, 2), 7689 (2); MZUSP 44068 (1); USNM 325618 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Bathycetopsis oliveirai Lundberg & Rapp Py-Daniel 1994 -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:257 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:268 [ref. 28992]). •Valid as Cetopsis oliveirai (Lundberg & Rapp Py-Daniel 1994) -- (Vari et al. 2005:179 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:151, 190 [ref. 35004], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[20] [ref. 35679], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis oliveirai (Lundberg & Rapp Py-Daniel 1994). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Middle and upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

orientale, Pseudocetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & Keith [P.] 2003:693, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 116 (no. 3); ref. 27329] Saramacca River basin, on Gros Rosevel Mining concession, about 5°07'08.8"N, 55°16'59.4"W, close to mouth of Maykaboeka Creek, Mindrineti Creek, Brokopondo District, Suriname. Holotype: MHNG 2621-040. Paratypes: MHNG 2621.039 (4), 2621.044 (2), 2626.013 (9); MNHN 2002.1625 (1); MZUSP 65404 (1); NZCS F7048 (1); USNM 369732 (1). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:130 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pseudocetopsis orientale Vari, Ferraris & Keith 2003. •Valid as Cetopsidium orientale (Vari, Ferraris & Keith 2003) -- (Vari et al. 2005:141 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:130 [ref. 29155], Vari & Ferraris 2009:290 [ref. 30494], Brosse et al. 2019:134 [ref. 38320]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsidium orientale (Vari, Ferraris & Keith 2003). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: South America: Atlantic coastal rivers (French Guiana and Suriname). Habitat: freshwater.

orinoco, Pseudocetopsis plumbeus Schultz [L. P.] 1944:253, Pl. 5 (fig. A) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Torbes, 1 kilometer above Táriba (7°59'N, 72°13'W), Río Orinoco system, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121263. Paratypes: MCZ 37237 [ex USNM 121264] (1), USNM 121264 (2, now 1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:16 [ref. 19771]. •Synonym of Hemicetopsis plumbeus Steindachner 1883, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860], Ferraris & Brown 1991:164 [ref. 16686]). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis orinoco Schultz 1944 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cetopsis orinoco (Schultz 1944) -- (Vari et al. 2005:181 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis orinoco (Schultz 1944). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia and Venezuela and Caribbean Sea versant of northern Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

othonops, Hemicetopsis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:17 [Indiana University Studies No. 16 [sic No. 8]; ref. 1228] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56040 [CM 4830]. Paratypes: (68, CM and IU) AMNH 5318 [ex IU 12685 a-j] (5); BMNH 1924.3.3.81-82 (2); CAS 64606-08 [ex IU 12684-86] (6, 18, 1); FMNH 56041-42 (9, 2), 69814 (5); USNM 76972 (6), 79213 (2), 167853 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:82 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:16 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Hemicetopsis othonops Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis othonops (Eigenmann 1912) -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Cetopsis othonops (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Vari et al. 2005:185 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis othonops (Eigenmann 1912). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Magdalena and Sinú River basins, Caribbean Sea versant, northwestern Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

parma, Cetopsis Oliveira [J. C. de], Vari [R. P.] & Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] 2001:575, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 114 (no. 3); ref. 25604] Río Tambo, Río Ucayali basin, Pucallpa, Atalaya, 8°23'S, 74°32'W, Province Coronel Portillo, Depto de Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: MUSM 2266. Paratypes: MEPN 1034 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis parma Oliveira, Vari & Ferraris 2001 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:257 [ref. 27061], Vari et al. 2005:187 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis parma Oliveira, Vari & Ferraris 2001. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

pearsoni, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:189, Fig. 36 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Provincia de Sandia, río Candamo, Zona Reserva Tambopata (13°28.97'S, 69°50.08'W), Puno, Peru, elevation 358 meters. Holotype: MUSM 11093. Paratypes: MNHN 1988-1995 (1), 1988-1998 (3), 1988-2012 (1); MZUSP 27812 (6, 1 c&s). Plus one non-type specimen. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis pearsoni Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:132 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis pearsoni Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Upper Madeira River basin, southeastern Peru and northeastern Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

pemon, Cetopsidium Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:144, Figs. 8-9 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Mouth of río Claro, 7°54'45"N, 63°02'35"W, río Caroni, Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 19475. Paratypes: AMNH 91188 (1); MCNG 18113 (1), 18422 (3), 21571 (3), 45650 (1); USNM 375959 (1), 375960 (2). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsidium pemon Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155], Vari & Ferraris 2009:290 [ref. 30494], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsidium pemon Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Orinoco River system and Branco River: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

plumbeus, Cetopsis Steindachner [F.] 1882:178 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 19 (no. 19); ref. 20487] Canelos, eastern Ecuador. Lectotype: NMW 47383-1 (1). Paralectotypes: NMW 47381-1 and 3 (2), 47383-2 and 3 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1882:31, Pl. 6 (fig. 3) [ref. 14353]. Lectotype selected by Vari et al. 2005:194 [ref. 28270]. •Valid as Hemicetopsis plumbeus (Steindachner 1882) -- (Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pseudocetopsis plumbeus (Steindachner 1882) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Ferraris & Brown 1991:164 [ref. 16686], de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Galvis et al. 1997:75 [ref. 23651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061] as plumbea). •Valid as Cetopsis plumbea Steindachner 1882 -- (Vari et al. 2005:191 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35679], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis plumbea Steindachner 1882. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: South America: upper Amazon River basin (Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

praecox, Pseudocetopsis Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & Brown [B. A.] 1991:162, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1991 (no. 1); ref. 16686] Neblina base camp, Río Mawarinuma, Río Baria drainage, Territory Fed. Amazonas, southern Venezuela, 0°55'N, 66°10'W, elevation 120 meters. Holotype: AMNH 74446. Paratypes: AMNH 74445 (orig. 6, now 4, 1 c&s), 74447-48 (2, 3), 74449 (orig. 7, now 5, 1 c&s); MBUCV-V-20302 to 03 [ex AMNH] (2, 2); USNM [ex AMNH] 309184 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:16 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:15 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pseudocetopsis praecox Ferraris & Brown 1991 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Denticetopsis praecox (Ferraris & Brown 1991) -- (Vari et al. 2005:213 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[21] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Denticetopsis praecox (Ferraris & Brown 1991). Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Baria River, upper Negro River basin, southern Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

pygmaeus, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:408 [38] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 38 of separate. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in passing under Cetopsis gobioides. •In the synonymy of Pseudocetopsis gobioides (Kner 1858) -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:259 [ref. 27061]). •In the synonymy of Cetopsis gobioides Kner 1858 -- (Vari et al. 2005:168 [ref. 28270], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35267]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Cetopsis gobioides Kner 1858. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae.

roae, Cetopsidium Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:147, Fig. 10 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Karanambo, 3°45'N, 58°18'W, Rupununi River, Guyana. Holotype: BMNH 1972.2.27.629. Paratypes: BMNH 1972.2.27.630-642 (12), 1985.6.21.39-42 (4) Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsidium roae Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155], Vari & Ferraris 2009:290 [ref. 30494]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsidium roae Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Rupununi region of southwestern Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

royeroi, Denticetopsis Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] 1996:167, Figs. 4, 12 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 49 (no. 6); ref. 22208] Caño Chola at crossing of San Carlos de River Negro to Solano Road, 1°58'N, 67°00'W, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MBUCV-V-26785 [ex USNM 268643]. Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:7-8 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Denticetopsis royeroi Ferraris 1996 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], Vari et al. 2005:215 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Denticetopsis royeroi Ferraris 1996. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Upper Negro River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

sandrae, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:195, 39-40 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Nova Mutum, unnamed córrego, Fazenda Buriti, about 1.5 kilometers south of Fazenda (31°51'52"S, 56°11'36"W), Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 61091. Paratypes: MZUSP 61051 (1, c&s), 83227 (3); USNM 372766 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis sandrae Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155], Abrahão & de Pinna 2018:117 [ref. 35957]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis sandrae Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Arinos River, upper portions of Tapajós River system, Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sarcodes, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:197, Fig. 42 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Município de Minaçu/Cavalcante, rio Tocantins between site of future dam of Usina Hidroeléctrica Cana Brava and Ilha do Orgulho and Porto do Garimpo, Goías State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 13024. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis sarcodes Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis sarcodes Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, eastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sauli, Denticetopsis Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] 1996:164, Figs. 3, 11 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences v. 49 (no. 6); ref. 22208] Stream from series of morichales, about 5 kilometers from mouth of Río Pamoni, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela, 2°48'N, 65°53'W. Holotype: MBUCV-V-20300. Paratypes: ANSP 161432 (4, 2 c&s); MBUCV-V-20301 (2). Type catalog: Provenzano et al. 1998:8 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Denticetopsis sauli Ferraris 1996 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], Vari et al. 2005:217 [ref. 28270], de Pinna et al. 2007:802 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Denticetopsis sauli Ferraris 1996. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Pamoni River, upper Negro River system, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

seducta, Denticetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:218, Fig. 53 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Caño "Sabalito," small creek on terra firma about 40 kilometers south of Iquitos (4°14'45"S, 73°24'57"W), Loreto, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 178466. Paratypes: ANSP 179141 (2); FMNH 111689 (3); MUSM 20297 (2); NRM 18387 (3); USNM 372758 (1). Plus non-type specimens. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Denticetopsis seducta Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:110 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Denticetopsis seducta Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Amazon River basin and possibly southwestern portions of Orinoco River: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

soniae, Cetopsidium Vari [R. P.] & Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] 2009:290, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 30494] Main channel of Manari River, Takutu River basin, along road between Lethem and Annai, near Lethem, 3°26.590'N, 59°44.578'W, Central Rupununi (Region 9), Guyana. Holotype: CSBD F1665 [ex. MHNG 2652.014]. Paratypes; MHNG 2652.014 (1). •Valid as Cetopsidium soniae Vari & Ferraris 2009. Current status: Valid as Cetopsidium soniae Vari & Ferraris 2009. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Manari River, Takutu River basin, western rio Branco system, Amazon basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

spixii, Cetopsis Swainson [W.] 1839:308 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Equatorial rivers of Brazil. Syntypes: MHNN 210.05 (1), 735 (1), 736 (1), 737 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]. Based on Agass. and Sp. pl. 10. fig. 1 -- which is Spix & Agassiz 1829:Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [ref. 13]. Lectotype selected by Vari et al. 2005:161 [ref. 28270] for Cetopsis candiru. •Unneeded replacement for Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Vari et al. 2005:159 [ref. 28270], Ferraris 2007:131 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Cetopsis candiru Spix & Agassiz 1829. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.

starnesi, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:199, Fig. 43 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Rio Bermejo, 4-5 kilometers south of Pueblo Salado, about 30 air kilometers south of Bermejo (22°27'S, 64°32'W), Argentinean-Bolivian border, Tarija, Bolivia. Holotype: USNM 314309. Paratypes: CBF 887 [ex USNM 314309] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis starnesi Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (Aguilera & Mirande 2006:201 [ref. 28894], de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155], Koerber 2011:4 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:190 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:35 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis starnesi Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Southeastern Bolivia and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

umbrosa, Cetopsis Vari [R. P.], Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2005:201, Fig. 44 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 28270] Río Negro, downstream from main Villavicencio to Puerto Lopez highway at La Balsa (4°04'N, 73°04'W), Meta, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 137559. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsis umbrosa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005 -- (de Pinna et al. 2007:804 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:133 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:84 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsis umbrosa Vari, Ferraris & de Pinna 2005. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

unidorsalis, Helogenes Glodek [G. S.] & Carter [H. J.] 1978:77, Fig. 1 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 72 (no. 6); ref. 6159] Río Bobonaza between Sarayacu and Montalvo, eastern Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 80463. Paratypes: (6) FMNH 80464 (5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:43 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Helogenes marmoratus Günther 1863 -- (de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Helogenes marmoratus Günther 1863. Cetopsidae: Helogeninae. Habitat: freshwater.

uruyensis, Helogenes marmoratus Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1967:166, Pls. 2, 3 (fig. 2) [Acta Biologica Venezuelica v. 5 (art. 10); ref. 7889] Río Uruyén, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-14617 [ex AFY 56613] (whereabouts unknown). Paratypes: MBUCV-V-2615 (now 3, ?4), V-10852 [ex AFY 56614] (5); USNM 219598 [ex MBUCV-V 2615] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:17 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:10-11 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Helogenes uruyensis Fernández-Yépez 1967 -- (Burgess 1989:288 [ref. 12860], de Pinna & Vari 1995:3 [ref. 21651], Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], de Pinna et al. 2007:801 [ref. 29247], Ferraris 2007:134 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Helogenes uruyensis Fernández-Yépez 1967. Cetopsidae: Helogeninae. Distribution: Uruyén River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

varii, Cetopsis Abrahão [V. P.] & de Pinna [M. C. C.] 2018:112, Figs. 1-2, 5-8a [Journal of Fish Biology v. 93 (no. 1); ref. 35957] Río Casanare, a tributary to the Río Meta, town of San Joaquin, Tame Municipality, Arauca Department, Colombia, 06°13'22.4"N, 71°32'19.85"W. Holotype: MPUJ 9321. Paratypes: ANSP, IAvH-P, MPUJ, MZUSP. •Valid as Cetopsis varii Abrahão & de Pinna 2018. Current status: Valid as Cetopsis varii Abrahão & de Pinna 2018. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Distribution: Río Casanare, Río Pauto and Río Metica, Río Meta basin, eastern Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

ventralis, Cetopsis Gill [T. N.] 1870:95 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 17630] Río Marañon or Río Napo, Amazon system, Peru or Ecuador. [Interpreted as río Guayas or río Santa Rosa basins, southeastern Ecuador.] Holotype (unique): USNM 8307. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:16 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155]. Locality in brackets interpreted by Vari et al. 2005:227 [ref. 28270]. •Valid as Pseudocetopsis ventralis (Gill 1870) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:292 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Paracetopsis bleekeri Bleeker 1862 -- (Vari & Ferraris in Reis et al. 2003:258 [ref. 27061], Vari et al. 2005:224 [ref. 28270], Ferraris 2007:135 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Paracetopsis bleekeri Bleeker 1862. Cetopsidae: Cetopsinae. Habitat: freshwater.


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