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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Cyclopsettidae: [ 63 ] records


abbotti, Citharichthys Dawson [C. E.] 1969:356, Figs. 1-5 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 82; ref. 7730] Mouth of Laguna de Zontecomapan [Sontecomapan], Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 203735. Paratypes: ANSP 112317 (2); GCRL 2436 (3), 2808 (2, c&s); INIBP uncat. (1); MCZ 46368 (1); UF 224484 [ex UMML 24484] (2); USNM 203736-38 (6, 12, 6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Citharichthys abbotti Dawson 1969 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:487 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1906 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:839 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys abbotti Dawson 1969. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aethalion, Syacium Jordan [D. S.] 1886:52 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 9 (no. 551); ref. 2386] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: (3) USNM 37748 (1). •Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842 -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

amblybregmatus, Citharichthys Gutherz [E. J.] & Blackman [R. R.] 1970:340, Figs. 3-4 [Copeia 1970 (no. 2); ref. 7746] Northwestern Atlantic, 12°22.5'N, 82°31.5'W, Oregon station 6453, depth 108 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 203589. Paratypes: UF 19292 [ex TABL 105458] (3); USNM 203590 (6), 203592-94 (4, 4, 4). Additional material: USNM 203595 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:110 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Citharichthys amblybregmatus Gutherz & Blackman 1970 -- (Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Munroe 2003:1914 [ref. 27118], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:177 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys amblybregmatus Gutherz & Blackman 1970. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Caribbean Sea south to Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

aramaca, Hemirhombus Günther [A.] 1862:422 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Not an original description (= Pleuronectes aramaca Cuvier 1829) but treated as such by Aldebert et al. 1990:1035 [ref. 19526] as a synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842, also Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]. Current status: Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842. Cyclopsettidae.

aramaca, Pleuronectes Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:121 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] Brazil. •Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

arctifrons, Citharichthys Goode [G. B.] 1880:341 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 3 (no. 165); ref. 1834] 40°05'39"N, 70°23'52"W, Fish Hawk station 872, depth 86 fathoms. Syntypes: (many) USNM 25908 (2). Description based mostly on 137-mm specimen in USNM 25908; stations given as 871 and 872 on p. 337, sta. 870 and 871 on p. 341. •Valid as Citharichthys arctifrons Goode 1880 -- (Gutherz 1967:31 [ref. 23862], Smith 1986:454 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:534 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:173 [ref. 23239], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:488 [ref. 24550], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:551 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:231 [ref. 27076], Munroe 2003:1914 [ref. 27118], Hoshino & Munroe 2004:583 [ref. 27908], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:840 [ref. 28815], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys arctifrons Goode 1880. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: eastern U.S.A. and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

arenaceus, Citharichthys Evermann [B. W.] & Marsh [M. C.] 1900:326, Fig. 106 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 20 (pt 1) [for 1900]; ref. 14876] Mayaguez, Puerto Rico. Holotype: USNM 49536. Paratypes: (9) CAS-SU 8556 (1), ?USNM 50195 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Citharichthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh 1900 -- (Gutherz 1967:35 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:299 [ref. 24565], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1914 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys arenaceus Evermann & Marsh 1900. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

atlanticus, Citharichthys crossotus Parr [A. E.] 1931:(7) 16 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 4 (art. 1); ref. 16318] Western Atlantic. •Synonym of Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Leslie & Stewart 1986:151 [ref. 5948]). Current status: Synonym of Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

chittendeni, Cyclopsetta Bean [B. A.] 1895:635, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 17 (no. 1030); ref. 231] Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique): USNM 44100. •Valid as Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean 1895 -- (Gutherz 1967:26 [ref. 23862], Swingle 1971:335 [ref. 26462], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:458 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:276 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:48 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221] as chitendeni, Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:481 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:304 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1908 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Khidir et al. 2004:5 [ref. 36549], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:848 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean 1895. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea south to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Habitat: marine.

ciadi, Etropus van der Heiden [A. M.] & Plascencia González [H. G. P.] 2005:471, Figs. 1, 3 [Copeia 2005 (no. 3); ref. 28311] Off Tepoca, 30°11.9'N, 112°47.0'W, between Isla Tiburón and Puerto Peñasco, Sonora, Mexico, depth 36-38 meters. Holotype: IBUNAM-P14003 [ex CIAD 85-19]. Paratypes: CIAD 79-8 (1), 82-18 (64), 82-31 (8), 85-16 (23), 85-19 (13), 85-22 (61), 85-47 (1), 85-56 (10), 85-60 (9), 91-12 (10); IBUNAM-P14004 [ex CIAD 85-6] (29); SIO 04-186 [ex CIAD 82-18] (13) •Valid as Etropus ciadi van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005 -- (Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus ciadi van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Gulf of California. Habitat: marine.

cooperi, Metoponops Gill [T. N.] 1864:199 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 5770] Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 9407. •Synonym of Citharichthys sordidus (Girard 1854). Current status: Synonym of Citharichthys sordidus (Girard 1854). Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

cornutus, Romboidichthys Günther [A.] 1880:7, Pl. 2 (fig. B) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Off Brazil, Challenger station 122, depth 30 or 350 fathoms. Syntypes: (at least 3) BMNH 1879.5.14.53-54. •Valid as Citharichthys cornutus (Günther 1880) -- (Gutherz 1967:31 [ref. 23862], Scott & Scott 1988:535 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:173 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:52 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:487 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:300 [ref. 24565], Marín 2000:79 [ref. 26252], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1915 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:841 [ref. 28815], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:178 [ref. 37485], Klautau et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37903], Robertson et al. 2020:160 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys cornutus (Günther 1880). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic North Carolina (U.S.A.) and Bahamas south to Uruguay, including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

crossotus, Etropus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:364 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Astillero estuary at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 28124 (missing in 1980). •Valid as Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Gutherz 1967:28 [ref. 23862], Leslie & Stewart 1986:151 [ref. 5948], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:536 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:276 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:62 [ref. 24489] as crossotus and crosotus, Allen & Robertson 1994:288 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1365 [ref. 22830], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204] dated 1881, De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:251 [ref. 24545], Murdy et al. 1997:280 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:210 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], Fuller et al. 1999:479 [ref. 25838], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:306 [ref. 24565], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639] dated 1802, Munroe 2003:1917 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:850 [ref. 28815], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cyclosquamus, Etropus Leslie [A. J., Jr.] & Stewart [D. J.] 1986:143, Fig. 3 [Copeia 1986 (no. 1); ref. 5948] Continental shelf off North Carolina, U.S.A., 35°01.4'N, 75°33.9'W, depth 31 meters. Holotype: FMNH 87525. Paratypes: ANSP 153541 (2); CAS 55894 (2); FMNH 87524 (32), 87526 (11), 87527-34 (8), 87535-42 (25, 12, 6, 12, 12, 11, 9, 9); USNM 268481 (2); UWZM 8592 (7). •Valid as Etropus cyclosquamus Leslie & Stewart 1986 -- (Boschung 1992:175 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1918 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:851 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus cyclosquamus Leslie & Stewart 1986. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

darwini, Citharichthys Victor [B. C.] & Wellington [G. M.] 2013:21, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 6; ref. 32520] Tagus Cove, Isla Isabela, Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, 0.26°S, 91.37°W. Holotype: SIO 12-3075. Paratypes: CAS 6862 (8), 6895 (5); LACM 23671 (8), 57426-1 (1); SIO 12-3076 (2); USNM 101896 (2), 101970 (4). •Valid as Citharichthys darwini Victor & Wellington 2013. Current status: Valid as Citharichthys darwini Victor & Wellington 2013. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

decussata, Cyclopsetta Gunter [G.] 1946:27, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1946 (no. 1); ref. 13127] About 40 miles south of Port Aransas, Texas, U.S.A., depth 26 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 123802 (skin and head over plaster cast). •Valid as Cyclopsetta decussata Gunter 1946 -- (Gutherz 1967:24 [ref. 23862]). •Synonym of Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean 1895 -- (Swingle 1971:335 [ref. 26462], Munroe 2003:1908 [ref. 27118], Khidir et al. 2004:5 [ref. 36549]). Current status: Synonym of Cyclopsetta chittendeni Bean 1895. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

delsmani, Etropus Chabanaud [P.] 1940:149 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 13167] 4-6 miles from Santa-Margarita Island, Venezuela, depth 20 fathoms. Holotype: IRSNB 50. Paratypes: IRSNB 51 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:46 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:335 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Etropus delsmani Chabanaud 1940 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:211 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1906 [ref. 27118] but may not be valid, van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311]). Current status: Valid as Etropus delsmani Chabanaud 1940. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: off Venezuela; eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

dinoceros, Citharichthys Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1886:157 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 12 (no. 5); ref. 1844] Off Guadeloupe, West Indies, depth 175 fathoms. Holotype: MCZ 27963. Paratypes: (4?) MCZ 27961-63 (1, 1). •Valid as Citharichthys dinoceros Goode & Bean 1886 -- (Gutherz 1967:32 [ref. 23862], Boschung 1992:173 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1996:53 [ref. 24489], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:300 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1915 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:842 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:179 [ref. 37485]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys dinoceros Goode & Bean 1886. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

ectenes, Etropus Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:277 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Callao, Peru. Syntypes: MCZ 11605 (2), USNM 120408 [ex MCZ 11145] (1). •Valid as Etropus ectenes Jordan 1889 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1367 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:211 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:391 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Etropus ectenes Jordan 1889. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific off northwestern South America. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fimbriatus, Hemirhombus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:591 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Gulf of Mexico, 28°42'30"N, 85°29'W, Albatross station 2403, depth 88 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 37330. Paratypes: USNM 37331 (2). •Valid as Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode & Bean 1885) -- (Gutherz 1967:25 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:536 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:276 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:49 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:481 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:306 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1917 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Khidir et al. 2004:8 [ref. 36549], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:849 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Cyclopsetta fimbriata (Goode & Bean 1885). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina and Florida (U.S.A.) south to São Paulo (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. IUCN (2015): Least concern. Habitat: marine.

fragilis, Citharichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:120 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Off Caboo Lobos, Sonora, Mexico, Gulf of California, 29°40'00"N, 112°57'00" W, depth 139 meters. Lectotype: USNM 44409. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1900.9.29.252 (1); CAS 100167 [ex CAS-SU 167] (3), 100167 [ex CAS-SU 671] (7); MCZ 27833 [ex USNM 46386] (1), USNM. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established by Norman 1934:142 [ref. 6893]. •Valid as Citharichthys fragilis Gilbert 1890 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:284 [ref. 9277], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:99 [ref. 21805], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1358 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:373 [ref. 24199], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al.2009:807 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys fragilis Gilbert 1890. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific off southwestern U.S.A. and Mexico. Habitat: marine.

fuscus, Hemirhombus Poey [F.] 1868:406 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 11251 (1), ?MCZ 11272 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:181 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Citharichthys spilopterus Günther 1862. Current status: Synonym of Citharichthys spilopterus Günther 1862. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gilberti, Citharichthys Jenkins [O. P.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1889:157 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 698); ref. 2342] Guaymas Bay, Sonora, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): USNM 39627. •Valid as Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:43 [ref. 37559], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], Allen & Robertson 1994:287 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1359 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:248 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Bussing 1998:429 [ref. 24179], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:210 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:486 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:401 [ref. 28615], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], McMahan et al. 2013:453 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Barriga Salazar 2014:119 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:391 [ref. 34894], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544], Angulo et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37425]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

gnathus, Citharichthys Hoshino [K.] & Amaoka [K.] 1999:371, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 46 (no. 4); ref. 24199] Galápagos Islands, 00°36'S-00°27'S, 90°20'W-90°21'W, depth 95 meters. Holotype: USNM 337310. Paratypes: HUMZ 155534-538 (5), USNM 337311 (19). •Valid as Citharichthys gnathus Hoshino & Amaoka 1999 -- (van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys gnathus Hoshino & Amaoka 1999. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Galapágos Islands and Pacific coast of Colombia. Habitat: marine.

gordae, Citharichthys Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1938:302, Fig. 2 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 23 (pt 3, no. 15); ref. 249] Center of outer Gorda Bank, 23°01'N, 109°27' or 28°30'W, Baja California, Mexico, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype: CAS-SU 46496 [ex NYZS 25785]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 46182 (3), 46184-88 (3, 13, 23, 10, 15), 46198 [ex NYZS 25388] (37). Type catalog: Mead 1958:132 [ref. 20648]. •Valid as Citharichthys gordae Beebe & Tee-Van 1938 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1360 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys gordae Beebe & Tee-Van 1938. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific; Mexico. Habitat: marine.

guineensis, Hemirhombus Bleeker [P.] in Günther 1862:423 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Coast of Guinea. Holotype: RMNH 3546 (poor condition). Description is quoted from Bleeker. Also appeared in Bleeker 1863:25, Pl. 3 [ref. 395]. Combined with a neuter genus, the adjective becomes guineense. •Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842 -- (Aldebert et al. 1990:1035 [ref. 19526]). •Valid as Syacium guineense (Bleeker 1862) (often seen as guineensis) -- (Fraser 1971:501 [ref. 21277], Murakami & Amaoka 1992:67 [ref. 19779], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:xiv [ref. 21953], Wirtz et al. 2007:41 [ref. 30263], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2999 [ref. 34618], Reiner 2019:294 [ref. 38139] as guineensis). Current status: Valid as Syacium guineense (Bleeker 1862). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: western Sahara south to Namibia, including Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

gunteri, Syacium Ginsburg [I.] 1933:7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 82 (no. 2961); ref. 1800] Off the coast of Louisiana, 12 miles northeast of Barstom Light, Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Holotype: USNM 92800. Paratypes: (65). •Valid as Syacium gunteri Ginsburg 1933 -- (Gutherz 1967:37 [ref. 23862], Fraser 1971:500 [ref. 21277], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:176 [ref. 23239], Murakami & Amaoka 1992:71 [ref. 19779], Cervigón 1992:278 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:66 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Keith et al. 2000:240 [ref. 24547], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:478 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:307 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1920 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:858 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Syacium gunteri Ginsburg 1933. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

gymnorhinus, Citharichthys Gutherz [E. J.] & Blackman [R. R.] 1970:345, Figs. 5-6 [Copeia 1970 (no. 2); ref. 7746] Off Panama, Caribbean Sea, 8°56'N, 80°57'W, Oregon station 3594, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 203596. Paratypes: UF 19293 [ex TABL 105455] (1), 19294 [ex TABL 105456] (2); USNM 203597-603 (1, 1, 1, 1, 4, 1, 1). Additional material: UF 105457 (2); UF [ex UMML] (17, 6 lots). Type catalog: Gilbert 1974:112 [ref. 21035]. •Valid as Citharichthys gymnorhinus Gutherz & Blackman 1970 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:536 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1996:55 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:300 [ref. 24565], Munroe 2003:1915 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:843 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys gymnorhinus Gutherz & Blackman 1970. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

intermedius, Etropus Norman [J. R.] 1933:203 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 12 (no. 68) (art. 21); ref. 16511] Port of Spain, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype: BMNH 1932.5.9.19. Paratypes: BMNH 1923.7.30.341 (1), 1930.9.4.23 (1). •Valid as Etropus intermedius Norman 1933 -- (Gutherz 1967:27 [ref. 23862], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:455 [ref. 14275], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550]). •Synonym of Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Munroe 2003:1917 [ref. 27118], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311]). Current status: Synonym of Etropus crossotus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic off northeastern South America. Habitat: brackish, marine.

intermedius, Hippoglossus Ranzani [C.] 1842:12, Pl. 4 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 3606] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 954. •Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

latifrons, Citharichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:334 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 1 (for 1881); ref. 2471] Panama Bay (Pacific). Syntypes: USNM 29255 (1, lost), 29416 (1, lost), 29425 (1, lost), 29496 (1, lost). •Valid as Syacium latifrons (Jordan & Gilbert 1882) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:89 [ref. 19779], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1376 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:254 [ref. 24545], van der Heiden & Mitchell 1998:756 [ref. 23424], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:206 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:477 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668]). Current status: Valid as Syacium latifrons (Jordan & Gilbert 1882). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Mexico south to Peru. Habitat: marine.

longidorsale, Syacium Murakami [T.] & Amaoka [K.] 1992:82, Figs. 16-17 [Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries Hokkaido University v. 43 (no. 2); ref. 19779] Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador, 3°39'S, 80°41'W, depth 13 meters. Holotype: USNM 317825. Paratypes: HUMZ 121131-36 (6), 121137-40 (4); USNM 317826-27 (11, 14). •Valid as Syacium longidorsale Murakami & Amaoka 1992 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1377 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mitchell 1998:756 [ref. 23424], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:206 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Syacium longidorsale Murakami & Amaoka 1992. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Off Ecuador, eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

longimanus, Etropus Norman [J. R.] 1933:202 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 12 (no. 68) (art. 21); ref. 16511] Cape Frio, Brazil, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1913.12.4.312. Paratypes: BMNH 1913.12.4.313-320 (17). •Valid as Etropus longimanus Norman 1933 -- (Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550], López et al. 2002:66 [ref. 26808], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Díaz de Astarloa & Fabré 2003:124 [ref. 27726], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], Costa et al. 2015:1061 [ref. 37495], Nión et al. 2016:54 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Etropus longimanus Norman 1933. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

longleyi, Syacium Norman [J. R.] 1933:201 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 12 (no. 68) (art. 21); ref. 16511] Off Breton Island, Louisiana, U.S.A. Holotype: BMNH 1931.11.5.23. Additional material or paratypes: (3). Technically a holotype probably was not established in the original description as counts represent multiple specimens. •Synonym of Syacium gunteri Ginsburg 1933 -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:71 [ref. 19779] as longreyi). Current status: Synonym of Syacium gunteri Ginsburg 1933. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Citharichthys Dresel [H. G.] 1885:539 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 464); ref. 14443] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 21500. •Valid as Citharichthys macrops Dresel 1885 -- (Gutherz 1967:33 [ref. 23862], Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:256 [ref. 22947], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:200 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:484 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:302 [ref. 24565], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1916 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:845 [ref. 28815], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:184 [ref. 32708], Catelani et al. 2014:933 [ref. 37496], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys macrops Dresel 1885. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

macrops, Neoetropus Hildebrand [S. F.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1928:174, Fig. 89 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 43 (1927, pt 1); ref. 2163] Off Smiths Point, somewhat below mouth of Potomac River, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, U.S.A., Fish Hawk, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 87653. The type locality information is questioned by Hoshino & Munroe 2004:588 [ref. 27908]. •Apparently a valid species of Citharichthys or Etropus, but no current status reference is available -- (S. A. Evseenko, pers. comm., 5/03). •Synonym of Citharichthys arctifrons Goode 1880 -- (Hoshino & Munroe 2004:583 [ref. 27908]). Current status: Synonym of Citharichthys arctifrons Goode 1880. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

maculifer, Citharichthys Garman [S.] 1899:224 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Near Cocos Island, Costa Rica, eastern Pacific, 5°32'45"N, 86°54'30"W, Albatross station 3368, depth 66 fathoms. Syntypes: MCZ 28546 (2). •Valid as Syacium maculiferum (Garman 1899) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1378 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mitchell 1998:753 [ref. 23424]). Current status: Valid as Syacium maculiferum (Garman 1899). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

mariajorisae, Citharichthys van der Heiden [A. M.] & Mussot-Pérez [S.] 1995:440, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1995 (no. 2); ref. 21611] Southern Nayarit, 21°14'N, 105°15'W, Mexico, depth 20 meters. Holotype: SIO 91-103. Paratypes: CAS 81736 (3); ICML/MAZ 79-3 (1), 79-7 (1), 81-17 (1), 84-5 (3), 84-6 (7), 84-7 (1), 85-1 (3); IIPB 404-410/1991 (7); SIO 63-517-64 (1), 91-76 (30), 91-104 (4); UCLA W53-275 (4), W58-305 (4); USNM 331904 (3). Type catalog: Allué et al. 2000:158 [ref. 30499]. •Valid as Citharichthys mariajorisae van der Heiden & Mussot-Pérez 1995 -- (Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:372 [ref. 24199], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708] as Mussot, González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys mariajorisae van der Heiden & Mussot-Pérez 1995. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

micros, Citharichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1911:200, Figs. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 63; ref. 14787] Corson's Inlet, Cape May County, New Jersey, U.S.A. Holotype: ANSP 37841. Paratypes: ANSP 37842-50 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:31 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Etropus microstomus (Gill 1864) -- (Leslie & Stewart 1986:149 [ref. 5948]). Current status: Synonym of Etropus microstomus (Gill 1864). Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

microstomus, Citharichthys Gill [T. N.] 1864:220 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 1704] New Jersey to North Carolina, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Etropus microstomus (Gill 1864) -- (Gutherz 1967:28 [ref. 23862], Smith 1986:454 [ref. 22186], Leslie & Stewart 1986:140 [ref. 5948], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:537 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:279 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Klein-MacPhee in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:552 [ref. 26158], Munroe 2003:1906 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus microstomus (Gill 1864). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

micrurum, Syacium Ranzani [C.] 1842:16, Pl. 5 [Novi Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Instituti Bononiensis v. 5; ref. 3606] Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUB 948. See also Santos et al. 1997:131 [ref. 23531]. •Valid as Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842 -- (Gutherz 1967:39 [ref. 23862], Fraser 1971:501 [ref. 21277], Hensley 1986:863 [ref. 5669], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:541 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:220 [ref. 14674], Aldebert et al. 1990:1035 [ref. 19526], Boschung 1992:176 [ref. 23239], Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779], Cervigón 1992:278 [ref. 23827], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:178 [ref. 25472], Andreata & Séret 1996:589 [ref. 16204] dated 1840, Cervigón 1996:65 [ref. 24489], Arruda 1997:119 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:341 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25466], Keith et al. 2000:242 [ref. 24547], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:307 [ref. 24565], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1921 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:859 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], see Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33515], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37250], Robertson et al. 2020:160 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; southern-central Atlantic: ?Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Citharichthys Cervigón [F.] 1982:9, Fig. 3 [Los peces marinos de Venezuela; ref. 23220] Playa de Boca Chica, Edo. Nueva Esparta, Venezuela. Holotype: UDONECI 1126. Paratypes: UDONECI 996 (1), 1116 (2). •Valid as Citharichthys minutus Cervigón 1982 -- (Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:56 [ref. 24489], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:000 [ref. 24565], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys minutus Cervigón 1982. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

norma, Dorsopsetta Nielsen [J. G.] 1963:379, Figs. 1-2; Pl. 13 (figs. 1-4) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 125; ref. 3194] A few miles west of Talara, Peru. Holotype: Inst. Recursos Marinos, Callao, Peru. Paratypes: ZMUC P853116 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:84 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Dorsopsetta norma Nielsen 1963 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:203 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (van der Heiden & Mussot-Pérez 1993 [ref. 21026], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Khidir et al. 2004:13 [ref. 36549]). Current status: Synonym of Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ocellatus, Hippoglossus Poey [F.] 1860:314 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 11188. Paratypes: MCZ 11144 (1), 11192 (1), 11194 (1); ?NMW 43858 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:181 [ref. 22926] with a holotype and paratypes, but probably syntypes originally. •Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842 -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium micrurum Ranzani 1842. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

ovalis, Hemirhombus Günther [A.] 1864:154 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1864 (pt 1) (art. 3) (for 22 Mar. 1864); ref. 13930] Pacific coast of Panama. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.348. •Valid as Syacium ovale (Günther 1864) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:86 [ref. 19779], Allen & Robertson 1994:289 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1379 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:254 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:615 [ref. 24023], van der Heiden & Mitchell 1998:756 [ref. 23424], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:206 [ref. 24555], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:477 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Syacium ovale (Günther 1864). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

pacificus, Etropus delsmani Nielsen [J. G.] 1963:387, Figs. 6-7; Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn. v. 125; ref. 3194] South of San José, Perlas Island, Gulf of Panama, depth 46 meters. Holotype: ZMUC P853137. Paratypes: ZMUC P853138-43 (6), Servicio de Pesqueria, Lima, Peru (?). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:84 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Etropus delsmani Chabanaud 1940, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1366 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:211 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:479 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Etropus delsmani Chabanaud 1940. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

paetulus, Hemirhombus Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] (ex Bean) 1882:304 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 282); ref. 2472] Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: (several) USNM 30180 (1). Description involves other specimens than those used by Goode and Bean, so authorship is attributed to Jordan & Gilbert. Also appeared (later in same journal) as new in Goode & Bean 1882:414 [ref. 1840] based on USNM 30180. •Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

panamensis, Citharichthys Steindachner [F.] 1875:90 [62] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 4223] (Pacific) Panama. Syntypes: (several) MCZ 24981 (1); NMW 9132-36 (5); USNM 44132 (1). On p. 62 of separate. •Valid as Cyclopsetta panamensis (Steindachner 1875) (sometimes dated to 1876) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:287 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1363 [ref. 22830], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:207 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:482 [ref. 24550], Khidir et al. 2004:11 [ref. 36549], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:453 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:93 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Cyclopsetta panamensis (Steindachner 1875). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Ecuador. Habitat: brackish, marine.

papillosus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:271 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] America. No types known. •Valid as Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Gutherz 1967:38 [ref. 23862], Fraser 1971:500 [ref. 21277], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:456 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:293 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:177 [ref. 23239], Murakami & Amaoka 1992:78 [ref. 19779], Cervigón 1992:279 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:67 [ref. 24489], Evseenko 1996:726 [ref. 24666], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:478 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:341 [ref. 25013], Keith et al. 2000:208 [ref. 24547], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:308 [ref. 24565], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Munroe 2003:1921 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:106 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:860 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:186 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:11 [ref. 33516], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:181 [ref. 37485], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3000 [ref. 34618], Spier et al. 2018:18 [ref. 36103], Carneiro et al. 2019:188 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) south to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); southern-central Atlantic: Ascension Island. Habitat: marine.

peruvianus, Etropus Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:470, Fig. 88 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Sechura Bay, Peru. Holotype: USNM 128166. Paratypes: USNM 41352 (1), 88830 (1), 128167 (1). •Valid as Etropus peruvianus Hildebrand 1946 -- (Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1368 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:251 [ref. 24545], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:211 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:480 [ref. 24550], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus peruvianus Hildebrand 1946. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

platophrys, Citharichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1891:454 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 840); ref. 1624] Panama Bay, eastern Pacific, 8°44'N, 79°09'W, Albatross station 2799, depth 29.5 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 43415. •Valid as Citharichthys platophrys Gilbert 1891 -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:100 [ref. 21805], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1361 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:210 [ref. 24555], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Robertson et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35676], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys platophrys Gilbert 1891. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Baja California (Mexico) south to Peru, including Cocos Island. Habitat: marine.

querna, Azevia Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1890:174 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 12 (no. 770); ref. 2433] Off Pacific coast of Colombia. Syntypes: CAS-SU 478 (1); USNM 41159 (2), 41223 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890) -- (Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], Allen & Robertson 1994:288 [ref. 22193], Bussing & López S. 1994:150 [ref. 23101], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1364 [ref. 22830], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:250 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:207 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:482 [ref. 24550], Khidir et al. 2004:13 [ref. 36549], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], McMahan et al. 2013:454 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], González-Murcia et al. 2019:300 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Cyclopsetta querna (Jordan & Bollman 1890). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Chiapas (Mexico) south to Peru. Habitat: brackish, marine.

rimosus, Etropus Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1885:593 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 543); ref. 1842] Gulf of Mexico, 28°28'N, 84°25'W, Albatross station 2408, depth 21 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 37332 (100-mm specimen). Paratypes: USNM 295726 [ex 37332] (1). Type established in first sentence of description; also established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 385, p. 3312 in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Valid as Etropus rimosus Goode & Bean 1885 -- (Gutherz 1967:29 [ref. 23862], Leslie & Stewart 1986:145 [ref. 5948], Robins & Ray 1986:292 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:175 [ref. 23239], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:341 [ref. 25013], Munroe 2003:1918 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden & Plascencia González 2005:470 [ref. 28311], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:852 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Etropus rimosus Goode & Bean 1885. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

soleaeformis, Rhombus Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:86, Pl. 47 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Atlantic off Brazil. No types known. •Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Murakami & Amaoka 1992:74 [ref. 19779]). Current status: Synonym of Syacium papillosum (Linnaeus 1758). Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: marine.

sordidus, Psettichthys Girard [C. F.] 1854:142 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 1818] San Francisco, California, U.S.A. No types known. •Valid as Citharichthys sordidus (Girard 1854) -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:284 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:568 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:207 [ref. 24555], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:816 [ref. 25968], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:179 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:68 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys sordidus (Girard 1854). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Bering Sea south to Mexico. Habitat: marine.

spilopterus, Citharichthys Günther [A.] 1862:421 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Atlantic. Syntypes: (at least 22) BMNH 1847.4.4.29-30 (2) Niger exped., 1848.1.12.1387 (1 left half skin) Jamaica, 1848.1.12.1392--97 (6, left half skins) Jamaica, 1848.1.12.1399 (1 left half skin) jamaica, 1850.6.7.10-11 (3) Santa Domingo, 2013.3.28.1 (1) New Orleans, 1852.9.16.244 (1), Zool. Soc., 1862.4.24.20-21 (2) Bahia. Some specimens are in the synonymy of Citharichthys stampflii (Steindachner 1895) -- (Desoutter 1986:428 [ref. 6212]). Specimen Citharichthys spilopterus by original author (p. 372) is not a hototype. •Valid as Citharichthys spilopterus Günther 1862 -- (Gutherz 1967:34 [ref. 23862], Lee et al. 1980:828 [ref. 22416], Robins & Ray 1986:291 [ref. 23100], Bussing 1987:254 [ref. 22927], Boschung 1992:174 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:58 [ref. 24489], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:256 [ref. 22947], Murdy et al. 1997:278 [ref. 23144], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Bussing 1998:428 [ref. 24179], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:484 [ref. 24550], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:304 [ref. 24565], Marín 2000:79 [ref. 26252], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:170 [ref. 27754], Camargo & Isaac 2001:144 [ref. 27639], Kobelkowsky D. 2002:53 [ref. 26482], Munroe 2003:1916 [ref. 27118], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:105 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:635 [ref. 27995], Miller 2006:402 [ref. 28615], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194], Di Dario et al. 2013:264 [ref. 37503], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:85 [ref. 33341], Marceniuk et al. 2017:42 [ref. 35324] as cf. spilopterus, Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36407], Robins et al. 2018:422 [ref. 35886], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Ribeiro et al. 2019:8 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys spilopterus Günther 1862. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

stampflii, Hemirhombus Steindachner [F.] 1894:52, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Notes from the Leyden Museum v. 16 (nos 1-2, art. 1); ref. 4237] Grand Cape Mount, Liberia. Lectotype: RMNH 5344. Paralectotypes: ?NMW (1). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1963:48, Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [ref. 21734]. Misspelled stampfli by Pellegrin 1921:636 [ref. 30437], also erroneously in Hemiramphus. •Valid as Citharichthys stampflii (Steindachner 1894) -- (Desoutter 1986:428 [ref. 6212], Aldebert et al. 1990:1033 [ref. 19526], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:858 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Vreven 2007:590 [ref. 30080], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2998 [ref. 34618], Reiner 2019:293 [ref. 38139], Skelton 2019:228 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys stampflii (Steindachner 1894). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

stigmaeus, Citharichthys Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:411 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 296); ref. 18358] Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 31099. Misspelled stigmateus by Goode 1884:182 [ref. 18145]. •Valid as Citharichthys stigmaeus Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:284 [ref. 9277], Matarese et al. 1989:570 [ref. 26885], McAllister 1990:219 [ref. 14674], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1356 [ref. 22829], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:613 [ref. 24023], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:210 [ref. 24555], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:817 [ref. 25968], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Pietsch & Orr 2015:68 [ref. 34694], Kells et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys stigmaeus Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Northeastern Pacific: Alaska (U.S.A.) south to Baja California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

sumichrasti, Citharichthys Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:276 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Río Zanatenco, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: MCZ 25299. Paratypes: MCZ 94427 (1). •Synonym of Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889 -- (van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:486 [ref. 24550]). Current status: Synonym of Citharichthys gilberti Jenkins & Evermann 1889. Cyclopsettidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

surinamensis, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:156 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Suriname. Syntypes: ZMB 2366 (5). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:110 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Citharichthys surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Paepke 1999:110 [ref. 24282]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys surinamensis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Northern coast of South America. Habitat: marine.

uhleri, Citharichthys Jordan [D. S.] in Jordan & Goss 1889:275 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 14 (for 1886) (art. 2); ref. 2482] Haiti, West Indies. Holotype (unique): MCZ 11102. •Valid as Citharichthys uhleri Jordan 1889 -- (Gutherz 1967:35 [ref. 23862], Villa 1982:235 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:255 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:430 [ref. 24179], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:487 [ref. 24550], Munroe 2003:1917 [ref. 27118], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:1010 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys uhleri Jordan 1889. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: freshwater.

valdezi, Citharichthys Cervigón [F.] 1986:20, Figs. 10-11 [Los peces marinos de Venezuela No. 7; ref. 23221] Golfo de Venezuela, 18 miles west of Punta Espada do Falcón, Venezuela. Holotype: FCIR 750. Paratypes: CMUNEFM 286 (13), FCIR 751 (9). •Valid as Citharichthys valdezi Cervigón 1986 -- (Cervigón 1992:275 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1996:59 [ref. 24489], Aguilera 1998:53 [ref. 24221], Saavedra-Díaz et al. 2000:304 [ref. 24565]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys valdezi Cervigón 1986. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Western central Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

xanthostigma, Citharichthys Gilbert [C. H.] 1890:120 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 13 (no. 797); ref. 1623] Magdalena Bay, Baja California, Mexico, depth 47-74 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 44408. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1932.12.31.7-8 (2) [ex USNM], MCZ 27839 (1), CAS-SU 18 (5), USNM 46418 (now 6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:139 [ref. 12291]. Lectotype established by Jordan & Evermann 1898:2681 [ref. 2445]. •Valid as Citharichthys xanthostigma Gilbert 1890 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:285 [ref. 9277], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1992:101 [ref. 21805], Hensley in Fischer et al. 1995:1362 [ref. 22830], van der Heiden & Mussot-Perez 1995:444 [ref. 21611], De La Cruz Agüero et al. 1997:249 [ref. 24545], Evseenko 1998:58 [ref. 23643], Hoshino & Amaoka 1999:374 [ref. 24199], Allen & Groce 2001:137 [ref. 25751], Nelson et al. 2004:180 [ref. 27807], van der Heiden et al. 2009:814 [ref. 30608], Victor & Wellington 2013:27 [ref. 32520], Page et al. 2013:185 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:461 [ref. 34668] doubtful from Revillagigedo Archipelago (Mexico), Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:324 [ref. 35888], Burton & Lea 2019:95 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Citharichthys xanthostigma Gilbert 1890. Cyclopsettidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: central California (U.S.A.) south to Gulf of California and Revillagigedo Islands (Mexico). Habitat: marine.