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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Cynolebiinae: [ 210 ] records


accorsii, Austrolebias Nielsen [D. T. B.] & Pillet [D.] 2015:174, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 21 (no. 4); ref. 34011] Departamento de Santa Cruz de La Sierra, temporary pool, Río Grande basin (trib. to Río Mamore basin), 18°39'26.2"S, 62°58'0.2"W, Bolivia, altitude 366 meters. Holotype: ZUEC 10792. Paratypes: 10793 (19), •Valid as Austrolebias accorsii Nielsen & Pillet 2015 -- (Alonso et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34643], Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019:548 [ref. 36539]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias accorsii Nielsen & Pillet 2015. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Río Grande basin (Bolivia). Habitat: freshwater.

adloffi, Cynolebias Ahl [E.] 1922:224 [4], Figs. [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 33 (no. 14); ref. 15334] Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMB 20651. Paralectotypes: (4 missing) ZMB 20652 (2), 31426 [ex ZMB 20651] (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:156 [ref. 19981] including lectotype designation. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:94 [ref. 21847]. On p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Cynolebias adloffi Ahl 1922 -- (Malabarba 1989:158 [ref. 14217] as addloffi, Costa 1995:74 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Austrolebias adloffi (Ahl 1922) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:59 [ref. 25711], Costa & Cheffe 2001:190 [ref. 25851], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Lourerio et al. 2004:27 [ref. 27658], Costa 2006:126 [ref. 28708], Loureiro & García 2008:10 [ref. 30099], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Volcan et al. 2014:167 [ref. 33543], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Costa et al. 2017:142 [ref. 35626], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias adloffi (Ahl 1922). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

adornatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2000:9, Figs. 1-2 [Aquarium (Brasil) v. 3 (no. 25); ref. 25933] Temporary pool, near Sítio do Mato, rio São Francisco basin, Bahia State, Brazil, 13°00'46.1"S, 43°28'50.0"W, elevation 463 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 54563. Paratypes: MCP 22262 (20); MZUSP 54564 (10); UFRJ 4805-07 (18, 1, 8), 5188-89 (20, 10). •Valid as Simpsonichthys adornatus Costa 2000 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:540 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:85 [ref. 29445], Nielsen et al. 2010:57 [ref. 30828]). •Valid as Hypsolebias adornatus (Costa 2000) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Costa 2013;141 [ref. 33008], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias adornatus (Costa 2000). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Cynolebias Amato [L. H.] 1986:6, Pl. 3 (figs. 5-6) [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 11 (no. 162); ref. 9170] Floodlands of Tres Cruces Creek, route 5, kilometers 399.5, Tacuarembó, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM 2468. Paratypes: MHNM 2469-73 (1, 86, 212, 1, 2); MZUSP 36448-49 (1, 1). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias affinis Amato 1986 -- (Costa 1995:65 [ref. 22097], Murphy & Collier 1997:797 [ref. 25585], Costa 1999:301 [ref. 24229], Costa 1999:93 [ref. 24131]). •Valid as Austrolebias affinis (Amato 1986) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:59 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Perujo et al. 2005:3 [ref. 28452], Costa 2006:71 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:7 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Koerber et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37480]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias affinis (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Negro River basin (Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

akroa, Cynolebias Nielsen [D. T. B.], Martins [M.], Araujo [L. M. de], Lira [F. O. de] & Faour [A.] 2018:114, Figs. [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 23 (no. 4) [for 15 Mar. 2018]; ref. 35996] Temporary pools from the Rio Preto drainage, São Francisco basin, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype. Paratypes: •Valid as Cynolebias akroa Nielsen, Martins, Araujo, Lira & Faour 2018. Current status: Valid as Cynolebias akroa Nielsen, Martins, Araujo, Lira & Faour 2018. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Rio Preto drainage, São Francisco basin, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

alba, Cynolebias luteoflammulatus var. Reichert [J. J.], García [G.], Wlasiuk [G.] & Prieto [F.] 1998:97, figs. 2-4 + 1 unnumbered fig. [DKG-Journal v. 30 (no. 5); ref. 31462] Ruta 14, Paso del Gringo, Rocha, Uruguay. Syntypes: (2) DZVU 556-7 (1, 1). Described as a variety after 1960; therefore considered as an infrasubspecific name and not available (ICZN Art. 10.2). •In genus Austrolebias. Infrasubspecific. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

albipunctatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1991:58, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16651] Temporary pool, 70 kilometers nw from the City of Uauá, County of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41378. Paratypes: MZUSP 41379 (9). •Valid as Cynolebias albipunctatus Costa & Brasil 1991 -- (Costa 1995:82 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:238 [ref. 23578], Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:77 [ref. 25711], Costa 2001:355 [ref. 25719], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:146 [ref. 30511]). •Synonym of Cynolebias porosus Steindachner 1876 -- (Costa 2014:69, 71 [ref. 33510]). Current status: Synonym of Cynolebias porosus Steindachner 1876. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River basin, Brazil (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

alexandri, Cynolebias Castello [H. P.] & López [R. B.] 1974:35, Fig. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 23 (no. 1); ref. 17] Parque Unzue, Gualeguaycú, Province de Entre Ríos, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 6438. Paratypes: MACN 2738 (7 or 9), 6425 (7), 6437 (4), 6439 (1). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:98 [ref. 23697] as alexandrii. •Valid as Cynolebias alexandri Castello & López 1974 -- (Costa 1995:64 [ref. 22097], Costa 1999:301 [ref. 24229], Costa 1999:93 [ref. 24131]). •Valid as Austrolebias alexandri (Castello & López 1974) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:59 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Calviño 2005:15 [ref. 28325], Perujo et al. 2005:2 [ref. 28452], Calviño 2006:183 [ref. 28679], Costa 2006:60 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:50 [ref. 35117], Calviño et al. 2016:8 [ref. 34699], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Volcan et al. 2017:150 [ref. 35644], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias alexandri (Castello & López 1974). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

alternatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1994:7, Fig. 4 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 21 (no. 1/2); ref. 21598] João Pinheiro, near Rio Paracatú, near city of Brasilândia, Rio São Francisco basin, about 17°02'52.0"S, 46°01'34.0"W, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, elevation 560 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 12523. Paratypes: MNRJ 12524 (2); MZUSP 46082 (3); UFRJ 2129-30 (1, 11), 2131 (4, c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys alternatus (Costa & Brasil 1994) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Costa & Nielsen 2000:7 [ref. 24442], Lazara 2001:295 [ref. 25711], Costa 2003:51 [ref. 26768], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:540 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:122 [ref. 29445], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29874]). •Valid as Hypsolebias alternatus (Costa & Brasil 1994) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias alternatus (Costa & Brasil 1994). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Paracatu River floodplains, São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

altus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2001:370 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25719] 25 kilometers south of Ibotirama, rio São Francisco floodplains, about 12°30'S, 43°10'W, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62564. Paratypes: MZUSP 62565 (5); UFRJ 4785 (3), 4794 (1), 4798-99 (7, 8), 5131 (3, c&s), 5132 (3, c&s), UFRJ uncat. (8). Plus additonal material. •Valid as Cynolebias altus Costa 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:146 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Silva et al. 2020:13 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias altus Costa 2001. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: middle São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

antenori, Cynolebias Tulipano [J.] 1973:23 [Killie Notes, American Killifish Association v. 6 (no. 11); ref. 20289] Temporary pool, 2.5 kilometers north of Limoeiro do Norte, rio Jaguaribe floodplains, about 5°10'S, 38°05'W, Ceará, northeastern Brazil. Neotype: MZUSP 56256. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Myers 1952:139 [ref. 3125] as a nomen nudum. Neotype designated by Costa 2003:38 [ref. 26758]. See Huber 2006:22 [ref. 28935] for a different point of view. •Valid as Cynolebias antenori Tulipano 1973 -- (Costa 1995:57 [ref. 22097], Murphy & Collier 1997:797 [ref. 25585]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys antenori (Tulipano 1973) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:295 [ref. 25711], Costa 2003:38 [ref. 26758], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:540 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:26 [ref. 28771], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:96 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias antenori (Tulipano 1973) -- (Costa 2011:222 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2012:73 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Abrantes et al. 2020:306 [ref. 37698]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias antenori (Tulipano 1973). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Jaguaribe and floodplains of adjacent river basins, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

apaii, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Laurino [P.], Recuero [R.] & Salvia [H.] in Costa 2006:108, Fig. 42 [Zootaxa No. 1213; ref. 28708] Carmelo, 34°00.31'S, 58°17.00'W, Colonia, Uruguay. Holotype: MUNH [MUNHINA] 3216. Paratypes: UFRJ 6226 (14), 6227 (6, c&s); MUNH 3217 (59); ZSM 33650 (102). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Neumann 2011:276 [ref. 31652]. •Valid as Austrolebias apaii Costa, Laurino, Recuero & Salvia 2006 -- (Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Koerber 2011:7 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Austrolebias bellottii (Steindachner 1881) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35083], Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019:542 [ref. 36539], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias bellottii (Steindachner 1881). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

arachan, Austrolebias Loureiro [M.], Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] & García [G.] 2004:23, Figs. 1-2 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 111 (no. 1); ref. 27658] Pond close to Route 7 and Arroyo Chuy, Laguna Merín basin, Depart. Cerro Largo, Uruguay, about 32°15'S, 54°00'W. Holotype: ZVC-P 4336. Paratypes: MHNG 2641.88 (6); ZVC-P 4314 (3), 4317 (8, 4 c&s), 4329 (4, c&s), 4331 (21, 3 c&s), 4332 (15), 4333 (19, 8 c&s), 4335 (6), 4528 (6, 2 c&s), 4574 (14, 2 c&s). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:414 [ref. 35150]. Previously known to aquarists as Austrolebias uruguayensis, a nomen nudum. •Valid as Austrolebias arachan Loureiro, Azpelicueta & García 2004 -- (Costa 2006:113 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Loureiro et al. 2011:340 [ref. 31392], Lanés et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33234], Volcan et al. 2014:171 [ref. 33543], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Lanés et al. 2021:514 [ref. 38189], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias arachan Loureiro, Azpelicueta & García 2004. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: along the border of Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

araucarianus, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2014:98, Figs 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 2); ref. 33514] Temporary swamp near road BR-476, Claro river floodplains, Iguaçu river drainage, Paraná river basin, 26°01'12"S, 50°39'08"E, southern Brazil, elevation 785 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 9797. Paratypes UFRJ 9798 (16), 9799 (6). •Valid as Austrolebias araucarianus Costa 2014 -- (Alonso et al. 2018:10 [ref. 35938], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Reis et al. 2020:473 [ref. 38364], Lanés et al. 2021:513 [ref. 38189]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias araucarianus Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Claro Rive floodplains, upper Iguaçu River basin (southern Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

attenuatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2001:375, Figs. 28-29 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25719] Temporary pool, 12 kilometers west of Bom Jesus da Lapa, about 13°15'S, 43°40'W, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62566. Paratypes: MZUSP 62567 (1); UFRJ 4778 (6), 4779 (2 c&s), 5143 (8, c&s). Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Cynolebias attenuatus Costa 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:146 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Silva et al. 2020:13 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias attenuatus Costa 2001. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: middle São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

auratus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Nielsen [D. T. B.] 2000:8, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 24442] Temporary pool close to rio Taboca, a tributary of rio Paracatú, rio São Francisco basin, Lagoa Grande, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 52912. Paratypes: MZUSP 52913 (3); UFRJ 4666 (3), 4667 (10, c&s), 4668 (10); UMMZ 234240 (2); plus non-type material. •Valid as Simpsonichthys auratus Costa & Nielsen 2000 -- (Lazara 2001:295 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:540 [ref. 27061], Costa 2005:63 [ref. 28575], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:79 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias auratus (Costa & Nielsen 2000) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias auratus (Costa & Nielsen 2000). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Taboca River floodplains, Paracatu River drainage, middle São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aureoguttatus, Cynolebias Da Cruz [C. A. G.] 1974:20, Fig. 1 [Arquivos da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 22101] Ditch parallel to road between Paranaguá and Matinhos, near kilometer 11, Paraná, Brazil, ca. 25°30'S, 48°25'W, elevation 5 meters. Lectotype: MNRJ 28924. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 19495 (2). Lectotype selected by Costa 2008:149 [ref. 29596]. •Valid as Leptolebias aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974) -- (Costa 1995:94 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:193 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:383 [ref. 26544], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:149 [ref. 29596], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589]). •Valid as Leptopanchax aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974) -- (Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Costa 2019:82 [ref. 36869], Reis et al. 2020:473 [ref. 38364]). Current status: Valid as Leptopanchax aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Atlantic coastal plain basins, southeastern Mata Atlantica (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

aureoguttatus, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1952:131, unnum. fig. on p. 134 [Aquarium Journal v. 23 (no. 7); ref. 3125] The name Cynolebias paranaguensis, mentioned in the same paragraph, is an obvious mistake for C. aureoguttatus; it has never been made available. The name aureoguttatus appears in the caption to the specimens figured on p. 134 but it is not available because no distinguishing features are presented (names published after 1930, Art. 13). Validly published by Da Cruz 1974 (see Costa 1995:94 [ref. 22097]). •In the synonymy of Leptolebias aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974) -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:149 [ref. 29596]). •In the synonymy of Leptopanchax aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Leptopanchax aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

bagual, Austrolebias Volcan [M. V.], Lanés [L. E. K.] & Gonçalves [Â. C.] 2014:163, Figs. 1-3 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 20 (no. 4); ref. 33543] Rio Grande do Sul State, Laguna dos Patos system, Rio Camaquã basin, temporary pond in the floodplains of Arroio Abranjo, close to BR-471 highway (30°51’12"S, 52°34’16"W), southern Brazil. Holotype: MCP 48240. Paratypes: MCP 48241 (10). •Valid as Austrolebias bagual Volcan, Lanés & Gonçalves 2014 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:423 [ref. 34561], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias bagual Volcan, Lanés & Gonçalves 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: temporary pools in the floodplains of Arroio Abranjo, Rio Camaquã basin, Laguna dos Patos system, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bellidoi, Spectrolebias Nielsen [D. T. B.] & Pillet [D.] 2015:181, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 21 (no. 4); ref. 34009] Departamento de Santa Cruz de La Sierra, temporary pool at Río Grande basin (trib. Río Mamoré basin), Bolivia, 18°39'26.2"S, 62°58'0.2"W, altitude 366 meters. Holotype: ZUEC 10794. Paratypes: ZUEC. •Valid as Spectrolebias bellidoi Nielsen & Pillet 2015. Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias bellidoi Nielsen & Pillet 2015. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper Río Grande, Río Mamoré basin, Amazon basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

bellottii, Cynolebias Steindachner [F.] 1881:98 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 11) (for 5 May 1881); ref. 20484] La Plata, Argentina. Holotype (unique): NMW 75105. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:9, Pl. 5 (figs. 2-2a) [ref. 14299]. Spelled belotti by Ahl 1924 [ref. 15434]. •Valid as Cynolebias bellottii Steindachner 1881 -- (Costa 1995:71 [ref. 22097], Fuller et al. 1999:291 [ref. 25838]). •Valid as Austrolebias bellottii (Steindachner 1881) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:59 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:10 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27366], Loureiro et al. 2004:27 [ref. 27658], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131] as bellotti, Calviño 2005:15 [ref. 28325], Calviño 2006:183 [ref. 28679], Costa 2006:104 [ref. 28708], Nielsen & Pillet 2015:172 [ref. 34011], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Alonso et al. 2016:5 [ref. 34643], Calviño et al. 2016:8 [ref. 34699], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Serra & Loureiro 2018:553 [ref. 36329], Koerber et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36736], Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019:550 [ref. 36539], Koerber et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37480]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias bellottii (Steindachner 1881). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: lower de La Plata River basin and adjacent coastal plains to south (Uruguay and Argentina). Habitat: freshwater.

boitonei, Simpsonichthys Carvalho [A. L. de] 1959:5, Figs. [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 201; ref. 736] Temporary pool, central high flat land of Goiás State [now Distrito Federal], about 15°45'S, 48°00'W, Brazil, elevation 1100 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 9012. Paratypes: MNRJ 9013 (1), 9014-17 (4), 9018 (1, cleared & dissected). •Valid as Cynolebias boitonei (Carvalho 1959) -- (Shibatta & Garavello 1992:182 [ref. 21420], Costa 1995:60 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys boitonei Carvalho 1959 -- (Costa et al. 1996:17 [ref. 22219], Costa & Brasil 1996:95 [ref. 22917], Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:295 [ref. 25711], Costa et al. 2003:140 [ref. 26946], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:540 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa & Brasil 2006:223 [ref. 28843], Costa & Brasil 2007:60 [ref. 29215], Costa 2007:200 [ref. 29338], Costa 2007:36 [ref. 29445], Costa 2012:314 [ref. 31750], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304]). Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys boitonei Carvalho 1959. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper São Bartolomeu River drainage, upper Paraná River, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bokermanni, Cynolebias Carvalho [A. L. de] & Da Cruz [C. A. G.] 1987:12, Figs. 1-3 [Arquivos da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro v. 8 (no. 1-2) [1985]; ref. 9127] Swamp near Ilhéus, Estado da Bahia, Brazil [about 14°50'S, 39°15W, elev about 40 m]. Holotype: MNRJ 11.167. Paratypes: CAGC 119.1 (1), MNRJ 11.168 (2). •Valid as Cynolebias bokermanni Carvalho & Da Cruz 1987 -- (Costa 1995:46 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys bokermanni (Carvalho & Da Cruz 1987) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:296 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:540 [ref. 27061], Costa 2004:6 [ref. 27569], Costa 2007:18 [ref. 29445] with author as Cruz, Costa & Lima 2010:205 [ref. 31041] in subgenus Ophthalmolebias). •Valid as Ophthalmolebias bokermanni (Carvalho & Da Cruz 1987) -- (Silva et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Ophthalmolebias bokermanni (Carvalho & Da Cruz 1987). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: floodplains of Cachoeira River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

botocudo, Austrolebias Lanés [L. E. K.], Volcan [M. V.] & Maltchik [L.] 2021:501, Figs. 1-2, 9A-B [Zootaxa 4949 (no. 3); ref. 38189] Temporary pool near rio Socorro, rio Apuaê-Inhandava drainage, upper rio Uruguay basin, Vacaria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 28°22'43.6"S, 50°52'21.8"W, elevation 934 meters. Holotype: MCP 54450. Paratypes: MCP. •Valid as Austrolebias botocudo Lanés, Volcan & Maltchik 2021. Current status: Valid as Austrolebias botocudo Lanés, Volcan & Maltchik 2021. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: grassland pools of upper Uruguay River basin, Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brousseaui, Spectrolebias Nielsen [D. T. B.] 2013:82, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 32696] 47.5 km north of San José dos Chiqiutos, pool near of rio San Pablo, tributary of rio Mamoré, 17°25'31"S, 60°40'44"W. Dept. Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Holotype: MNKP 10162. Paratypes: MZUSP 109219 (3). •Valid as Spectrolebias brousseaui Nielsen 2013 -- (Nielsen & Brousseau 2013:121 [ref. 32794], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Nielsen & Pillet 2015:186 [ref. 34009], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240] as Spetrolebias). Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias brousseaui Nielsen 2013. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Tributary of rio Mamoré, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

brucei, Campellolebias Vaz-Ferreira [R.] & Sierra de Soriano [B.] 1974:1, Pls. 1-2 [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 10 (no. 138); ref. 4517] Temporary pool between Criciuma and Tubarão, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: ZVC-P 2116. Paratypes: ZVC-P 2121 (1), P 2127 (1); MHNM. Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412, 414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Campellolebias brucei Vaz-Ferreira & Sierra de Soriano 1974 -- (Costa et al. 1989:70 [ref. 9292], Costa 1995:100 [ref. 22097], Costa 1995:357 [ref. 22103], Costa 1998:74 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:69 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:47 [ref. 28724], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34354], Costa 2016:129 [ref. 34776], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Campellolebias brucei Vaz-Ferreira & Sierra de Soriano 1974. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Coastal plains of southern Santa Catarina, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brunoi, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2003:55, Fig. 13 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 26758] Temporary pool near the city of Vila Boa, ribeirão Canabrava floodplains, upper rio Urucuia drainage [actual is rio Paraná drainage], rio São Francisco basin, 15°03'0.4"S, 47°04'3.3"W, Goiás State, Brazil, elevation 449 meters. Holotype: MCP 28576. Paratypes: MCP 28577 (7); UFRJ 5412-14 (8, 15, 17). •Valid as Simpsonichthys brunoi Costa 2003 -- (Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:100 [ref. 29445], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29874]). •Valid as Hypsolebias brunoi (Costa 2003) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Nielsen et al. 2012:70 [ref. 32283], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias brunoi (Costa 2003). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Cababrava River floodplains, Paraná River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Goiás, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

caeruleus, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2013:142, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 2); ref. 33008] Estado da Bahia, Município de Itaguacu de Bahia, seasonal pool in the floodplains of the lower Verde River, a right tributary of the middle São Francisco River, about 30 km N of the town of Itaguacu, 10°43'20"S, 42°20'30"W, Brazil, elevation 414 meters. Holotype: UFRI 6864. Paratypes: UFRJ 6855 (3), 6854 (3), 6827 (2). •Valid as Hypsolebias caeruleus Costa 2013 -- (Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias caeruleus Costa 2013. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Verde (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

camaquensis, Austrolebias Volcan [M. V.], Gonçalves [Â. C.] & Lanés [L. E. K.] 2017:142, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa 4338 (no. 1); ref. 35644] Temporary pool in the floodplains of Arroio Santo Antônio (tributary of Rio Camaquã), close to BR-471 highway, Canguçu municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 30°58'25"S, 52°39'47"W. Holotype: MCP 50817. Paratypes: MCP. •Valid as Austrolebias camaquensis Volcan, Gonçalves & Lanés 2017. Current status: Valid as Austrolebias camaquensis Volcan, Gonçalves & Lanés 2017. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: floodplain of the middle Rio Camaquã basin, Rio Grande do Sul, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

carlettoi, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Nielsen [D. T. B.] 2004:126, Figs. 1-3 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 8 (no. 3); ref. 27825] Temporary pool near Guanambi, off the road to Malhada, 14°13.989'S, 42°57.667'W, Bahia State, Brazil, elevation about 500 meters. Holotype: MCP 34089. Paratypes: UFRJ 5945 (2, 1 c&s), 5946 (1). •Valid as Hypsolebias carlettoi (Costa & Nielsen 2004) -- (Costa 2010:1999 [ref. 30858], but misspelled carletoi). •Valid as Simpsonichthys carlettoi Costa & Nielsen 2004 -- (Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:89 [ref. 29445], Costa 2010:77 [ref. 30777]). •Valid as Hypsolebias carlettoi (Costa & Nielsen 2004) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451], Costa et al. 2018:499 [ref. 36319], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias carlettoi (Costa & Nielsen 2004). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio das Rãs drainage, São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

carvalhoi, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1947:19 [Aquarium Journal v. 18 (no. 7); ref. 12307] Rio Iguassú [Iguaçú], near Porto Uniao [União], Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 41178 (1 of 7). Paratypes: CAS 41178 (6 of 7). Lectotype as MNRJ 5759 designation by Costa 1998:308 is invalid since the holotype is available. See Huber 2006:22 [ref. 28935]. •Valid as Cynolebias carvalhoi Myers 1947 -- (Costa 1995:62 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:308 [ref. 23665]). •Valid as Austrolebias carvalhoi (Myers 1947) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:60 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Costa et al. 2004:13 [ref. 27657], Costa 2006:90 [ref. 28708], Costa 2011:98 [ref. 31504], Costa 2014:97 [ref. 33514], Alonso et al. 2018:10 [ref. 35938], Reis et al. 2020:473 [ref. 38364], Lanés et al. 2021:513 [ref. 38189]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias carvalhoi (Myers 1947). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: upper Iguaçú River basin (southern Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

catimbau, Nematolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Amorim [P. F.] & Aranha [G. N.] 2014:230, Figs. 3-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 3); ref. 33239] Estado do Rio de Janeiro: Município de Saquarema: temporary pool in Catimbau river floodplain, about 1.5 km south of Road RJ-106, Saquarema lagoon, system, 22°51'53"S, 42°33'15 W, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 8888. Paratypes: BMNH 2013.6.23.13-14 (2), UFMK and UFRJ. •Valid as Nematolebias catimbau Costa, Amorim & Aranha 2014. Current status: Valid as Nematolebias catimbau Costa, Amorim & Aranha 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Catimbau River drainage, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chacoensis, Cynolebias Amato [L. H.] 1986:10, Pl. 5 (fig. 8), Pl. 6 (fig. 9) [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 11 (no. 162); ref. 9170] Charca Topógrafo Acevedo, Nueva Asunción, Paraguay [ca. 21°00'S, 60°00'W]. Holotype: MHNM 2577. Paratypes: MHNM 2611-13 (1, 1, 3). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias chacoensis Amato 1986 -- (Costa 1995:55 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Cynolebias ("Simpsonichthys") chacoensis Amato 1986 -- (Huber 1995:11 [ref. 22880]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys chacoensis (Amato 1986) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:296 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:540 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:48 [ref. 29445], Costa & Brasil 2008:245 [ref. 29968]). •Valid as Spectrolebias chacoensis (Amato 1986) -- (Nielsen 2013:81 [ref. 32696], Nielsen & Brousseau 2013:116 [ref. 32794], Nielsen & Pillet 2015:186 [ref. 34009], Koerber et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35267], Costa & Amorim 2018:366 [ref. 36019]). Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias chacoensis (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Paraguay and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

charrua, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Cheffe [M. M.] 2001:182, Figs. 2-3 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 25851] Temporary pool close to arroio Chuí, road to Barra do Chuí, rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 60070. Paratypes: MCP 28027 (16); MUCP 2542 (16); MZUSP 60071 (5); UFRJ 4950 (47), 4990 (69), 5006 (10), 5009 (42), 5024 (4), 5061 (7, 4 c&s). •Valid as Austrolebias charrua Costa & Cheffe 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Loureiro et al. 2004:27 [ref. 27658], Costa 2006:120 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Volcan et al. 2014:169 [ref. 33543], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Costa et al. 2017:142 [ref. 35626], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Fernandes et al. 2020:[3] 3 [ref. 38700], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias charrua Costa & Cheffe 2001. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: coastal floodplains of southeastern Brazil and eastern Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

cheffei, Austrolebias Volcan [M. V.], Barbosa [C.], Robe [L. J.] & Lanés [L. E. K.] 2021:90, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4965 (no. 1); ref. 38292] Temporary pool in the floodplain of Rio Camaquã, Cristal municipality, Laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 31°01'48"S, 52°00'32"W. Holotype: MCP 54437. Paratypes: MCP 54438 (13). •Valid as Austrolebias cheffei Volcan, Barbosa, Robe & Lanés 2021. Current status: Valid as Austrolebias cheffei Volcan, Barbosa, Robe & Lanés 2021. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: temporary pools in the floodplain of the Rio Camaquã, Laguna dos Patos system, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cheradophilus, Cynolebias Vaz-Ferreira [R.], Sierra de Soriano [B.] & Scaglia de Paulete [S.] 1965:14, Pls. 3-4 [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 8 (no. 102) (for 25 June 1964); ref. 9087] Pool near Arroyo Valizas, 34°26'S, 53°46'W, Dept. of Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC P.522. Paratypes: ZVC P.523 (1). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias cheradophilus Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965 -- (Costa 1995:75 [ref. 22097], Berkenkamp et al. 1997:32 [ref. 23147]). •Valid as Megalebias cheradophilus (Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965) -- (Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:203 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Austrolebias cheradophilus (Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965) -- (Costa 2006:44 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Loureiro et al. 2011:341 [ref. 31392], Lanés et al. 2014:117 [ref. 33234], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565] dated 1964, Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias cheradophilus (Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal river basins, Laguna dos Patos system, southeastern Uruguay and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cholopteryx, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.], Moreira [C. R.] & Lima [F. C. T.] 2003:140, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 4); ref. 26946] Rio Araguaia basin, on road MT 100, 31 kilometers south of Alto Araguaia, 17°33'38.5"S, 53°18'33.1"W, Ribeirão do Sapo, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 78061. Paratypes: MZUSP 73323 (41), 73338 (16, 6 c&s); UFRJ 5428 (29). Name to be treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Simpsonichthys cholopteryx Costa, Moreira & Lima 2003 -- (Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa & Brasil 2006:221 [ref. 28843], Costa 2007:200 [ref. 29338], Costa 2007:26 [ref. 29445], Costa 2012:314 [ref. 31750], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304]). Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys cholopteryx Costa, Moreira & Lima 2003. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper Araguaia River basin, Mato Grosso, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysolineatus, Campellolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Lacerda [M. T. C.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1989:69, Figs. 5-8 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 3) [for 1988]; ref. 9292] Pool at forest edge, 26°25'S, 48°38'W, Araquari, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 38817. Paratypes: MNRJ 11494 (2); MZUSP 38344 (11), 38818-19 (2, 1); ZVC P uncat. (2). •Valid as Campellolebias chrysolineatus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1989 -- (Costa 1995:99 [ref. 22097], Costa 1995:360 [ref. 22103], Costa 1998:74 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:69 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:44 [ref. 28724], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa 2016:129 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Valid as Campellolebias chrysolineatus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1989. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Coastal plains of northern Estado de Santa Catrina, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cinereus, Cynolebias Amato [L. H.] 1986:9, Pl. 6 (fig. 10) [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 11 (no. 162); ref. 9170] Floodlands on route 21, 2 kilometers northwest of Viboras Creek, Colonia, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM 2542. Paratypes: MHNM 2385 (2), 2533-35 (1, 1, 2), 2614 (1), 2615 (1), 2626 (15); ZVC-P 797 (49). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412, 414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias cinereus Amato 1986 -- (Costa 1995:70 [ref. 22097], Berkenkamp et al. 1997:32 [ref. 23147]). •Valid as Austrolebias cinereus (Amato 1986) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:61 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:11 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Costa et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27657], Costa 2006:31 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Costa 2011:100 [ref. 31504], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], García et al. 2019:[12] [ref. 36487], Koerber et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37480]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias cinereus (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: lower Paraná and Uruguay River basin and Laguna dos Patos system (Uruguay and Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

citrinipinnis, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Lacerda [M. T. C.] & Tanizaki [K.] 1988:22, Fig. 1 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 9094] Pool in Município de Maricá, 22°S, 43°W, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37199. Paratypes: MNRJ 11310 (3); MZUSP 37197 (3), 37198 (6). •Synonym of Leptolebias opalescens (Myers 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:195 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Leptolebias fluminensis (Faria & Muller 1937) -- (Costa 1995:91 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Leptolebias citrinipinnis (Costa, Lacerda & Tanizaki 1988) -- (Murphy & Collier 1997:797 [ref. 25585], Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:155 [ref. 29596], Costa 2013:357 [ref. 32567], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589]). •Valid as Leptopanchax citrinipinnis (Da Cruz 1974) -- (Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Costa 2019:82 [ref. 36869]). Current status: Valid as Leptopanchax citrinipinnis (Costa, Lacerda & Tanizaki 1988). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal river basins, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

coamazonicus, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Amorim [P. F.] & Bragança [P. H. N.] 2014:4, Figs. 2a, 4 [Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research = Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung v. 52 (no. 1); ref. 32952] Estado do Maranáo, Município de Araioses, seasonal pool close to the road between Pirangi and Araioses, Parnaíba River floodplains, 3°05'02"S, 41°53'56"W, Brazil, altitude about 20 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8812. Paratypes: UFRJ 8760 (4), 8811 (3). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Hypsolebias coamazonicus Costa, Amorim & Bragança 2014 -- (Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias coamazonicus Costa, Amorim & Bragança 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Parnaíba River floodplains, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

constanciae, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1942:105 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Cattle water hole, 10 miles north of Cabo Frio, [ca. 22°45'S, 42°00'W, elevation about 4 m], Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 36514. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36515 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:52 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Cynolebias constanciae Myers 1942 -- (Costa 1995:48 [ref. 22097], Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys constanciae (Myers 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:296 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2004:6 [ref. 27569], Costa 2007:14 [ref. 29445], Costa & Lima 2010:205 [ref. 31041], in subgenus Ophthalmolebias). •Valid as Ophthalmolebias constanciae (Myers 1942) -- (Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Ophthalmolebias constanciae (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Coastal plains adjacent to lower rio São João, Atlantic coastal drainage, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

costai, Cynolebias Lazara [K. J.] 1991:144, Figs. 3, 5 [Journal of the American Killifish Association v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 20508] Temporary pool, Aruanã, Goiás State, Brazil [14°57'05"S, 51°01'23.7"W, elevation 243 meters]. Holotype: MZUSP 38790. Paratypes: AMNH 59190 (4), 59198 (2, c&s); MZUSP 38791 (1), 38792-93 (2). Mentioned earlier by Baker 1990:10 [ref. 36052] as Cynolebias costae, but without differential diagnosis (ICZN Art. 13.1.1), so the name is unavailable from that publication. •Valid as Cynolebias costai Lazara 1991 -- (Costa 1995:61 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys costai (Lazara 1991) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Lazara 2001:296 [ref. 25711], Costa et al. 2003:144 [ref. 26946], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa and Nielsen 2003:122 [ref. 27246], Costa 2007:46 [ref. 29445], Costa & Brasil 2008:245 [ref. 29968]). •Valid of Spectrolebias costai (Lozara 1991) -- (Nielsen 2013:81 [ref. 32696], Nielsen & Brousseau 2013:116 [ref. 32794], Costa & Amorim 2018:365 [ref. 36019] as costae, Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias costai (Lazara 1991). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Araguaia and Tocantins River basins, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cricarensis, Xenurolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] in Costa & Amorim 2014:361, Figs. 6-7, 9 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 12 (issue 3); ref. 33343] Temporary swamp about 1 km NW of the town of Conceição da Barra, São Mateus River basin, Conceição da Barra municipality, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, 18°34'01"S, 39°44'36"W. Holotype: UFRJ 9729. Paratypes: UFRJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Xenurolebias cricarensis Costa 2014. Current status: Valid as Xenurolebias cricarensis Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: São Mateus River basin, northern Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cruzi, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1988:563, Figs. 3, 4g-4i [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 14540] Marsh near Barra de São João, Casimiro de Abreu, RJ, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 36297. Paratypes: MNRJ 11289-91 (3, 6, 2); MZUSP 36298-99 (8, 8); personal coll. of Prof. Carlos A. G. Cruz CAGC124 (14). •Valid as Leptolebias cruzi (Costa 1988) -- (Costa 1995:90 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792], Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Lazara 2001:193 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Notholebias cruzi (Costa 1988) -- (Costa 2008:157 [ref. 29596], Costa & Amorim 2013:67 [ref. 32799], Ferrer et al.2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Valid as Notholebias cruzi (Costa 1988). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal river basins, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cyaneus, Cynolebias Amato [L. H.] 1987:2, Pls. 1-2 [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 11 (no. 163); ref. 16152] Floodlands of Dom Marcos Creek, Municipio de Río Pardo, Río Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 10441. Paratypes: MCP 10442-44 (1, 16, 20); MHNM 2468 (1), 2508-10 (4, 4, 1), 2593 (1), uncat. (1); MZUSP 36446-47 (1, 1). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias cyaneus Amato 1987 -- (Malabarba 1989:158 [ref. 14217], Costa 1999:301 [ref. 24229]). •Valid as Austrolebias cyaneus (Amato 1987) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:61 [ref. 25711], Costa & Cheffe 2001:180 [ref. 25851], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:78 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Volcan et al. 2017:150 [ref. 35644], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias cyaneus (Amato 1987). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Jacuí River basin, Laguna dos Patos system, Río Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

delucai, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2003:49, Fig. 9 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 26758] Temporary pool near the city of Urucuia, rio Urucuia floodplains, rio São Francisco basin, about 16°08'S, 45°45'W, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, elevation 498 meters. Holotype: MCP 28572. Paratypes: MCP 28573 (1); UFRJ 5426-27 (17, 4). •Valid as Simpsonichthys delucai Costa 2003 -- (Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:120 [ref. 29445], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29874]). •Valid as Hypsolebias delucai (Costa 2003) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias delucai (Costa 2003). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Urucuia River floodplains, São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsimaculatus, Campellolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Lacerda [M. T. C.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1989:66, Figs. 2-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 3) [for 1988]; ref. 9292] Pool at forest edge, 24°37'S, 47°30'W [corrected to 24°40'0.4"S, 47°26'4.4"W, alt. 10 m], Iguapé, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 38813. Paratypes: MNJR 11493 (2); MZUSP 38814-16 (1, 12, 9); ZVC P uncat. (2). •Valid as Campellolebias dorsimaculatus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1989 -- (Costa 1995:97 [ref. 22097], Costa 1995:363 [ref. 22103], Costa 1998:74 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:69 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:36 [ref. 28724], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa 2016:129 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Valid as Campellolebias dorsimaculatus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1989. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

duraznensis, Cynolebias Reichert [J. J.] 1992:58 [Deutsche Killifisch Gemeinschaft Journal v. 24 (no. 4); ref. 22100] Not available, no diagnostic features presented (names published after 1930, Art. 13.1.1 of the Code) for a species from Uruguay (see Costa 1995:125 [ref. 22097]). Also appeared in other papers and abstracts but without sufficient distinguishing features. See also Huber 2006:23 [ref. 28935]. •Validly published as Cynolebias duraznensis García, Scvortzoff & Hernández 1995. Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias affinis (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

duraznensis, Cynolebias García [G.], Scvortzoff [E.] & Hernández [A.] 1995:103 et seq. [Cytologia v. 60 (no. 2); ref. 25790] Durazno, Uruguay. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. See discussion in Lazara 2001:61 [ref. 25711]. •Valid as Austrolebias duraznensis (García, Scvortzoff & Hernández 1995) -- (Lazara 2001:61 [ref. 25711], Costa 2006:74 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). •Synonym of Austrolebias affinis (Amato 1986) -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Litz 2014:5 [ref. 34967], Koerber & Litz 2016:7 [ref. 35098]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias affinis (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Lower Negro River basin, Uruguay [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2017:334, Figs. 1-2 [Zoosystematics and Evolution v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 35623] Temporary pool close to road BR-122, about 8 km S of the village of Pindaí, Mata Veado Creek floodplains, Verde Grande River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Pindaí municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, 14°33'39"S, 42°42'10"W, elevation about 630 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 9431. Paratypes: UFRJ. •Valid as Cynolebias elegans Costa 2017 -- (Silva et al. 2020:13 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias elegans Costa 2017. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Verde Grande drainage, São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

elegans, Pterolebias Ladiges [W.] 1958:76, Fig. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 12082] Cabo Frio near Rio de Janeiro, about 22°50'S, 42°05'W, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMH H324. Type catalog: Wilkens 1977:159 [ref. 22013]. •Synonym of Cynolebias whitei Myers 1942 -- (Costa 1995:43 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Simpsonichthys whitei (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271]). •Synonym of Nematolebias whitei (Myers 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:213 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:45 [ref. 26064], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:532 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Nematolebias whitei (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Cynolebias Steindachner [F.] 1881:98 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 11) (for 5 May 1881); ref. 20484] La Plata, Argentina. Holotype (unique): NMW 76518. Species described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:11 [ref. 14299]. •Valid as Cynolebias elongatus Steindachner 1881 -- (Costa 1995:78 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Megalebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:203 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], López et al. 2002:61 [ref. 26808], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Austrolebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Costa 2006:57 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Koerber 2011:7 [ref. 31122], Lanés et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33234], Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33621], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Alonso et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34643], Calviño et al. 2016:9 [ref. 34699], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ephemerus, Austrolebias Volcan [M. V.] & Severo-Neto [F.] 2019:543, Figs. 1-4, 9 [Zootaxa 4560 (no. 3); ref. 36539] Temporary pool near "do Bala" Road, Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, 21°41'34"S, 57°42'57"W. Holotype: ZUFMS 5465. Paratypes: MCP, ZUFMS. •Valid as Austrolebias ephemerus Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019. Current status: Valid as Austrolebias ephemerus Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

espinhacensis, Simpsonichthys Nielsen [D. T. B.], Pessali [T. C.] & Dutra [G. M.] 2017:166, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4263 (no. 1); ref. 35304] Vereda Volta da Capoeira, tributary of Ribeirão da Areia, Rio Jequitinhonha basin, Olhos D ́água, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 17°15'29.54"S, 43°43'10.10"W, elevation 775-800 meters. Holotype: MCNIP 1792. Paratypes: MCNIP, MPEG, MZUSP, ZUEC. •Valid as Simpsonichthys espinhacensis Nielsen, Pessali & Dutra 2017. Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys espinhacensis Nielsen, Pessali & Dutra 2017. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper Rio Jequitinhonha basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

faouri, Hypsolebias Britzke [R.], Nielsen [D. T. B.] & Oliveira [C.] 2016:125, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4114 (no. 2); ref. 34461] Bahia, Prazeres, Rio Preto, Rio São Francisco basin, Brazil, 11°23'24.8"S, 44°54'11.2W, altitude 522 meters. Holotype: ZUEC 10796. Paratypes: LBP, ZUEC. •Valid as Hypsolebias faouri Britzke, Nielsen & Oliveira 2016 -- (Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias faouri Britzke, Nielsen & Oliveira 2016. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Preto, Rio São Francisco basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 2006:46, Figs. 4-5 [Zootaxa No. 1244; ref. 28725] Temporary pool about 2 kilometers from right bank of rio Preto, rio Paracatu drainage, rio São Francisco basin, about 16°41'30"S, 46°30'00"W, Unaí, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, elevation about 550 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6339. Paratypes: MCP 39436 (3); UFRJ 6340 (7), 6341 (4, c&s), 6372 (7), 6377 (1). •Valid as Simpsonichthys fasciatus Costa & Brasil 2006 -- (Costa 2007:124 [ref. 29445], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29874]). •Valid as Hypsolebias fasciatus (Costa & Brasil 2006) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias fasciatus (Costa & Brasil 2006). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle Preto River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Unaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

feltrini, Cynopoecilus Costa [W. J. E. M.], Amorim [P. F.] & Mattos [J. L. O.] 2016:7, Figs. 1-2 [Biodiversity Data Journal 4.e6888; ref. 34354] Temporary pool near the confluence of Tubarão river and the Santo Antônio lagoon, Laguna, Santa Catarina, Brazil, 28°30'26"S, 48°48'01"W, depth 5 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 10662. Paratypes: UFRJ. •Valid as Cynopoecilus feltrini Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2016 -- (Costa 2016:130 [ref. 34776], Garcez et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37602]). Current status: Valid as Cynopoecilus feltrini Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2016. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Santa Catarina state (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.], Barrera [S.] & Sarmiento [J.] 1997:84, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 24 (no. 3/4); ref. 23467] Swamp near Rio San Pablo, Rio Mamoré basin, about 15°37'S, 63°35'W, about 60 kilometers north of Ascencion de Guarayos, route Santa Cruz-Trinidad, Depto. de Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Holotype: CBF 3002. Paratypes: CBF 3003 (7), MZUSP 51328 (2), UFRJ 3989 (4). •Valid as Simpsonichthys filamentosus Costa, Barrera & Sarmiento 1997. •Valid as Spectrolebias flamentosus (Costa, Barrera & Sarmiento 1997) -- (Nielsen 2013:81 [ref. 32696], Nielsen & Brousseau 2013:121 [ref. 32794], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias filamentosus (Costa, Barrera & Sarmiento 1997). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Mamoré River and Beni River drainages, Madeira River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

flagellatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2003:46, Fig. 8 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 1); ref. 26758] Temporary pool 12 kilometers west of Bom Jesus da Lapa, 13°15'43.2"S, 43°31'37.2"W, Bahia State, Brazil, elevation 449 meters. Holotype: MCP 28578. Paratypes: MCP 28579 (5); UFRJ 4788 (54), 4881 (10, 5 c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys flagellatus Costa 2003 -- (Costa 2006:26 [ref. 28771], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:110 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias flagellatus (Costa 2003) -- (Costa & Amorim 2011:99 [ref. 31380], Costa 2011:222 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2012:72, 87 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias flagellatus (Costa 2003). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: middle São Fancisco River basin (Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil) [but is a complex of several species [ref. 31845]]. Habitat: freshwater.

flammeus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1989:185, Fig. 1 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 2 (no. 9); ref. 14323] Marsh at junction of Rio Bezerra and Rio Paraná, Arraias, Tocantins, Brazil [ca. 13°10'S, 47°00'W, elevation about 450 meters]. Holotype: MNRJ 11552. Paratypes: MCP 12795 (2), MNRJ 11553 (3). •Valid as Cynolebias flammeus Costa 1989 -- (Costa 1995:51 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys flammeus (Costa 1989) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:297 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:128 [ref. 29445], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29874]). •Valid as Hypsolebias flammeus (Costa 1989) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Nielsen et al. 2012:70 [ref. 32283], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias flammeus (Costa 1989). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle Tocantins River basin, Tocantins, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

flavicaudatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1990:18, Figs. 4-5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 14543] Vicinity of Lagoa Grande, County of Santa Maria da Boa Vista, Pernambuco, Brazil, about 9°00'S, 40°20'W, elevation 300 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 40129. Paratypes: MHNM 3252 (1), MNRJ 11556 (1), MZUSP 40130 (1). •Valid as Cynolebias flavicaudus Costa & Brasil 1990 -- (Costa 1995:55 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys flavicaudatus (Costa & Brasil 1990) -- (Costa et al. 1996:19 [ref. 22219], Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:297 [ref. 25711], Costa 2003:44 [ref. 26768], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:26 [ref. 28771], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:108 [ref. 29445], Endruweit 2009:61 [ref. 30288]). •Valid as Hypsolebias flavicaudatus (Costa & Brasil 1990) -- (Costa & Amorim 2011:99 [ref. 31380], Costa 2011:222 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2012:72 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2012:72, 77 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias flavicaudatus (Costa & Brasil 1990). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River basin, Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fluminensis, Cynopoecilus Faria [A.] & Muller [H.] 1937:99 [Revista Naval No. 3; ref. 19184] Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Suppressed for purposes of priority but not homonymy; placed on Official Index (Opinion 1762); same as Cynolebias opalescens Myers 1942. •Valid as Cynolebias fluminensis (Faria & Muller 1937) -- (Costa & Lacerda 1988:132 [ref. 19183]). •Valid as Leptolebias fluminensis (Faria & Muller 1937) -- (Costa 1995:91 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792]). •Synonym of Leptolebias opalescens (Myers 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:194 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:154 [ref. 29596]). •Synonym of Leptopanchax opalescens (Myers 1942). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Leptopanchax opalescens (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

foerschi, Cynolebias Baker-Carr [C. D. T.] 1975 [The Killifish master index. First edition; ref. 25877] Original not seen. •Nomen nudum in the synonymy of Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934) -- (Lazara 2000:194 [ref. 25711]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

fractifasciatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1988:562, Figs. 2, 4d-4f [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia v. 5 (no. 4); ref. 14540] Marsh near Inoã, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 36423. Paratypes: MNRJ 11292 (2), MZUSP 36424 (11), personal coll. of Prof. Carlos A.G. Cruz CAGC 123 (19). •Synonym of Leptolebias minimus (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 1995:89 [ref. 22097], Lazara 2001:194 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Leptolebias fractifasciatus (Costa 1988) -- (Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Notholebias fractifasciatus (Costa 1988) -- (Costa 2008:157 [ref. 29596], Costa & Amorim 2013:67 [ref. 32799], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34354], Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Valid as Notholebias fractifasciatus (Costa 1988). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal river basins, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fulgens, Cynopoecilus Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2002:16, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 26061] Temporary pool, road BR-101, 5 kilometers north of São José do Norte, about 32°00'S, 52°00'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 26929. Paratypes: MCP 26930 (5); UFRJ 4978 (9), 5230 (5, 4 c&s). •Valid as Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa 2002 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa et al. 2016:4 [ref. 34354], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Costa 2016:130 [ref. 34776], Dalcin & Abilhoa 2019:680 [ref. 37274], Garcez et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37602]). Current status: Valid as Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa 2002. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Atlantic coastal plains of northern Rio Grande do Sul and southern Santa Catarina (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

fulminantis, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1993:194, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 21101] Swamp near Guanambi [14°15'15.6"S, 42°46'55.6"W, elevation 555 meters], Estado da Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 43674. Paratypes: MZUSP 43675 (2); UFRJ 685 (2), 686 (3). •Synonym of Cynolebias hellneri Berkenkamp 1993 -- (Costa 1995:125 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys fulminantis (Costa & Brasil 1993) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:297 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa & Nielsen 2004:126 [ref. 27825], Costa & Nielsen 2004:126 [ref. 27825], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:87 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias fulminantis (Costa & Brasil 1993) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451], Costa et al. 2018:501 [ref. 36319], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias fulminantis (Costa & Brasil 1993). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: upper Carnaiba de Dentro River drainage, São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

gardneri, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Amorim [P. F.] & Mattos [J. L. O.] 2018:146, Figs. 2, 5B [ZooKeys No. 777; ref. 36034] Temporary pool near road BR-030, about 8 km NE of the village of Malhada, São Francisco River floodplains, Malhada municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, 14°17'39"S, 43°42'32"W, elevation about 440 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 11859. Paratypes: CICCAA, UFRJ. •Valid as Hypsolebias gardneri Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2018 -- (Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias gardneri Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2018. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: middle São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

ghisolfii, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.], Cyrino [A. L. F.] & Nielsen [D. T. B.] 1996:18, Figs. 1-3 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 23 (no. 1/2); ref. 22219] Guanambí, 14°15'15.6"S, 42°46'55.6"W, Bahia, Brazil, elevation 555 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 49403. Paratypes: MZUSP 49404 (1); UFRJ 3526-27 (2, 2). •Valid as Simpsonichthys ghisolfii Costa, Cyrino & Nielsen 1996 -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:297 [ref. 25711], Costa 2003:41 [ref. 26768], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:26 [ref. 28771], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:104 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias ghisolfii (Costa, Cyrino & Nielsen 1996) -- (Costa 2011:222 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143] aas ghrisolfi, Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias ghisolfii (Costa, Cyrino & Nielsen 1996). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio das Rãs drainage, São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

gibberatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 2006:50, Figs. 6-7 [Zootaxa No. 1244; ref. 28725] Temporary pool about 2 kilometers from right bank of rio Preto, rio Paracatu drainage, rio São Francisco basin, about 16°41'30"S, 46°30'00"W, Unaí, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, elevation about 550 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6373. Paratypes: MCP 39437 (4); UFRJ 6374 (11), 6375 (6, c&s). •Valid as Hypsolebias gibberatus (Costa & Brasil 2006) -- (Costa 2010:1999 [ref. 30858], misspelled as gibbus). •Valid as Simpsonichthys gibberatus Costa & Brasil 2006 -- (Costa 2007:72 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias gibberatus (Costa & Brasil 2006) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias gibberatus (Costa & Brasil 2006). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle Preto River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Unaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gibberosus, Cynolebias Berg [C.] 1897:294 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 5; ref. 14623] Cacharí, Partido de Azul, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Lectotype: MACN 5172. Paralectotypes: MACN 5177 (1). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:100 [ref. 23697]. Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061] treat MACN 5172 as holotype. Lectotype selected by Costa 2006:108 [ref. 28708]. •Synonym of Cynolebias bellottii Steindachner 1881 -- (Costa 1995:71 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Austrolebias bellotti (Steindachner 1881) -- (Lazara 2001:60 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Austrolebias bellottii (Streindachner 1881) -- (Costa 2006:104 [ref. 28708], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias bellottii (Steindachner 1881). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

gibbus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2001:378, Figs. 31-32 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25719] Temporary pool, 9.5 kilometers north of Sítio do Mato, about 13°00'S, 43°25'W, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62568. Paratypes: UFRJ 4796-97 (5, 2), 5027 (1), 5133 (2, c&s), 5134 (1, c&s); MZUSP 62569 (3). •Valid as Cynolebias gibbus Costa 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:146 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Silva et al. 2020:13 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias gibbus Costa 2001. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America middle São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

gilbertobrasili, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] in Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2012:81, Figs. 6, 13 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 31845] Seasonal swamp about 35 km south of the town of Bom Jesus da Lapa, road BA-090, middle São Francisco River basin, 13°34'49"S, 43°22'39"W, Estado da Bahia, Brazil, elevation 442 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8325. Paratypes: BMNH 2011.11.1.7-8 (2); UFRJ 2195 (19), 3160 (4, c&s), 6800 (1). •Valid as Hypsolebias gilbertobrasili Costa 2012 -- (Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias gilbertobrasili Costa 2012. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

gilbertoi, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1998:238, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 23578] Temporary pond about 30 kilometers south of Bom Jesus da Lapa, near rio São Francisco, Estado da Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 52304. Paratypes: MZUSP 52305 (1); UFRJ 4470 (3), 4471 (2, c&s). •Valid as Cynolebias gilbertoi Costa 1998 -- (Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:77 [ref. 25711], Costa 2001:364 [ref. 25719], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:146 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:79 [ref. 33510], Silva et al. 2020:13 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias gilbertoi Costa 1998. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: middle São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

gorutuba, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2017:336, Figs. 3-4 [Zoosystematics and Evolution v. 93 (no. 2); ref. 35623] Temporary pool near road MG-401, floodplains of Gorutuba River, Verde Grande River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Janaúba municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 15°47'57"S, 43°19'18"W, elevation about 525 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6789. Paratypes: UFRJ. •Valid as Cynolebias gorutuba Costa 2017. Current status: Valid as Cynolebias gorutuba Costa 2017. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Gorutuba River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Spectrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Amorim [P. F.] 2018:363, Figs. 4-5 [Zoosystematics and Evolution v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 36019] Temporary lagoons close to the Canabrava River, a tributary of the Santa Teresa River, middle Tocantins River basin, road TO-373, Alvorada do Tocantins municipality, Tocantins State, Brazil, 12°29'46"S, 49°00'51"W, elevation about 290 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6440. Paratypes: CICCAA, UFRJ. •Valid as Spectrolebias gracilis Costa & Amorim 2018. Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias gracilis Costa & Amorim 2018. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle Tocantins River basin, Tocantins State, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

griseus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Lacerda [M. T. C.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1990:11, Figs. 9-10 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 16652] Temporary lagoon, Goiás, Munic. de Nova Roma, Brazil, 14°03'S, 44°57"W. Holotype: MZUSP 40119. Paratypes: MZUSP 40120 (3). •Valid as Cynolebias griseus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1990 -- (Costa 1995:79 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:238 [ref. 23578], Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:77 [ref. 25711], Costa 2001:351 [ref. 25719], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:146 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:79 [ref. 33910]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias griseus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1990. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

guanambi, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Amorim [P. F.] 2011:101, Figs. 2-3 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 61 (no. 1); ref. 31380] Seasonal pool close to road BR-030, 14 km west of the city of Guanambi, upper Camaíba de Dentro River drainage, São Francisco River basin, 14°13'42"S, 42°55'12"W, Município de Guanambi, Estado da Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6861. Paratypes: UFRJ 6072 (2), 6783 (2), 6862 (4, c&s), 6782 (8). In this paper, the author treated Hypsolebias as a species-complex, presumably in Simpsonichthys, but treated Hypsolebias as a valid genus. •Valid as Hypsolebias guanambi Costa & Amorim 2011 -- (Costa et al. 2012:72, 81 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias guanambi Costa & Amorim 2011. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

gymnoventris, Cynolebias Amato [L. H.] 1986:2, Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 11 (no. 162); ref. 9170] Floodlands of India Muerta Creek, 150 meters from the bridge on route 13, near Velázquez, Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM 2460. Paratypes: MHNM 2444 (7), 2461-63 (1, 7, 14), 2472 (2), 2475 (2); MZUSP 36450-51 (1, 1). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias gymnoventris Amato 1986 -- (Malabarba 1989:158 [ref. 14217], Costa 1995:68 [ref. 22097], Costa 1999:301 [ref. 24229], Costa 1999:93 [ref. 24131]). •Valid as Austrolebias gymnoventris (Amato 1986) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:61 [ref. 25711], Costa & Cheffe 2001:180 [ref. 25851], Costa & Cheffe 2002:86 [ref. 26518], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:21 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Costa 2011:100 [ref. 31504], Loureiro et al. 2011:341 [ref. 31392], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias gymnoventris (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos basin, Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

haerteli, Cynolebias Schreitmüller [W.] 1937:13 [Das Aquarium: eine Zeitschrift mit Bildern für Liebhaber, Schulen und Naturfreunde, Berlin v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 36064] No types known. Provisional name, not published. •Nomen nudum (Lazara 2001:204 [ref. 25711]). •In the synonymy of Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl 1924) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl 1924). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

hamadryades, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Amorim [P. F.] & Mattos [J. L. O.] 2018:149, Figs. 4, 5C [ZooKeys No. 777; ref. 36034] Temporary pool near road MG-401 at the town of Janaúba, floodplains of Gorutuba River, Verde Grande River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Janaúba municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 15°48'06"S, 43°19'19"W, elevation about 530 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6893. Paratypes: UFRJ. •Valid as Hypsolebias hamadryades Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2018. Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias hamadryades Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2018. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

harmonicus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2010:74, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 21 (no. 1); ref. 30777] Seasonal pool close to road BR-349, ca. 12 kilometers of the left bank of São Francisco River, 13°15'42"S, 43°31'28"W, Município de Bom Jesus da Lapa, Estado de Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6696. Paratypes: UFRJ 6697 (14), 6698 (4, c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys harmonicus Costa 2010. •Valid as Hypsolebias harmonicus (Costa 2010) -- (Costa 2011:221 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2012:73 [ref. 31845], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451], Costa et al. 2018:155 [ref. 36034], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias harmonicus (Costa 2010). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: floodplains of São Francisco River (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

hellneri, Cynolebias Berkenkamp [H. O.] 1993:8, Figs. [Das Aquarium v. 27 (no. 290); ref. 21369] Pond by the road Manga to Itacarambi, about 10.5 kilometers before Itacarambi, Municipio (Bezirk) Manga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP. Paratypes: MZUSP (1); SMF 18445-46 (11, 9). •Valid as Cynolebias hellneri Berkenkamp 1993 -- (Costa 1995:125 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys hellneri (Berkenkamp 1993) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:297 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa & Nielsen 2004:130 [ref. 27825], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:81 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias hellneri (Berkenkamp 1993) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2012:73 [ref. 31845], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Costa et al. 2018:499 [ref. 36319]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias hellneri (Berkenkamp 1993). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

heloplites, Cynolebias Huber [J. H.] 1981:1, Fig. [Killi Revue v. 8 (no. 5) (Suppl.); ref. 8591] Lagoa at kilometer 76 from route Fortalaza-Russas, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN 1981-1211. Paratypes: MNHN 1981-1212 (6). •Synonym of Cynolebias antenori Tulipano 1973 -- (Costa 1995:57 [ref. 22097], Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271]). •Synonym of Simpsonichthys antenori (Tulipano 1973) -- (Lazara 2001:295 [ref. 25711], Costa 2003:38 [ref. 26768], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:540 [ref. 27061], Costa 2007:96 [ref. 29445]). •Synonym of Hypsolebias antenori (Tulipano 1973) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Synonym of Hypsolebias antenori (Tulipano 1973). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

holmbergi, Cynolebias Berg [C.] 1897:296 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 5; ref. 14623] Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Lectotype: MACN 5169. Paralectotypes: MACN 5169 (2) Arroyo Vivoratá, 3826 (1) Río de la Plata. Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:101 [ref. 23697]. Lectotype listed in Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061]; earlier selection not researched. Also designated by Costa 2006 [ref. 28708]. •Synonym of Cynolebias elongatus Steindachner 1881 -- (Costa 1995:78 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Megalebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Lazara 2001:203 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Austrolebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Costa 2006:57 [ref. 28708], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

ibicuiensis, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1999:93, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 25 (no. 3/4) [for 1998]; ref. 24131] Rio Ibicui-Mirim, rio Ibicui drainage, road BR-287 between São Pedro do Sul and Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 10201. Paratypes: MCP 21171 (1). •Valid as Austrolebias ibicuiensis (Costa 1999) -- (Lazara 2001:61 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:64 [ref. 28708], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Volcan et al. 2017:150 [ref. 35644], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias ibicuiensis (Costa 1999). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

igneus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2000:10, Figs. 3-4 [Aquarium (Brasil) v. 3 (no. 25); ref. 25933] Temporary pool close to Igarité, 22 kilometers north of Igarité, 11°28'8.4"S, 43°17'13.4'W, São Francisco basin, Bahia, Brazil, elevation 433 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 56254. Paratypes: MCP 23669 (8); MZUSP 56255 (8); UFRJ 4857 (100), 4868-70 (18, 10, 62), 4872 (33), 4877 (14), 5190-93 (15, 6, 10, 10). •Valid as Simpsonichthys igneus Costa 2000 -- (Costa 2003:43 [ref. 26768], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:26 [ref. 28771], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:106 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias igneus (Costa 2000) -- (Costa 2011:222 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2012:73 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias igneus (Costa 2000). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

ilheusensis, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Lima [S. M. Q.] 2010:206, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 21 (no. 3); ref. 31041] Temporary pools inside forest, near the road BA-001, 14°35'36"S, 39°03'40"W, Município de Ilhéus, Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6690. Paratypes: UFBA 5297 (4); UFRJ 6691 (6), 6692 (2, female c&s). •Valid as Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis (Costa & Lima 2010) -- (Costa 2011:301 [ref. 31187], Costa et al. 2012:73 [ref. 31845], Silva et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Ophthalmolebias ilheusensis (Costa & Lima 2010). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: floodplains of small coastal river about 700 meter from the shore, Município de Ilhéus (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

inaequipinnatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 2008:246, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 29968] Seasonal pool in the right bank floodplains of the Tocantins River, 5°20'12"S, 47°51'36"W, Município de Cidelândia, Estado do Maranhão, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6617. Paratypes: UFRJ 6618 (7), 6619 (2, c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys inaequipinnatus Costa & Brasil 2008. •Valid as Spectrolebias inaequipinnatus (Costa & Brazil 2008) -- (Nielsen 2013:81 [ref. 32696], Nielsen & Brousseau 2013:116 [ref. 32794], Costa & Amorim 2018:365 [ref. 36019]). Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias inaequipinnatus (Costa & Brasil 2008). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Tocantins River basin, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

intermedius, Campellolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & De Luca [A. C.] in Costa 2006:41, Figs. 5-6 [Zootaxa No. 1227; ref. 28724] Temporary pool in road about 6 kilometers west of Jaquiá, rio Juquiá drainage, rio Ribeira de Iguapé basin, about 24°20'S, 47°35'W, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6312. Paratypes: UFRJ 6313 (1), 6314 (2), 6315 (4). Plus non-type material. Second author is A. C. De Luca. •Valid as Campellolebias intermedius Costa & De Luca 2006 -- (Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa 2016:129 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Valid as Campellolebias intermedius Costa & De Luca 2006. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Juquiá River drainage, Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

intimus, Cynopoecilus Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2002:18, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 26061] Temporary swamp close to a stream tributary to rio Vacacaí, rio Jacuí basin, road BR-392, 6 kilometers northwest of Vila Block, about 29°55'S, 53°50'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 20816. Paratypes: MCP 20817 (8); MZUSP 52911 (8); NRM 42501 (6); UFRJ 4489 (13), 4490 (6, 2 c&s); UMMZ 234239 (10); USNM 349455 (6). •Valid as Cynopoecilus intimus Costa 2002 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Costa 2016:130 [ref. 34776], Garcez et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37602]). Current status: Valid as Cynopoecilus intimus Costa 2002. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Atlantic coastal plains adjacent to eastern margin of Laguna dos Patos (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

irregularis, Cynolebias Ahl [E.] 1938:57 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 124 (no. 3-4); ref. 17128] Probably Argentina. Holotype (unique): ZMB 21145. Type catalog: Paepke & Seegers 1986:156 [ref. 19981]. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:94 [ref. 21847]. •Synonym of Cynolebias bellottii Steindachner 1881 -- (Costa 1995:71 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Austrolebias bellotti (Steindachner 1881) -- (Lazara 2001:60 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Austrolebias bellottii (Streindachner 1881) -- (Costa 2006:104 [ref. 28708], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias bellottii (Steindachner 1881). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

itanhaensis, Leptolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2008:153, Figs. 8-10 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 153 (no. 1); ref. 29596] Temporary channels within forest, 2.8 kilometers from the road BR-101, Itanhaém, 24°13'08.9"S, 46°55'24.7"W, São Paulo State, Brazil, elevation 14 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6453. Paratypes: UFRJ 5219 (8, c&s), 6323 (4), 6324 (4). •Valid as Leptolebias itanhaensis Costa 2008 -- (Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589]). •Valid as Leptopanchax itanhaensis (Costa 2008) -- (Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776], Costa 2019:82 [ref. 36869]). Current status: Valid as Leptopanchax itanhaensis (Costa 2008). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Itanhaém, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

itapicuruensis, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2001:362, Fig. 20 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25719] Temporary pool in Capim Grosso, rio Itapicurú basin, about 11°20'S, 40°00'W, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62562. Paratypes: MZUSP 62563 (6); UFRJ 1766-67 (9, 8), 4514 (1, c&s), 5087 (9), 5115 (3, c&s), 5120 (3, c&s). •Valid as Cynolebias itapicuruensis Costa 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:146 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Silva et al. 2020:13 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias itapicuruensis Costa 2001. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Itapicurú River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

izecksohni, Cynolebias Da Cruz [C. A. G.] 1983:74, Figs. 1-3 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 35 (no. 6); ref. 8339] Reserva Florestal da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce [= Reserva Natural Vale, Gávea road, Nativo do Canto Grande], Município de Linhares, Espírito Santo State, Brazil, 19°12'54"S, 39°57'57"W. Holotype: MNRJ 10613. Paratypes: MHNM; MNRJ 10614 (1), 10615 (2); MZUSP 14721-22 (2), 14723-24 (2); USNM 221169 (4); author coll. CAGC 108.1/33 (33), 110.1/33 (33). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Nematolebias myersi (Carvalho 1971) -- (Lazara 2001:213 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys izecksohni (Da Cruz 1983) -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:16 [ref. 28620]). •Synonym of Cynolebias myersi Carvalho 1971 -- (Costa 1995:44 [ref. 22097], Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 2007:7 [ref. 29445] with author as Cruz). •Valid as Xenurolebias izecksohni (Da Cruz 1983) -- (Costa & Amorim 2014:359 [ref. 33343] with author as Cruz). Current status: Valid as Xenurolebias izecksohni (Da Cruz 1983). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Barra Seca River basin, northern Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jaegari, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Cheffe [M. M.] 2002:84, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 26518] Swamp at Banhado do Timba, Corredor das Tropas, about 31°30'S, 52°20'W, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 28574. Paratypes: MCP 28575 (5); MUCP 2518 (5), 2538 (4), 2583 (5); UFRJ 5429 (7), 5430 (6, 3 c&s). •Valid as Austrolebias jaegari Costa & Cheffe 2002 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:25 [ref. 28708], Costa 2011:100 [ref. 31504], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias jaegari Costa & Cheffe 2002. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Do Timba Swamp, Rio Grande do Sul State, Laguna dos Patos system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

janaubensis, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2006:27, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1306; ref. 28771] Rio Gorutuba floodplains, rio Verde Grande drainage, middle rio São Francisco basin, Janaúba, 15°48'05.9"S, 43°19'13.5", western Minas Gerais State Brazil, elevation 556 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 5409 (male). Paratypes: MCP 40138 (5); UFRJ 5409 (2 females), 5410 (6, c&s), 5411 (24), 6076 (10). •Valid as Simpsonichthys janaubensis Costa 2006 -- (Costa 2007:113 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias janaubensis (Costa 2006) -- (Costa & Amorim 2011:99 [ref. 31380], Costa 2011:222 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2012:72, 84 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias janaubensis (Costa 2006). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Gorutuba River floodplains, Verde Grande River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

juanlangi, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Cheffe [M. M.], Salvia [H.] & Litz [T.] in Costa 2006:86, Fig. 34 [Zootaxa No. 1213; ref. 28708] Temporary swamp near banhado do Minuano, road BR-153, Rio Jaguão basin, a tributary of lagoa Mirim, laguna dos Patos System, 31°40'48"S, 54°08'45"W, Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6199. Paratypes: Many lots at CIMC, MCP, MUNH [MUNHIN], UFRJ. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Austrolebias juanlangi Costa, Cheffe, Salvia & Litz 2006 -- (Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Volcan et al. 2017:150 [ref. 35644], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias juanlangi Costa, Cheffe, Salvia & Litz 2006. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Lake Mirim basin and upper Negro River basin: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

ladigesi, Cynolebias Foersch [W.] (ex Myers) 1958:257, Figs. [Die Aquarien- und Terrarienzeitschrift (DATZ) v. 11 (no. 9); ref. 20290] Unknown locality, Brazil. Paratypes: ZSM 15481 (1), 15482-83 (2). Non-types [Myers specimens]: CAS-SU 50192 (1), 50193 (1). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:276 [ref. 31652]. Authors use Foersch instead of Myers •Synonym of Cynolebias minimus Myers 1942 -- (Costa 1988:558 [ref. 14540]). •Synonym of Leptolebias minimus (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 1995:89 [ref. 22097], Lazara 2001:194 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Notholebias minimus (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 2008:157 [ref. 29596]). Current status: Synonym of Notholebias minimus (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

leitaoi, Cynolebias Da Cruz [C. A. G.] & Peixoto [O. L.] 1992:638, Figs. 2-4 [Revista Brasileira de Zoologia v. 7 (no. 4) (for 15 Dec. 1991); ref. 22098] Swamp near Mucuri, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 11646. Paratypes: CAGC 130.1/20 (20), 131.1/9 (9); MNRJ 11647-48 (2, 5). •Valid as Leptolebias leitaoi (Da Cruz & Peixoto 1992) -- (Costa 1995:92 [ref. 22097], Da Cruz & Peixoto 1992, Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:193 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:148 [ref. 29596], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589]). •Valid as Mucurilebias leitaoi (Da Cruz & Peixoto 1992) -- (Costa 2014:26 [ref. 33309], Costa 2016:127 [ref. 34776], Silva et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Mucurilebias leitaoi (Da Cruz & Peixoto 1992). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Mucurí River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

leptocephalus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1993:196, Figs. 4-5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 21101] Swamp near Guanambí, 14°20'S, 42°51'W, rio São Francisco basin, Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 43676. Paratypes: MZUSP 43677 (1); UFRJ 687 (2), 688 (1). •Valid as Cynolebias leptocephalus Costa & Brasil 1993 -- (Costa 1995:126 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:238 [ref. 23578], Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:77 [ref. 25711], Costa 2001:372 [ref. 25719], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:147 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias leptocephalus Costa & Brasil 1993. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: middle São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

litzi, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2006:80, Fig. 32 [Zootaxa No. 1213; ref. 28708] 2.5 kilometers from arroio Arenal, about 12 kilometers from Santa Maria, road BR-392, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6233. Paratypes: UFRJ 4488 (11), 4987 (191), 5017 (4, c&s), 5028 (36), 5029 (6, c&s). •Valid as Austrolebias litzi Costa 2006 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Volcan et al. 2017:151 [ref. 35644], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias litzi Costa 2006. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper Jacuí River drainage, Laguna dos Patos system, Río Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longignatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2008:156, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 19 (no. 2); ref. 29874] Seasonal swamp in the Pacoti River floodplains, road CE-040, about 25 kilometers from Fortaleza, 3°53'51"S, 38°24'13"W, Municépio de Aquiraz, Estado do Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6614. Paratypes: UFRJ 6615 (9), 6616 (4, c&s). •Valid as Hypsolebias longignatus Costa 2008 -- (Costa 2011:221 [ref. 31654], Abrantes et al. 2020:306 [ref. 37698]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias longignatus (Costa 2008). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: swamp next to Rio Pacoti, an isolated coastal basin,Ceará (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

lopesi, Simpsonichthys Nielsen [D. T. B.], Shibatta [O. A.], Suzart [R. dos R.] & Martín [A. F.] 2010:52, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 2452; ref. 30828] Locality of Javi, temporary pool near the riacho de Santana, rio São Francisco basin, 12°12'04.6"S, 43°39'27.8'W, City of Muquém de São Francisco, northeastern Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 103102. Paratypes: MZUEL 5177 (13, 4 c&s); MZUSP 103103 (5). •Valid as Simpsonichthys lopesi Nielsen, Shibatta, Suzart & Martín 2010. •Valid as Hypsolebias lopesi Nielsen, Shibatta, Suzart & Martín 2010 -- (Costa 2011:221 [ref. 31654], Costa 2013;142 [ref. 33008], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias lopesi (Nielsen, Shibatta, Suzart & Martín 2010). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio São Francisco basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

lourenciano, Austrolebias Volcan [M. V.], Barbosa [C.], Robe [L. J.] & Lanés [L. E. K.] 2021:95, Figs. 5-7 [Zootaxa 4965 (no. 1); ref. 38292] Temporary pool in the floodplain of Arroio Pinto, tributary of Arroio São Lourenço, close to the BR-116 highway, São Lourenço do Sul municipality, Laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 31°20'50"S, 52°03'53"W. Holotype: MCP 5440. Paratypes: MCP. •Valid as Austrolebias lourenciano Volcan, Barbosa, Robe & Lanés 2021. Current status: Valid as Austrolebias lourenciano Volcan, Barbosa, Robe & Lanés 2021. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: temporary pools in the floodplain of the Arroio São Lourenço basin, Laguna dos Patos system, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

luteoflammulatus, Cynolebias Vaz-Ferreira [R.], Sierra de Soriano [B.] & Scaglia de Paulete [S.] 1965:25, Pls. 5-6 [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 8 (no. 102) (for 25 June 1964); ref. 9087] Temporary pool near Arroyo Valizas, 34°26'S, 53°46'W, Dept. of Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC P.527. Paratypes: MHNM CI 1440 [ex ZVC P.784] (2), ZVC P.811 (1). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:413, 414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias luteoflammulatus Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965 -- (Malabarba 1989:159 [ref. 14217], Costa 1995:63 [ref. 22097], Costa 1999:301 [ref. 24229], Costa 1999:93 [ref. 24131]). •Valid as Austrolebias luteoflammulatus (Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:61 [ref. 25711], Costa & Cheffe 2001:180 [ref. 25851], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Loureiro et al. 2011:341 [ref. 31392], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:42 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias luteoflammulatus (Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos basin and adjacent southern coastal plains: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

luzardoi, Austrolebias Perujo [E.], Calviño [P. A.], Salvia [H.] & Prieto [F.] 2005:3, Figs. 1-6, 8 [Revista del Museo de La Plata Zool. v. 17 (no. 171); ref. 28452] Temporary swamp, 30°25'00"S, 56°27'03"W, near río Cuareim, tributary of río Uruguay, near Artigas, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM 3200. Paratypes: MACN 8671 (2), 8672 (2); MHNM 3201 (14). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:412 [ref. 35150] •Synonym of Austrolebias periodicus (Costa 1999) -- (Costa 2006:83 [ref. 28708], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias periodicus (Costa 1999). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Cuareim River basin, Uruguay [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

mabelis, Cynolebias Hoetmer [J. W.] 1987:23 [Killi Nieuws v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 32544] •Appeared as nomen nudum - (Lazara 2001:64 [ref. 25711] on Skillcorn 1988 [ref. 21419]). •As a synonym of Cynolebias affinis Amato 1986 -- (Reichert 1993:25 [ref. 33499]). •In the synonymy of Austrolebias affinis (Amato 1986) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:29 [ref. 33622]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias affinis (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

macaubensis, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Suzart [R. dos R.] in Costa 2006:34, Figs. 7-8 [Zootaxa No. 1306; ref. 28771] Temporary pool near Macaúbas, rio Paramirim drainage, rio São Francisco basin, about 13°00'S, 42°30'W, Estado da Bahia, Brazil, elevation 680 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6385. Paratypes: UFRJ 6105 (1), 6106 (12, c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys macaubensis Costa & Suzart 2006 -- (Costa 2007:100 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias macaubensis (Costa & Suzart 2006) -- (Costa 2011:222 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias macaubensis (Costa & Suzart 2006). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Paramirim River drainage, São Francico River basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Cynolebias Steindachner [F.] 1881:98 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 11) (for 5 May 1881); ref. 20484] La Plata, Argentina. Holotype (unique): NMW 59613. Species illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:10, Pl. 5 (figs. 3-3a) [ref. 14299]. •Synonym of Cynolebias bellottii Steindachner 1881 -- (Costa 1995:71 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Austrolebias bellotti (Steindachner 1881) -- (Lazara 2001:60 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:527 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:104 [ref. 28708]). •Synonym of Austrolebias bellottii (Steindachner 1881) -- (Costa 2006:104 [ref. 28708], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias bellottii (Steindachner 1881). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

magnificus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1991:59, Figs. 5-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16651] Right bank plain of the Rio São Francisco, about 1 kilometer from the river channel, County of Manga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41374. Paratypes: MZUSP 41375 (9). •Valid as Cynolebias magnificus Costa & Brasil 1991 -- (Costa 1995:53 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys magnificus (Costa & Brasil 1991) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:297 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa & Nielsen 2004:126 [ref. 27825], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:91 [ref. 29445], Costa 2010:77 [ref. 30777]). •Valid as Hypsolebias magnificus (Costa & Brasil 1991) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Costa 2013;141 [ref. 33008], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451], Costa et al. 2018:155 [ref. 36034]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias magnificus (Costa & Brasil 1991). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River basin, Bahia and Minas Gerais states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

margaritatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2012:314, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 31750] Floodplains of Verde River, a tributary of Paranaíba River, upper Paraná River basin, Municipío de Serranópolis, Estado de Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 8339. Paratypes: UFRJ 8340 (1), 8341 (1). •Valid as Simpsonichthys margaritatus Costa 2012 -- (Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304]). Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys margaritatus Costa 2012. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Floodplains of the Verde River, upper Paraná River basin, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

marginatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1996:94, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 23 (no. 3/4); ref. 22917] Temporary pool near Rio dos Patos, tributary of Rio Maranhao, Rio Tocantins basin, Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil [ca. 15°00'S, 49°00'W]. Holotype: MNRJ 12440. Paratypes: MNRJ 12441 (1); MZUSP 50163 (2); UFRJ 3536 (7), 3537 (4, c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys marginatus Costa & Brasil 1996 -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:298 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:116 [ref. 29445], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29874], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29874]). •Valid as Hypsolebias marginatus (Costa & Brasil 1996) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias marginatus (Costa & Brasil 1996). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Rio dos Patos floodplain, Tocantins River basin, Goiás, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

marmoratus, Cynopoecilus Ladiges [W.] 1934:74, Fig. p. 73 [Das Aquarium: eine Zeitschrift mit Bildern für Liebhaber, Schulen und Naturfreunde, Berlin 1934 (no. 4); ref. 18445] Temporary pool in forest, rio Iguaçú basin, Vila de Cava, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 22°39'30.0"S, 43°25'45.7"W. Neotype: MCP 28604. Also in Ladiges 1934:104 [ref. 20522], earliest not researched. Holotype not preserved, see Ladiges 1943:275 [ref. 36156]. Redescription and neotype designation by Costa 2002:380 [ref. 26544]. •Valid as Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934) -- (Costa 1995:92 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:193 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:380 [ref. 26544], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29596], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa 2016:129 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Valid as Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal river basins, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

martinsi, Hypsolebias Britzke [R.], Nielsen [D. T. B.] & Oliveira [C.] 2016:129, Fig. 4 [Zootaxa 4114 (no. 2); ref. 34461] Ceará, Amontada, temporary pool near Rio Icaraizinho, Brazil, 3°11'4.72"S, 39°44'58.3"W, altitude 42 meters. Holotype: ZUEC 10791. Paratypes: LBP, ZUEC. •Valid as Hypsolebias martinsi Britzke, Nielsen & Oliveira 2016 -- (Abrantes et al. 2020:306 [ref. 37698]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias martinsi Britzke, Nielsen & Oliveira 2016. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Icaraizinho and Rio Mundaú, Ceará (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

mediopapillatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2006:30, Figs. 4-6 [Zootaxa No. 1306; ref. 28771] Temporary pool, 8 kilometers south of Pindaí, rio São Domingos drainage, tributary to Rio Verde Pequeno, itself a trib to rio Verde Grande, rio São Francisco basin, 14°33'36.7"S. 42°42'09.8:W, Estado da Bahia, Brazil, elevation 628 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 5406. Paratypes: MCP 40139 (3); UFRJ 5407 (3, c&s), 5408 (9), 6064 (12), 6074 (4). •Valid as Simpsonichthys mediopapillatus Costa 2006 -- (Costa 2007:100 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias mediopapillatus (Costa 2006) -- (Costa 2011:222 [ref. 31654], Costa et al. 2012:73 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Nielsen et al. 2014:29 [ref. 33143], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias mediopapillatus (Costa 2006). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Verde Grande drainage, São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

melanoorus, Cynolebias Amato [L. H.] 1986:4, Pl. 2 (figs. 3-4) [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 11 (no. 162); ref. 9170] Floodlands of Tres Cruces Creek, route 5, kilometers 399.5, Tacuarembó, Uruguay, 31°39.11'S, 55°54.01'W. Holotype: MHNM 2545. Paratypes: MHNM 2546-48 (24, 1, 33). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias melanoorus Amato 1986 -- (Costa 1995:73 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Austrolebias melanoorus (Amato 1986) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:62 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:11 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Loureiro et al. 2004:27 [ref. 27658], Costa 2006:97 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Loureiro et al. 2011:340 [ref. 31392], Lanés et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33234], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Serra & Loureiro 2018:554 [ref. 36329], Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019:550 [ref. 36539]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias melanoorus (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin, Uruguay and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melanotaenia, Cynolebias Regan [C. T.] 1912:506 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 10 (no. 59); ref. 3648] Vila da Quinta, about 32°10'S, 52°20'W, Munic. de Rio Grande, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1909.9.5.15-22 (9). For information on type locality see Buckup & Malabarba 1990:103 [ref. 16740]. •Valid as Cynolebias melanotaenia Regan 1912 -- (Malabarba 1989:159 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan 1912) -- (Costa 1995:102 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:74 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:79 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:13 [ref. 26061], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], Costa et al. 2016:3 [ref. 34354], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Costa 2016:130 [ref. 34776], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565] with author as Regan 1912, Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Garcez et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37602]). Current status: Valid as Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Regan 1912). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Atlantic coastal drainages (southern Brazil and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalmus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] in Costa 1995:81, Fig. 97 [Pearl killifishes. The Cynolebiatinae. Systematics and biogeography of the neotropical annual fish subfamily (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae). 1995; ref. 22097] Mossoró, about 5°15'S, 37°20'W, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 42312. Paratypes: MZUSP 38343 (3). Second author is G. C. Brasil. •Valid as Cynolebias microphthalmus Costa & Brasil 1995 -- (Costa 1998:238 [ref. 23578], Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:77 [ref. 25711], Costa 2001:354 [ref. 25719], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:147 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Abrantes et al. 2020:306 [ref. 37698]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias microphthalmus Costa & Brasil 1995. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Jaguaribe and Mossoró River basins, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

minimus, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1942:109 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Cane brake along the road to Rio, 1 mile east of Itaquahy [Itaguaí], Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 36525. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36526 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:52 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Cynolebias minimus Myers 1942 -- (Costa 1988:558 [ref. 14540]). •Valid as Leptolebias minimus (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 1995:88 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:194 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Notholebias minimus (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 2008:157 [ref. 29596], Costa & Amorim 2013:67 [ref. 32799], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Valid as Notholebias minimus (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal river basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

minuano, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Cheffe [M. M.] 2001:185, Figs. 4-5 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 25851] Temporary lagoon about 4.5 kilometers north of Quinta, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 28028. Paratypes: MCP 28029 (8); MUCP 3622 (21), UFRJ 5032 (8), 5036 (33), 5037 (4, 2 c&s). •Valid as Austrolebias minuano Costa & Cheffe 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Loureiro et al. 2004:27 [ref. 27658], Costa 2006:124 [ref. 28708], Volcan et al. 2014:170 [ref. 33543], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Costa et al. 2017:142 [ref. 35626], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Fernandes et al. 2020:[3] 3 [ref. 38700], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias minuano Costa & Cheffe 2001. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Laguna dos Patos system, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

monstrosus, Cynolebias Huber [J. H.] 1995:9, Fig. 4, col. pl. (middle fig.) [Killi-Contact - Périodique bimestriel Spec. publ.; ref. 22880] Near La Serena, Boqueron Dept., 21.94°S, 56.97°W, Paraguay. Holotype: MNHN 1994-1110. Paratypes: ANSP 169973 (2), 169974 (orig. 2, now 1), 169975 (orig. 2, now 1); MNHN 1993-3619 [ex ANSP 169975] (1), 1994-1111 (1); MNHNP [ex ANSP 169974] (1); NMW 92899 (1); ZMA 121281 (3), 121284-85 (4, 2). Appeared as above first, then in Huber 1995 (Nov.):110, Figs. 9-12 [ref. 22204]. •Valid as Megalebias monstrosus (Huber 1995) -- (Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:204 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:70 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Austrolebias monstrosus (Huber 1995) -- (Costa 2006:54 [ref. 28708], Koerber 2011:7 [ref. 31122], Lanés et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33234], Koerber 2014:11 [ref. 33621], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Alonso et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34643], Koerber et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35267], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias monstrosus (Huber 1995). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Semi-arid Chaco Region in Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

multipapillatus, Cynopoecilus Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2002:22, Fig. 6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 26061] Temporary pool between road RS-787 and lagoa da Fortaleza, about 30°10'S, 50°15'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 26933. Paratypes: MCP 26934 (10), UFRJ 5232 (40), 5233 (8, 4 c&s). •Valid as Cynopoecilus multipapillatus Costa 2002 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561]). •Synonym of Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa 2002 -- (Costa 2016:130 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Synonym of Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa 2002. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

multiradiatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1994:1, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 21 (no. 1/2); ref. 21597] Temporary pool at Brejinho de Nazar, Tocantins, Brazil, about 10°59'S, 48°38'W, elevation 247 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 12519. Paratypes: MNRJ 12520 (9); MZUSP 46080 (8); UFRJ 2074-76 (7, 6, 8). •Valid as Simpsonichthys multiradiatus (Costa & Brasil 1994) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:298 [ref. 25711], Costa 2003:52 [ref. 26768], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:126 [ref. 29445], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29874], Nielsen et al. 2010:57 [ref. 30828]). •Valid as Hypsolebias multiradiatus (Costa & Brasil 1994) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Nielsen et al. 2012:69 [ref. 32283]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias multiradiatus (Costa & Brasil 1994). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle Tocantins River floodplians, Tocantins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

myersi, Cynolebias Carvalho [A. L. de] 1971:401, Figs. 1-3 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 7669] Temporary pool, northeast coastal plain of Espírito Santo State, 18 kilometers from Conceiçao da Barra, Brazil, 18°25'34"S, 39°43'00"W [floodplains of the Velha Antônia creek, near the west entrance to the village of Itaúnas]. Holotype: MNRJ 9849. Paratypes: MNRJ 9850-51 (1, 53). •Valid as Cynolebias myersi Carvalho 1971 -- (Costa 1995:44 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Nematolebias myersi (Carvalho 1971) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:213 [ref. 25711]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys myersi (Carvalho 1971) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 2002:41 [ref. 26064], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:16 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:8 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Xenurolebias myersi (Carvalho 1971) -- (Costa & Amorim 2014:355 [ref. 33343], Silva et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Xenurolebias myersi (Carvalho 1971). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: seasonal pools between Doce creek and Velha Antônia creek (Espiritu Santo and Bahia, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

nachtigalli, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Cheffe [M. M.] in Costa 2006:133, Fig. 50 [Zootaxa No. 1213; ref. 28708] Arroio Grande, road BR-116, about 32°15'S, 53°05'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6183. Paratypes: Many lots at CIMC and UFRJ. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Austrolebias nachtigalli Costa & Cheffe 2006 -- (Loureiro & García 2008:10 [ref. 30099] with question, Volcan et al. 2014:169 [ref. 33543], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Costa et al. 2017:142 [ref. 35626] as natchigalli, Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias nachtigalli Costa & Cheffe 2006. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Laguna dos Patos system, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nanus, Cynolebias Da Cruz [C. A. G.] & Peixoto [O. L.] 1983:90, Figs. 1-3 [Arquivos da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 8235] Between villages of Cava and Tinguá, Nova Iguaçú, 22°38'S, 43°25'W, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 10621. Paratypes: (12) MNRJ uncat. [ex CAGC 114.1/7] (7), uncat. [ex CAGC 115.1/2] (2), MNRJ 10622 (1); MZUSP 25229/30 (2). Original not seen. •Synonym of Leptolebias fluminensis (Faria & Muller 1937) -- (Costa 1995:91 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Leptolebias opalescens (Myers 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:194 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:155 [ref. 29596]). •Synonym of Leptopanchax opalescens (Myers 1942). Current status: Synonym of Leptopanchax opalescens (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nielseni, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2005:58, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1039; ref. 28575] Temporary pool in Pirapora, São Francisco Rver floodplains, 17°21'59.6"S, 44°56'32.3"W, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, elevation 500 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6060. Paratypes: MCP 37306 (2); UFRJ 6061 (7), 6062 (5, c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys nielseni Costa 2005 -- (Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:64 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias nielseni (Costa 2005) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias nielseni (Costa 2005). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River floodplains, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigripinnis, Cynolebias Regan [C. T.] 1912:508 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 10 (no. 59); ref. 3648] Río de la Plata, Argentina. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1909.4.2.29. •Valid as Cynolebias nigripinnis Regan 1912 -- (Costa 1995:67 [ref. 22097], Costa 1999:301 [ref. 24229], Fuller et al. 1999:292 [ref. 25838]). •Valid as Austrolebias nigripinnis (Regan 1912) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:62 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], López et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Calviño 2005:15 [ref. 28325], Calviño 2006:183 [ref. 28679], Costa 2006:67 [ref. 28708], Calviño 2007:22 [ref. 29117], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Alonso et al. 2016:5 [ref. 34643], Calviño et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34699], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Volcan et al. 2017:387 [ref. 35260], Koerber et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35267], Volcan et al. 2017:151 [ref. 35644], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias nigripinnis (Regan 1912). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Lower Paraná and Uruguay River basins: Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrofasciatus, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Cheffe [M. M.] 2001:187, Figs. 6-7 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 25851] Temporary pool in Pontal da Barra, praia de Laranjal, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 21172. Paratypes: MCP 21173 (6); MUCP 2561 (5); UFRJ 4014 (7 c&s), 4015 (26), 4016 (9), 4218 (11), 4219 (19), 4259 (13), 5343 (15). •Valid as Austrolebias nigrofasciatus Costa & Cheffe 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Lourerio et al. 2004:27 [ref. 27658], Costa 2006:129 [ref. 28708], Loureiro & García 2008:6 [ref. 30099], Volcan et al. 2014:169 [ref. 33543], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Costa et al. 2017:142 [ref. 35626], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias nigrofasciatus Costa & Cheffe 2001. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Laguna dos Patos system, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigromaculatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2007:200, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 29338] Temporary swamp, near the road GO-050, Chapadão do Céu, 18°33'02.0"S, 52°37'43.1"W, Floodplains of rio da Prata, rio Aporé drainage, upper rio Paraná basin, Estado de Goiás, Brazil, elevation 778 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6467. Paratypes: UFRJ 6468 (5), 6469 (3, c&s), 6473 (2). •Valid as Simpsonichthys nigromaculatus Costa 2007 -- (Costa 2007:31 [ref. 29445], Costa 2012:314 [ref. 31750], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304]). Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys nigromaculatus Costa 2007. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Prata River floodplains, Aporé River drainage, upper Paraná River basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrovittatus, Cynopoecilus Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2002:20, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 26061] Rio Caí flood-plains, about 29°45'S, 51°30'W, Montenegro, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 26931. Paratypes: MCP 26932 (10); UFRJ 4820 (30), 4829 (43), 4976 (45), 4977 (23), 5012 (6, 2 c&s), 5039 (46), 5231 (6, 2 c&s). •Valid as Cynopoecilus nigrovittatus Costa 2002 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa et al. 2016:5 [ref. 34354], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Costa 2016:130 [ref. 34776], Garcez et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37602]). Current status: Valid as Cynopoecilus nigrovittatus Costa 2002. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Lower Jacui River basin, Laguna dos Patos system (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

nioni, Cynolebias Berkenkamp [H. O.], Reichert [J. J.] & Prieto [F.] 1997:30, Fig. [Aquaristik aktuell (Germany) v. 5 (no. 3); ref. 23147] Highway 26 at kilometer 331, 32°10'S, 55°15'E, Tacuarembó, northeastern Uruguay. Holotype: SMF 18457. Paratypes: MNHNM (5) and (6); SMF 18458-59 (4, 3). •Synonym of Austrolebias vazferreirai (Berkenkamp, Etzel, Reichert & Salvia 1994) -- (Costa 2006:34 [ref. 28708], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622]). •Synonym of Austrolebias robustus (Günther 1883) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632]). •Valid as Austrolebias nioni (Berkenkamp, Reichert & Prieto 1997) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:62 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:11 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Costa et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27657], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565]). •Synonym of Austrolebias cinereus (Amato 1986) -- (García et al. 2019:[9] [ref. 36487]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias cinereus (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

nitens, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] in Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2012:79, Figs. 4, 12 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 31845] Seasonal lagoon in floodplains of lower Verde River, a right tributary of middle São Francisco River, about 30 km north of the town of Itaguaçu, 10°43'20"S, 42°20'30"W, Bahia State, Brazil, elevation 414 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8289. Paratypes: BMNH 2011.11.17.9-11 (3); UFRJ 6852 (3), 6853 (12), 8288 (4, c&s). •Valid as Hypsolebias nitens Costa 2012 -- (Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias nitens Costa 2012. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: lower Rio Verde basin, São Francisco River system (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

nonoiuliensis, Cynolebias Taberner [R.], Fernández-Santos [J. O.] & Castelli [J. O.] 1974:187, Fig. [Physis, Sección B (Las Aguas Continentales y sus Organismos) v. 33 (no. 87); ref. 7542] Temporary swamps, Nueve de Julio, Province Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype: MACN 6754 (no. 5). Paratypes: MACN 4241 (1), 6754 (11), 6755 (17). Type catalog: Braga & Piacentino 1994:103 [ref. 23697]. •Valid as Cynolebias nonoiuliensis Taberner, Fernández-Santos & Castelli 1974 -- (Costa 1995:69 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Austrolebias robustus (Günther 1883) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632]). •Valid as Austrolebias nonoiuliensis (Taberner, Fernandez-Santos & Castelli 1974) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:63 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:10 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27366], Costa et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27657], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Calviño 2005:15 [ref. 28325], Calviño 2006:183 [ref. 28679], Costa 2006:41 [ref. 28708], Costa 2011:100 [ref. 31504], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], García et al. 2019:[12] [ref. 36487]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias nonoiuliensis (Taberner, Fernández-Santos & Castelli 1974). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: La Plata River basin: northeastern Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

notabilis, Cynopoecilus Ferrer [J.], Wingert [J. M.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2014:850, Figs. 2-7 [Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society v. 172; ref. 33589] Rio Grande do Sul, Município of Viamão, Águas Claras, rio Gravataí basin, laguna dos Patos system, temporary pool on wildlife reserve ‘Refúgio de Vida Silvestre Banhado dos Pachecos’, Brazil, 30°05′52″S, 50°51′05″W. Holotype: UFRGS 16300. Paratypes: MCP, UFRGS. •Valid as Cynopoecilus notabilis Ferrer, Wingert & Malabarba 2014 -- (Costa et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34354], Bertaco et al. 2016:425 [ref. 34561], Costa 2016:130 [ref. 34776] in subgenus Poecilopanchax, Garcez et al. 2020:[3] [ref. 37602]). Current status: Valid as Cynopoecilus notabilis Ferrer, Wingert & Malabarba 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Gravataí basin, Laguna dos Patos system (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

notatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Lacerda [M. T. C.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1990:10, Figs. 1-2 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 16652] Temporary lagoon, Munic. de Alvorada do Norte, Estados de Goiás, Brazil, 14°30'S, 46°42'W. Holotype: MZUSP 39985. Paratypes: MNHN 0000-3251 (2), MNRJ 11559 (2), MZUSP 39986 (3), plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Cynolebias notatus Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1990 -- (Costa 1995:50 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys notatus (Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1990) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Costa & Hellner 1999:91 [ref. 23864], Lazara 2001:298 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:541 [ref. 27061], Costa & Brasil 2004:2 [ref. 28012], Costa 2005:63 [ref. 28575], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:66 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias notataus (Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1990) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias notatus (Costa, Lacerda & Brasil 1990). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper Tocantins River basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nubium, Austrolebias Lanés [L. E. K.], Volcan [M. V.] & Maltchik [L.] 2021:507, Figs. 5-8, 9C-D [Zootaxa 4949 (no. 3); ref. 38189] Rio Santana, a tributary of upper rio Taquari-Antas drainage, upper rio Jacuí basin, Laguna dos Patos hydrographic system, Bom Jesus municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 28°37'00"S, 50°26'42"W, elevation 1,061 meters. Holotype: MCP 54457. Paratypes: MCP. •Valid as Austrolebias nubium Lanés, Volcan & Maltchik 2021. Current status: Valid as Austrolebias nubium Lanés, Volcan & Maltchik 2021. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: grassland pools of upper rio Taquari-Antas drainage, upper rio Jacuí basin, Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

nudiorbitatus, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2011:222, Figs. 1-2, 3a, 4a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 22 (no. 3) [for Sept.]; ref. 31654] Seasonal swamp adjacent to das Jacas Creek, upper Itapicuru River basin, near road BA-381, about 2.5 km from Filadélfia village, 11°22'51"S, 40°00'51"W, Município de Filadélfia, Bahia, Brazil, elevation 415 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6837. Paratypes: UFRJ 6838 (3, c&s), 6839 (1). •Valid as Hypsolebias nudiorbitatus Costa 2011 -- (Costa et al. 2012:73 [ref. 31845], Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias nudiorbitatus Costa 2011. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: upper Itapicuru River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

obscurus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2014:83, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33510] Temporary pools next to road BA-156, about 6 km southeast of the town of Macaúbas, Paramirim river drainage, São Francisco River basin, 13°03'10"S, 42°36'58"W, Brazil., elevation 554 meters Holotype: UFRJ 9320. Paratypes: UFRJ 6774 (1), 6775 (8), 9321 (3). •Valid as Cynolebias obscurus Costa 2014 -- (Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias obscurus Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Paramirim River drainage, São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

ocellatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.], Nielsen [D. T. B.] & de Luca [A. C.] 2001:25, Fig. [Aquarium (Brasil) v. 4 (no. 26); ref. 25934] Temporary pool in floodplain of Río Jequitinhonha, 1 kilometer west of Itaobim, road BR-367, Minas Geraís State, Brazil [ca. 16°40'S, 41°40'W, elevation about 270 m]. Holotype: MZUSP 61232. Paratypes: MZUSP 61233 (20); UFRJ 5096-97 (9, 60), 5098 (8, c&s), 5099-5102 (4, 38, 52, 208); UMMZ uncat. (24). Also appeared as new with description in Costa & Nielsen 2001:5 [ref. 26580]; earliest not determined. •Valid as Simpsonichthys ocellatus Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa & Brasil 2004:2 [ref. 28012], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:56 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias ocellatus (Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias ocellatus (Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle Jequitinhonha River floodplains, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ochraceus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2014:81, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33510] Temporary pool about 12 km west from the town of Bom Jesus da Lapa, road BR-349, 13°15'42"S. 43°31'28"W, São Francisco River Basin, Brazil, elevation 437 meters. Holotype. Paratypes: UFRJ, ZFMK. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Cynolebias ochraceus Costa 2014 -- (Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias ochraceus Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: near road BR-349, São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

opalescens, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1942:107 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Base of Serra do Petrópolis, near Imbarié, Município de Duque de Caxias, about 22°36'S, 43°12'W, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 36521. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36522 (9). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:53 [ref. 12291]. Conserved over the senior subjective synonym Cynopoecilus fluminensis Faria & Muller 1937 in Opinion 1762. Now treated as valid; Leptolebias fluminensis is on the Official Index. •Synonym of Leptolebias fluminensis (Faria & Muller 1937) -- (Costa 1995:91 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Cynolebias opalescens Myers 1942 -- (Da Cruz & Peixoto 1983:89, 90, 93 [ref. 8235]). •Valid as Leptolebias opalescens (Myers 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:194 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:383 [ref. 26544], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:154 [ref. 29596] as probably extinc, Costa 2013:357 [ref. 32567] not extinct, Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589]). •Valid as Leptopanchax opalescens (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776], Costa 2019:82 [ref. 36869], Guedes et al. 2020:2 [ref. 37981]). Current status: Valid as Leptopanchax opalescens (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Atlantic coastal river basins (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

oticus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2014:91, Fig. 6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33510] Temporary pool close to road BR-122, about 8 km south of village of Pindaí, Mata Veado creek floodplains, Verde River drainage, 14°33'39"S, 42°42'10"E, São Francisco River Basin, Brazil, elevation 628 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 9437. Paratypes: BMNH 2013.6.23.5-6 (2), SMF, UFRJ, ZFMK. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Cynolebias oticus Costa 2014 -- (Costa 2017:340 [ref. 35623], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias oticus Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Mata Veado creek floodplains, Verde River drainage, São Francisco River Basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

papilliferus, Nematolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2002:47, Figs. 5-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 13 (no. 1); ref. 26064] Temporary pool close to a small stream of laguna de Maricá system, road RJ-106, 22°55'14.5"S, 42°55'41.4"W, Inoã, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 52964. Paratypes: BMNH 2013.6.23.11-12 (2); MZUSP 52965 (1), 52966 (4); UFRJ 2200 (2), 4652 (2, c&s), 4710 (19, 2 c&s), 4711 (3), 5295 (16), 5296 (4), 5360 (12), 5361 (12), 5364 (71), 5365 (10, 5 c&s); UMMZ 234763 (15). •Valid as Nematolebias papilliferus Costa 2002 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:532 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:15 [ref. 28620], Costa et al. 2014:226 [ref. 33239]). Current status: Valid as Nematolebias papilliferus Costa 2002. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Laguna de Maricá and Laguna de Saquarema basins, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

paraguassuensis, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Suzart [R. dos R.] & Nielsen [D. T. B.] 2007:130, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 29226] Município de Itaberaba, temporary pool close to road BA-488, near riacho Novo, a tributary of rio Paraguaçu, about 12°20'S, 40°00'W, Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6454. Paratypes: UFRJ 6455 (5), 6456 (1), 6457 (3, c&s). •Valid as Cynolebias paraguassuensis Costa, Suzart & Nielsen 2007 -- (Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias paraguassuensis Costa, Suzart & Nielsen 2007. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Paraguaçu River drainage (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

parallelus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2000:13, Figs. 7-8 [Aquarium (Brasil) v. 3 (no. 25); ref. 25933] Alagado sazonal na várzea do rio Formoso, um tributário do rio Correntes, Estado de Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 57357. Paratypes: MCP 22681 (4); MZUSP 57538 (4); UFRJ 4838-39 (7, 4), 5196-97 (16, 4). •Valid as Simpsonichthys parallelus Costa 2000 -- (Costa et al. 2003:140 [ref. 26946], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa & Brasil 2006:221 [ref. 28843], Costa 2007:200 [ref. 29338], Costa 2007:29 [ref. 29445], Costa 2012:314 [ref. 31750], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304]). Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys parallelus Costa 2000. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Formoso River, Goiás, rio Paranaíba drainage, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

paranaensis, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2006:69, Fig. 28 [Zootaxa No. 1213; ref. 28708] Temporary pools adjacent to río Paraná, about 2 kilometers east of Ayolas, 27°24'00"'S, 56°46'12"W, Misiones, Paraguay. Holotype: UFRJ 6239. Paratypes: UFRJ 4974 (3, c&s), 4975 (11). •Valid as Austrolebias paranaensis Costa 2006 -- (Volcan et al. 2017:387 [ref. 35260], Koerber et al. 2017:70 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias paranaensis Costa 2006. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Paraná River floodplains, southern Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

paranaguensis, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1952:131 [Aquarium Journal v. 23 (no. 7); ref. 3125] Name mentioned without correlation to text. See Cynolebias aureoguttatus Myers 1952. •In the synonymy of Leptolebias aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974) -- (Lazara 2001:193 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:149 [ref. 29596]). •In the synonymy of Leptopanchax aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Leptopanchax aureoguttatus (Da Cruz 1974). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

parietalis, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2014:89, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33510] Temporary pool about 1 km east of the village of Gado Bravo, Verde Gande river floodplains, São Francisco River Basin,14°55'16"S, 43°29'31"W, Brazil, elevation 450 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 9449. Paratypes: BMNH 2013.6.23.5-6 (2), UFRJ, ZFMK. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Cynolebias parietalis Costa 2014. Current status: Valid as Cynolebias parietalis Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Temporary pool near Gordo Bravo, São Francisco River Basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

parnaibensis, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Ramos [T. P. A.], Alexandre [L. C.] & Ramos [R. T. C.] 2010:284, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 30866] Seasonal lagoon at the right side of the road between Conceição do Canindé and Jacobina do Piauí, 8°00'54"S, 41°25'26"W, Município de Jacobina do Piauí, Estado do Piauí, Brazil. Holotype: UFPB 6719. Paratypes: UFPB 6709 (6), 6734 (2), 6735 (3, 2 c&s), 6736 (2). •Valid as Cynolebias parnaibensis Costa, Ramos, Alexandre & Ramos 2010 -- (Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias parnaibensis Costa, Ramos, Alexandre & Ramos 2010. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Northeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

pataxo, Xenurolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] in Costa & Amorim 2014:358, Figs. 3-4, 8 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 12 (issue 3); ref. 33343] Seasonal pool within forest, about 5 km W of the town of Mucuri, Mucuri municipality, Bahia State, Brazil, 18°03'48"S, 39°33'53"W. Holotype: UFRJ 9732. Paratypes: UFRJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Xenurolebias pataxo Costa 2014. Current status: Valid as Xenurolebias pataxo Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Mucuri, Itanhem and Jucuruçu river basins, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

patriciae, Cynolebias Huber [J. H.] 1995:6, Fig. 2 [Killi-Contact - Périodique bimestriel Spec. publ.; ref. 22880] Ditch along the road to Clorinda, Presidente Hayes Province, about 500 meters south of Río Negro, 25.25°S, 57.67°W, Paraguay. Holotype: ANSP 170424. Paratypes: ANSP 170424B (5), MACN (2), MNHN 1993-3620 (5), MNHNP (4). Apparently appeared first as above in ref. 22880, then in Huber 1995:114, Figs. 2-4 [ref. 22204]. •Valid as Austrolebias patriciae (Huber 1995) -- (Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:63 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Calviño 2005:16 [ref. 28325] as cf. patriciae, Calviño 2006:183 [ref. 28679] as cf. patriciae, Costa 2006:95 [ref. 28708], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Calviño et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34699], Koerber et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35267], Alonso et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35938]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias patriciae (Huber 1995). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Paraguay and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

paucisquama, Austrolebias Ferrer [J.], Malabarba [L. R.] & Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2008:176, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 29705] São Sepé, temporary pool close to BR-290 highway (30°22'27"S, 53°33'42"W), rio Vacacaí drainage, rio Jacuí tributary, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 41879. Paratypes: MCP 41880 (26, 3 c&s); UFRGS 9354 (3, c&s), 9355 (7); UFRJ 6522 (10, 2 c&s). •Valid as Austrolebias paucisquama Ferrer, Malabarba & Costa 2008 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Volcan et al. 2017:151 [ref. 35644], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias paucisquama Ferrer, Malabarba & Costa 2008. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Rio Vacacaí drainage, Laguna dos Patos drainage, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

pelotapes, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Cheffe [M. M.] in Costa, Cheffe & Amorim 2017:141, Figs. 2-3 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 67 (no. 2); ref. 35626] Temporary pool in the Sanga Funda drainage, tributary of Arroio Pelotas, Município de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 31°43'46"S, 52°19'07"W. Holotype: UFRJ 8601. Paratypes: CIMC, UFRJ. •Valid as Austrolebias pelotapes Costa & Cheffe 2017 -- (Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias pelotapes Costa & Cheffe 2017. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: drainages to the northern margin of the Canal de São Gonçalo, Laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

perforatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1991:56, Figs. 1, 2b [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16651] Near the City of Januária, County of Januária, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41376. Paratypes: MZUSP 42377 (3) •Valid as Cynolebias perforatus Costa & Brasil 1991 -- (Costa 1995:82 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:238 [ref. 23578], Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:77 [ref. 25711], Costa 2001:367 [ref. 25719], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:147 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:79 [ref. 33510]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias perforatus Costa & Brasil 1991. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

periodicus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1999:299, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 4); ref. 24229] Temporary flood-plains of the rio Santa Maria, rio Ibicuí drainage, rio Uruguai basin, road BR-293, 4 kilometers west from Dom Pedrito, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 20819. Paratypes: MCP 20820 (5); MZUSP uncat. (4); UMMZ 234761 (4); UFRJ 4671 (12), 4672 (6, c&s). •Valid as Austrolebias periodicus (Costa 1999) -- (Lazara 2001:63 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:83 [ref. 28708], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Volcan et al. 2017:151 [ref. 35644], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias periodicus (Costa 1999). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

perpendicularis, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.], Nielsen [D. T. B.] & de Luca [A. C.] 2001:26, Fig. [Aquarium (Brasil) v. 4 (no. 26); ref. 25934] Poça temporária perto do ribeirão do Salto, Estrada entre Itarantim e Jordânia, about 6 kilometers de Jordânia, bacia deo rio Jequitinhonha, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62570. Paratypes: MZUSP 62571 (5); UFRJ 5144-45 (10, 5). •Valid as Simpsonichthys perpendicularis Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa 2004:6 [ref. 27569], Costa 2007:21 [ref. 29445], Costa & Lima 2010:205 [ref. 31041] in subgenus Ophthalmolebias). •Valid as Ophthalmolebias perpendicularis (Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001) -- (Silva et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Ophthalmolebias perpendicularis (Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Jequitinhonha River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

picturatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2000:12, Figs. 5-6 [Aquarium (Brasil) v. 3 (no. 25); ref. 25933] Poça temporária perto de Volta das Pedras, rio São Francisco basin, Bahia, Brazil [12°24'08.7"S, 43°12'17.7"W, elevation 445 meters]. Holotype: MZUSP 59228. Paratypes: MZUSP 59229 (8); UFRJ 5053 (46), 5054 (7), 5194 (15), 5194 [sic] (8). •Valid as Simpsonichthys picturatus Costa 2000 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa & Nielsen 2004:126 [ref. 27825], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:93 [ref. 29445], Costa 2010:77 [ref. 30777]). •Valid as Hypsolebias picturatus (Costa 2000) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654], Nielsen et al. 2014:28 [ref. 33143], Nielsen et al. 2014:132 [ref. 33451], Costa et al. 2018:155 [ref. 36034], Costa et al. 2018:499 [ref. 36319], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias picturatus (Costa 2000). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: middle São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

pilleti, Spectrolebias Nielsen [D. T. B.] & Brousseau [R.] 2013:117, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 19 (no. 3); ref. 32794] Departamento Santa Cruz, Quimone city, 45.40 km west of San José dos Chiquitos, temporary pool near the río Quimone, the río San Pablo basin, (17°42’48.1"S, 61°08’56.1"W), Bolivia, altitude 263 meters. Holotype: MNKP 11153. Paratypes: MNKP 11154 (13), ZUEC 7296 (2). •Valid as Spectrolebias pilleti Nielsen & Brousseau 2013 -- (Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Nielsen & Pillet 2015:186 [ref. 34009]). Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias pilleti Nielsen & Brousseau 2013. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Río San Pablo basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

pongondo, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Cheffe [M. M.] in Costa, Cheffe & Amorim 2017:144, Fig. 5 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 67 (no. 2); ref. 35626] Swamp at the road to Torotama island, Arraial, Povo Novo district, Município de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 31°55'54"S, 52°14'42"W. Holotype: UFRJ 9583. Paratypes: CIMC, UFRJ. •Valid as Austrolebias pongondo Costa & Cheffe 2017 -- (Fernandes et al. 2020:[3] 3 [ref. 38700], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias pongondo Costa & Cheffe 2017. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: temporary pools and swamps in the floodplains south of the São Gonçalo channel, Rio Grande do Sul state, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

porosus, Cynolebias Steindachner [F.] 1876:173 [125], Pl. 10 (fig. 3) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4225] Pernambuco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 15096. On p. 125 of separate. •Valid as Cynolebias porosus Steindachner 1876 -- (Costa 1995:84 [ref. 22097], Costa 1998:238 [ref. 23578], Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:78 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2014:93 [ref. 33510], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias porosus Steindachner 1876. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Atlantic coastal plains (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

prognathus, Cynolebias Amato [L. H.] 1986:7, Pl. 4 (fig. 7) [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 11 (no. 162); ref. 9170] Floodlands of Maravillas, 13 kilometers from route 9, La Coronilla, Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: MHNM 2609 [not 2577 on Pl. 4]. Paratypes: MHNM 2446 (1), 2598 (2), 2605 (9). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:413 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias prognathus Amato 1986 -- (Malabarba 1989:159 [ref. 14217], Costa 1995:76 [ref. 22097], Berkenkamp et al. 1997:33 [ref. 23147]). •Valid as Megalebias prognathus (Amato 1986) -- (Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:204 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Austrolebias prognathus (Amato 1986) -- (Costa 2006:52 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Lanés et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33234], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias prognathus (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Lagoa Mirim basin and adjacent coastal basins, Laguna dos Patos system, southern Brazil and eastern Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

pterophyllus, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] in Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2012:88, Figs. 11, 16 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 31845] Seasonal pool near road BR-161, São Francisco River floodplains, 6 km north of Igarité, 11°34'27"S, 43°21'06"W, Estado da Bahia, Brazil, elevation 420 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8376. Paratypes: BMNH 2011.11.17.3-6 (3), plus many at UFRJ. Plus addtional non-type material. •Valid as Hypsolebias pterophyllus Costa 2012 -- (Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias pterophyllus Costa 2012. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: banks of São Francisco River (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

punctulatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 2007:58, Figs. 1-2 [Vertebrate Zoology v. 57 (no. 1); ref. 29215] Temporary swamp adjacent to a stream tributary fo rio Bezerra, rio Preto drainage, rio São Francisco basin, near road BR-020, 15°33'01.0"S, 47°10'33.2"W, Município de Formosa, Goiás, Brazil, elevation 901 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6478. Paratypes: UFRJ 6479 (3), 6480 (5). •Valid as Simpsonichthys punctulatus Costa & Brasil 2007 -- (Costa 2007:33 [ref. 29445], Costa 2012:314 [ref. 31750], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304]). Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys punctulatus Costa & Brasil 2007. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Tributary of Bezerra River, upper Paracatu River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Goiás, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

queguay, Austrolebias Serra [W. S.] & Loureiro [M.] 2018:548, Figs. 1, 2A-B, 2G, 3A [Zoosystematics and Evolution v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 36329] Wetlands of Río Queguay Grande, Estancia La Beba, Paysandú, Uruguay, 32°11'08"S, 57°26'08"W. Holotype: ZVC-P 13576. Paratypes: CAP, GP, MHNM, ZVC. •Valid as Austrolebias queguay Serra & Loureiro 2018 -- (Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019:550 [ref. 36539], Koerber et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37480]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias queguay Serra & Loureiro 2018. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: wetlands of the middle Queguay River basin, Paysandú (Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

quirogai, Austrolebias Loureiro [M.], Duarte [A.] & Zarucki [M.] 2011:336, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 31392] Rio Negro basin, pound near arroyo Cordobés, 32°36'59"S, 55°19'24"W, Departmento de Cerro Largo, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC-P 9758. Paratypes: many at ZVC. Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Austrolebias quirogai Loureiro, Duarte & Zarucki 2011 -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias quirogai Loureiro, Duarte & Zarucki 2011. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Temporary ponds, middle to upper and eastern rio Negro tributaries, Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

radiosus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 2004:2 [Zootaxa No. 737; ref. 28012] About 6 kilometers from confluence with Rio Paranã, about 15°20'S, 47°20'W, Rio Crixás floodplains, Est. Goías, Brazil, elevation about 800 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6017. Paratypes: UFRJ 6018-21 (9, 6, 6, 5). •Valid as Simpsonichthys radiosus Costa & Brasil 2004 -- (Costa 2005:63 [ref. 28575], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:68 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias radiosus (Costa & Brasil 2004) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias radiosus (Costa & Brasil 2004). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Crixás floodplains, Paraná River drainage, upper Tocantins River basin, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

radiseriatus, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] in Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2012:83, Figs. 7, 14 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 31845] Seasonal swamp adjacent to right bank of Verde Grande River, a tributary of São Francisco River, near the village of Gado Bravo, 14°55'20"S, 43°29'56"W, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, elevation 457 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8295. Paratypes: UFRJ 8294 (4, c&s), 8296 (12), 4780 (4), 4781 (5), 8298 (5, c&s). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Hypsolebias radiseriatus Costa 2012 -- (Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias radiseriatus Costa 2012. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Verde Grande River drainage, São Francisco River system, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

rectiventer, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2014:87, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33510] Seasonal lagoon in the floodplains of the Verde River, 10°43'20"S, 42°20'30"W, elevation 404 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8896. Paratypes: BMNH 2013.6.23.7-8 (2), UFRJ, ZFMJ •Valid as Cynolebias rectiventer Costa 2014 -- (Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias rectiventer Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Verde River floodplains, São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

regani, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1952:139 [Aquarium Journal v. 23 (no. 7); ref. 3125] Not available, name only. Subsequent validation of name not researched. •Nomen nudum in genus Cynolebias -- (Lazara 2001:78 [ref. 25711]). •Nomen nudum in synonymy of Cynolebias microphthalmus Costa & Brasil 1995 -- (Costa 2001:354 [ref. 25719], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Cynolebias microphthalmus Costa & Brasil 1995. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

reicherti, Cynolebias Loureiro [M.] & García [G.] 2004:16, Figs. 2A-B [Acta Zoológica Lilloana v. 48 (no. 1-2); ref. 28591] Temporary pool 300 meters east of Rte 18, 1 kilometer north of Vergara City, about 32°55'S, 53°54'W, Dept. de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC-P 4362. Paratypes: ZVC-P 4363 (18, 9 c&s), 4365 (5, 2 c&s), 4366 (5), 4367 (5), 4370 (10). Type catalog: Loureiro et al. 2016:414 [ref. 35150]. •Synonym of Austrolebias charrua Costa & Cheffe 2001 -- (Costa 2006:120 [ref. 28708]). •Valid as Austrolebias reicherti (Loureiro & García 2004) -- (Loureiro & García 2008:10 [ref. 30099], Volcan et al. 2014:170 [ref. 33543], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565] with authors as Loureiro & García 2004, Costa et al. 2017:142 [ref. 35626], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Volcan et al. 2021:104 [ref. 38292] as aff. reicherti). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias reicherti (Loureiro & García 2004). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: southern Laguna Merín basin and adjacent coastal plains on the border of Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Nielsen [D. T. B.] 2003:120, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 27246] Altamira, about 3°15'S, 52°20'W [3°13'34.5"S, 52°12'26.1"W], Estado do Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 34090. Paratypes: UFRJ 5871 (2, 1 c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys reticulatus Costa & Nielsen 2003 -- (Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:42 [ref. 29445], Costa & Brasil 2008:245 [ref. 29968]). •Valid as Spectrolebias reticulatus (Costa & Nielsen 2003) -- (Nielsen 2013:81 [ref. 32696], Costa & Amorim 2018:366 [ref. 36019]). Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias reticulatus (Costa & Nielsen 2003). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Lower Xingu River floodplains, Brazilian Amazon, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

robustus, Cynolebias Günther [A.] 1883:140 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 11 (no. 62) (art. 18); ref. 21260] Within 10 miles of San Antonio, La Plata, Province Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.6.28.12. •Synonym of Cynolebias elongatus Steindachner 1881 -- (Costa 1995:78 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Austrolebias bellotti (Steindachner 1881) -- (Lazara 2001:60 [ref. 25711]). •Synonym of Megalebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881). •Valid as Austrolebias robustus (Günther 1883) -- (Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:1 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Costa et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27657], Calviño 2005:15 [ref. 28325], Calviño 2006:183 [ref. 28679], Costa 2006:37 [ref. 28708], Costa 2011:100 [ref. 31504], Koerber 2011:7 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:8 [ref. 35632], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], García et al. 2019:[12] [ref. 36487], Koerber et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36736]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias robustus (Günther 1883). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: La Plata River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

rosaceus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.], Nielsen [D. T. B.] & de Luca [A. C.] 2001:28, Fig. [Aquarium (Brasil) v. 4 (no. 26); ref. 25934] Poça temporária perto do rio Pardo, estrada entre Potiguará e Itapetinga, Bahia, Brazil [ca. 15°30'S, 39°50'W, elevation about 170 m]. Holotype: MZUSP 62572. Paratypes: MZUSP 62573 (5); UFRJ 5146-47 (20, 4). •Valid as Simpsonichthys rosaceus Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa 2004:6 [ref. 27569], Costa 2007:22 [ref. 29445], Costa & Lima 2010:205 [ref. 31041] in subgenus Ophthalmolebias). •Valid as Ophthalmolebias rosaceus (Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001) -- (Silva et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Ophthalmolebias rosaceus (Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: middle Pardo River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

roseus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2014:85, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 25 (no. 1); ref. 33510] Temporary pools close to road BA-161, about 15 km north of the town of Barra, São Francisco River floodplains,10°58'28"S, 43°03'00"W, Brazil, elevation 410 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 9330. Paratypes: UFRJ 9331 (4), 9332 (11), 6724 (4). •Valid as Cynolebias roseus Costa 2014 -- (Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias roseus Costa 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: temporary pools near Barra, São Francisco River Basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

rufus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.], Nielsen [D. T. B.] & de Luca [A. C.] 2001:29, Fig. [Aquarium (Brasil) v. 4 (no. 26); ref. 25934] Temporary pool in vicinity of Riacho do Barro, Ibiaí, in floodplain of Río São Francisco, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 61234. Paratypes: MZUSP 61235 (1); UFRJ 5110-13 (3, 2, 3, 4). Also appeared as new with description in Costa & Nielsen 2001:8 [ref. 26580]; earliest not determined. •Valid as Simpsonichthys rufus Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa & Brasil 2004:2 [ref. 28012] with authors as Costa & Nielsen, Costa 2005:63 [ref. 28575], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:59 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias rufus (Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias rufus (Costa, Nielsen & de Luca 2001). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

salviai, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Litz [T.] & Laurino [P.] in Costa 2006:137, Fig. 51 [Zootaxa No. 1213; ref. 28708] Paso del Dragón, temporary swamp near río Tacuari, laguna Merín basin, 32°45.95'S, 53°43.19'W, Treinta y Tres Province, Uruguay. Holotype: MUNH [MUNHINA] 3208. Paratypes: CIMC 9567 (6); MUNH 3209 (2), 3210 (7); UFRJ 6169 (8), 6170 (4, c&s), 6171 (2); ZSM 33389 (8), 33390 (4). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:276 [ref. 31652]. •Synonym of Austrolebias reicherti (Loureiro & García 2004) -- (Loureiro & García 2008:10 [ref. 30099], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622]). •Possibly valid as Austrolebias salviai Costa, Litz & Laurino 2006 -- (Costa et al. 2017:147 [ref. 35626]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias reicherti (Loureiro & García 2004). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Laguna Merin basin, Uruguay [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

sandrii, Gynopoecilus Faria [A.] & Muller [H.] 1937:98, Fig. 1 [Revista Naval No. 3; ref. 19184] Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Syntypes: (?5, lost). Suppressed for purposes of priority but not homonymy; placed on Official Index (Opinion 1762); same as Cynolebias splendens Myers 1942. Original genus an error for Cynopoecilus. •Valid as Cynolebias sandrii (Faria & Muller 1937) -- (Costa & Lacerda 1988:129 [ref. 19183], Costa 1995:93 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Leptolebias sandrii (Faria & Muller 1937) -- (Costa 1998:73 [ref. 23792]). •Synonym of Leptolebias splendens (Myers 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:195 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leptopanchax splendens (Myers 1942). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Leptopanchax splendens (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

sanguineus, Leptopanchax Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2019:75, Figs. 1-2A [ZooKeys No. 867; ref. 36869] Temporary swamp in Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Campo Escoteiro Geraldo Hugo Nunes, Magé River basin near the village of Citrolândia, Magé Municipality, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 22°34'57"S, 43°02'08"W, elevation about 30 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 51331. Paratypes: MNRJ 11413 (2), MZUSP 38443 (1). •Valid as Leptopanchax sanguineus Costa 2019. Current status: Valid as Leptopanchax sanguineus Costa 2019. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Magé River basina, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

santanae, Cynolebias Shibatta [O. A.] & Garavello [J. C.] 1992:182, Fig. 5 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 5 (no. 11); ref. 21420] Right bank of ribeirão Sant'ana [Santana], Distrito Federal, 750 meters from border of Distrito Federal with Goiás, Brazil, [16°02'31"S, 47°45'38"W]. Holotype: MZUSP 43777. Paratypes: MCP 15453 (4), MZUSP 43778 (41). •Valid as Simpsonichthys santanae (Shibatta & Garavello 1992) -- (Costa & Brasil 1996:95 [ref. 22917], Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:298 [ref. 25711], Costa et al. 2003:140 [ref. 26946], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa & Brasil 2006:221 [ref. 28843], Costa & Brasil 2007:60 [ref. 29215], Costa 2007:200 [ref. 29338], Costa 2007:38 [ref. 29445], Costa & Nielsen 2007:69 [ref. 35757], Costa 2012:314 [ref. 31750], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys santanae (Shibatta & Garavello 1992). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Ribeirão Santana floodplains, upper Paraná River basin, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

schreitmuelleri, Cynolebias Ahl [E.] in Schreitmüller 1934:673, Fig. 1 [Wochenschrift für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 31 (no. 43); ref. 35925] Laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Neotype: UFRJ 6218. Later described, as Cynolebias schreitmülleri, by Ahl 1934: 308 [ref. 16410]. No types at ZMB: Paepke & Seegers 1986:157 [ref. 19981], Paepke 1995:94 [ref. 21847]; 3 syntypes lost. Neotype designated by Costa 2006:48 [ref. 28708]. •Synonym of Megalebias wolterstorffi (Ahl 1924) -- (Lazara 2001:204 [ref. 25711]). •Regarded as a nomen dubium, incertae sedis -- (Costa 2001:347 [ref. 25719]). •Synonym of Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl 1924) -- (Costa 2006:48 [ref. 28708], Lanés et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33234], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl 1924). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

semiocellatus, Spectrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Nielsen [D. T. B.] 1997:259, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 22744] Rio Araguaia Basin, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 50654. Paratypes: MZUSP 50655 (3); UFRJ 3632 (6), 3633 (5, c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys semiocellatus (Costa & Nielsen 1997) -- (Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:52 [ref. 29445], Costa & Brasil 2008:245 [ref. 29968]). •Valid as Spectrolebias semiocellatus Costa & Nielsen 1997 -- (Costa 1998:74 [ref. 23792], Costa & Le Bail 1999:1028 [ref. 24187], Lazara 2001:301 [ref. 25711], Costa et al. 2003:144 [ref. 26946], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Nielsen 2013:81 [ref. 32696], Niesen & Brousseau 2013:116 [ref. 32794], Costa & Amorim 2018:365 [ref. 36019]). Current status: Valid as Spectrolebias semiocellatus Costa & Nielsen 1997. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Araguaia River basin, central Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sertanejo, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] in Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2012:85, Figs. 9, 15 [Systematics and Biodiversity v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 31845] Seasonal pool east of town of Januária, São Francisco River floodplains, 15°30'01"S, 44°23'18"W, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil, elevation 450 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 8380. Paratypes: BMNH 2011.11.17.12-15 (4), plus many at UFRJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Hypsolebias sertanejo Costa 2012 -- (Costa et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32952], Britzke et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34461]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias sertanejo Costa 2012. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper part of middle São River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

shibattai, Hypsolebias Nielsen [D. T. B.], Martins [M.], Araujo [L. M. de] & Suzart [R. dos R.] 2014:2, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 33143] Bahia, Bom Jesus da Lapa, rio São Fancisco basin, temporary pool at road BR-430, 13°21'16"S, 43°17'15"W, Brazil, elevation 433 meters. Holotype: ZUEC 7648. Paratypes: MZUEL 7879 (4), ZUEC 7649 (6). •Valid as Hypsolebias shibattai Nielsen, Martins, Araujo & Suzart 2014 -- (Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias shibattai Nielsen, Martins, Araujo & Suzart 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Bon Jesus de Lapa (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

sicheleri, Cynopoecilus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1939:363 [Boletim Biológico, São Paulo (Nova Série) v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 3023] Base of the Serra de Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Syntypes: MNRJ 4739 (8). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:398 [ref. 12732] as sichcleri on p. 391. Also misprinted ticheleri (see Huber 2006:11 [ref. 28935]). •Synonym of Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934) -- (Costa 1995:92 [ref. 22097], Lazara 2001:193 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:380 [ref. 26544], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29596]). Current status: Synonym of Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

similis, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Hellner [S.] 1999:90, Fig. 1 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 25 (no. 3/4) [for 1998]; ref. 23864] Temporary pool close to Urucuia, road to São Romão, rio Urucuia basins, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil [ca. 16°05'S, 454°45'W, elevation about 500 m]. Holotype: MZUSP 51834. Paratypes: MZUSP 51835 (1); UFRJ 4146 (1), 4147 (5, c&s), 4148 (1). •Valid as Simpsoichthys similis Costa & Hellner 1999 -- (Lazara 2001:298 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa & Brasil 2004:2 [ref. 28012], Costa 2005:63 [ref. 28575], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:70 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias similis (Costa & Hellner 1999) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias similis (Costa & Hellner 1999). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

spinifer, Cynolebias Ahl [E.] 1934:310 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 108 (nos 11/12); ref. 16410] La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Lectotype: ZMH H64. Paralectotypes: ZMB 21164 (2), ZMH H38 (2). Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:161 [ref. 19181], Paepke & Seegers 1986:157 [ref. 19981], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:404 [ref. 21161] with syntypes. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:94 [ref. 21847] as spinnifer. •Synonym of Cynolebias elongatus Steindachner 1881 -- (Costa 1995:78 [ref. 22097]). •Synonym of Megalebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Lazara 2001:203 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Austrolebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881) -- (Costa 2006:57 [ref. 28708], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias elongatus (Steindachner 1881). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

splendens, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1942:110 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Water holes or ponds along base of Serra de Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 36527. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36528 (3). Type catalog: Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:53 [ref. 12291]. Conserved over senior subjective synonym Cynopoecilus [as Gynopoecilus] sandrii Faria & Muller 1937 (Case 2792) and placed on Official List (Opinion 1762). •Synonym of Cynolebias sandrii (Faria & Muller 1937) -- (Costa & Lacerda 1988:129 [ref. 19183], Costa 1995:94 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Leptolebias splendens (Myers 1942) -- (Lazara 2001:195 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:383 [ref. 26544], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:155 [ref. 29596], Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589]). •Valid as Leptopanchax splendens (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776], Costa 2019:82 [ref. 36869]). Current status: Valid as Leptopanchax splendens (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Atlantic coastal river basins, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

splendissimus, Hypsolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] in Costa, Amorim & Mattos 2018:498, Figs. 2-3 [Zoosystematics and Evolution v. 94 (no. 2); ref. 36319] Temporary pool close to road BR-030, about 1.5 km W from the confluence between the Poço do Magro River and the Carnaíba de Dentro River, São Francisco River basin, Guanambi, Bahia, Brazil, 14°12'54"S, 42°50'22"W, elevation about 505 meters. Holotype: UFRJ 6909. Paratypes: UFRJ. •Valid as Hypsolebias splendissimus Costa 2018. Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias splendissimus Costa 2018. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River basin, Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

stellatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1994:5, Fig. 1 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 21 (no. 1/2); ref. 21598] Temporary pool, 1 kilometer north of São Francisco, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 12446. Paratypes: MNRJ 12518 (3); MZUSP 45771 (4); UFRJ 2066 (5), 2067 (4, 3 c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys stellatus (Costa & Brasil 1994) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:298 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa & Brasil 2004:2 [ref. 28012], Costa 2005:63 [ref. 28575], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:61 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias stellatus (Costa & Brasil 1994) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias stellatus (Costa & Brasil 1994). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle São Francisco River floodplains, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

suzarti, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2004:2, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 468; ref. 27569] Temporary pool near Canavieiras, rio Pardo floodplains, about 15°45'S, 39°00'W, northeastern Brazil, elevation about 4 meters. Holotype: MCP 34088. Paratypes: UFRJ 5810 (1), 5811 (2, 1 c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys suzarti Costa 2004 -- (Costa 2007:18 [ref. 29445], Costa & Lima 2010:205 [ref. 31041] in subgenus Ophthalmolebias). •Valid as Ophthalmolebias suzarti (Costa 2004) -- (Silva et al. 2020:15 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Ophthalmolebias suzarti (Costa 2004). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Rio Pardo floodplains (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

toba, Austrolebias Calviño [P. A.] 2006:183, Figs. 1-4 [Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", n.s. v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 28679] Temporary ponds, lower río Bermejo basin, Chaco Province, Argentina. Holotype: MLP 9652. Paratypes: BMNH 2005.10.27.1-5 (5); MACN 8893 (4); MLP 9653 (18, now 9). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:19 [ref. 33466]. •Valid as Austrolebias toba Calviño 2006 -- (Koerber 2011:7 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:12 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Calviño et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34699], Volcan et al. 2017:387 [ref. 35260], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias toba Calviño 2006. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Lower Bermejo River basin, Chaco Province, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

tocantinensis, Hypsolebias Nielsen [D. T. B.], Cruz [J. C.] & Baptista [A. C., jr.] 2012:64, Fig. 1,2 [Zootaxa No. 3527; ref. 32283] Campestre do Maranhao, temporary pool near rio Lajeado, rio Tocantins basin, 6°05'12.43"S, 47°22'54.01"W, Maranhao, Brazil, altitude 133 meters. Holotype: ZUEC 7019. Paratypes: ZUEC 7020 (8). •Valid as Hypsolebias tocantinensis Nielsen, Cruz & Baptista 2012. Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias tocantinensis Nielsen, Cruz & Babtista 2012. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins basin, Maranhao, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

trifasciatus, Hypsolebias Nielsen [D. T. B.], Martins [M.], Araujo [L. M. de], Lira [F. O. de] & Faour [A.] 2014:133, Figs. 1-2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 20 (no. 3); ref. 33451] Bahia, Santa Rita de Cássia, rio Preto, rio São Francisco basin, temporary pool at road BA-225, 11°02’33.1’’S, 4°18’25.4’’W, Brazil, altitude 450 meters. Holotype: ZUEC 8302. Paratypes: ZEUC 8303 (10). Fifth author originally appeared as Amer Four, corrected in erratum. •Valid as Hypsolebias trifasciatus Nielsen, Martins, Araujo, Lira & Faour 2014 -- (Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias trifasciatus Nielsen, Martins, Araujo, Lira & Faour 2014. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: temporary pool, Rio Preto (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

trilineatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1994:8, Fig. 5 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 21 (no. 1/2); ref. 21598] Joãs Pinheiro, near River Paracatú, close to city of Brasilândia, Rio São Francisco basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 12525. Paratypes: MNRJ 12526 (1); UFRJ 2132 (1, c&s), 2133 (2). •Valid as Simpsonichthys trilineatus (Costa & Brasil 1994) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Costa & Hellner 1999:91 [ref. 23864], Costa & Nielsen 2000:11 [ref. 24442], Lazara 2001:298 [ref. 25711], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa & Brasil 2004:2 [ref. 28012], Costa 2005:63 [ref. 28575], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa 2007:77 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias trilineatus (Costa & Brasil 1994) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias trilineatus (Costa & Brasil 1994). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Middle Paracatu River floodplains, middle São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

univentripinnis, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Cheffe [M. M.] 2005:44, Figs. 1A-B [Zootaxa No. 1052; ref. 28356] Temporary swamp about 200 meters from rio Jaguarão river bank, laguna dos Patos system, Jaguarão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6081. Paratypes: CIMC 8625 (33), 8629 (8), 8631 (12), 8635 (174), 8642 (41); UFRJ 6082 (4), 6083 (6, c&s), 6086 (28). •Valid as Austrolebias univentripinnis Costa & Cheffe 2005 -- (Costa 2006:101 [ref. 28708], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Serra & Loureiro 2018:554 [ref. 36329], Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019:550 [ref. 36539]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias univentripinnis Costa & Cheffe 2005. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Jaguarão River drainage, Lake Mirim system, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

vandenbergi, Cynolebias Huber [J. H.] 1995:7, Fig. 3, col. pl. (upper fig.) [Killi-Contact - Périodique bimestriel Spec. publ.; ref. 22880] Near Fortin Toledo, Boqueron Dept., 22.27°S, 60.54°W, Province of Presidente Hayes, Paraguay. Holotype: ZMA 121270. Paratypes: ANSP 169800 (orig. 4, now 2), 169801-11 (5, 10, 6, 5, 14, 4, 3, 5, 4, 7, 1), 170425-26 (2, 1); FMNH 105075 (3); MHNG 2571.72 (3); MNHN 1993-0297 (3), 1993-3618 (4), 1994-1107 (5); MNHNP [ex ANSP] (2); NMW 92900 (2); NRM 20231 (2), UFRJ 3028-29 (2, 6); ZMA 121272 (4), 121276-79 (4, 4, 3, 4), 121282 (2). Also appeared as new in Huber 1995 (Nov.):107, Figs. 6-8 [ref. 22204]. Named after Leen van den Berg and his son Arjen, so mandatory change to vandenbergorum ICZN Art. 31.1.2. •Valid as Austrolebias vandenbergi (Huber 1995) -- (Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:63 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:11 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:69 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:86 [ref. 28131], Calviño 2005:15 [ref. 28325], Calviño 2006:183 [ref. 28679], Costa 2006:111 [ref. 28708], Montaña et al. 2012:589 [ref. 32122], Sarmiento et al. 2014:187 [ref. 35004], Nielsen & Pillet 2015:175 [ref. 34011], Mirande & Koerber 2015:51 [ref. 35117], Alonso et al. 2016:6 [ref. 34643], Calviño et al. 2016:10 [ref. 34699], Koerber et al. 2017:71 [ref. 35267], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Serra & Loureiro 2018:554 [ref. 36329], Volcan & Severo-Neto 2019:550 [ref. 36539]). •Valid as Austrolebias vandenbergorum (Huber 1995). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias vandenbergorum (Huber 1995). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Semi-arid Chaco Region in north Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

varzeae, Austrolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.], Reis [R. E.] & Behr [E. R.] 2004:14, Fig. 1 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 27657] Temporary lagoon close to the rio da Várzea, Fazenda dos Branda, Carazinho, rio Uruguay basin, about 28°18'S, 52°48'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 29641. Paratypes: MCP 23667 (9, 1 c&s); UFRJ 5431-32 (2, 2). •Valid as Austrolebias varzeae Costa, Reis & Behr 2004 -- (Costa 2006:93 [ref. 28708], Costa 2011:100 [ref. 31504], Costa 2014:101 [ref. 33514], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Alonso et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35938], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Lanés et al. 2021:517 [ref. 38189]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias varzeae Costa, Reis & Behr 2004. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Da Várzea River drainage, upper Uruguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

vazabarrisensis, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] 2001:359, Fig. 19 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 25719] Temporary pool, 33 kilometers south of Bendegó, road BR-116, rio Vaza-Barris basin, about 10°15'S, 39°05'W, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 62560. Paratypes: MZUSP 62561 (1); UFRJ 1765 (6), 4467 (2), 5121 (1). •Valid as Cynolebias vazabarrisensis Costa 2001 -- (Costa in Reis et al. 2003:529 [ref. 27061], Costa 2009:147 [ref. 30511], Costa 2014:80 [ref. 33510], Silva et al. 2020:14 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cynolebias vazabarrisensis Costa 2001. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Vaza-Barris River basin (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

vazferreirai, Cynolebias Berkenkamp [H. O.], Etzel [V.], Reichert [J. J.] & Salvia [H.] 1994:11, Figs. [Das Aquarium, Monatsmagazin für Vivaristik v. 28 (no. 306); ref. 21582] "An der Strasse (Ruta) 44 bei kilometer 44, Verbindungsstrasse von Melo (= kilometer 0) nach Riveira", eastern Uruguay, 32°15'S, 54°30'E [actual 32°10.38'S, 54°32.07'W]. Holotype: SMF 18453. Paratypes: Fauna y Flora Dulceaquicola-Montevidao (2, 2); MNHM (2); MNHNM (2); SMF 18454-55 [numbers duplicated for other species] (3, 4). •Valid as Cynolebias vazferreirai Berkenkamp, Etzel, Reichert & Salvia 1994 -- (Berkenkamp et al. 1997:33 [ref. 23147]). •Valid as Austrolebias vazferreirai (Berkenkamp, Etzel, Reichert & Salvia 1994) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:63 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:1 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Costa et al. 2004:15 [ref. 27657] as vazferrerai, Costa 2006:34 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Costa 2011:100 [ref. 31504], Loureiro et al. 2011:341 [ref. 31392], Lanés et al. 2014:17 [ref. 33234], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). •Synonym of Austrolebias cinereus (Amato 1986) -- (García et al. 2019:[12] [ref. 36487]). Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias cinereus (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

velazquez, Cynolebias Skillcorn [J.] 1988:37 [The Aquarist and Pondkeeper v. 52 (no. 10); ref. 21419] Not available, no distinguishing features and as name in synonymy. •In the synonymy of Austrolebias gymnoventris (Amato 1986) -- (Lazara 2001:61 [ref. 25711], Litz & Koerber 2014:30 [ref. 33622]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Austrolebias gymnoventris (Amato 1986). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae.

vermiculatus, Notholebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Amorim [P. F.] 2013:67, Fig. 3-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 24 (no. 1); ref. 32799] Temporary pool in the Catimbau river floodplains, about 1.5 km S of the road RJ-106, Saquarema lagoon system, Brazil, 22°51'53"S, 42°33'15"W. Holotype: UFRJ 8980. Paratypes: UFRJ. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Notholebias vermiculatus Costa & Amorim 2013 -- (Ferrer et al. 2014:847 [ref. 33589], Costa 2016:128 [ref. 34776]). Current status: Valid as Notholebias vermiculatus Costa & Amorim 2013. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Catimbau river, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

viarius, Cynolebias Vaz-Ferreira [R.], Sierra de Soriano [B.] & Scaglia de Paulete [S.] 1965:1, Pls. 1-2 [Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo v. 8 (no. 102) (for 25 June 1964); ref. 9087] Pool along Route 15, between Arroyo Valizas and Balneario Aguas Dulces, 34°22'S, 53°43'W, Dept. of Rocha, Uruguay. Holotype: ZVC P.798. Paratypes: MHNM CI 1439 [ex ZVC P.789] (3, apparently lost), ZVC P.799 (1). Type catalog: Olazarri et al. 1970:5 [ref. 23527], Loureiro et al. 2016:413, 414 [ref. 35150]. •Valid as Cynolebias viarius Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965 -- (Costa 1995:72 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Austrolebias viarius (Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:63 [ref. 25711], Costa & Cheffe 2001:180 [ref. 25851], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Calviño 2003:11 [ref. 26595], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:528 [ref. 27061], Loureiro et al. 2004:27 [ref. 27658], Costa 2006:117 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:180 [ref. 30417], Volcan et al. 2014:169 [ref. 33543], Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565] dated 1964, Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Volcan et al. 2021:106 [ref. 38292]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias viarius (Vaz-Ferreira, Sierra de Soriano & Scaglia de Paulete 1965). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Southe America: pools of coastal river drainages, southeastern Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

virgulatus, Simpsonichthys Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 2006:43, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1244; ref. 28725] Temporary lagoon about 7 kilometers from ribeirão Entre Rios, rio Paracatu drainage, rio São Francisco basin, about 16°49'30"S, 46°30'00"W, about 530 meters, Município de Unaí, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Holotype: UFRJ 6336. Paratypes: MCP 39931 (5); UFRJ 6337 (33), 6338 (6, c&s). •Valid as Simpsonichthys virgulatus Costa & Brasil 2006 -- (Costa 2007:75 [ref. 29445]). •Valid as Hypsolebias virgulatus (Costa & Brasil 2006) -- (based on generic placement in Costa 2011 [ref. 31654]). Current status: Valid as Hypsolebias virgulatus (Costa & Brasil 2006). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Paracatu River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Unaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

whitei, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1942:106 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Drying swamp, 10 or 12 miles north of Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, about 22°45'S, 42°00'W. Holotype: CAS-SU 36516. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:53 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Cynolebias whitei Myers 1942 -- (Costa 1995:43 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys whitei (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Fuller et al. 1999:293 [ref. 25838]). •Valid as Nematolebias whitei (Myers 1942) -- (Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:213 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:45 [ref. 26064], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:532 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:15 [ref. 28620], Costa et al. 2014:226 [ref. 33239], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240] as whtei). Current status: Valid as Nematolebias whitei (Myers 1942). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Laguna de Arauama basin, Das Ostras River basin, and coastal plain adjacent to mouth of São João River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

wichi, Austrolebias Alonso [F.], Terán [G. E.], Calviño [P. A.], García [I.], Cardoso [Y.] & García [G.] 2018:3, Figs. 1A-B, 2A, 3-4 [PLoS ONE v. 13 (no. 5) e0196261; ref. 35938] Temporary pond at the side of RP 53, near Padre Lozano town, Bermejo river basin, Paraná river basin, Departamento de San Martín, Salta Province, Argentina, 23°13'2.81"S, 63°49'12.66"W, elevation 274 meters. Holotype: IBIGEO-I 443. Paratypes: CI-FML, IBIGEO. •Valid as Austrolebias wichi Alonso, Terán, Calviño, García, Cardoso & García 2018 -- (Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240], Koerber et al. 2019:9 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias wichi Alonso, Terán, Calviño, García, Cardoso & García 2018. Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Bermejo river drainage, Paraná river basin, Salta, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

wolterstorffi, Cynolebias Ahl [E.] 1924:359 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 58 (nos 11/12); ref. 15434] Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMH H65. Paralectotypes: (4 destroyed) ZMH H191 (1); ZMB 20980 (2), 21123 (1), 21159 (now 6). Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:161 [ref. 19181], Paepke & Seegers 1986:157 [ref. 19981], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:404 [ref. 21161] as syntypes. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:94 [ref. 21847]. •Valid as Cynolebias wolterstorffi Ahl 1924 -- (Malabarba 1989:159 [ref. 14217], Costa 1995:76 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Megalebias wolterstorffi (Ahl 1924) -- (Costa 1998:76 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:204 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:917 [ref. 26505], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:531 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:48 [ref. 28708], Costa 2009:188 [ref. 30417], Bertaco et al. 2016:424 [ref. 34561]). •Valid as Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl 1924) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:31 [ref. 33622], Nión et al. 2016:43 [ref. 35565], Garcez et al. 2018:[5] 1507 [ref. 36843], Loureiro et al. 2018:11 [ref. 36240]). Current status: Valid as Austrolebias wolterstorffi (Ahl 1924). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: South America: Laguna dos Patos basin: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

zingiberinus, Cynolebias Myers [G. S.] 1942:108 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Base of the Serra do Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Holotype: CAS-SU 36523. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36524 (10). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:53 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934) -- (Costa 1995:92 [ref. 22097], Lazara 2001:193 [ref. 25711], Costa 2002:380 [ref. 26544], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:530 [ref. 27061], Costa 2008:156 [ref. 29596]). Current status: Synonym of Leptolebias marmoratus (Ladiges 1934). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

zonatus, Cynolebias Costa [W. J. E. M.] & Brasil [G. C.] 1990:16, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 14543] Garapuava District, County of Unaí, Minas Gerai State, Brazil, [ca. 18°00'S, 46°45'W]. Holotype: MZUSP 40131. Paratypes: MHNM 3250 (1), MNRJ 11558 (1), MZUSP 40132 (1). •Valid as Cynolebias zonatus Costa & Brasil 1990 -- (Costa 1995:58 [ref. 22097]). •Valid as Simpsonichthys zonatus (Costa & Brasil 1990) -- (Costa & Brasil 1996:95 [ref. 22917], Costa 1996:130 [ref. 25271], Costa 1998:75 [ref. 23792], Lazara 2001:299 [ref. 25711], Costa et al. 2003:140 [ref. 26946], Costa in Reis et al. 2003:542 [ref. 27061], Costa 2006:17 [ref. 28620], Costa & Brasil 2006:221 [ref. 28843], Costa & Brasil 2007:60 [ref. 29215], Costa 2007:200 [ref. 29338], Costa 2007:40 [ref. 29445], Costa 2012:314 [ref. 31750], Nielsen et al. 2017:166 [ref. 35304]). Current status: Valid as Simpsonichthys zonatus (Costa & Brasil 1990). Rivulidae: Cynolebiinae. Distribution: Upper Urucuia River drainage, São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.