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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Heptapteridae: [ 316 ] records


alfaroi, Rhamdia Fowler [H. W.] 1932:382, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 84; ref. 1411] Escobal, Costa Rica, elevation 400 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 53934. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Rhamdia alfaroi Fowler 1932 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther 1864) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:91 [ref. 22347], Bussing 1998:153 [ref. 24179], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

altipinnis, Pimelodus Steindachner [F.] 1864:37 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 1 (no. 5); ref. 21705] Demerara, Guyana. Holotype (unique): NMW 45601. Non-types: ZMUC 276 a-b (2) Para, Brazil. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:50 [ref. 9588] but dated to later reference, Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155] Species first described in above abstract, later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1864:213 [p. 14 of separate] Pl. 2 (figs. 3-4) [ref. 13937]. •Valid as Pimelodus altipinnis Steindachner 1864 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •See Le Bail et al. 2000:100 [ref. 24549]. •Valid as Pimelodella altipinnis (Steindachner 1864) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[23] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella altipinnis (Steindachner 1864). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

amatitlanensis, Rhamdia Fowler [H. W.] 1936:518, Figs. 9-10 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87 (for 1935); ref. 13694] Stream issuing from Lake Amatitlan, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): ANSP 64136. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Rhamdia amatitlanensis Fowler 1936 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860] as amatitlensis). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

anacanthus, Gladioglanis Rocha [M. S.], de Oliveira [R. R.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2008:434, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 29850] Nova Aripuanã, rio Aripuanã, lake on Mamão Island, 6°08'48"S, 60°11'50"W, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 28446. Paratypes: INPA 28447 (1, c&s). •Valid as Gladioglanis anacanthus Rocha, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2008. Current status: Valid as Gladioglanis anacanthus Rocha, de Oliveira & Rapp Py-Daniel 2008. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Mamão Island, Aripuanã River basin, Amazonas, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

anisurus, Heptapterus Mees [G. F.] 1987:451, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 90 (no. 4); ref. 6619] Río Guarapiche near Maturin, Monagas, Venezuela. Holotype: RMNH 30499. Paratypes: RMNH 30500 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus anisurus Mees 1987 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Phenacorhamdia anisura (Mees 1987) -- (Britski 1993:46 [ref. 21110], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Zarske 1998:30 [ref. 23981], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:164 [ref. 29737], DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia anisura (Mees 1987). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

armillatus, Pariolius Cope [E. D.] 1872:289 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 921] Río Ambyiacu, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 22004. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Heptapterus armillatus (Cope 1872) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pariolius armillatus Cope 1872 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pariolius armillatus Cope 1872. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

asopos, Mastiglanis Bockmann [F. A.] 1994:762, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 107 (no. 4); ref. 21608] Igarapé Saracazinho, tributary of Rio Trombetas, near Porto Trombetas, Pará State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 12227. Paratypes: MNRJ 12228-29 (10, 1, c&s); MZUSP 7446 (2), 23299 (2), 23533 (1), 23541 (10), 23549 (1), 23875 (1), 24282 (2), 25635 (1), 30617-18 (84, 11), 30633 (2), 30635-36 (1, 2), 34953-55 (6, 17, 6), 44215 (1, c&s); UFRJ 381-382 (2, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Mastiglanis asopos Bockmann 1994 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], de Pinna & Keith 2019:126 [ref. 36797], Faustino-Fuster & Ortega 2020:331 [ref. 37683]). Current status: Valid as Mastiglanis asopos Bockmann 1994. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Lower Amazon, Capim, Orinoco and Cuyuni River basins: Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

aspredinoides, Myoglanis DoNascimiento [C.] & Lundberg [J. G.] 2005:39, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 1009; ref. 28255] In pool behind beach of Río Ventuari, on south side of river, about 12 kilometers from its confluence with Río Orinoco, 4°04'N, 66°56'W, Lagna Pavón, Río Ventuari, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-25388. Paratypes: ANSP 162492 (1), FMNH 104481 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Myoglanis aspredinoides DoNascimiento & Lundberg 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Myoglanis aspredinoides DoNascimiento & Lundberg 2005. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Ventuari River, tributary of upper Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

australis, Pimelodella laticeps var. Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:243 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Uruguayana, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57962 [ex CM 6950]. Paratypes: FMNH 57963-66 (21, 16, 2, 4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann 1917, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Malabarba 1989:141 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pimelodella australis Eigenmann 1917 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella australis Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Uruguay River basin and coastal river drainages from Tubarão River to coastal lagoons of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

avanhandavae, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:240, Pls. 29 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Rio Tietê at Salto Avanhandava, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57981 [ex CM 6969]. Paratypes: FMNH 57982 (23), 58068 (7). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella avanhandavae Eigenmann 1917 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Trajano et al. 2004:317 [ref. 27653], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella avanhandavae Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Tietê River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

aymarae, Rhamdella Miquelarena [A. M.] & Menni [R. C.] 1999:203, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 24223] Río Itiyuro, 500 meters below the Itiyuro Dam, route 34 between Estación Pocitos and Aguaray, 22°07'S, 63°11'W, Salta Province, Argentina. Holotype: CFA-IC 10611 [ex ILPLA 611]. Paratypes: CFA-IC 10612-10613 [ex ILPLA 612-13] (now 27, 31), 10614 [ex ILPLA 614] (5, c&s); MLP 9531 [ex. INPLA 612] (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155], Koerber 2007:2 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:15 [ref. 33466], Bogan et al. 2019:22 [ref. 37088]. •Valid as Rhamdella aymarae Miquelarena & Menni 1999 -- (López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155], Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643], Reis et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33590], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Briñoccoli et al. 2018:325 [ref. 36464]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella aymarae Miquelarena & Menni 1999. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Itiyuro River basin (Salta), and Pilcomayo River basin (Santiago del Estero) (Argentina). Habitat: freshwater.

bahianus, Pimelodus Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:35, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Near Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN B-0612 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:57 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. •Species inquirenda in Pimelodella -- (Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pimelodella bahiana (Castelnau 1855) -- (Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Uncertain as Pimelodella bahiana (Castelnau 1855). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Bahia, Brazil [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

barbata, Rhamdia Meek [S. E.] 1907:106 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 2959] Lagoon at San Francisco, Guatemala. Holotype: FMNH 5906. Paratypes: FMNH 5907 (1), 59530 (7). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Rhamdia barbata Meek 1907 -- (Villa 1982:120 [ref. 36708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Probably a synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (Bussing 1998:150 [ref. 24179]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

baronismuelleri, Pimelodus Troschel [F. H.] in Müller 1865:636 (v. 3) [Reisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Canada und Mexico; ref. 14184] "Pacific" [Pacific side of Mexico]. Syntypes: (4) lost. Type catalog: Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:172 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. Originally Baronis Mülleri, correction mandatory. •Valid as Pimelodus baronismuelleri Troschel 1865 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Possibly a synonym of Rhamdia lauticauda (Kner 1858). Current status: Uncertain as Rhamdia lauticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

bathyurus, Pimelodus Cope [E. D.] 1878:674 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Peruvian Amazon. Lectotype: ANSP 21437. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21438 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155] Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:28, 139 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia bathyura (Cope 1878) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860] as bathyurus). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:28 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

benedettii, Nannorhamdia Fernández-Yépez [A.] & Martín Salazar [F. J.] 1952:35, Fig. [Memoria de la Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle v. 12 (no. 31); ref. 12769] Quebrada Ojo de Agua, Baruta, Estado Miranda, Venezuela. Holotype: MHNLS 1672 [apparently not MHNLS 82]. Paratypes: AFY 49404 (4); MNHLS 12193 [no MNHLS 11] (4), 1680 [not MLHNS 168] (31). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:47 [ref. 23639], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Imparfinis benedettii (Fernández-Yépez & Martín Salazar 1952) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia humilis (Günther 1864) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:82 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia humilis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

betaeniensis, Pimelodella Castaño [M. L.], Mojica C. [J. I.] & Royero [R.] 2005:48 [Acta Biológica Colombiana v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 28507] Described as "Pimelodella betaeniensis" but often cited without quotes. Regarded as not available; a category for temporary reference and not for the permanent scientific record (see also their p. 67). For Colombian specimens. Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella. Heptapteridae.

bifasciatus, Nannoglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] & Norris [A. A.] 1900:350 [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 4; ref. 1264] Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:203 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus bifasciatus (Eigenmann & Norris 1900) -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Taunayia bifasciata (Eigenmann & Norris 1900) -- (Oliveira & Britski 2000:124 [ref. 25339], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:426 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:140 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:203 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Taunayia bifasciata (Eigenmann & Norris 1900). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Paraíba do Sul River and Tietê River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bleekeri, Heptapterus Boeseman [M.] 1953:3, Fig. 1a [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 32 (no. 1); ref. 12684] Brooklet in Marowini [Marowijne] basin, eastern side of Nassau Mountains, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 19421. Paratypes: RMNH 19420 (7), 36409 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus bleekeri Boeseman 1953 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:120 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], Aguilera et al. 2011:243 [ref. 31080], Azpelicueta et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31489], Melo et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34701]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus bleekeri Boeseman 1953. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Marowijne/Maroni River basin, and state of Amapá: Brazil, French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

bockmanni, Pimelodella Slobodian [V.] & Pastana [M. N. L.] 2018:[3], Figs. 1, 3-5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 93 (no. 5); ref. 36140] Tributary of Rio Branco, near the Parque Nacional dos Campos Amazônicos, Rio Branco basin, Manicoré, Amazonas, Brazil, 8°25'26.02"S, 61°46'7.52"W. Holotype: MZUSP 121925. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP. •Valid as Pimelodella bockmanni Slobodian & Pastana 2018. Current status: Valid as Pimelodella bockmanni Slobodian & Pastana 2018. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rio Madeira basin, Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boliviana, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:245, Pl. 31 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. Holotype: FMNH 57976 [ex CM 6964]. Paratypes: FMNH 57977 [ex CM 6965] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella boliviana Eigenmann 1917 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:158, 191 [ref. 35004], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella boliviana Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Mamoré River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

bolivianus, Imparfinis Pearson [N. E.] 1924:12, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Huachi, Bolivia. Syntypes: CAS 63632 [ex IU 17269] (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155]. •Not in genus Imparfinis, is a Heptapterus -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277]). •Valid as Imparfinis bolivianus Pearson 1924 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708]). •Valid as Heptapterus bolivianus (Pearson 1924) -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Phenacorhamdia boliviana (Pearson 1924) -- (Britski 1993:45 [ref. 21110], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Zarske 1998:30 [ref. 23981], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:164 [ref. 29737], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Silva 2020:281 [ref. 37978]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia boliviana (Pearson 1924). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Mamoré and Purus River drainages, Madeira River basin, Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boquillae, Cetopsorhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:37, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Boquilla, Río Cauca, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 55212 [ex CM 3923]. Paratypes: CAS 63607 [ex IU 15004] (orig. 11, now 5), FMNH 55213 [ex CM 3924] (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:75 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia boquillae Eigenmann 1922 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Benitez et al. 2017:114 [ref. 35711]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia boquillae Eigenmann 1922. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Cauca River basin in Magdalena River drainage, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

borodini, Imparfinis Mees [G. F.] & Cala [P.] 1989:387 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 92 (no. 3); ref. 14277] Franca, Rio Grande, Province of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8639. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]. Replacement name for Imparfinis longicauda Borodin 1927, secondarily preoccupied in Imparfinis by Pimelodus longicauda Boulenger 1887. •Valid as Imparfinis borodini Mees & Cala 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:470 [ref. 37139], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis borodini Mees & Cala 1989. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: upper Paraná, São Francisco and Tocantins River basins (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

boschmai, Pimelodella van der Stigchel [J. W. R.] 1964:327, Fig. 1 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 39; ref. 3495] Rio Mogi-Guassu, below Emas falls, Pirassununga, Brazil. Holotype: RMNH 23248. Paratypes: RMNH 23250-51 (2, 5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella boschmai van der Stigchel 1964 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Trajano et al. 2004:317 [ref. 27653], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella boschmai van der Stigchel 1964. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Mogi Guaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boucardi, Pimelodus Regan [C. T.] 1907:258 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 19 (no. 111); ref. 15175] Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1880.7.13.33. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Probably a synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

brachycephalus, Pimelodus Regan [C. T.] 1907:258 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 19 (no. 111); ref. 15175] Río Nacasil, Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1875.6.9.5 (166.4 mm SL). Paralectotypes: (5) BMNH 1875.6.9.6-7 (2), 1875.6.9.8-9 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:31, 130 [ref. 22347], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus brachycephalus Regan 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

brachynema, Chasmocranus Gomes [A. L.] & Schubart [O.] 1958:413, Figs. 1-3 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 18 (no. 4); ref. 12066] Rio Mogi Guaçu, Cachoeira de Emas, Piraçununga, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): EEBP 617. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. If name is a noun, then spelling is brachynema, otherwise brachynemus. •Valid as Chasmocranus brachynema Gomes & Schubart 1958 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Chasmocranus brachynemus Gomes & Schubart 1958 -- (Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus brachynemus Gomes & Schubart 1958. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Mogi Guaçu River basin in upper Paraná River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brachypterus, Pimelodus (Rhamdia) Cope [E. D.] 1867:404 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 13 (pt 3) (art. 13); ref. 18027] Orizaba, Mexico. Holotype (unique): ANSP 16471. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus brachypterus Cope 1867 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

branneri, Rhamdia Haseman [J. D.] 1911:377, Pl. 75 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (19); ref. 2048] Creek of the Rio Iguaçú near Serrinha, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54235 [ex CM 2851]. Paratypes: FMNH 54236 [ex CM 2852], FMNH 54237 [ex CM 2853] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347] with lectotype FMNH 54236, Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rhamdia branneri Haseman 1911 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Garavello & Shibatta 2016:[3] [ref. 34385], Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35083], Ribolli et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35238], Koerber et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia branneri Haseman 1911. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Iguaçu River basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

bransfordii, Rhamdia Gill [T. N.] 1877:337 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 28 (for 1876); ref. 17633] Camp Marie Caretta, Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 16674. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:37 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Probably a synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

brasiliensis, Caecorhamdella Borodin [N. A.] 1927:1, Fig. 1C [American Museum Novitates No. 263; ref. 525] Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: AMNH 8604. Paratypes: AMNH 26358 [ex AMNH 8604] (1), MZUSP 2893 [ex DZSASP, ex AMNH 26358] (1). Type catalog: Britski 1969:204 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Pimelodella by Pimelodus brasiliensis Steindachner 1877. •Valid as Caecorhamdella brasiliensis Borodin 1927 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pimelodella kronei (Miranda Ribeiro 1907) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:26 [ref. 26040], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:131 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella kronei (Miranda Ribeiro 1907). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

brasiliensis, Pimelodus (Pseudorhamdia) Steindachner [F.] 1877:608 [50], Pl. 7 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 45612. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. On p. 50 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodella brasiliensis (Steindachner 1877) -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella brasiliensis (Steindachner 1877). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

breviceps, Pimelodus Kner [R.] 1858:418 [48] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Marabitanos, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 45615. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. On p. 48 of separate. •Valid as Rhamdia breviceps (Kner 1858) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pimelodella breviceps (Kner 1858) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella breviceps (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Negro River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevior, Chasmocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1910:384 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 1224] Not available, name and locality (Potaro R.) but no description; see Chasmocranus brevior. Heptapteridae.

brevior, Chasmocranus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:162, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Warratuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53213 [ex CM 1662]. Paratypes: (2) ?BMNH 1911.10.31.64 (1), CAS 59692 [ex IU 12047] (1). Additional material (questionably referred): [CM 1663a] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:75 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as Chasmocephalus brevior, name only with locality, in Eigenmann 1910:384 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Heptapterus brevior (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Mees 1986:321 [ref. 5693], Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:122 [ref. 24549]). •Valid as Chasmocranus brevior Eigenmann 1912 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus brevior Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Mana and Marowijne/Maroni River basins and Potaro River: Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

buckleyi, Pimelodus Boulenger [G. A.] 1887:275, Pl. 20 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 1 Mar. 1887); ref. 532] Canelos, eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.12.8.98-99 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella buckleyi (Boulenger 1887) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:34 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella buckleyi (Boulenger 1887). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Ambyiacu and Bobonaza River basins (Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

cabocla, Phenacorhamdia Rocha [Y. G. P. C.], Ramos [T. P. A.] & Ramos [R. T. C.] 2018:354, Figs. 1, 2, 4, 5 [Zootaxa 4402 (no. 2); ref. 35864] Uruçuí-Vermelho River, Prata Village, Barreiras do Piauí, Piauí State, Brazil, 9°57'14.7"S, 45°34'15.2"W. Holotype: UFPB 10943. Paratypes: NUP, UFPB, UFRN. •Valid as Phenacorhamdia cabocla Rocha, Ramos & Ramos 2018 -- (Silva 2020:281 [ref. 37978]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia cabocla Rocha, Ramos & Ramos 2018. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Parnaíba basin, Maranhão and Piauí, and in the tributaries of the Gurgueia and Uruçuí-Vermelho rivers, Piauí, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cabrerae, Rhamdia Meek [S. E.] 1906:93 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 3) (Publ. 116); ref. 15663] Outlet of Lake Amatitlán, Guatemala. Holotype: FMNH 5500 [or 5501]. Paratypes: FMNH 5501 (49, 1 c&s), ?52275 (2). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061] have holotype as FMNH 5501. •Valid as Rhamdia cabrerae Meek 1906 -- (Villa 1982:120 [ref. 36708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

cainguae, Rhamdella Bockmann [F. A.] & Miquelarena [A. M.] 2008:4, Figs. 1-2 (plus anatomical drawings) [Zootaxa No. 1780; ref. 29643] Arroyo Cuña-Pirú in the Balneario Municipal, 27°10'S, 54°50'W, Aristóbulo del Valle, Departmento Cainguás, Provincia Misiones, Argentina. Holotype: CFA-IC 11078 [ex ILPLA 1078]. Paratypes: CFA-IC 10468 [ex ILPLA 468] (3, 1 c&s), 11019 [ex ILPLA 1019] (11, 1 c&s), 11079 [ex ILPLA 1079] (3), 11176 [ex ILPLA 1176] (2), 11354 [ex ILPLA 1354] (3); LIRP 3045 (3, 1 c&s); MLP 9530 (1),10520 [ex ILPLA 1019] (2), 10521 [ex ILPlA 1176] (1); MNRJ 23157 (1); MZUSP 81427 (1). Type catalog: Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:15 [ref. 33466], Bogan et al. 2019:23 [ref. 37088]. •Valid as Rhamdella cainguae Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008 -- (Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Reis et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33590], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella cainguae Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Paraná River basin, Misiones (Argentina). Habitat: freshwater.

carnatus, Heptapterus Faustino‐Fuster [D. R.], Bockmann [F. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2019:352, Figs. 2-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 94 (no. 3); ref. 36604] Passo do Portão stream, tributary of the Pelotas River, upper Uruguay River basin, Vacaria Municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 28° 11'4"S, 51°00'02"W. Holotype: UFRGS 22840. Paratypes: LIRP, MNRJ, MUSM, UFRGS. •Valid as Heptapterus carnatus Faustino‐Fuster, Bockmann & Malabarba 2019. Current status: Valid as Heptapterus carnatus Faustino‐Fuster, Bockmann & Malabarba 2019. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay River basin, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

chagresi, Pimelodus (Pseudorhamdia) Steindachner [F.] 1876:584 [34] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Río Obispo, Río Chagres drainage, Panama. Syntypes: (4) MCZ 4947 (2); NMW. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. On p. 34 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodella chagresi (Steindachner 1876) -- (Bussing 1987:105 [ref. 22927], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:64 [ref. 23651], Bussing 1998:145 [ref. 24179], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Castaño et al. 2005:14, 40 [ref. 28507], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Angulo et al. 2013:993 [ref. 33194], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:570 [ref. 36962], Angulo et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37425]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella chagresi (Steindachner 1876). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Central America: Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

chaparae, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1940:75, Figs. 29-31 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Boca Chapare, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 69021. Paratypes: ANSP 69022-35 (14). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella chaparae Fowler 1940 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:158, 191 [ref. 35004], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:500 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella chaparae Fowler 1940. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Cis-Andean Foothills, Bolivia and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

chimantanus, Chasmocranus Inger [R. F.] 1956:425, Fig. 92 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 34 (no. 37); ref. 12201] Río Abácapa, west side of Chimantá-tepui, Venezuela, elevation 2200 feet. Holotype: FMNH 45704. Paratypes: FMNH 45705 (3). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:22 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus chimantanus (Inger 1956) -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Chasmocranus chimantanus Inger 1956 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus chimantanus Inger 1956. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Caroní and Carapo River basins in Orinoco River drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

cinerascens, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1860:237 [5], Pl. 10 (fig. A) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860 (pt 2) (art. 8); ref. 18211] Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.6.16.193. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.6.16.213 (1) Guayaquil. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. On p. 5 of separate. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:22, 134 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rhamdia cinerascens (Günther 1860) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Perdices et al. 2002:174 [ref. 26367], Hernández et al. 2015:576 [ref. 34223]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia cinerascens (Günther 1860). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

cochabambae, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1940:80, Figs. 35-37 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Boca Chapare, Cochabamba, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69066. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]. References 27366 and 28131 [Argentina localities] do not apply to this species (Koerber 16 July 2008). •Valid as Pimelodella cochabambae Fowler 1940 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Imparfinis cochabambae (Fowler 1940) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:386 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Almirón et al. 2007:823 [ref. 29443], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis cochabambae (Fowler 1940). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Beni River basin, Bolivia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

conquetaensis, Pimelodella Ahl [E.] 1925:106 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1923; ref. 15525] Río Coquetá, Colombia. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32030. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:166 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. Name spelled as above despite conflict with river name; perhaps coquetaensis was intended as assumed by Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:166 [ref. 24006]. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847]. •Valid as Pimelodella conquetaensis Ahl 1925 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella conquetaensis Ahl 1925. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Caquetá River basin in upper Japurá River drainage, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

conquistador, Gladioglanis Lundberg [J. G.], Bornbusch [A. H.] & Mago-Leccia [F.] 1991:192, Figs. 1-11 [Copeia 1991 (no. 1); ref. 19521] North tributary of Río Cuyabeno, about 3 kilometers above Laguna Grande de Cuyabeno, Río Napo basin, Napo Province, Ecuador. Holotype: FMNH 99288. Paratypes: AMNH 78528 (2); CAS 68073 [not 68703] (2); DU-F-860 (2); FMNH 94973 (6, c&s), 99289-94 (5, 16, 1, 1, 2, 14), 99296 (2); MBUCV-V-15370 (2); MEPN 4555 (5); MZUSP 40788 (2); USNM 306595 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:10 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Gladioglanis conquistador Lundberg, Bornbusch & Mago-Leccia 1991 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], de Pinna 1998:316 [ref. 23847], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155], Rocha et al. 2008:433 [ref. 29850], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Gladioglanis conquistador Lundberg, Bornbusch & Mago-Leccia 1991. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

copei, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1915:216, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 1392] Río Ambyiacu near Pebas, Ecuador [now Peru]. Holotype: ANSP 8362. Paratypes: ANSP 8363 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodella buckleyi (Boulenger 1887) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella buckleyi (Boulenger 1887). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

cristatus, Pimelodus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:628 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Takutu and Río Mahu, Guyana. Syntypes: ZMB 3052-53 (1, 1). Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:168-169 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella cristata (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:34 [ref. 37559], Mees 1986:315 [ref. 5693], Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:132 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155] dated 1848, Ruíz Díaz et al. 2008:1 [ref. 31123], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Azpelicueta & Koerber 2015:40 [ref. 33654], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773], Silvano et al. 2020:277 [ref. 38135]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella cristata (Müller & Troschel 1849). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Orinoco river basins (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana and Guyana). Habitat: freshwater.

cruxenti, Pimelodella Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1950:5, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 2; ref. 1323] Río Autana, Venezuela. Holotype: AFY 48161(whereabouts unknown). Paratypes: (3) MHNLS 1766 [ex AFY 48232] (now 2). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:47 [ref. 23639], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella cruxenti Fernández-Yépez 1950 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella cruxenti Fernández-Yépez 1950. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Lower Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

cuprea, Pimelodus (Rhamdia) queleni var. Steindachner [F.] 1877:623 [65] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba at Juiz de Fora. Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45789. Paralectotypes: (several) NMW 45790 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155] with lectotype as NMW 45877 [needs checking]. On p. 65 of separate. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:27 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cuyabae, Pimelodus (Rhamdia) Steindachner [F.] 1877:633 [76] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Cuiabá [Cuyaba], Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45919:1 (123.1 mm SL). Paralectotypes: NMW 45919 (3, now 2), ZSM 4823 [ex NMW 45919] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:275 [ref. 31652]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:28, 142 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

cyanostigma, Rhamdia Cope [E. D.] 1870:569 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pebas, Peru. Syntypes: ANSP 8381-83 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella cyanostigma (Cope 1870) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745] as cf. cyanostigma, Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella cyanostigma (Cope 1870). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Amazon basin: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

decolor, Rhamdia guatemalensis Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:201, Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] San Bulha Cave, Motul, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102217. Paratypes: UMMZ 102125 (17, now 16), USNM 117602 [ex UMMZ 102125] (2). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155] •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386]). •Mention -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:26 [ref. 26040]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

deppei, Pimelodus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:3 [Horae Ichthyologicae No. 3; ref. 3073] Mexico [not Hawaii]. Lectotype: ZMB 3046. Paralectotypes: ZMB 3047 (1). Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:169 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155] Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:15 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). •Probably a synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

depressa, Rhamdia Barbour [T.] & Cole [L. J.] 1906:155, Pl. 1 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 5); ref. 15639] Ikil Cenote, near Chichen-Itza, Yucatán, Mexico. Lectotype: MCZ 29072 (193.2 mm SL). Paralectotypes: MCZ 29072 (orig. 11, now 8), UMMZ 95832 [ex MCZ 29072] (1), USNM 120433 [ex MCZ 29072] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:37 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:30, 133 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864), but a valid subspecies -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsalis, Rhamdia Gill [T. N.] 1870:94 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 22; ref. 17630] Río Marañon or Río Napo, Amazon system, Peru or Ecuador. Holotype (unique): USNM 35334. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia dorsalis Gill 1870 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dorseyi, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:127, Figs. 4-7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Salgade, Icó, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69375. Paratypes: ANSP 69376 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella dorseyi Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella dorseyi Fowler 1941. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Jaguaribe River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

duquei, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Pearson [N. E.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:93 [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Rio Urubamba, Santa Ana, Peru. Holotype (indistinguishable) and paratypes = syntypes: CAS-SU 57895 (36). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia duquei Eigenmann & Pearson 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gairmard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:36 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

durantoni, Mastiglanis de Pinna [M. C. C.] & Keith [P.] 2019:127, Figs. 1-3A, 4-9 [Cybium v. 43 (no. 2); ref. 36797] Tampok River, tributary to Maroni stream, French Guiana. Holotype: MNHN 2015-244. Paratypes: MNHN, MZUSP. •Valid as Mastiglanis durantoni de Pinna & Keith 2019 -- (Faustino-Fuster & Ortega 2020:331 [ref. 37683]). Current status: Valid as Mastiglanis durantoni de Pinna & Keith 2019. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Maroni River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Heptapterus Steindachner [F.] 1907:487 [13] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 116 (1. Abth.); ref. 18797] Maldonado on Río de la Plata, Uruguay. Lectotype: MCZ 7597 (cited as 7579). Paralectotypes: MCZ 63330 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. On p. 13 of separate. Lectotype selected by Buckup 1988:650 [ref. 6635]. •Mention -- (López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366]). •Synonym of Heptapterus mustelinus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Buckup 1988:649 [ref. 6635], Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Heptapterus mustelinus (Valenciennes 1835). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Pimelodella Meek [S. E.] 1905:241 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 18; ref. 15158] Macacos, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 3400. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Pimelodella by Pimelodus eigenmanni Boulenger 1891, replaced by Pimelodella meeki Eigenmann 1910. •Synonym of Pimelodella meeki Eigenmann 1910 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella meeki Eigenmann 1910. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Pimelodus (Pimelodella) Boulenger [G. A.] 1891:232 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891 (pt 2); ref. 17039] Macacos, Brazil [probably Ribeirão dos Macacos, tributary of Rio das Velhas]. Holotype: BMNH 1889.11.14.6 [ex MCZ]. Probably not types: MCZ 7438 (5), 7510 (1) from Macacos and Rio Parahyba. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. Based on Pimelodus buckleyi of Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890:158 [ref. 12251] but described from one specimen sent by MCZ to BMNH. •Valid as Pimelodella eigenmanni (Boulenger 1891) -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:100 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella eigenmanni (Boulenger 1891). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanniorum, Rhamdia Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1911:273 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 16; ref. 3716] Rio Parahyba and Macacos, Brazil. Syntypes: (5) Possibly MCZ 7438 (5), 7510 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. Based on Pimelodella buckley [sic] of Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888:113 and Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1890:158 (see p. 450). •Valid as Pimelodella eigenmanniorum (Miranda Ribeiro 1911) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella eigenmanniorum (Miranda Ribeiro 1911). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Paraíba do Sul River basin and coastal rivers of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1860:238 [6], Pl. 10 (fig. B) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860 (pt 2) (art. 8); ref. 18211] Esmeraldas, western Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.6.16.182-185 (4), 1860.6.16.186-189 (4) Esmeraldas, BMNH 1860.6.16.191 and 194 no locality. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodella elongata (Günther 1860) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:34 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:180 [ref. 34894], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:570 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella elongata (Günther 1860). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Esmeraldas River basin (Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

enfurnada, Rhamdia Bichuette [M. E.] & Trajano [E.] 2005:589, Fig. 1, 3-6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 4); ref. 28555] Gruta do Enfurnado, 13°38'44"S, 44°12'05.9"W, Povoado de Descoberto, Município de Coribe, Serra do Ramalho, southwestern Bahia State, Brazil, elevation 628 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 87776. Paratypes: LIRP 5643 (4); MZUSP 87777 (13), 87778 (1, c&s), 87779 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia enfurnada Bichuette & Trajano 2005 -- (Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155], Angrizani & Malabarba 2018:44 [ref. 35829], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia enfurnada Bichuette & Trajano 2005. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Gruta do Enfurnado, middle São Francisco River basin (Bahia State, Brazil) (in a cave). Habitat: freshwater.

enochi, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:130, Figs. 12-15 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Açude Piloes, Parahyba, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69378. Paratypes: ANSP 69379 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella enochi Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella enochi Fowler 1941. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Paraíba River basin in Paraíba State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

eques, Pimelodus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:628 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Guyana. Holotype: ZMB 3049. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:169 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Silvano et al. 2020:276 [ref. 38135]). Current status: Valid as Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel 1849). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: coastal rivers, Guyana and Amazon River basins (Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

eriarcha, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:129 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 27272. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdella eriarcha (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Malabarba 1989:143 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Langeani 1990:37 [ref. 16736], Lucena & da Silva 1991:39 [ref. 19520], Miquelarena & Menni 1999:207 [ref. 24223], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155], Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643], Reis et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33590], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella eriarcha (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Jacuí River basin, Laguna dos Patos system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

erythropterus, Silurus Bloch [M. E.] 1794:42, Pl. 369 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] America [in error]. Syntypes: ZMB 3048 (1), 8786 (1, stuffed, lost) Type catalog: Paepke 1999:113, and errata on inside of back cover [ref. 24282], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. On p. 17 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. •Questionably a synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

essequibensis, Leptoglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:158, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Crab Falls, Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53331 [ex CM 1652]. Paratypes: (10) BMNH 1911.10.31.65 (1); CAS 63669 [ex IU 12041] (1), 63670 [ex IU 12042] (1); FMNH 7381 (1), 53332 (1), 53563 (1); MCZ 30080 (1); CAS-SU 21903 (1); USNM 66221 [ex CM 1653] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:52 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:384 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Myoglanis essequibensis (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Leptorhamdia essequibensis (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Bizerril & Borba 1994:3 [ref. 24592], Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Leptorhamdia essequibensis (Eigenmann 1912). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Essequibo and lower Tocantins River basins: Brazil and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

eurycephala, Rhamdia Angrizani [R. C.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2018:53, Fig. 9 [Zootaxa 4388 (no. 1); ref. 35829] Rio do Povoamento, hydrographic basin of rio Tubarão, municipality of Anitápolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, 27°51'36"S, 49°07'50"W. Holotype: UFRGS 19908. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP, UFRGS. •Valid as Rhamdia eurycephala Angrizani & Malabarba 2018 -- (Angrizani & Malabarba 2020:91 [ref. 37584]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia eurycephala Angrizani & Malabarba 2018. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: upper Rio Tubarão drainage (Santa Catarina, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

eutaenia, Pimelodella Regan [C. T.] 1913:466 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 3656] Río San Juan, Colombia. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1913.10.1.37-40 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella eutaenia Regan 1913 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Castaño et al. 2005:15 [ref. 28507], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Ardila Rodríguez 2017:8 [ref. 35221], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:570 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella eutaenia Regan 1913. Heptapteridae. Distribution: San Juan River to Atrato River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

exilis, Heptapterus Faustino‐Fuster [D. R.], Bockmann [F. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2019:361, Figs. 6-8 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 94 (no. 3); ref. 36604] Sanga das Tunas, tributary of the Ibicuí River, Uruguay River basin, Quevedos Municipality, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 29°21'01"S, 54°12'38"W. Holotype: UFRGS 22500. Paratypes: LIRP, MCP, MNRJ, MUSM, UFRGS. •Valid as Heptapterus exilis Faustino‐Fuster, Bockmann & Malabarba 2019. Current status: Valid as Heptapterus exilis Faustino‐Fuster, Bockmann & Malabarba 2019. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Ibicuí River drainage, middle Uruguay River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

exsudans, Pimelodus Jenyns [L.] 1842:111 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Apparently Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) Dept. Zool., Univ. Cambridge V.132 (2) Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdella exsudans (Jenyns 1842) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Miquelarena & Menni 1999:207 [ref. 24223], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). •Genus uncertain -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella exsudans (Jenyns 1842). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Nannoglanis Boulenger [G. A.] 1887:278, Pl. 21 (fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 1 Mar. 1887); ref. 532] Eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.12.5.149-150 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pariolius fasciatus (Boulenger 1887) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:34 [ref. 37559]). •Valid as Nannoglanis fasciatus Boulenger 1887 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], de Oliveira & Britski 2000:123 [ref. 25339], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Nannoglanis fasciatus Boulenger 1887. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Napo River basin (Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

figueroai, Pimelodella Dahl [G.] 1961:498, Fig. [Novedades Colombianas v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 1027] Caño Lozada, about 17 kilometers above its junction with Río Guayabero, Colombia. Holotype: probably lost. Paratypes: ICNMHN 2900 (12). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:47 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Pimelodella figueroai Dahl 1961 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:500 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella figueroai Dahl 1961. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Guaviare River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

filamentosa, Cetopsorhamdia Fowler [H. W.] 1945:4, Figs. 5-6 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 159; ref. 13141] San Ramón, Vallé de Chanchamayo, Peru, elevation 800 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 71637. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia filamentosa Fowler 1945 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155], Benitez et al. 2017:114 [ref. 35711]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia filamentosa Fowler 1945. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Tulumayo River basin in upper Ucayali River drainage, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

fissipinnis, Heptapterus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1911:240, Pl. 35 (fig. 5) [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 16; ref. 3716] Rio Estrella, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ (probably lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. Misspelled ñssipinnis in heading for account, as fissipinnis in at least 5 other places, including derivation given in footnote 2. •Valid as Heptapterus fissipinnis Miranda Ribeiro 1911 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], Aguilera et al. 2011:243 [ref. 31080], Azpelicueta et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31489]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus fissipinnis Miranda Ribeiro 1911. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Stream tributary to Estrela River, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

floridablancaensis, Pimelodella Ardila Rodríguez [C. A.] 2017:3, Figs.1, 2, 5, 6A, 7A, 8A, 9A, 9C, 10-13 [Peces del Departamento de Santander - Colombia. No. 9; ref. 35221] Quebrada Aranzoque, en la parte baja del Puente del Limoncito, parte alta del río Lebrija, Cuenca del río Magdalena, municipio de Floridablanca, Departamento de Santander, Colombia, 7°04'11"N, 73°05'52"W, elevation 925 meters. Holotype: CAR 800. Paratypes: CAR; ICNMHN 13739 (ex CAR02) (1). Type catalog: Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:47 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Pimelodella floridablancaensis Ardila Rodríguez 2017 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:571 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella floridablancaensis Ardila Rodríguez 2017. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

foina, Pimelodus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:628 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Takutu, Guyana. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3039. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:169-170 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia foina (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Silfvergrip 1996:76 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155] dated 1848, Garavello & Shibatta 2016:[11] [ref. 34385]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia foina (Müller & Troschel 1849). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Essequibo, Branco, Negro, Tocantins and Trombetas River basins: Brazil and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

frenata, Brachyglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:156 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH [ex CM 1670] (missing). Paratypes: (2) BMNH 1911.10.31.124 (1), CAS 63394 [ex IU 12052] (1, missing). Type catalog: Henn 1928:75 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367] as type missing, Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:384 [ref. 1224] as Breviglanis. •Valid as Brachyglanis frenata Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155] as frenatus). Current status: Valid as Brachyglanis frenata Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Essequibo, Negro, Orinoco and Urubu River basins: Brazil, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

frenatus, Rhamdioglanis Ihering [R. von] 1907:16 [17] [Revista do Museu Paulista (N. S.) v. 1 (fasc. 1); ref. 2294] Island of São Sebastião, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Lectotype: MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 154. Paralectotypes: CAS 63733 [ex IU 11440] (1); MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 5299 (1). Type catalog: Britski 1969:205 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. In Portuguese on p. 17. Lectotype selected by Britski 1969:205 [ref. 12401]. •Valid as Rhamdioglanis frenatus Ihering 1907 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdioglanis frenatus Ihering 1907. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Island of São Sebastião, São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

furcatus, Nemuroglanis Ribeiro [F. R. V.], Pedroza [W. S.] & Rapp Py-Daniel [L. H.] 2011:42, Figs. 1 and 3 [Zootaxa No. 2799; ref. 31219] Rio Aripuanã, rio Guariba, unnamed stream, right bank of rio Guariba, 8°46'31"S, 60°31'27.7"W, Apuí municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 33757. Paratypes: many at ANSP, INPA, MCP, MPEG, MZUSP and UNT. •Valid as Nemuroglanis furcatus Ribeiro, Pedroza & Rapp Py-Daniel 2011. Current status: Valid as Nemuroglanis furcatus Ribeiro, Pedroza & Rapp Py-Daniel 2011. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Middle and upper portions of the rio Guariba, rio Madeira basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gabrielae, Rhamdia Angrizani [R. C.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2018:49, Fig. 8 [Zootaxa 4388 (no. 1); ref. 35829] Arroio Pinheiro, tributary of rio Maquiné, municipality of Maquiné, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 29°39'43"S, 50°15'55"W. Holotype: UFRGS 22010. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP, UFRGS. •Valid as Rhamdia gabrielae Angrizani & Malabarba 2018 -- (Angrizani & Malabarba 2020:91 [ref. 37584]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia gabrielae Angrizani & Malabarba 2018. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Rio Maquiné, Rio Três Forquilhas, Rio Mampituba and Rio Araranguá (southeastern Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

garbei, Pimelodella Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:639 [11] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Rio Uruguay, Itaquí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 923A. Paralectotypes: (43) MNRJ 923 (11), MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 1057 (1), 5280-98 (19?). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:403 [ref. 12732], Britski 1969:205 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. On p. 11 of separate. Original genus should have been spelled Pimelodella. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:403 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Pimelodella garbei Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Pimelodella australis Eigenmann 1917 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella australis Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

geryi, Pimelodella Hoedeman [J. J.] 1961:134 [Bulletin of Aquatic Biology v. 2 (no. 23); ref. 11969] Litany River, Aloiké village, French Guiana [= Aloiké, Suriname]. Holotype (unique): ZMA 102235. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:60 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella geryi Hoedeman 1961 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:134 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella geryi Hoedeman 1961. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Colombia and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

gilli, Rhamdia Starks [E. C.] 1906:769, Pl. 65 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1468); ref. 10101] Río Eten, Eten, western Peru. Holotype: USNM 53472 [not at CAS-SU]. Paratypes: CAS-9592 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291], Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia gilli Starks 1906 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347]). •Tentatively as synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:45 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Rhamdella gilli (Starks 1906) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella gilli (Starks 1906). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Río Chancay basin, pacific coast Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

godmanni, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:124 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio San Geronimo, Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.94. Paralectotypes:: (at least 8) BMNH 1856.3.17.38 (1), 1856.3.17.39-40 (2) Mexico, 1864.1.26.99-100 (2) Rio Motagua. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:24, 133 [ref. 22347] but that specimen not from an original locality so invalid -- Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]; but this is a valid lectotype designation (R. Morgenstern, 8/30/2014). •Valid as Rhamdia godmanni (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (see Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:28 [ref. 22290]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilis, Pimelodus Valenciennes [A.] 1835:Pl. 2 (fig. 5) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Corrientes, Río Paraná, Argentina. Holotype: Possibly MNHN A-9284 (1) or A-9285 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:60 [ref. 19575] with syntypes; technically the figured specimen is the holotype if it can be identified, Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:7 [ref. 5010]. Pl. 2 was published in 1835. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:181 [ref. 1008]. •Valid as Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:58 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:54 [ref. 27632] dated 1840, Britski et al. 1999:98 [ref. 24147], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929] as cf. gracilis, Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:137 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Ruíz Díaz et al. 2008:1 [ref. 31123], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745] as cf. gracilis, Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Azpelicueta & Koerber 2015:40 [ref. 33654], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565] dated 1836, Koerber et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35267], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella gracilis (Valenciennes 1835). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco, Amazon and La Plata River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador?, Colombia, Paraguay, Bolivia, Uruguay and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

griffini, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:250, Pl. 32 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Near Sapucay, Paraguay. Holotype: FMNH 57974 [ex CM 6962]. Paratypes: FMNH 57975 (7). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pimelodella griffini Eigenmann 1917 -- (Castello 1969:408 [ref. 37613], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1998:98 [ref. 24147], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Ruíz Díaz et al. 2008:1 [ref. 31123], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35267], Slobodian et al. 2017:95 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella griffini Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Lower Paraguay River basin, Paraná River drainage (Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay). Habitat: freshwater.

griseus, Pimelodus (Pimelodella) Regan [C. T.] 1903:625 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 72) (art. 64); ref. 13401] Durango, Sapaya and Vaqueria rivers, northwestern Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1902.5.27.36 (1) Río Durango, 1902.7.29.47 (1) Río Vagueira, 1902.7.29.58 (1) Río Sapoya. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella grisea (Regan 1903) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:34 [ref. 37559] as gricea, Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Castaño et al. 2005:15 [ref. 28507], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:182 [ref. 34894], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:571 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella grisea (Regan 1903). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

guairensis, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] 1920:6 [Indiana University Studies v. 7 (no. 44); ref. 11120] Río Guaire, near Caracas, Venezuela. Lectotype: CAS 76655 [ex IU 15091] (132 mm). Paralectotypes: CAS 76655 [ex IU 15091] (5, with lectotype). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:34, 129 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia guairensis Eigenmann 1920 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia humilis (Günther 1864) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:82 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia humilis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

guajira, Pimelodella Castaño [M. L.], Mojica C. [J. I.] & Royero [R.] 2005:51 [Acta Biológica Colombiana v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 28507] Described as "Pimelodella guajira" but often cited without quotes. Regarded as not available; a category for temporary reference and not for the permanent scientific record (see also their p. 67). For Colombian specimens. •Not available. Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella. Heptapteridae.

guasarensis, Rhamdia DoNascimiento [C.], Provenzano [F.] & Lundberg [J. G.] 2004:565, Figs. 1-4 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 117 (no. 4); ref. 28021] Surgencia del Tigre at 2.5 kilometers west of Cerro Yolanda, 10°52'53"N, 72°30'03"W, Río Guasare basin, Sierra de Perijá, Estado Zulia, Venezuela, elevation 200 meters. Holotype: MBUCV-V 29604. Paratypes: ANSP 179878 (1), MBUCV-V 29622 (2, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia guasarensis DoNascimiento, Provenzano & Lundberg 2004 -- (Bichuette & Trajano 2005:588 [ref. 28555], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia guasarensis DoNascimiento, Provenzano & Lundberg 2004. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Guasare River basin, northwestern Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

guatemalensis, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:122 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Huamuchal, Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.210. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1864.1.26.211 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:Table 1, p. 18 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Bichuette & Trajano 2005:594 [ref. 28555], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (Greenfield et al. 1982:563 [ref. 8980], Villa 1982:121 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:107 [ref. 22927], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:28 [ref. 22290], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:86 [ref. 22947], Weber & Wilkens 1998:998 [ref. 23617], Bussing 1998:148 [ref. 24179], Romero & Paulson 2001:26 [ref. 26040], Wilkens 2001:253 [ref. 26397], Perdices et al. 2002:174 [ref. 26367], Weber et al. 2003:273 [ref. 27394], Nelson et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:172 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386], Matamoros et al. 2009:10 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:444 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:993 [ref. 33194], Hernández et al. 2015:576 [ref. 34223], Ribolli et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35238], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], González-Murcia et al. 2019:291 [ref. 36544], Angulo et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37425]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Central America: Atlantic slope of Mexico south to Colombia; Pacific slope of Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

guayaberensis, Medemichthys Dahl [G.] 1961:491, Fig. [Novedades Colombianas v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 1027] Río Guayabero, Colombia. Holotype: probably lost. Paratypes: (18) ICNMHN 442 (8). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:47 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Medemichthys guayaberensis Dahl 1961 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Nemuroglanis mariai (Schultz 1944) -- (Bockmann & Ferraris 2005:133 [ref. 28095], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Nemuroglanis mariai (Schultz 1944). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

guttatus, Nannorhamdia Pearson [N. E.] 1924:11, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-2) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Popoi, upper Río Beni, Bolivia. Holotype: CAS 63689 [ex IU 17268]. Paratypes: CAS 63690 [ex IU 17268] (1), UMMZ 66483 [ex IU 17268] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Imparfinis guttatus (Pearson 1924) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis guttatus (Pearson 1924). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Mamoré and Pilcomayo River basins: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

harttii, Pimelodus (Pseudorhamdia) Steindachner [F.] 1877:611 [53] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 45784. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155]. On p. 53 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodella harttii (Steindachner 1877) -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860] as hartti, Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:191 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella harttii (Steindachner 1877). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Paraíba do Sul River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

hartwelli, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1940:222, Figs. 4-7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91 (for 1939); ref. 1432] Contamana, Río Ucayali basin, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 68644. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella hartwelli Fowler 1940 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:418 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella hartwelli Fowler 1940. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Ucayali River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Imparfinis Steindachner [F.] 1915:59 [45], Figs. 1-3 [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Rio Surumú near Serra do Mello; Rio Branco at Bem Querer; Rio Tapajos near Santarém, Pará State, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 46093 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]. On p. 45 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Valid as Imparfinis hasemani Steindachner 1915 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:470 [ref. 37139]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis hasemani Steindachner 1915. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Branco and Tapajós River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hasemani, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:241, Pl. 30 (fig. 1 [not 7]) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] San Antonio de Rio Madeira, Amazon River system, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57980 [ex CM 6968]. Paratypes: CAS 75823 [ex IU 4259] (3); MCZ 7577 (50, now 49), 7579 (2), 7580 (9), 7581 (1), 7502 (3), 7572 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella hasemani Eigenmann 1917 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[23] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella hasemani Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Madeira River basin: Brazil, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

heteracantha, Rhamdia Regan [C. T.] 1907:134 [Biologia Centrali-Americana Part 215; ref. 3629] Juan Viñas, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1907.6.28.32. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia heteracantha Regan 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Probably a synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (Bussing 1998:150 [ref. 24179]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

heteropleurus, Pimelodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:176, Pl. 16 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Rupununi Pan, Guyana. Holotype (unique): FMNH 53336 [ex CM 1734]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodus heteropleurus Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Brachyrhamdia heteropleura (Eigenmann 1812) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155], Slobodian & Bockmann 2013:20 [ref. 32905]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhamdia heteropleura (Eigenmann 1912). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Corantijn, Essequibo and Negro River basins; Guyana, Suriname and northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hilarii, Pimelodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:180 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Río São Francisco, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN A-9415 (dry). Paralectotypes: MNHN A-9414 (1, dry) Brazil, A-9416 (1, dry) Brazil, B-0679 (1) Uruguay. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:56 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:14, 147 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Pimelodus hilarii Valenciennes 1840 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Mention -- (Britski et al. 1998:98 [ref. 24147]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27366], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hoehnei, Nannoglanis Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1914:3, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Pimelodidae, Trachycorystidae, Cetopsidae, Bunocephalidae, Auchenipteridae, e Hypophthalmidae. Annexo no. 5; ref. 17771] Rio Taquari [Taquari], Mato Grosso, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 787A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 787 (1). Type catalog and lectotype designation: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:403 [ref. 12732]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Imparfinis hoehnei (Miranda Ribeiro 1914) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Phenacorhamdia hoehnei (Miranda Ribeiro 1914) -- (Britski 1993:45 [ref. 21110] but as hoenei, Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901] as hoenei, Zarske 1998:30 [ref. 23981], Britski et al. 1999:97 [ref. 24147], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:164 [ref. 29737], Rocha et al. 2018:360 [ref. 35864]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia hoehnei (Miranda Ribeiro 1914). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Taquari River drainage, Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hollandi, Imparfinis Haseman [J. D.] 1911:383, Pl. 48 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (19); ref. 2048] Rio Iguaçú at Pôrto União da Victoria, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 54244 [ex CM 2864, 230 mm]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:49 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]. •Not in genus Imparfinis -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277]). •Valid as Heptapterus hollandi (Haseman 1911) -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pariolius hollandi (Haseman 1911) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791], López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131]). •Valid as Imparfinis hollandi Haseman 1911 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Almirón et al. 2007:823 [ref. 29443], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:471 [ref. 37139]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis hollandi Haseman 1911. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin: Argentina and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

holomelas, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1863:442 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 12 (no. 72); ref. 1973] Essequibo River, Guyana. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.21.8 (95.4 mm SL, smallest of four). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1864.1.21.9-11 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. Also appeared in Günther 1864:23, 120 [ref. 1974]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:131 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia holomelas Günther 1863 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laukidi Bleeker 1858 -- (Silfvergrip 1996:90 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laukidi Bleeker 1858. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

howesi, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1940:77, Figs. 32-34 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Boca Chapare, Río Chimore, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 69036. Paratypes: ANSP 69037-56 (25), 69057-64 (8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pimelodella howesi Fowler 1940 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Ruíz Díaz et al. 2008:1 [ref. 31123], Sarmiento et al. 2014:158, 191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35632] not in Argentina, Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:504 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella howesi Fowler 1940. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Beni River basin (Bolivia). Habitat: freshwater.

humeralis, Pimelodella Slobodian [V.], Akama [A.] & Dutra [G. M.] 2017:86, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4338 (no. 1); ref. 35643] Rio Ipitinga, Rio Jari basin, left bank tributary of the Rio Amazonas, Almeirim, Pará, Brazil, 0°49'38.3"N, 53°55'29.6"W. Holotype: MPEG 34994. Paratypes: ANSP, MPEG, MZUSP, USNM. •Valid as Pimelodella humeralis Slobodian, Akama & Dutra 2017. Current status: Valid as Pimelodella humeralis Slobodian, Akama & Dutra 2017. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rio Jari basin, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

humilis, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:129 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Venezuela. Lectotype: BMNH 1965.2.19.1 (140.4 mm Sl, largest). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1965.2.19.2 (1), 1847.7.18.6 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:25 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia humilis (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Silfvergrip 1996:82 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[24] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia humilis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rivers around Caracas, along Caribbean coast, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

hypselurus, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:126 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Mexico. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1858.11.22.32. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia hypselurus (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

ignobilis, Rhamdella Steindachner [F.] 1907:484 [10] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 116 (1. Abth.); ref. 18797] Rio Cubatao, Santa Catarina near Theresopolis, Brazil. Syntypes: NMW 44479 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. For information regarding the type locality see Lucena & Lucena 1990 [ref. 16142]. •Valid as Rhamdella ignobilis Steindachner 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). •In genus Pimelodella -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Pimelodella ignobilis (Steindachner 1907) -- (Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella ignobilis (Steindachner 1907). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Cubatão River basin, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

iheringi, Cetopsorhamdia Schubart [O.] & Gomes [A. L.] 1959:1, Figs. 1-5 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 12025] Ribeirao Areia Branca, Piraçununga, Rio Mogi Guaçu, Brazil. Holotype: EEBP 368. Paratypes: EEBP 150 (4), 248 (2), 472 (2), 625 (3), 626 (12), 627 (2), 628 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia iheringi Schubart & Gomes 1959 -- (Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155], Bertaco et al. 2016:416 [ref. 34561], Benitez et al. 2017:113 [ref. 35711], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506], Koerber et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia iheringi Schubart & Gomes 1959. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: upper reaches of Paraná and São Francisco River basins (Brazil and Argentina). Habitat: freshwater.

imitator, Brachyrhamdia Myers [G. S.] 1927:123 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 68 (no. 3); ref. 3096] Caño de Quiribana near Caicara, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS 54359 [ex IU 17695]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. •Status reviewed by Lundberg & McDade 1986 [ref. 5731]. •Valid as Pimelodella imitator (Myers 1927) -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Brachyrhamdia imitator Myers 1927 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155], Slobodian & Bockmann 2013:20 [ref. 32905], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhamdia imitator Myers 1927. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco River drainage, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

insidiosus, Imparfinis Steindachner [F.] 1915:61 [47], Pl. 12 (fig. 7) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Rio Branco at Bem Querer; Rio Surumú, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 46095 Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. On p. 47 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Not in genus Imparfinis -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277]). •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia insidiosus (Steindachner 1915) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia insidiosa (Steindachner 1915) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155], Benitez et al. 2017:114 [ref. 35711]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia insidiosa (Steindachner 1915). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Branco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

insignis, Pimelodella Schubart [O.] 1964:6, Fig. 1 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 244; ref. 3417] Rio Mogi Guaçu, Brazil. Syntypes: EEBP 497 (15), 498 (1), 499 (12), 620 (15), 620a (3), 647 (7), uncat (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodella boschmai Van der Stigchel 1964 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:417 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:190 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella boschmai Van der Stigchel 1964. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

itacaiunas, Rhamdia Silfvergrip [A. M. C.] 1996:83, Pl. 2 (figs. 1-2) [A systematic revision of the neotropical catfish genus Rhamdia; ref. 22347] Rio Tocantins drainage, `Igarapé Repartimento', Amazonas State, Brazil. Holotype: INPA 7985 (130.9 mm). Paratypes: INPA 7985 (2, with holotype); MZUSP 34744 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia itacaiunas Silfvergrip 1996 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155], Angrizani & Malabarba 2018:44 [ref. 35829]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia itacaiunas Silfvergrip 1996. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Middle Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

itapicuruensis, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:247, Pl. 31 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Rio Itapicurú at Queimadas, Bahia State, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57986 [ex CM 6974]. Paratypes: FMNH 57951 (1), 57953 (5), 57987-88 (13, 2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella itapicuruensis Eigenmann 1917 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella itapicuruensis Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Itapicurú River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

jenynsii, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:128 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. whereabouts unknown (possible Cambridge). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. Based on Pimelodus gracilis of Jenyns (not Valenciennes). Endemic to Argentina according to López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808]. •Genus uncertain -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Rhamdella jenynsii (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Miquelarena & Menni 1999:207 [ref. 24223], López et al. 2002:60 [ref. 26808], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131] as jenynsi, Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117] with doubts, Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella jenynsii (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil; ?Argentina and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

jequitinhonha, Rhamdia Silfvergrip [A. M. C.] 1996:84, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-2) [A systematic revision of the neotropical catfish genus Rhamdia; ref. 22347] Rio Araçuaí, Santa Rita, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP 38630. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia jequitinhonha Silfvergrip 1996 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155], Garavello & Shibatta 2016:[11] [ref. 34385], Angrizani & Malabarba 2018:44 [ref. 35829], Silva et al. 2020:11 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia jequitinhonha Silfvergrip 1996. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Jequitinhonha River basin (Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

knerii, Pimelodus (Rhamdia) Steindachner [F.] 1877:631 [73] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Marabitanos, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 45790. Paralectotypes: (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. On p. 73 of separate. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:132 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia sebae (Valenciennes 1840), but a valid subspecies -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia muelleri (Günther 1864) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:90 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia muelleri (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

koepckei, Myoglanis Chang [F.] 1999:434, Figs. 1-4 [Copeia 1999 (no. 2); ref. 23800] Small affluent of Río Nanay, 3°52'S, 73°29'W, Quebrada of Mishana camp, Province Maynas, Depto. Loreto, Peru, elevation 107 meters. Holotype: MUSM 10045. Paratypes: MUSM 10046 (2, 1 c&s). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Myoglanis koepckei Chang 1999 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento & Lundberg 2005:39 [ref. 28255], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Myoglanis koepckei Chang 1999. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

kronei, Typhlobagrus Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1907:[1], Fig. [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3713] Cavernas das Areieas, Iporanga, upper River Ribeira basin, São Paulo state, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 836. Paratypes: (35). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:404 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. Also appeared in Miranda Ribeiro 1908:1-5, Pl. 1 [ref. 17758]. •Valid as Typhlobagrus kronei Miranda Ribeiro 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pimelodella kronei (Miranda Ribeiro 1907) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:26 [ref. 26040], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:131 [ref. 28992], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella kronei (Miranda Ribeiro 1907). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Caves in Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, São Paulo state, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

krugi, Rhamdiopsis Bockmann [F. A.] & Castro [R. M. C.] 2010:675, Figs. 1-13 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 4); ref. 31072] Poço Encantado cave, on the left margin of the rio Una (a right affluent of rio Paraguaçu), 12°56'41.8"S, 41°06'17.3"W, Municipality of Itactê, State of Bahia, Brazil, elevation about 340 meters. Holotype: LIRP 5929. Paratypes: LIRP 5928 (10, 2 c&s), 5930 (10, 2 c&s), 5931 (1); MZUSP 92609 (2). •Valid as Rhamdiopsis krugi Bockmann & Castro 2010 -- (Silva et al. 2020:11 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdiopsis krugi Bockmann & Castro 2010. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: lake inside Poço Encantado cave (Bahia State, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

laluchensis, Rhamdia Weber [A.], Allegrucci [G.] & Sbordoni [V.] 2003:275, Figs. 2-3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 27394] Subterranean watercourse in Sistema de La Lucha, 17°03'40"N, 93°53'23"W, entrance about 5 kilometers southwest of village of Aguablanca situated at extreme eastern shore of Malpaso Reservoir (Presa Nezahualcoyotl), Municipio Ocozocoautla, Chiapas, Mexico. Holotype: ZMH 9373. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.10.27.1-5 (5), ZMH 9374 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia laluchensis Weber, Allegrucci & Sbordoni 2003 -- (Bichuette & Trajano 2005:588 [ref. 28555], Proudlove 2006:139 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155], Page et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia laluchensis Weber, Allegrucci & Sbordoni 2003. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Subterranean river system, Chiapas, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

lanceolatus, Nemuroglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:29 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Rio Jutahy [Jutaí], tributary of Rio Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 8169. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Nemuroglanis lanceolatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Bockmann & Ferraris 2005:133 [ref. 28095], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31219], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Nemuroglanis lanceolatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper tributaries of Amazon River system; Napo, Solimões and Ucayali river basins: Brazil, Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

lateristrigus, Pimelodes Lichtenstein [M. H. C.] 1823:112 [Verzeichniss der Doubletten des zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin, nebst Beschreibung...; ref. 17525] Brazil [near Rio de Janeiro]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3038. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. Apparently an available overlooked name; predates and the same as Pimelodus lateristrigus Müller & Troschel 1849. See Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:170 [ref. 24006] who recognize as above. •As species inquirenda in Pimelodus -- (Lundberg & Littmann in Reis et al. 2003:440 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Pimelodella lateristriga (Lichtenstein 1823) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Catelani et al. 2014:931 [ref. 37496], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella lateristriga (Lichtenstein 1823). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Ecuador and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lateristrigus, Pimelodus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:3 [Horae Ichthyologicae No. 3; ref. 3073] Brazil. Holotype: Probably ZMB 3038. Non-types: ZMB 3073 (1), 7437-38 (2, 1), 32032 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. Perhaps the same as Pimelodes lateristrigus Lichtenstein 1823. Bockmann & Guazzelli [on Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:170] in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061] suggest that the holotype is probably ZMB 3038. •Valid as Pimelodella lateristrigus (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pimelodella lateristriga (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046]). •Synonym of Pimelodella lateristriga (Lichtenstein 1823) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella lateristriga (Lichtenstein 1823). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

laticaudus, Pimelodus Kner [R.] (ex Heckel) 1858:420 [50] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] Mexico. Syntypes: NMW 50554 (?3) not found. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. On p. 50 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodus laticaudatus Kner 1858, with subspecies -- (Greenfield et al. 1982 [ref. 8980], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:29 [ref. 22290]). •Valid as Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:86 [ref. 22947], Weber & Wilkens 1998:998 [ref. 23617], Wilkens 2001:252 [ref. 26397], Perdices et al. 2002:178 [ref. 26367], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Weber et al. 2003:273 [ref. 27394], Nelson et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:173 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155] dated to 1857, Matamoros et al. 2009:11 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:444 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:993 [ref. 33194], Hernández et al. 2015:576 [ref. 34223], González-Murcia et al. 2019:291 [ref. 36544], Angulo et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37425], López-Segovia et al. 2020:110 [ref. 38151]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Southern North America, central America: Atlantic and Pacific slopes of southern Veracruz and Oaxaca (Mexico) south to Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:243, Pl. 30 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Sapucay, Paraguay. Holotype: FMNH 57969 [ex CM 6957]. Paratypes: FMNH 57970 (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann 1917 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:62 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:138 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Ruíz Díaz et al. 2008:1 [ref. 31123], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35267], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella laticeps Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

laukidi, Rhamdia Bleeker [P.] 1858:208 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 4 (art. 2); ref. 365] First Río Casiquirae caño, about 5 minutes from confluence of Río Casiquiare and Río Orinoco left side, Venezuela. Neotype: ANSP 174652. Type catalog: Boeseman 1972:308 [ref. 19698], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. Neotype designated by Silfvergrip 1996:131 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia laukidi Bleeker 1858 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860] with question, Silfvergrip 1996:90 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155], Hernández et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34223], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Angrizani & Malabarba 2018:44 [ref. 35829]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia laukidi Bleeker 1858. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon, Essequibo and Orinoco River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

laurenti, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:132, Figs. 16-19 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio São Francisco, Jatobá, Pernambuco, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69380 [not 19380]. Paratypes: ANSP 69381-82 [not 19381-82] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella laurenti Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella laurenti Fowler 1941. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Lower São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lehmanni, Rhamdia Dahl [G.] 1961:487, Fig. [Novedades Colombianas v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 1027] Brook tributary to Río Guayabero, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN (lost). Paratypes: ICNMHN 358 (2). Type catalog: Cala 1981:4 [ref. 23525], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:47 [ref. 36127]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

lemai, Rhamdella Bertoletti [J. J.] 1967:78, Fig. 2 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 27 (no. 1); ref. 7869] Pôrto Alegre, Rio Guaíba (Ponta Grossa), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MRCN 1897. Paratypes: MRCN 1866 (1), 1896 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdella eriarcha (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Malabarba 1989:143 [ref. 14217], Langeani 1990:37 [ref. 16736], Lucena & da Silva 1991:39 [ref. 19520], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdella eriarcha (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

leptos, Acentronichthys Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1889:29 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 2; ref. 1253] Rio São Mateos at São Mateos [= São Mateus], Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7532. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus leptos (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889) -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Acentronichthys leptos Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155], Di Dario et al. 2013:262 [ref. 37503], Faustino-Fuster et al. 2019:369 [ref. 36604], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Acentronichthys leptos Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1889. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: coastal streams of southeastern Mata Atlantica, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

leptosoma, Rhamdella Fowler [H. W.] 1914:260, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39340. Paratypes: ANSP 39341 (1, in jar with holotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:141 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdella leptosoma Fowler 1914 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:142 [ref. 24549] as cf. leptosoma, Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). •In genus Pimelodella -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Pimelodella leptosoma (Fowler 1914) -- (Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella leptosoma (Fowler 1914). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rupununi River, Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

linami, Pimelodella Schultz [L. P.] 1944:210, Pl. 1 (fig. D) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Torbes, 1 kilometer above Táriba, Orinoco River system, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): USNM 121132. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:35 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pimelodella linami Schultz 1944 -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:500 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella linami Schultz 1944. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

lineata, Nannorhamdia Bussing [W. A.] 1970:1, Fig. 1 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 196; ref. 7720] Quebrada 36, 12 kilometers west of Pueblo River Claro at Interamerican Highway, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, elevation 80 meters. Holotype: LACM 30688-1. Paratypes: ANSP 114839 [ex UCR 111-10] (2); BMNH 1967.9.29 [or 21].1-2 (2); LACM 30688-2 (3); UCR 111-10 (orig. 18 now 26); USNM 194230 (1), 204694 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Angulo et al. 2015:376 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Nannorhamdia lineata Bussing 1970 -- (Bussing 1987:101 [ref. 22927]). •Valid as Imparfinis lineatus (Bussing 1970) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bussing 1998:144 [ref. 24179], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], Angulo et al. 2013:993 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis lineatus (Bussing 1970). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Streams in Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

longibarbata, Pimelodella Cortés-Hernández [M. Á.], DoNascimiento [C.] & Ramírez-Gil [H.] 2020:492, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4808 (no. 3); ref. 37629] NN creek, tributary of Caño Verde, El Amparo, Apure, Venezuela, 07°06'33.3"N, 70°41'26.3"W. Holotype: IAVHP 21920. Paratypes: IAVHP. •Valid as Pimelodella longibarbata Cortés-Hernández, DoNascimiento & Ramírez-Gil 2020. Current status: Valid as Pimelodella longibarbata Cortés-Hernández, DoNascimiento & Ramírez-Gil 2020. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Western Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

longicauda, Imparfinis Borodin [N. A.] 1927:4, Fig. 3 [American Museum Novitates No. 266; ref. 12246] Franca, Rio Grande, Province of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8639. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155] Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied in Imparfinis by Pimelodus longicauda Boulenger 1887; replaced by Imparfinis borodini Mees & Cala 1989. •Treated as valid -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Imparfinis borodini Mees & Cala 1989 -- (Mees & Cala 1989:383 [ref. 14277], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Imparfinis borodini Mees & Cala 1989. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

longicauda, Pimelodus (Rhamdia) Boulenger [G. A.] 1887:275, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1887 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 1 Mar. 1887); ref. 532] Canelos, eastern Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1880.12.8.100-104 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]. The specific name is an indeclinable noun. •Valid as Rhamdia longicauda (Boulenger 1887) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Imparfinis longicauda (Boulenger 1887) (often seen as longicaudus) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:383 [ref. 14277], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:471 [ref. 37139]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis longicauda (Boulenger 1887). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Bobonaza River basin in upper Partaza River drainage (Ecuador) and Rio Corrente (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

longior, Chasmocephalus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1910:384 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 1224] Not available, name and locality but no description; later described as Chasmocranus longior Eigenmann 1912. •In the synonymy of Chasmocranus longior Eigenmann 1912. Current status: Synonym of Chasmocranus longior Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae.

longior, Chasmocranus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:160, Fig. 33; Pl. 14 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53208 [ex CM 1655]. Paratypes: (31, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.63 (1); CAS 63608 [ex IU 12043] (3), 63609 [ex IU 12044] (2); 63610 [ex IU 12045] (1); 63611 [ex IU 12046] (2); FMNH 7382 (1), 53209-11 (1, 1, 1), 53211 (1), 53564 (3); MCZ 30079 (1); CAS-SU 21929 (1); UMMZ 185337 [ex IU 12046] (1); USNM 66133 (1); ZMA 100992 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:41 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as Chasmocephalus longior, name only, in Eigenmann 1910:384 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Heptapterus longior (Eigenmann 1912) -- (Mees 1986:321 [ref. 5693], Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:124 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Chasmocranus longior Eigenmann 1912 -- (Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus longior Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Widespread in northern South America: Brazil, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

longipinnis, Rhamdella Borodin [N. A.] 1927:6 [American Museum Novitates No. 266; ref. 12246] São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8642. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdella longipinnis Borodin 1927 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). •In genus Pimelodella -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Pimelodella longipinnis (Borodin 1927) -- (Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella longipinnis (Borodin 1927). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rivers in São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

longiuscula, Rhamdella Lucena [C. A. S. de] & da Silva [J. F. P.] 1991:31, Figs. 2-3 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 19520] Arroio Passo do Alto, near Mineral, São Nicolau, about 28°08'S, 55°20'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 14441. Paratypes: CFA-IC 11353 [ex ILPLA 1353, MCP 11211] (29); MCP 10883 (22), 11211 (72, now 70), 12623 (16), 12722 (79); MHNG 2516.57 (2); MZUSP 42487 (2); ?MLP 10522 [ex INPLA 1353] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:16 [ref. 33466], Bogan et al. 2019:24 [ref. 37088]. •Valid as Rhamdella longiuscula Lucena & da Silva 1991 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Miquelarena & Menni 1999:207 [ref. 24223], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155], Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643], Reis et al. 2014:42 [ref. 33590], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565] as longiscauda, Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella longiuscula Lucena & da Silva 1991. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Uruguay River basin (Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina). Habitat: freshwater.

lopezae, Chasmocranus Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1968:1 [Boletim do Museu Nacional, Zoologia (Brazil) No. 262; ref. 27226] Corrego Quente-Cubatão?, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 9705. The species name was based on Maria Theresa Lopez, and first appeared as lopezi; this is an incorrect original spelling, and must be amended to lopezae according to ICZN Art. 31.1.2-3. •Valid as Chasmocranus lopezae Miranda Ribeiro 1968 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061] as lopezi). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus lopezae Miranda Ribeiro 1968. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Undetermined stream in São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

luigiana, Rhamdia Villa [J.] 1977:133, Figs. 1-3 [Brenesia Nos 12-13; ref. 7293] Lake Nicaragua, between Ometepe and Zapatera Islands, Dept. de Granada, Nicaragua, depth 10-12 meters. Holotype: USNM 217535. Paratypes: AMNH 36563 (2); BMNH 1977.7.11.1-2 (2); CAS 39440 (2); FMNH 83833-34 (2, 2); UF 23761 (1); GCRL 15700 (5); KU 17300 (2, c&s), 17301 (2); MCZ 52519 (2); MHNG 1554.96-97 (2); TU 102026 (3); UMMZ 200737 (2);USNM 217549 (1, allotype); ZMH 6116 (5); plus author's collection. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:413 [ref. 21161], Bart & Taylor 1993:50 [ref. 20906], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia luigiana Villa 1977 -- (Villa 1982:122 [ref. 36708]). •Synonym of Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther 1864) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:91 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

macarenensis, Phenacorhamdia Dahl [G.] 1961:504, Fig. [Novedades Colombianas v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 1027] Caño Lozada, upper Guaviare River basin, Colombia. Holotype (unique): Probablay lost. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Phenacorhamdia macarenensis Dahl 1961 -- (Britski 1993:44 [ref. 21110], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Zarske 1998:30 [ref. 23981], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:164 [ref. 29737], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia macarenensis Dahl 1961. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Guaviare River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

machadoi, Gladioglanis Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] & Mago-Leccia [F.] 1989:167, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1989 (no. 1); ref. 9288] Caño Manu of Casiquiare canal, about 250 meters upstream of Solano, 2°00'N, 66°57'W, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-16000. Paratypes: AMNH 77440 (5), 77500 (7, 2 c&s); ANSP 158850 (4), 158874 (5), 161301-06 (44, 4, 5, 6, 22, 1); CAS 59821 [not 58921] (5); MBUCV-V-6176 (1), V-6284 (4), V-6297 (1), V-7293 (5 not 3), V-14254 (5), V-16001 to 02 (7, 8); MZUSP 37004 (5); USNM 268647 (10, 3 c&s), 268648 (8, 2 c&s); ZMA 120005 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:10 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Gladioglanis machadoi Ferraris & Mago-Leccia 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], de Pinna 1998:316 [ref. 23847], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155], Rocha et al. 2008:433 [ref. 29850], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Gladioglanis machadoi Ferraris & Mago-Leccia 1989. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephala, Nannorhamdia Miles [C.] 1943:25 [Publicaciones de la Secretaria de Agricultura y Fomento del Departamento, Cali 1943; ref. 13211] Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN (probably lost). Paratypes: MCZ 35876 (2), USNM 120157 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Imparfinis macrocephalus (Miles 1943) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Pimelodella macrocephala (Miles 1943) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Castaño et al. 2005:17 [ref. 28507], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:571 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella macrocephala (Miles 1943). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

macturki, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:170, Pl. 16 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Creek in Mora Passage, coastal Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53234 [ex CM 1695]. Paratypes: (31) BMNH 1911.10.31.54-55 (1, 1); CAS 63691-93 [ex IU 12068-70] (5, 1, 4); FMNH 7388 (1), 53335 (4), 53573-74 (5, 1); MCZ 30073-74 (1, 1); CAS-SU 21898 (1); USNM 66263 [ex CM 1698] (1); ZMA 100168 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:60 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:35 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella macturki Eigenmann 1912 -- (Mees 1986:316 [ref. 5693], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:136 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:192 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella macturki Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of the Guiana Shield: French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

macuspanensis, Rhamdia Weber [A.] & Wilkens [H.] 1998:1000, Fig. 3 [Copeia 1998 (no. 4); ref. 23617] Watercourse in the Grutas de Agua Blanca, Balneario de Agua Blanca at kilometer 64.9 of the road 186 (carretera federal) from Villahermosa to Chetumal, about 20 kilometers southeastern of Macuspana, Tabasco, Mexico, 17°37'15.5"N, 92°28'22.6"W. Holotype: ZMH 8874. Paratypes: ZMH 8875-76 (1, 8). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia macuspanensis Weber & Wilkens 1998 -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:27 [ref. 26040], Weber et al. 2003:278 [ref. 27394], Nelson et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27807], Bichuette & Trajano 2005:588 [ref. 28555], Miller 2006:174 [ref. 28615], Proudlove 2006:138 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155], Page et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia macuspanensis Weber & Wilkens 1998. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Tabasco state, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

magoi, Brachyglanis Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1967:162, Pl. 1 [Acta Biologica Venezuelica v. 5 (art. 10); ref. 7889] Río Uruyén, Venezuelan Guiana. Holotype: AFY 56611. Paratypes: MHNLS [ex AFY 56612] (orig. 86); MBUCV-V-2600 (30), V-10710 (27), V-10764 (30). Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1997:47 [ref. 23639] with no mention of holotype, Provenzano et al. 1998:4 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Brachyglanis magoi Fernández-Yépez 1967 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Brachyglanis magoi Fernández-Yépez 1967. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Caroní River basin in Orinoco River drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

managuensis, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1867:603 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866 (pt 3); ref. 1984] Lake Managua, Nicaragua. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1865.7.20.37. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. Described in more detail in Günther 1868:474 [ref. 1994]. •Valid as Rhamdia managuensis (Günther 1867) -- (Villa 1982:122 [ref. 36708]). •Valid as Pimelodus managuensis Günther 1867 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther 1864) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:91 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

mandimbusu, Heptapterus Aguilera [G.], Benitez [M.], Terán [G. E.], Alonso [F.] & Mirande [J. M.] 2017:573, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4299 (no. 4); ref. 35499] Melo stream, Uruguay River basin, Misiones, Argentina, 27°25'2.67"S, 54°42'7.93"W. Holotype: CI-FML 7238. Paratypes: CI-FML, IBIGEO, LGEP. •Valid as Heptapterus mandimbusu Aguilera, Benitez, Terán, Alonso & Mirande 2017 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus mandimbusu Aguilera, Benitez, Terán, Alonso & Mirande 2017. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Melo stream, Uruguay River basin, Misiones (Argentina). Habitat: freshwater.

marginata, Taunayia Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:642 [14] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] Piquete, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 2273. Type catalog: Britski 1969:204 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:203 [ref. 29155]. On p. 14 of separate. •Valid as Taunayia marginata Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Burgess 1989:242 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Taunayia bifasciata (Eigenmann & Norris 1900) -- (Oliveira & Britski 2000:124 [ref. 25339], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:426 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:203 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Taunayia bifasciata (Eigenmann & Norris 1900). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

mariai, Imparales Schultz [L. P.] 1944:94, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 34 (no. 3); ref. 3958] Río Meta system at Villavicencio, Colombia. Holotype (unique): USNM 121251. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus mariai (Schultz 1944) -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Nemuroglanis mariai (Schultz 1944) -- (Bockmann & Ferraris 2005:133 [ref. 28095], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31219], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Nemuroglanis mariai (Schultz 1944). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

marmorata, Leptorhamdia Myers [G. S.] 1928:83 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 3100] São Gabriel Rapids, Rio Negro, Amazon, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 63671. Paratypes: CAS-SU 18079 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Myoglanis marmoratus (Myers 1928) -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Leptorhamdia marmorata Myers 1928 -- (Bizerril & Borba 1994:3 [ref. 24592], Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[23] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Leptorhamdia marmorata Myers 1928. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Negro River basin, Brazil and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

marthae, Brachyrhamdia Sands [D. D.] & Black [B. K.] 1985:58(4), Photographs on pp. 58(7)-58(8) [Catfishes of the World v. 3 Supplements (First Set); ref. 19842] Peru (?), aquarium import. Holotype (unique): RMNH 29424. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella marthae (Sands & Black 1985) -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Rhamdia marthae (Sands & Black 1985) -- (Zarske 2003:48 [ref. 27476]). •Valid as Brachyrhamdia marthae Sands & Black 1985 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155], Slobodian & Bockmann 2013:20 [ref. 32905], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Slobodian & Bockmann 2016:358 [ref. 34933]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhamdia marthae Sands & Black 1985. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

martinezi, Pimelodella Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1970:Pl. 35 [Analisis ictiológico del Complejo Hidrográfico (07); ref. 27227] Holotype: AFY 70-403 (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella martinezi Fernández-Yépez 1970 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella martinezi Fernández-Yépez 1970. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Unare River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

martyi, Rhamdia sebae Güntert [H.] 1942:33 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 138 (nos 1/2); ref. 12954] Riactis Canâwé, Dept. de Ita, Paraguay. Holotype: NMBA 5279. Type catalog: Kottelat & Sutter 1988:54 [ref. 13796], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia sebae (Valenciennes 1840), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155], Koerber et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

mbya, Heptapterus Azpelicueta [M. de las M.], Aguilera [G.] & Mirande [J. M.] 2011:320, Figs. 13 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 118 (no. 2); ref. 31489] Arroyo Moreno at Ruta Provincial 202, 26°54'24"S, 54°54'50"W, río Paraná basin, Misiones Province, Argentina. Holotype: CI-FML 4008. Paratypes: AL 247 (4, 1 c&s), 269 (2); CI-FML 4009 (2), 4010 (2); MHNG 2722.092 (4). The name mbya is a noun; based on aborigines. •Valid as Heptapterus mbya Azpelicueta, Aguilera & Mirande 2011 -- (Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Aguilera et al. 2017:579 [ref. 35499]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus mbya Azpelicueta, Aguilera & Mirande 2011. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Misiones Province, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

meeki, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1910:389 [Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of tropical and south temperate America v. 3 (pt 4); ref. 1224] Sapina and Mogy das Cruzes, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 3400. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. Replacement name for Pimelodella eigenmanni Meek 1905, secondarily preoccupied in Pimelodella by Pimelodus eigenmanni Boulenger 1891. •Valid as Pimelodella meeki Eigenmann 1910 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Trajano et al. 2004:317 [ref. 27653], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella meeki Eigenmann 1910. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Tietê River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

meesi, Brachyrhamdia Sands [D. D.] & Black [B. K.] 1985:58(5), photographs on pp. 58(7)-58(8) [Catfishes of the World v. 3 Supplements (First Set); ref. 19842] Near Belem, Brazil [aquarium export; probably from the Upper Amazon River basin]. Holotype: RMNH 29425. Paratypes: RMNH 29426 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella meesi (Sands & Black 1985) -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Brachyrhamdia meesi Sands & Black 1985 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155], Slobodian & Bockmann 2013:20 [ref. 32905], Slobodian & Bockmann 2016:356 [ref. 34933], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhamdia meesi Sands & Black 1985. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Peru, Colombia and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

megalops, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:169, Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Tumatumari, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53231 [ex CM 1692]. Paratypes: (59) BMNH 1911.10.31.50-53 (4); CAS 63717 [ex IU 12066] (5); FMNH 7387 (2), 53232-33 (32, 1); CAS-SU 21899 (2); MCZ 30075 (1); USNM 66262 [ex CM 1693] (2); ZMA 110629 (2). Additional material: CAS 63718 [ex IU 12067] (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291], Nijssen et al. 1982:60 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:389 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Pimelodella megalops Eigenmann 1912 -- (Mees 1986:313 [ref. 5693], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:138 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:96 [ref. 35643], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:504 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella megalops Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Approuague, Essequibo and Tomo River basins: French Guiana, Guyana and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

megalura, Pimelodella Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:638 [10] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] São Luiz de Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 865A. Paralectotypes: (21) MNRJ 865 (4), MZUSP 1986 (1), MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 5265-79 (12). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:403 [ref. 12732], Britski 1969:205 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. On p. 10 of separate. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:403 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Pimelodella megalura Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:98 [ref. 24147], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:419 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella megalura Miranda Ribeiro 1918. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

melas, Brachyglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:157, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Crab Falls, Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53217 [ex CM 1672]. Paratypes: (12, CM and IU) BMNH 1911.10.31.62 (1); CAS 63391 [ex IU 12053] (2), 63392 [ex IU 12054] (1); FMNH 53218 (2), 53569-70 (1, 1); MCZ 30084 (1); CAS-SU 21905 (1, missing); USNM 66124 [ex CM] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:75 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:43 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:32 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Brachyglanis melas Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Brachyglanis melas Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

metae, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:244, Pl. 31 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Río Negro at Villavicencio, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 58441 [ex CM 7441 or 7141]. Paratypes: FMNH 58442 (2), CAS [ex IU 13768] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella metae Eigenmann 1917 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella metae Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

micayi, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] in Pearson 1924:11 [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Popoi, Río Colorado, Espia, Bolivia. Non-types: (16) CAS 76656 [ex IU 17273] (5), 76657 [ex IU 17272] (5), 76658 [ex 17274] (5). Not available as above, no distinguishing features; subsequent publication in an available way not researched. •Treated as valid as Rhamdia micayi Eigenmann 1924 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •In the synonymy of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae.

microcephala, Rhamdia Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1874:35 [7] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio das Velhas, Brazil. Syntypes: ?NMW 45825 (1); ZMUC P 29658-60 [ex 324-325 (2), 327 (1)] (3). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:51 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155] On p. 7 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:177 (and p. VIII of summary), Pl. 3 (fig. 7) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Imparfinis microcephalus (Lütken 1874) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Rhamdiopsis microcephala (Lütken 1874) -- (Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155] with author as Reinhardt, Bockmann & Castro 2010:674 [ref. 31072]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdiopsis microcephala (Lütken 1874). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Paraná and São Francisco River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalmus, Brachyglanis Bizerril [C. R. S. F.] 1991:2, Figs. 1-2 [Boletim do Museu Nacional, Zoologia (N. S.) No. 347; ref. 19924] Igarapé Saracá of Lake Sapucuá, Rio Trombetas drainage, Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 11788. Paratypes: MNRJ 11791-93 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. The gender of Brachyglanis is feminine, but we treat the specific name as a noun. •Valid as Brachyglanis microphthalmus Bizerril 1991 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Brachyglanis microphthalmus Bizerril 1991. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Trombetas River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Imparfinis Eigenmann [C. H.] & Fisher [H. G.] in Eigenmann 1916:82 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 6); ref. 1233] Río Negro at Villavicencio, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 57793 [ex CM 6776 (78 mm), not 8778]. Non-types: FMNH (5). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:49 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155]. Described from one specimen but Eigenmann 1922 mentions paratypes. •Not in genus Imparfinis, probably near Heptapterus -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277]). •Valid as Imparfinis microps Eigenmann & Fisher 1916 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:79 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis microps Eigenmann & Fisher 1916. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

microps, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Fisher 1917:394, Pl. 38 (text says Pl. 28) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 11 (nos 3/4) (art. 13); ref. 15089] Uruguayana, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 58285 [ex CM 7283] (largest). Paratypes: FMNH 58286 [ex CM 7283] (3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155] Author is Eigenmann alone on Pl. 28, not specified in main heading. •Valid as Rhamdia microps Eigenmann 1917 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27366], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

micropterus, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:124 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Río San Geronimo, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.92. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia micropterus (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Questionably a synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). •Probably a synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

minuta, Rhamdia Lütken [C. F.] 1874:35 [7] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Syntypes: ZMUC 325x (1), ZMUC 327x (1), ZMUC 328 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:51 [ref. 9588], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155]. On p. 7 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:179 (and p. VIII of summary), Pl. 3 (fig. 6) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Imparfinis minutus (Lütken 1874) -- (Mees 1986:319 [ref. 5693], Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Le Bail et al. 2000:130 [ref. 24549]). •Valid as Imparfinnis minutus (Lütken 1875) -- (Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:471 [ref. 37139], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis minutus (Lütken 1874). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Sáo Francisco River basin (Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

mirini, Imparfinis Haseman [J. D.] 1911:318, Pl. 47 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (17); ref. 2047] Above the falls of Rio Piracicaba-mirini, near Piracicaba, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54335 [ex CM 2981]. Paratypes: CAS 63634 [ex IU 13329] (1), FMNH 54336-37 (3, 3). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:49 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia mirini (Haseman 1911) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Imparfinis mirini Haseman 1911 -- (Mees & Cala 1989:384 [ref. 14277], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:471 [ref. 37139]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis mirini Haseman 1911. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Araguaia and Paraná River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

mishky, Imparfinis Almirón [A. E.], Casciotta [J. R.], Bechara [J. A.], Ruíz Díaz [F. J.], Bruno [C.], d'Ambrosio [S.], Solimano [P.] & Soneira [P.] 2007:818, Figs. 1-2 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 114 (no. 4); ref. 29443] Esteros del Iberá, río Corriente, Capitá Miní, 28°53'15.3"S, 58°22'02.7"W, Río Paraná basin, Argentina. Holotype: MACN-ict 8973. Paratypes: Al 208 (1), 209 (1), 210 (17, 1 c&s); MHNG 2690.001 (2); MLP 10467 [ex Al 207] (3). Type catalog: Nadalin & López 2015:8 [ref. 34112]. •Valid as Imparfinis mishky Almirón, Casciotta, Bechara, Ruíz Díaz, Bruno, d'Ambrosio, Solimano & Soneira 2007 -- (Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Koerber & Litz 2014:3 [ref. 34967], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:4 [ref. 35098], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565] dated 1995, Koerber et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37480]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis mishky Almirón, Casciotta, Bechara, Ruíz Díaz, Bruno, d'Ambrosio, Solimano et al. 2007. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Paraná River and Uruguay River basins (Argentina and Uruguay). Habitat: freshwater.

modestus, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1860:239 [7], Pl. 10 (fig. C) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860 (pt 2) (art. 8); ref. 18211] Esmeraldas, western Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.6.16.190-191 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. Feminine adjective is modesta. On p. 7 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodella modesta (Günther 1860) [often seen as modestus] -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:34 [ref. 37559], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Castaño et al. 2005:16 [ref. 28507], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:184 [ref. 34894], Ardila Rodríguez 2017:8 [ref. 35221], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:572 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella modesta (Günther 1860). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

molinae, Cetopsorhamdia Miles [C.] 1943:26 [Publicaciones de la Secretaria de Agricultura y Fomento del Departamento, Cali 1943; ref. 13211] Upper Río Cauca, Bugalagrande, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN (probably lost). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia molinae Miles 1943 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Benitez et al. 2017:114 [ref. 35711]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia molinae Miles 1943. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Magdalena, Orinoco and Tocantins River basins: Colombia, Venezuela and northern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

montana, Pimelodella Allen [W. R.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:100, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Río Huallaga, Huánuco, Peru. Syntypes: CAS 63719 [ex IU 17830] (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. Holotype perhaps established in Plate 13, but length greater than listed on p. 100. •Valid as Pimelodella montana Allen 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella montana Allen 1942. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Marañón River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

montana, Rhamdella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:421, Pl. 32 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (nos 3/4) (art. 16); ref. 11114] Small brook in highlands, southeast of Tarma, Queta, Peru. Holotype: FMNH 56067 [ex CM 4858]. Paratypes: FMNH 56068 [ex CM 4859] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Rhamdella montana Eigenmann 1913 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). •Genus uncertain -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella montana Eigenmann 1913. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Ucayali River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

moreirai, Rhamdiopsis Haseman [J. D.] 1911:375, Pl. 73 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (19); ref. 2048] Rio Iguaçú at Serrinha Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54372 [ex CM 2849]. Paratypes: FMNH 54373 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:203 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdiopsis moreirai Haseman 1911 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:203 [ref. 29155], Bockmann & Castro 2010:674 [ref. 31072]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdiopsis moreirai Haseman 1911. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Iguaçu and Ribeira de Iguapé River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

motaguensis, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:127 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Río Motagua, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1865.4.29.39. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia motaguensis (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

mounseyi, Rhamdia Regan [C. T.] 1913:282 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 69); ref. 3655] Río Ucayali, Peru. Lectotype: BMNH 1913.7.30.13 (115.3 mm SL). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1913.7.30.14-19 (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:33, 139 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia mounseyi Regan 1913 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

mucosa, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] & Ward [D. P.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:114, Pl. 32 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Bahia Negra, Río Paraguay, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): CAS 63720 [ex IU 10125]. Non-types: ZMB 16881 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella mucosa Eigenmann & Ward 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:98 [ref. 24147], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Koerber et al. 2015:3 [ref. 35179], Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35632], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643], Koerber et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:505 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella mucosa Eigenmann & Ward 1907. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Paraguay River basin (Paraguay, Argentina and Bolivia). Habitat: freshwater.

muelleri, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:119 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Río Capim, Para, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1849.11.8.101 (133.6 mm SL). Paralectotypes: (2) BMNH 2005.9.5.2 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. Originally as mülleri. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:23 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia muelleri (Günther 1864) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:90 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Angrizani & Malabarba 2018:44 [ref. 35829], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia muelleri (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

multiradiatus, Heptapterus Ihering [R. von] 1907:20 [21] [Revista do Museu Paulista (N. S.) v. 1 (fasc. 1); ref. 2294] Ribeirão do Alto da Serra, Estado de São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (?): MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 294. Type catalog: Britski 1969:205 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. In Portuguese on p. 21. •Valid as Heptapterus multiradiatus Ihering 1907 -- (Buckup 1988:651 [ref. 6635], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], Aguilera et al. 2011:243 [ref. 31080], Azpelicueta et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31489]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus multiradiatus Ihering 1907. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Tietê River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

munduruku, Imparfinis Castro [Í. S.] & Wosiacki [W. B.] 2019:462, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4701 (no. 5); ref. 37139] Igarapé Bacabal, tributary of the Rio Tapajós, Vila de Penedo, Trilha MI3, Jacareacanga Municipality, Pará State, Brazil, 5°36'40.4"S, 57°7'16.6"W. Holotype: MPEG 38784. Paratypes: MPEG, MZUSP. •Valid as Imparfinis munduruku Castro & Wosiacki 2019. Current status: Valid as Imparfinis munduruku Castro & Wosiacki 2019. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rio Tapajós and Rio Teles Pires drainages, Pará, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

muriei, Rhamdia guatemalensis Hubbs [C. L.] 1935:7, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan No. 28; ref. 11676] Aguada at Uaxactun, Petén, Guatemala. Holotype: UMMZ 97881. Paratypes: UMMZ 97882 (orig. 55, now 53), USNM 117598 [ex UMMZ 97882] (2). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864), but a valid subspecies -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

musculus, Pimelodus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:4 [Horae Ichthyologicae No. 3; ref. 3073] America [probably South America]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3048. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:170 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

mustelinus, Pimelodus Valenciennes [A.] 1835:Pl. 2 (figs. 1-4) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Rio de la Plata, South America. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. Name available from plate in 1835, description in Valenciennes 1847:7 [ref. 5010], as Pimelodus mustellinus. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:165 [ref. 1008]. •Valid as Heptapterus mustelinus (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Buckup 1988:649 [ref. 6635], Malabarba 1989:139 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Sverlij et al. 1998:51 [ref. 27632] dated 1840, Miquelarena et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26517], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:61 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], Aguilera et al. 2011:240 [ref. 31080], Azpelicueta et al. 2011:325 [ref. 31489], Litz & Koerber 2014:20 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:32 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:51 [ref. 35267], Aguilera et al. 2017:579 [ref. 35499], Faustino-Fuster et al. 2019:370 [ref. 36604]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus mustelinus (Valenciennes 1835). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: La Plata and Uruguay River basins and coastal drainages of southern Brazil: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

namdia, Pimelodus Cuvier [G.] 1829:294 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Coastal systems in northeastern Brazil. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155], Koerber & Reis 2019:62 [ref. 37078]. Available from footnote as, "Pim. namdia, N., Margr., 149." Neotype designated by Silfvergrip 1996:12 [ref. 22347]. Neotype designation invalid, Koerber & Reis 2020:5 [ref. 37463]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155], Koerber & Reis 2019:62 [ref. 37078]). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

nasus, Cetopsorhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Fisher [H. G.] in Eigenmann 1916:83 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 6); ref. 1233] Honda, Colombia. Holotype (unique): FMNH 58126 [ex CM 7124]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:75 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia nasus Eigenmann & Fisher 1916 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Benitez et al. 2017:114 [ref. 35711]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia nasus Eigenmann & Fisher 1916. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Magdalena and Cauca River basins, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

nasuta, Rhamdia Meek [S. E.] 1909:207 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 7); ref. 14388] Buenos Aires de Térraba, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): FMNH 6480. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia nasuta Meek 1909 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Probably a synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (Bussing 1998:150 [ref. 24179]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

nemacheir, Nannorhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Fisher [H. G.] in Eigenmann 1916:83 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1-2) (art. 6); ref. 1233] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 58127 [ex CM 7125]. Non-types: FMNH 58128 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:59 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Nannorhamdia nemacheir Eigenmann & Fisher 1916 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:62 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Imparfinis nemacheir (Eigenmann & Fisher 1916) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:385 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:790 [ref. 31716], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis nemacheir (Eigenmann & Fisher 1916). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Amazon and Orinoco River basins, and Lake Maracaibo basin: Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nicaraguensis, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:125 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Lake Nicaragua, Nicaragua. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.212. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther 1864) -- (Villa 1982:123 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:108 [ref. 22927], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Silfvergrip 1996:91 [ref. 22347], Bussing 1998:152 [ref. 24179], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155], Angulo et al. 2013:993 [ref. 33194]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia nicaraguensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Distribution: River basins in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrofasciatus, Pimelodus Perugia [A.] 1897:18 [3] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 18; ref. 18536] Río Beni, Missioni Mosetenes, Amazon System, Bolivia. Holotype: MSNG 8039 (not found in 1995). Type catalog: Tortonese 1963:310 [ref. 10351], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155] On p. 3 of separate. •Status uncertain, in Pimelodella -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Pimelodella nigrofasciata (Perugia 1897) -- (Sarmiento et al. 2014:158, 191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella nigrofasciata (Perugia 1897). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Beni River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrolineata, Phenacorhamdia Zarske [A.] 1998:27, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologische Abhandlungen; Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde in Dresden v. 50 (no. 2); ref. 23981] Tierra Roja an der Strabe Campoverde - Tournavista, near Pucallpa, Ucayali Dept., Peru. Holotype: MTD F 20728. Paratypes: MTD F 17472 (1), F 20739 (1). Type catalog: Zarske 2003:23 [ref. 27474], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Phenacorhamdia nigrolineata Zarske 1998 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:165 [ref. 29737], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia nigrolineata Zarske 1998. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

nocturnus, Brachyglanis Myers [G. S.] 1928:84 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 3100] São Gabriel Rapids, Rio Negro, Amazon, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS 63393. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Brachyglanis nocturna Myers 1928 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860] as nocturnus, Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061] as nocturnus, Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155] as nocturnus). Current status: Valid as Brachyglanis nocturna Myers 1928. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Negro River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

notomelas, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:244, Pl. 30 (fig. 3) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] San Luiz de Cáceres, Paraguay River basin, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 57967 [ex CM 6955]. Paratypes: FMNH 57968 (5), 57983 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:77 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella notomelas Eigenmann 1917 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:99 [ref. 24147], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643], Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:505 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella notomelas Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

oaxacae, Rhamdia Meek [S. E.] 1902:74, Pl. 14 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 2957] Río Quiotepec, Cuicatlán, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: FMNH 3716 [not 3717]. Paratypes: FMNH 3717 (8), 72593 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864), but a valid subspecies -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (see Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:28 [ref. 22290]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

obesa, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:124 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Teffé, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7518. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia obesa Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia muelleri (Günther 1864) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:90 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia muelleri (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

odynea, Pimelodella chagresi Schultz [L. P.] 1944:213, Pl. 2 (fig. A) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río San Juan at the bridge south of Mene Grande, Motatán system, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121133. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-10933 (2); MCZ 37283 [ex USNM 121213] (5); UMMZ 142490 [ex USNM 121141] (2); USNM 82618 (1), 101610 (1), 121134 (50, now 47, 3 to G. Dahl), 121135-39 (2, 103, 3, 3, 1), 121140 (88, now 86, 2 to MBUCV), 121141 (26, now 24), 121142-44 (18, 8, 3), 121213 (22, now 17), 121252 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:35 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:14 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pimelodella chagresi (Steindachner 1877), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:64 [ref. 23651]). •Valid as Pimelodella odynea Schultz 1944 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Castaño et al. 2005:18 [ref. 28507], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Ardila Rodríguez 2017:8 [ref. 35221], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:572 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella odynea Schultz 1944. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin and adjacent rivers, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

ophthalmicus, Pimelodus Cope [E. D.] 1878:675 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Peruvian Amazon. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21102. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pimelodella ophthalmica (Cope 1878) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:193 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella ophthalmica (Cope 1878). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

orinoco, Cetopsorhamdia Schultz [L. P.] 1944:225, Pl. 3 (fig. A) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Torbes, 1 kilometer above Táriba, Río Orinoco system, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121214. Paratypes: MCZ 37294 [ex USNM 121215] (1), USNM 121215 (4, now 3). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:32 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia orinoco Schultz 1944 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Benitez et al. 2017:115 [ref. 35711], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:79 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia orinoco Schultz 1944. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

ornaticeps, Heptapterus Ahl [E.] 1936:110 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 116 (nos 3/4); ref. 13679] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [probably incorrect]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 20933. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke: 1997:165 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847]. •Species inquirenda in Heptapterus -- (Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Heptapterus ornaticeps Ahl 1936 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], Aguilera et al. 2011:243 [ref. 31080], Azpelicueta et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31489], Faustino-Fuster et al. 2019:371 [ref. 36604]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus ornaticeps Ahl 1936. Heptapteridae. Distribution: ? Coastal stream of Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ortoni, Rhamdia Fowler [H. W.] 1915:211, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 1392] Peruvian Amazon. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21928. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia ortoni Fowler 1915 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pallida, Pimelodella Dahl [G.] 1961:501, Fig. [Novedades Colombianas v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 1027] Caño Lozada, about 500 meters above its junction with Río Guayabero, Colombia. Holotype (unique): Probably lost. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella pallida Dahl 1961 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). •Synonym of Pimelodella chaparae Fowler 1940 -- (Cortés-Hernández et al. 2020:5001 [ref. 37629]). Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella chaparae Fowler 1940. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

panamensis, Imparales Bussing [W. A.] 1970:7, Fig. 2 [Contributions in Science (Los Angeles) No. 196; ref. 7720] Creek crossing road on south side of Santa Fe, Veraguas Province, Panama, elevation 305 meters. Holotype: USNM 204692. Paratypes: LACM 30689-1 (3), 30690-1 (1); UCR 321-1 (1), 322-1 (1); USNM 204693 (40). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155], Angulo et al. 2015:376 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Imparales panamensis Bussing 1970 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061]). •Incertae sedis in Heptaperidae, not related to Imparales -- (Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Heptapterus panamensis (Bussing 1970) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus panamensis (Bussing 1970). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Panama and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

papariae, Rhamdella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:135, Figs. 27-30 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Lago Papary, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69387. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Rhamdella papariae Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]). •In genus Pimelodella -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Pimelodella papariae (Fowler 1941) -- (Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella papariae (Fowler 1941). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Lake Papary basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

pappenheimi, Pimelodella Ahl [E.] 1925:107 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1923; ref. 15525] Rio Pedro at Humboldt, Santa Catherina, Brazil. Syntypes: ZMB 31951 (2). Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:167 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847]. •Valid as Pimelodella pappenheimi Ahl 1925 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella pappenheimi Ahl 1925. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Santa Catarina State and Paraná State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

parahybae, Pimelodus (Rhamdia) Steindachner [F.] 1877:615 [57] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba, southeastern Brazil. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1891.3.16.36-45 (10?), 1891.3.16.106 (1); NMW 45852. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. On p. 57 of separate. Silfvergrip 1996:146 [ref. 22347] says holotype is NMW 45852 (does not constitute lectotype designation). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], with NMW as holotype, Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

parnahybae, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:129, Figs. 8-11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Parnahyba, Therezina, Piauhy, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69377. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pimelodella parnahybae Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Reis et al. 2016:17 [ref. 34496], Melo et al. 2016:376 [ref. 35317], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella parnahybae Fowler 1941. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Parnaíba River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

parryi, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:130 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Río Zanaleneo, near Tonala, Chiapas, Mexico. Lectotype: MCZ 27273 (82.5 mm SL). Paralectotypes: CAS 63727 [ex IU 15316 and MCZ 27273 not 26292] (1); MCZ 27273 not 26292 (4, with lectotype). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. Locality information corrected by Miller 1984 [ref. 5281]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:29, 130 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061]). •Mention -- (Weber & Wilkens 1998:998 [ref. 23617]). •Valid as Rhamdia parryi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:29 [ref. 22290], Nelson et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:174 [ref. 28615], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155], Page et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia parryi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Pacific Slope rivers of Mexico to Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

parva, Pimelodella Güntert [H.] 1942:34, Figs. 4-7 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 138 (nos 1/2); ref. 12954] Río Paraguay, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): NMBA 5302. Type catalog: Kottelat & Sutter 1988:54 [ref. 13796], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella parva Güntert 1942 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860] with author as Günther, Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Koerber et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella parva Güntert 1942. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

parvus, Pimelodus (Rhamdia) Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:7 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino v. 13 (no. 329); ref. 14677] Río Santiago, Río Zamora and Río Bomboiza, Ecuador. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.11.4.5-6 (2), 1898.11.4.7 (1) Santiago; MZUT 1543 (2) Zamora, 1544 (2) Bomboiza, 1691 (4) Santiago. Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:136 [ref. 21559], Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia parva (Boulenger 1898) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559]). •Valid as Rhamdia parvani (Boulenger 1898) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559]). •Valid as Rhamdia parvus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Incertae sedis in Heptapteridae, genus unassigned -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:180 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia parvus (Boulenger 1898). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Marañón River basin (Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

pauciradiatus, Nemuroglanis Ferraris [C. J., Jr.] 1988:510, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 101 (no. 3); ref. 6685] Morichal, 26.9 kilometers from Puerto Ayachucho along Puerto Ayacucho to Caicara highway, Territory Federal Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-16450. Paratypes: AMNH 74410 (3, 1 c&s), 74411 (1); ANSP 159030 (12); CAS 57949 (3); FMNH 97121 (2); MBUCV-V-16451 (2); MZUSP 37274-275 (2); USNM 268645-46 (1, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771], Provenzano et al. 1998:13 [ref. 24196], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Nemuroglanis pauciradiatus Ferraris 1988 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Bockmann & Ferraris 2005:134 [ref. 28095], Ferraris 2007:188 [ref. 29155], Ribeiro et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31219], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Nemuroglanis pauciradiatus Ferraris 1988. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Negro, Orinoco and Sanabani River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

pectinifer, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:132 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Rio Muriaé at Campos, 3 miles from town, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 7508. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella pectinifera Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888 (often seen as pectinifer) -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella pectinifera Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Muriaé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

pentlandii, Pimelodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:183, Pl. 435 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 15; ref. 1008] Río Apurímac, Peru. Lectotype: BMNH 1862.11.15.11 (221.0 mm SL, smaller spec.). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1862.11.15.11 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:14, 139 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia pentlandii (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

peruana, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] & Myers [G. S.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:101, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Inahuaya, Río Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: CAS 63721 [ex IU]. Paratypes: (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. Published catalog number of IU 15868 previously assigned to another species. •Valid as Pimelodella peruana Eigenmann & Myers 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella peruana Eigenmann & Myers 1942. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Ucayali River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

peruanus, Chasmocranus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Pearson [N. E.] in Eigenmann & Allen 1942:91, Pl. 3 (figs. 3-4) [Fishes of western South America; ref. 1246] Puerto Melendez below Pongo de Manseriche, Río Marañon, Peru. Holotype: CAS 63627 [ex IU 15869] (1 of 2). Paratypes: CAS 63627 [ex IU 15869] (1 of 2, missing). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. Based on Plate 3, the smaller specimen should be the holotype if it can be distinguished from the slightly larger one. •Valid as Heptapterus peruanus (Eigenmann & Pearson 1942) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Chasmocranus peruanus Eigenmann & Pearson 1942 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Imparfinis peruanus (Eigenmann & Pearson 1942) -- (Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus peruanus Eigenmann & Pearson 1942. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

peruense, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1915:214, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 1392] Peruvian Amazon. Holotype: ANSP 21932. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pimelodella peruensis Fowler 1915 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745] as cf. peruensis, Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella peruensis Fowler 1915. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin: Peru and Ecuador?. Habitat: freshwater.

petenensis, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:126 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Lake Petén [Petén Itza], Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.371. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia petenensis (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

phalacra, Brachyglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:157, Pl. 12 (fig. 1), Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Amatuk Cataract, Guyana. Holotype (unique): FMNH 53216 [ex CM 1671]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:75 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:384 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Brachyglanis phalacra Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:410 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Brachyglanis phalacra Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

phantasia, Cetopsorhamdia Stewart [D. J.] 1985:340, Figs. 1, 2a-b [Copeia 1985 (no. 2); ref. 6788] Río Jivino, west of Limoncocha, Ecuador, about 0°24.6'S, 76°39.0'W. Holotype: FMNH 94601. Paratypes: FMNH 94602 (1). Additional non-type material: FMNH 94916 (2), FMNH 94917 (1), MEPN (Mus. Biol. Escuela Politécnica Nac. Ecuador) uncat. (1) + (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:21 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia phantasia Stewart 1985 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Chang & Ortega 1995:4 [ref. 24302], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[23] [ref. 35679], Benitez et al. 2017:114 [ref. 35711]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia phantasia Stewart 1985. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Napo River basin, Ecuador and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

picklei, Cetopsorhamdia Schultz [L. P.] 1944:222, Pl. 2 (fig. D) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Motatán, 4 kilometers above Motatán, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121217. Paratypes: Dahl [ex 121219] (2); MCZ 37261 [ex USNM 121218] (3); UMMZ 141935 [ex USNM 121222] (5);USNM 121218 (orig. 37, now 30), 121219 (24, now 22), 121220-21 (7, 17), 121222 (orig. 29, now 24); ZMA 102123 [ex USNM 121218] (4). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:40 [ref. 19236], Ferraris & Vari 1992:32 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia picklei Schultz 1944 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Benitez et al. 2017:114 [ref. 35711], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:79 [ref. 35773] as aff. picklei). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia picklei Schultz 1944. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

pijpersi, Cetopsorhamdia Hoedeman [J. J.] 1961:132, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of Aquatic Biology v. 2 (no. 23); ref. 11969] Sipaliwini River, Suriname, 20 kilometers from frontier with Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMA 102230. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:41 [ref. 19236], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Imparfinis pijpersi (Hoedeman 1961) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis pijpersi (Hoedeman 1961). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Corantijn River basin, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

piperatus, Imparfinis Eigenmann [C. H.] & Norris [A. A.] 1900:352 [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 4; ref. 1264] São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): CAS 63636 [ex IU 9298]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Imparfinis piperatus Eigenmann & Norris 1900 -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:471 [ref. 37139]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis piperatus Eigenmann & Norris 1900. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rio Tietê basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

poeyi, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:127 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Goiás, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 8196. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia poeyi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:159, 191 [ref. 35004], Angrizani & Malabarba 2018:44 [ref. 35829]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia poeyi Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Mamoré, upper Napo and Tocantins River basins: Bolivia, Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

polycaulus, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:131 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Río San Geronimo, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1864.1.26.93. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia policaulus (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860] as policaulis). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

potaroensis, Myoglanis Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:159, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Creek at Tukeit, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53333 [ex CM 1664]. Paratypes: (31) BMNH 1911.10.31.66 (1); CAS 60161 [ex IU 12048] (4), 60240-42 [ex IU 12049-51] (2, 2, 2); FMNH 7380 (1), 53214-15 (4, 2), 53566-68 (1, 1, 1), 59590 (4); MCZ 30082 [ex CM 1665] (1); NMW 45326 (1); CAS-SU 21932 (1); USNM 66225 [ex CM 1665] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:44 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:58 [ref. 12367], Ferraris & Vari 1992:34 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]. Originally potaroënsis. Appeared first as name only in Eigenmann 1910:384 [ref. 1224]. •Valid as Myoglanis potaroensis Eigenmann 1912 -- (Burgess 1989:276 [ref. 12860], Chang 1999:437 [ref. 23800], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento & Lundberg 2005:39 [ref. 28255], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Myoglanis potaroensis Eigenmann 1912. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

pristos, Imparfinis Mees [G. F.] & Cala [P.] 1989:391, Fig. 3 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 92 (no. 3); ref. 14277] Second tributary, left side, from mouth of Río Tomo, Vichada, Colombia. Holotype: ICNMHN 1401. Paratypes: ICNMHN 1402 (4); RMNH 30544 (5). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:46 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Imparfinis pristos Mees & Cala 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:414 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:471 [ref. 37139]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis pristos Mees & Cala 1989. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco and Amazon River basins: Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

procera, Pimelodella Mees [G. F.] 1983:49, Fig. 3 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 57 (no. 5); ref. 9700] Crique Balaté, French Guiana. Holotype: RMNH 28588. Paratypes: MNHN 1983-0005 (3); RMNH 28585 (9, now 6), 28586-87 (2, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella procera Mees 1983 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:140 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella procera Mees 1983. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Maroni/Marowijne River basin, French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

provenzanoi, Phenacorhamdia DoNascimiento [C.] & Milani [N.] 2008:169, Fig. 4, et seq. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 157; ref. 29737] Río Nichare, at Raudal La Raya, 1 kilometer from its mouth, 6°32'N, 64°49'W, Bolívar, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 34116. Paratypes: at ANSP, MBUCV, MCNG. Plus many non-type specimens. •Valid as Phenacorhamdia provenzanoi DoNascimiento & Milani 2008 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia provenzanoi DoNascimiento & Milani 2008. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudonemacheir, Imparfinis Mees [G. F.] & Cala [P.] 1989:387, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 92 (no. 3); ref. 14277] Río Tucuragua, near Caicara, Bolívar, Venezuela. Holotype: RMNH 30489 (1 of 3, 37.5 mm SL). Paratypes: ICNMHM 1403 (4); RMNH 30487 (4), 30489 (2 of 3); ZFMK 17818-19 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Herder et al. 2010:120 [ref. 31087], Mojica & Agudelo-Zamora 2018:46 [ref. 36127]. •Valid as Imparfinis pseudonemacheir Mees & Cala 1989 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:79 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis pseudonemacheir Mees & Cala 1989. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

pubescens, Rhamdia Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1920:11, Unnum. Pls. 6-7 [Peixes (excl. Characinidae) No. 58 (Annexo 5); ref. 3727] Urucum, near Corumbá, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 925A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 925 (4). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:404 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:404 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. Lectotype also selected by Silfvergrip 1996:34, 139 [ref. 22347] as 180.3 mm SL specimen. •Valid as Rhamdia pubescens Miranda Ribeiro 1920 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Mention -- (Britski et al. 1998:98 [ref. 24147]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

qenqo, Heptapterus Aguilera [G.], Mirande [J. M.] & Azpelicueta [M. de las M.] 2011:[3] 242, Figs 1, 3, 5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 78 (no. 1); ref. 31080] Río Rearte, Río Salí basin, 26°22'52.1"S, 65°31'36.8"W, Trancas, Tucumán, Argentina. Holotype: CI-FML 3955. Paratypes: many at CI-FML. •Valid as Heptapterus qenqo Aguilera, Mirande & Azpelicueta 2011 -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31489], Koerber 2014:6 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Aguilera et al. 2017:579 [ref. 35499], Faustino-Fuster et al. 2019:371 [ref. 36604]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus qenqo Aguilera, Mirande & Azpelicueta 2011. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Salí-Dulce River basin, northwestern Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

quadrimaculatus, Silurus Bloch [M. E.] 1794:37, Pl. 368 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 8; ref. 463] America [South America]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 2944 (probably lost). Type catalog: Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:172 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155] On p. 28 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 11 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Pimelodus quadrimaculatus (Bloch 1794) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559] as quadromaculatus, Burgess 1989:280 [ref. 12860]). •Questionably the same as Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Uncertain as Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

quadrizonatus, Chasmocranus Pearson [N. E.] 1937:93 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 23 (no. 7); ref. 12297] Tingo de Pauca, Río Marañon, Peru. Holotype: CAS 63628 [ex IU 17659]. Paratypes: CAS 63629 [ex IU 17660] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. IU catalogue numbers erroneously listed as CAS numbers in original description. •Valid as Heptapterus quadrizonatus (Pearson 1937) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Chasmocranus quadrizonatus Pearson 1937 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:14 [ref. 9708], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus quadrizonatus Pearson 1937. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Marañon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

quelen, Pimelodus Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:228, Pl. 49 (figs. 3-4) [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Cachoeira de Macacu, tributary of the Rio Soarinho, Rio Macacu drainage, Baía de Guanabara hydrographic basin, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 22°38'6"S, 42°43'6"W. Neotype: MNRJ 51746. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155], Koerber & Reis 2019:53 [ref. 37078]. Neotype designated by Silfvergrip 1996:97, 139 [ref. 22347] as NRM 16091; Silfvergrip designated the same neotype for other species making them objective synonyms of quelen; these actions were considered as invalid by Koerber & Reis 2020:5 [ref. 37463] and by Angrizani & Malabarba 2020:93 [ref. 37584]. New neotype designation by Angrizani & Malabarba 2020:93 [ref. 37584]. •Mention -- (Malabarba 1989:144 [ref. 14217], Britski et al. 1998:98 [ref. 24147]). •Valid as Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Mees 1986:319 [ref. 5693], Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Torelli et al. 1997:70 [ref. 24612], Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Sverlij et al. 1998:58 [ref. 27632], Fuller et al. 1999:217 [ref. 25838], Le Bail et al. 2000:144 [ref. 24549], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Romero & Paulson 2001:27 [ref. 26040], Miquelarena et al. 2002:78 [ref. 26517], López et al. 2002:63 [ref. 26808], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:139 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Bichuette & Trajano 2005:593 [ref. 28555], Ferraris 2007:199-200 [ref. 29155], Di Dario et al. 2013:262 [ref. 37503] as cf. quelen, Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Catelani et al. 2014:931 [ref. 37496], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321], Sarmiento et al. 2014:159, 191 [ref. 35004], Barrientos et al. 2015:4 [ref. 37653], Hernández et al. 2015:570 [ref. 34223], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:186 [ref. 34894], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561] as aff. quelen, DoNascimiento 2016:532 [ref. 34727], Garavello & Shibatta 2016:[10] [ref. 34385], Melo et al. 2016:134 [ref. 34701], Nión et al. 2016:33 [ref. 35565], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Koerber et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35267], Ribolli et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35238], Angrizani & Malabarba 2018:44 [ref. 35829], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506] as cf. quelen, Dickens 2019:171 [ref. 37135], Koerber & Reis 2019:53 [ref. 37078], Angrizani & Malabarba 2020:93 [ref. 37584], Koerber & Reis 2020:3 [ref. 37463], Silva et al. 2020:11 [ref. 37809], Vita et al. 2020:[5] [ref. 37506]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: southeastern Brazil; introduced elsewhere? Habitat: freshwater.

rambarrani, Pimelodella Axelrod [H. R.] & Burgess [W. E.] in Axelrod 1987:24, Figs. [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 35 (no. 12); ref. 9153] Rio Unini, tributary of Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37693. Paratypes: USNM 288460 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:35 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155] Author is W. E. Burgess. •Valid as Pimelodella rambarrani Axelrod & Burgess 1987 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Brachyrhamdia rambarrani (Axelrod & Burgess 1987) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:181 [ref. 29155], Slobodian & Bockmann 2013:21 [ref. 32905]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhamdia rambarrani (Axelrod & Burgess 1987). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Unini River basin in upper Negro River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

reddelli, Rhamdia Miller [R. R.] 1984:136, Fig. 1 [Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History v. 20 (no. 8); ref. 5281] Cueva del Nacimiento del Río San Antonio, about 9 kilometers southwest of Acatlán, about 18°12'N, 98°02'W, Oaxaca state, Atlantic slope of Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 211164. Paratypes: AMNH 38216-18 (1, 4, 2); Bianco coll. [ex UMMZ 211165] (2); UMMZ 199016 (2), 211165 (6, now 4), 211666 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:87 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Rhamdia reddelli Miller 1984 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:29 [ref. 22290], Weber & Wilkens 1998:998 [ref. 23617], Romero & Paulson 2001:27 [ref. 26040], Wilkens 2001:253 [ref. 26397], Weber et al. 2003:279 [ref. 27394], Nelson et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27807], Bichuette & Trajano 2005:588 [ref. 28555], Miller 2006:175 [ref. 28615], Proudlove 2006:136 [ref. 28992], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155], Page et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia reddelli Miller 1984. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Southern North America: cave in the source of Río San Antonio (Oaxaca, Mexico) and Cueva de Maravillas (Veracruz, Mexico) endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

regani, Rhamdia Meek [S. E.] 1907:144 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 5); ref. 15159] Turrialba, Costa Rica. Holotype: FMNH 6019. Paratypes: FMNH 6020 (4), 6222 (2), 6242 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia regani Meek 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

rendahli, Pimelodella Ahl [E.] 1925:106 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1923; ref. 15525] No specific locality [South America]. Holotype (unique): ZMB 32031. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:167 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847]. •Valid as Pimelodella rendahli Ahl 1925 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:420 [ref. 27061], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). •Species inquirenda in Pimelodella -- (Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella rendahli Ahl 1925. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America [unknown locality]. Habitat: freshwater.

retropinnatus, Horiomyzon Stewart [D. J.] 1986:48, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 138; ref. 5777] Río Napo at Añangu, Napo Province, Ecuador, 0°31.6'S, 76°22.9'W. Holotype (unique): FMNH 96553. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Horiomyzon retropinnatus Stewart 1986 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:185 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Horiomyzon retropinnatus Stewart 1986. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon and Napo River basins: Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

reyesi, Pimelodella Dahl [G.] in Dahl & Medem 1964:37, Fig. on p. 503 [Informe sobre la fauna acuatica del Rio Sinu; ref. 19185] Río Manso del Sinú, Colombia. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella reyesi Dahl 1964 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Castaño et al. 2005:55 [ref. 28507], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Ardila Rodríguez 2017:8 [ref. 35221], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:572 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella reyesi Dahl 1964. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Sinú River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

riojae, Rhamdia Fowler [H. W.] 1915:209, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 1392] Rioja, near Moyabamba and Baka Puerto, on or near the lower course of Río Huallagua, Peru. Holotype: ANSP 21101. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia riojae Fowler 1915 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rivularis, Silurus Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:376 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Río de La Plata or along the coast between Maldonado, Florianópolis, and Rio de Janeiro. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155], Koerber & Reis 2019:72 [ref. 37078]. Appeared as ribularis [apparently misspelled]; corresponds to Silurus 9-radiatus on p. 385. Appeared as Silurus rivularis vel 9-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:322, 307 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Neotype designated by Silfvergrip 1996:35, 96 [ref. 22347]. Neotype designation invalid, Koerber & Reis 2020:5 [ref. 37463]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:35, 96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061] with question [but without question based on lectotype], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155] as ribularis, Koerber & Reis 2019:72 [ref. 37078] as ribularis). •Species inquiredae -- (Koerber & Reis 2020:8 [ref. 37463]). Current status: Unknown. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

robinsoni, Rhamdella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:135, Figs. 23-26 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] São José do Egito, Pernambuco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69386. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdella robinsoni Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]). •In genus Pimelodella -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Pimelodella robinsoni (Fowler 1941) -- (Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella robinsoni (Fowler 1941). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Lower São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

roccae, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:232, 240, Pl. 35 (fig. 7) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Rio Comberciato, Lower Urubamba Valley, Peru, elevation 1800 feet. Holotype: MCZ 30975. Paratypes: CAS 63722 [ex IU 13751] (1), ?UMMZ (several lots). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella roccae Eigenmann 1917 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella roccae Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Urubamba and Beni River basins: Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

rogersi, Pimelodus Regan [C. T.] 1907:259 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 19 (no. 111); ref. 15175] Irazu, Costa Rica. Lectotype: BMNH 1907.2.11.1 (117.1 mm SL, largest). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1907.2.11.2-4 (3, with lectotype). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:31, 130 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia rogersi (Regan 1907) -- (Bussing 1987:109 [ref. 22927], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Bussing 1998:154 [ref. 24179]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

rosae, Chasmocranes Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:220, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Río Negro at Villavicencio, Orinoco River system, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 55140 [ex CM 3841]. Paratypes: FMNH 55141 [?CM 3842] (2), CAS 75751 [ex IU 15019] (now 2). Additional original material: CAS 75752 [ex IU 15020] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:23 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. Correct spelling of original genus is Chasmocranus. •Valid as Heptapterus rosae (Eigenmann 1922) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860] also in Imparfinis on p. 277). •Valid as Chasmocranus rosae Eigenmann 1922 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:79 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus rosae Eigenmann 1922. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Meta River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

roxoi, Phenacorhamdia Silva [G. S. C.] 2020:276, Figs. 1, 4a-c [Zootaxa 4890 (no. 2); ref. 37978] Córrego Hortelã, Pardo River, Paranapanema River drainage, upper Paraná River basin, Botucatu Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, -22.941178°, -48.584397°. Holotype: MZUSP 125819. Paratypes: LBP, MZUSP, NUP. •Valid as Phenacorhamdia roxoi Silva 2020. Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia roxoi Silva 2020. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Paranapanema River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

rudolphi, Pimelodella Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1918:637 [9] [Revista do Museu Paulista v. 10; ref. 3725] São Paulo market, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 857A. Paralectotypes: (23) MNRJ 857 (4); MZUSP [ex DZSASP] 1061 (1), 2259 (1), 2260 (1), 2261 (1), 5260 (1), 5261 (1), 5262-64 (3). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:403-404 [ref. 12732], Britski 1969:205 [ref. 12401], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. On p. 9 of separate. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:404 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Pimelodella rudolphi Miranda Ribeiro 1918 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella rudolphi Miranda Ribeiro 1918. Heptapteridae. Distribution: São Paulo State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

rupununi, Rhamdia holomelas Fowler [H. W.] 1914:258, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39339. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia foina (Müller & Troschel 1849) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:76 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia foina (Müller & Troschel 1849). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

rusbyi, Rhamdella Pearson [N. E.] 1924:12, Pl. 2 (fig. 4) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Colorado, Lower Bopi, Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype: CAS 63728 [ex IU 17275]. Paratypes: (12) CAS 63729 [ex IU 17275] (3); UMMZ 66317 [ex IU 17275] (now 2), 66478 [ex IU 17275] (2); USNM 86829 [ex IU 17275] (3), 117603 [ex UMMZ 66321, IU 17275] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:37 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Rhamdella rusbyi Pearson 1924 -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Miquelarena & Menni 1999:207 [ref. 24223], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155], Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643], Reis et al. 2014:41 [ref. 33590], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella rusbyi Pearson 1924. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Beni River basin, Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

sacrificii, Rhamdia Barbour [T.] & Cole [L. J.] 1906:156, Pl. 2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 50 (no. 5); ref. 15639] Sacrificial Cenote near Chichen Itza, Yucatán, Mexico. Lectotype: MCZ 29073 (230 mm SL). Paralectotypes: MCZ 29073 (1, with lectotype). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:30, 130 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864), but a valid subspecies -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860] as scarifici, Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386]). •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (see Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:28 [ref. 22290]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

saijaensis, Rhamdia Rendahl [H.] 1941:2 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 33 (Häfte 1) A (no. 4); ref. 12983] Río Saija, south of Buenaventura, Pacific slope, Colombia. Holotype: NRM 10675. Paratypes: NRM 15329 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. Originally 4 specimens; largest referred to as "Typexemplar". •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rhamdia saijaensis Rendahl 1941 -- (Hernández et al. 2015:576 [ref. 34223], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:92 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia saijaensis Rendahl 1941. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Pacific slope, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

salvini, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:130 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Río San Geronimo, Guatemala. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1861.8.12.16 [or 1861.8.2.16]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia salvini (Günther 1864) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

sapipoca, Silurus Natterer [J.] in Kner 1858:418 [48] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 26 (s. 373); ref. 2630] On p. 48 of separate. Not available, Natterer manuscript name mentioned in passing under Pimelodus sebae. •In the synonymy of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Koerber & Reis 2019:70 [ref. 37078]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae.

sapo, Pimelodus Valenciennes [A.] 1835:Pl. 2 (figs. 6-8) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1576. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:56 [ref. 19575], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155] Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:7 [ref. 5010] with wrong plate number. See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:179 [ref. 1008]. See Gómez & Chebez 1996:59 [ref. 23791]. Pl. 2 was published in 1835. •Mention -- (Malabarba 1989:144 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Rhamdia sapo (Valenciennes 1835) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:63 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:139 [ref. 28130], Menni 2004:83 [ref. 28131], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155], Litz & Koerber 2014:21 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:52 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

schomburgkii, Rhamdia Bleeker [P.] 1858:208 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 4 (art. 2); ref. 365] Replacement name for Pimelodus maculatus Schomburgk 1841, not same as Pimelodus maculatus Lacepède 1803 (see Boeseman 1972:306 [ref. 19698]). Apparently not treated in Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003 [ref. 27061]. •Valid as Rhamdia schomburgkii Bleeker 1858 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860] as schomburgki). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia schomburgkii Bleeker 1858. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

schubarti, Nannorhamdia Gomes [A. L.] 1956:404, Fig. 1 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 12195] Rio Mogi Guaçu, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: EEBP 379. Paratypes: EEBP 380 through 396 (3, 2, 1, 2, 2, 2, 4, 1, 2, 1, 1, 3, 1, 2, 2, 2, 1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Imparfinis mirini Haseman 1911 -- (Mees & Cala 1989:384 [ref. 14277], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:778 [ref. 31716]). •Valid as Imparfinis schubarti (Gomes 1956) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:471 [ref. 37139]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis schubarti (Gomes 1956). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

schultzi, Rhamdella Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1964:1, Fig. 1 [Boletim do Museu Nacional, Zoologia (N. S.) No. 248; ref. 2619] Upper Rio Xingu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 9549. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Leptorhamdia schultzi (Miranda Ribeiro 1964) -- (Bizerril & Borba 1994:1 [ref. 24592], Burgess & Finley 1996:166 [ref. 22901], Ferraris 2007:187 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Leptorhamdia schultzi (Miranda Ribeiro 1964). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Xingu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

sebae, Pimelodus Cuvier [G.] 1829:294 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] ? Suriname. Valenciennes specimens: RMNH 3064-68 (1, 1, 1, 4, 2); MNHN A-9420 (1), A-9421 (1), A-9941 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:56 [ref. 19575], Boeseman 1972:300 [ref. 19698]; both catalogs give syntypes but technically the holotype is the specimen figured by Seba, Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155], Koerber & Reis 2019:65 [ref. 37078]. Available from footnote as, "Pim. sebae, N., Seb., III, xxix, 5." See also Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:169 [ref. 1008]. Lectotype selected but lost; neotype designated by Silfvergrip 1996:13 [ref. 22347]. Neotype designation invalid, Koerber & Reis 2020:5 [ref. 37463]. •Valid as Rhamdia sebae (Cuvier 1829) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:70 [ref. 23651]). •Mention -- (Britski et al. 1998:98 [ref. 24147]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155], Koerber & Reis 2019:65 [ref. 37078]). •Uncertain -- (Koerber & Reis 2020:6 [ref. 37463].) Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

sellonis, Pimelodus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:2 [Horae Ichthyologicae No. 3; ref. 3073] Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 3041. Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:170-171 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

serrata, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:235, Pl. 29 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] San Joaquín, Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype: FMNH 57979 [ex CM 6967]. Paratypes: FMNH 15978 [ex CM 6966a] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:66 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella serrata Eigenmann 1917 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:194 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:158, 191 [ref. 35004], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella serrata Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

sextentaculatus, Heterobranchus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:28, Pl. 11 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Lower Amazon basin, Brazil [Brazil]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155], Koerber & Reis 2019:62 [ref. 37078]. As Heterobranchus 6-tentaculatus on plate. Neotype designated by Silfvergrip 1996:13 [ref. 22347]. Neotype designation invalid, Koerber & Reis 2020:5 [ref. 37463]. •Questionably a synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:95 [ref. 22347], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061] after neotype designation, Koerber & Reis 2019:62 [ref. 37078]). •Uncertain -- (Koerber & Reis 2020:8 [ref. 37463]). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

shermani, Cetopsorhamdia Schultz [L. P.] 1944:220, Pl. 2 (fig. C) [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 94 (no. 3172); ref. 3959] Río Guárico and tributaries between San Sebastián and San Casimiro, Orinoco system, Aragua State, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): USNM 121216. Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:33 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Cetopsorhamdia molinae Miles 1943 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:411 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:182 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Cetopsorhamdia shermani Schultz 1944 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:79 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Cetopsorhamdia shermani Schultz 1944. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

somnians, Heptapterus Mees [G. F.] 1974:184, Fig. 36 [Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) No. 132; ref. 2969] Sangadina, tributary of Rio das Mortes, 2 kilometers from Xaventina, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1971.7.29.4. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus somnians Mees 1974 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Phenacorhamdia somnians (Mees 1974) -- (Britski 1993:45 [ref. 21110], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Zarske 1998:30 [ref. 23981], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:165 [ref. 29737], Silva 2020:281 [ref. 37978]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia somnians (Mees 1974). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Das Mortes River drainage, Araguaia River basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

spelaea, Pimelodella Trajano [E.], Reis [R. E.] & Bichuette [M. E.] 2004:317, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2004 (no. 2); ref. 27653] Subterranean stream tributary to São Bernardo River inside São Bernardo Cave, upper Tocantins River basin, São Domingos, Goiás State, Brazil, 13°49'S, 46°21'W. Holotype: MZUSP 81726. Paratypes: MCP 31482 (2, 1 c&s), 31483 (1); MZUSP 81727 (1, 1, 2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella spelaea Trajano, Reis & Bichuette 2004 -- (Proudlove 2006:143 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:97 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella spelaea Trajano, Reis & Bichuette 2004. Heptapteridae. Distribution: São Bernardo Cave, upper Tocantins River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

spurrellii, Nannorhamdia Regan [C. T.] 1913:467 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 12 (no. 71); ref. 3656] Río Condoto, Colombia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1913.10.1.41. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Imparfinis spurrellii (Regan 1913) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:382 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis spurrellii (Regan 1913). Heptapteridae. Distribution: San Juan River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

stegelichii, Pimelodus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1849:628 [Reisen in Britisch-Guiana; ref. 3072] Suriname. Lectotype: ZMB 3043. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH 1857.6.13.146 (dries skin); ZMB 3044 (lost), 3045 (2). Type catalog: Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:171 [ref. 24006], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155] Also appeared in Müller & Troschel 1849:3 [ref. 3073]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:15 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

steindachneri, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1917:237, Pl. 35 (figs. 42-44) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 15088] Amazon basin, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 7472 (1), 7542 (1), 7566 (2), 7487 (1) 7567 (1), 7588 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella steindachneri Eigenmann 1917 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Ramos et al. 2014:4 [ref. 35321] as cf. steindachneri, Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella steindachneri Eigenmann 1917. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

stewarti, Heptapterus Haseman [J. D.] 1911:376, Pl. 74 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (19); ref. 2048] Serrinha Paraná, in a creek about one half mile from the Rio Iguaçú, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 54234 [ex CM 2850]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:76 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:46 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus stewarti Haseman 1911 -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], López et al. 2002:59 [ref. 26808], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], Aguilera et al. 2011:243 [ref. 31080], Azpelicueta et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31489], Aguilera et al. 2017:579 [ref. 35499], Faustino-Fuster et al. 2019:371 [ref. 36604]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus stewarti Haseman 1911. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, south Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

stictonotus, Nannorhamdia Fowler [H. W.] 1940:66, Figs. 21-22 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 92; ref. 1436] Todos Santos, Río Chapare, Bolivia. Holotype: ANSP 68892. Paratypes: ANSP 68893-907 (15, with holotype), 68908-10 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Imparfinis stictonotus (Fowler 1940) -- (Mees & Cala 1989:385 [ref. 14277], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Lasso et al. 2001:99 [ref. 25928] as cf. stictonotus, Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:415 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:186 [ref. 29155], Ortega-Lara et al. 2011:791 [ref. 31716], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633], Castro & Wosiacki 2019:471 [ref. 37139]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis stictonotus (Fowler 1940). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

straminea, Rhamdella Cope [E. D.] 1894:93, Pl. 8 [7] (figs. 10, 10a) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Syntypes: (should be 5) ANSP 21604 (1) and 39835-36 (2) [in one jar], 21581-21584 (4? in pieces), 23216 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]. Intended Pl. 7 was reversed with Pl. 8. •Valid as Rhamdella straminea Cope 1894 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdella eriarcha (Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888) -- (Malabarba 1989:143 [ref. 14217], Langeani 1990:37 [ref. 16736], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:196 [ref. 29155]). •In Pimelodella or Rhamdia but not Rhamdella -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Pimelodella straminea (Cope 1894) -- (Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella straminea (Cope 1894). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

stygaea, Rhamdia guatemalensis Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:203, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] San Isidro Cave, Salar Colony, near Merida, Yucatán, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102218. Paratypes: UMMZ 102112-13 (4, 3); USNM 117599 [ex UMMZ 102112] (1). Type catalog: Ferraris & Vari 1992:38 [ref. 19771], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155] •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386]). •Mention -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:26 [ref. 26040]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

surinamensis, Heptapterus Bleeker [P.] 1862:387 [17] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 390] Suriname [ Suriname River]. Holotype (unique): RMNH 2984. Type catalog: Boeseman 1972:311 [ref. 19698], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. On p. 17 of separate. Type information: Van der Stigchel 1947:41 [ref. 13094]. •Valid as Chasmocranus surinamensis (Bleeker 1862) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus surinamensis (Bleeker 1862). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Suriname River basin, Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

sympterygium, Heptapterus Buckup [P. A.] 1988:644, Figs. 1-2 [Copeia 1988 (no. 3); ref. 6635] Canal at east side of highway BR-471, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 32°32'S, 52°31'W. Holotype: MZUSP 19179. Paratypes: AMNH 50001 (3); MAPA 419 (1), 696 (1), 1611 (1), 1613 (1, c&s), 1615-1619 (5), 1624-1628 (5), 1629-1630 (2); MCZ 58442 (5); MZUSP 19180-88 (9); RMNH 28721-23 (1, 1, 1); UFRGS 698 (2), 1200-1209 (10), 1210 (1 c&s), 1211-1216 (6). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus sympterygium Buckup 1988 -- (Buckup 1988:649 [ref. 6635], Malabarba 1989:140 [ref. 14217], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], Aguilera et al. 2011:243 [ref. 31080], Azpelicueta et al. 2011:326 [ref. 31489], Koerber & Litz 2014:3 [ref. 34967], Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561], Koerber & Litz 2016:4 [ref. 35098], Aguilera et al. 2017:579 [ref. 35499], Faustino-Fuster et al. 2019:371 [ref. 36604], Koerber et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37480]). Current status: Valid as Heptapterus sympterygium Buckup 1988. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America coastal lowlands of eastern Rio Grande do Sul State (Brazil) and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniophorus, Pimelodus (Pimelodella) Regan [C. T.] 1903:625 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 72) (art. 64); ref. 13401] Descalvado, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Syntypes: BMNH 1895.5.17.27-28 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella taeniophora (Regan 1903) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Sarmiento et al. 2014:191 [ref. 35004], Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella taeniophora (Regan 1903). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

taenioptera, Pimelodella Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1914:5, Fig. [Pimelodidae, Trachycorystidae, Cetopsidae, Bunocephalidae, Auchenipteridae, e Hypophthalmidae. Annexo no. 5; ref. 17771] Rio Sepotuba, Tapirapoan, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 691A. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 691 (2). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:404 [ref. 12732], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:404 [ref. 12732] [but perhaps specimen not isolated]. •Valid as Pimelodella taenioptera Miranda Ribeiro 1914 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Britski et al. 1999:98 [ref. 24147], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Ruíz Díaz et al. 2008:1 [ref. 31123], Koerber 2011:6 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella taenioptera Miranda Ribeiro 1914. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil; Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

tapanahoniensis, Heptapterus Mees [G. F.] 1967:223, Fig. 2 [Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) v. 42 (no. 20); ref. 7977] Tapanahoni River, Suriname. Holotype: RMNH 25546. Paratypes: RMNH 25547-51 (12, 1, 8, 5, 7). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus tapanahoniensis Mees 1967 -- (Mees 1986:322 [ref. 5693], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:126 [ref. 24549], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], Aguilera et al. 2011:243 [ref. 31080]) Current status: Valid as Heptapterus tapanahoniensis Mees 1967. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Maroni/Marowijne and Sinnamary River basins: French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

tapatapae, Pimelodella Eigenmann [C. H.] 1920:5 [Indiana University Studies v. 7 (no. 44); ref. 11120] Mouth of Río Tapa Tapa, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): CAS 57469 [ex IU 15094]. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella tapatapae Eigenmann 1920 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella tapatapae Eigenmann 1920. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Tapa Tapa River basin in Lake Valencia drainage, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

taphorni, Phenacorhamdia DoNascimiento [C.] & Milani [N.] 2008:171, Figs. 5, et seq. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 157; ref. 29737] Río La Yucam north of San José, Obero, 8°46'N, 70°15'W, Obispos, Barinas, Venezuela. Holotype: MCNG 54508. Paratypes: ANSP 187414 [ex MCNG 5425] (2); MBUCV-V-9927 (1), V-32916 (5); MCNG 5425 (12, 2 c&s), 28911 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Phenacorhamdia taphorni DoNascimiento & Milani 2008 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:78 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia taphorni DoNascimiento & Milani 2008. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Eastern slope of the Andes of Barinas state, Apure River drainage, Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

tenebrosus, Imparfinis Schubart [O.] 1964:9, Figs. 3-4 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Zoologia, Nova Série No. 244; ref. 3417] Rio Mogi Guaçu, Brazil. Syntypes: EEBP 109 (1), 197 (5), 197 (bis) (?), 630 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus tenebrosus (Schubart 1964) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa (Schubart 1964) -- (Britski 1993:45 [ref. 21110], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:165 [ref. 29737], Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33621], Mirande & Koerber 2015:34 [ref. 35117], Rocha et al. 2018:360 [ref. 35864], Silva et al. 2020:10 [ref. 37809], Silva 2020:281 [ref. 37978]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia tenebrosa (Schubart 1964). Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: upper Paraná and São Francisco River basins (Argentina and Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

tenella, Rhamdia Eigenmann [C. H.] & Eigenmann [R. S.] 1888:127 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 2); ref. 1249] Lago Cudajas, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype: MCZ 7547. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia tenella Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laukidi Bleeker 1858 -- (Silfvergrip 1996:90 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laukidi Bleeker 1858. Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

tenuis, Heptapterus Mees [G. F.] 1986:322, Figs. 3-4 [Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (Series C, Biological and Medical Sciences) v. 89 (no. 3); ref. 5693] Creek Cascade Moyen, Maroni River, French Guiana. Holotype: RMNH 29422. Paratypes: RMNH 29288 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus tenuis Mees 1986 -- (Mees 1986:322 [ref. 5693], Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860], Le Bail et al. 2000:128 [ref. 24549], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:413 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:184 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento 2016:539 [ref. 34727]). •Valid as Phenacorhamdia tenuis (Mees 1986) -- (DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:165 [ref. 29737], Silva 2020:281 [ref. 37978]). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia tenuis (Mees 1986). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Maroni/Marowijne River basin, French Guiana and ? Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

thayeria, Brachyrhamdia Slobodian [V.] & Bockmann [F. A.] 2013:3, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa 3717 (no. 1); ref. 32905] Amazonas, Maraã, Lago Amanã, Rio Japurá basin, 2°32’06"S, 65°43’02", Brazil, elevation 44 meters. Holotype: INPA 39534. Paratype: ANSP 194110 (1); INPA 25306 (2), 25740 (1), 25741 (2); LIRP 10237 (1); MZUSP 114011 (1). •Valid as Brachyrhamdia thayeria Slobodian & Bockmann 2013 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:90 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Brachyrhamdia thayeria Slobodian & Bockmann 2013. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Amazon River basin: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

timana, Imparfinis Ortega-Lara [A.], Milani [N.], DoNascimiento [C.], Villa-Navarro [F. A.] & Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.] 2011:778, Figs. 1, 5g [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 31716] Río Guarapas, in the mouth of quebrada La Quebradona, small tributary of upper río Magdalena basin, 1°45'49"N, 76°05'05" W, Município Palestina, Departamento del Huila, Colombia, elevation 1350 meters. Holotype: IAvH-P 10696. Paratypes: CZUT-IC 2389 (4); IAvH-P 7061 (9, c&s), 7062 (5), 7067 (36, 1 c&s); IMCN 1203 (1 c&s), 2003 (2); MBUCV-V-33735 (3, 1 c&s). Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:410 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Imparfinis timana Ortega-Lara, Milani, DoNascimiento, Villa-Navarro & Maldonado-Ocampo 2011 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis timana Ortega-Lara, Milani, DoNascimiento, Villa-Navarro & Maldonado-Ocampo 2011. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Río Guarapas, upper río Magdalena basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

transfasciatus, Rhamdioglanis Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[3] [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio Bethary of Rio Ribeira, Brazil. Syntypes: MNRJ 965 (2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdioglanis transfasciatus Miranda Ribeiro 1908 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdioglanis transfasciatus Miranda Ribeiro 1908. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Coastal streams of Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina states, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

transitoria, Pimelodella Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1907:186 [Boletim Sociedade Nacional Agricultura, Rio de Janeiro [Lavoura] v. 11 (no. 5); ref. 17767] Ribeirao do Alambary, Iporanga, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella transitoria Miranda Ribeiro 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella transitoria Miranda Ribeiro 1907. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Ribeira de Iguapé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

truncatorostris, Chasmocranus Borodin [N. A.] 1927:5, Fig. 4 [American Museum Novitates No. 266; ref. 12246] Col. Hansa, Joinville, Sta. Catarina Province, Brazil. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8640. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Heptapterus truncatorostris (Borodin 1927) -- (Burgess 1989:277 [ref. 12860]). •Valid as Chasmocranus truncatorostris Borodin 1927 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:412 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:183 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Chasmocranus truncatorostris Borodin 1927. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Catarina Province Brazil (known only from the type locality). Habitat: freshwater.

typhla, Rhamdia laticauda Greenfield [D. W.], Greenfield [T. A.] & Woods [R. L.] 1982:564, Figs. 1, 2A-B, 3, 5C, 8B-C, E [Brenesia No. 19/20; ref. 8980] A cave in the Mountain Pine Ridge, Las Cuevas, 16°45'N, 89°00'W, Belize. Holotype: FMNH 71605. Paratypes: FMNH 80454-56 (3, 3, 9), UMMZ 192632 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367] as 12 paratypes at FMNH, Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:87 [ref. 22947], Weber & Wilkens 1998:998 [ref. 23617], Romero & Paulson 2001:26 [ref. 26040], Bichuette & Trajano 2005:588 [ref. 28555], Proudlove 2006:135 [ref. 28992]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:87 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Scharpf 2006:20 [ref. 30386], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

underwoodi, Rhamdia Regan [C. T.] 1907:135, Pl. 23 (fig. 4) [Biologia Centrali-Americana Part 215; ref. 3629] Juan Viñas, Costa Rica. Lectotype: BMNH 1907.6.28.33 (84.5 mm SL, largest of four). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1907.6.28.34-36 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:130 [ref. 22347]. •Valid as Rhamdia underwoodi Regan 1907 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia rogersi (Regan 1907) -- (Bussing 1998:154 [ref. 24179]). •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:86 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:198 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

unifasciata, Phenacorhamdia Britski [H. A.] 1993:42, Fig. 1 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, Série Zoologia v. 6; ref. 21110] Ribeirão Santana, tributary of River São Bartolomeu, 15°50'N, 47°40'W, District Federal, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 36691. Paratypes: MZUSP 36692-98 (1 ea. = 7), 36699-700 (2), 36701 (1). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Phenacorhamdia unifasciata Britski 1993 -- (Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Burgess & Finley 1996:167 [ref. 22901], Zarske 1998:30 [ref. 23981], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:416 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:189 [ref. 29155], DoNascimiento & Milani 2008:165 [ref. 29737], Silva 2020:281 [ref. 37978] as cf. unifasciatas). Current status: Valid as Phenacorhamdia unifasciata Britski 1993. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

urichi, Caecorhamdia Norman [J. R.] 1926:325, Fig. 1 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 9) v. 18 (no. 106); ref. 3214] Pool in interior of Guacharo Cave, Trinidad Island, West Indies. Lectotype: BMNH 1926.7.28.1-2 (99.7 mm SL, smaller of two). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1926.7.28.1-2 (1, larger of 2). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:35 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Romero & Paulson 2001:27 [ref. 26040], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824), but a valid subspecies -- (Bichuette & Trajano 2005:588 [ref. 28555], Proudlove 2006:133 [ref. 28992], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

usmai, Imparfinis Ortega-Lara [A.], Milani [N.], DoNascimiento [C.], Villa-Navarro [F. A.] & Maldonado-Ocampo [J. A.] 2011:782, Figs. 3-4, 5a [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 31716] Verdeda Potrerillo, quebrada Potrerilla, tributary of río Coello, río Magdalena basin, 4°16'57.9"N, 75°01'53.8"W, Município Coello, Departamento del Tolima, Colombia. Holotype: IMCN 4812. Paratypes: Many at CZUT-IC, IAvH, IMCN, MBUCV. Plus non-type material. Type catalog: DoNascimiento et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34787]. •Valid as Imparfinis usmai Ortega-Lara, Milani, DoNascimiento, Villa-Navarro & Maldonado-Ocampo 2011 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:91 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Imparfinis usmai Ortega-Lara, Milani, DoNascimiento, Villa-Navarro & Maldonado-Ocampo 2011. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper basin of río Cauca and río Magdalena and lower río Patía, Pacific slope of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

velifer, Pimelodus Humboldt [F. H. A. von] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:171 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Río Magdalena, Colombia. No types known. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:203 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia velifer (Humboldt 1821) -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Status uncertain -- (see Nico 2001:152 [ref. 25828]). •Species inquirenda in family Heptapteridae -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:426 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:203 [ref. 29155]). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Colombia [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

vilsoni, Pimelenotus Gill [T. N.] 1858:391 [31] [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 6 (nos 10-13, art. 38); ref. 1750] Trinidad Island, West Indies. Holotype (unique) (?): USNM 5927. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. On p. 31 of separate. Genus as Pimelotus but corrected in errata at rear of volume to Pimelenotus; Pimelenotus used in separate. Species unjustifiably emended by Burgess 1989:279 to wilsoni, but he may not have been the first to do so. •Valid as Rhamdia wilsoni [sic] Gill 1858 -- (Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

vittatus, Pseudorhamdia Lütken [C. F.] (ex Krøyer) 1874:34 [6] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 1); ref. 2855] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Syntypes: SMNS 2025 (1); ZMUC P 29652 -29657 [ex 271 (1), 274-275 (2), 283-285 (3)]; ZMB 9175 (2). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:50 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:17 [ref. 28100], Silfvergrip & Paepke 1997:171 [ref. 24006], Fricke 2005:43 [ref. 29864], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. On p. 6 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:173 (and p. VII of summary) [ref. 19674]. •Valid as Pimelodella vittata (Lütken 1874) -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Trajano et al. 2004:317 [ref. 27653], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella vittata (Lütken 1874). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Upper São Francisco River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

voulezi, Rhamdia branneri Haseman [J. D.] 1911:378, Pl. 76 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 7 (nos 3-4) (19); ref. 2048] Rio Iguaçu at Porto União da Victória, Brazil. Holotype: FMNH 54238 [ex CM 2854]. Paratypes: FMNH 54329 [CM 2855a-b] (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:78 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:74 [ref. 12367], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Rhamdia branneri Haseman 1911, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Burgess 1989:278 [ref. 12860]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Valid as Rhamdia voulezi Haseman 1911 -- (Garavello & Shibatta 2016:[6] [ref. 34385], Koerber et al. 2017:5 [ref. 35083], Ribolli et al. 2017:[5] [ref. 35238], Koerber et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia voulezi Haseman 1911. Heptapteridae. Distribution: South America: Iguaçu River basin, Brazil and Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

wagneri, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1868:474 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 6 (pt 7, no. 14); ref. 1994] Chagres River, Guajaquil and Neu-Granada, Panama. Possible types: NMW 45618, 45619. Non-types: BMNH 1889.11.14.24 (1). Type information: Silfvergrip 1996:26 [ref. 22347]. TYpe catalog: Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]. Based in part on Pimelodus cinerascens Kner & Steindachner (not Günther). •Valid as Rhamdia wagneri (Günther 1868) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:35 [ref. 37559], Burgess 1989:279 [ref. 12860], Galvis et al. 1997:69 [ref. 23651]). •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:201 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864) -- (Bussing 1998:150 [ref. 24179]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther 1864). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater.

wesselii, Pimelodus (Pseudorhamdia) Steindachner [F.] 1877:614 [56] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): NMW 79188. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Pimelodella wesselii (Steindachner 1877) -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella wesselii (Steindachner 1877). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Essequibo River basin, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

witmeri, Pimelodella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:133, Figs. 20-22 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Jaguaribe, Orós, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69383 (with paratypes). Paratypes: ANSP 69384-85 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Pimelodella witmeri Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella witmeri Fowler 1941. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Jaguaribe River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

wolfi, Rhamdella Fowler [H. W.] 1941:136, Figs. 31-34 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Choró, Ceará, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69388. Paratypes: ANSP 69389-91 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:142 [ref. 13621], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155] •Valid as Rhamdia wolfi Fowler 1941 -- (Burgess 1989:278, 279 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:422 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:197 [ref. 29155]). •In genus Pimelodella -- (Bockmann & Miquelarena 2008:46 [ref. 29643]). •Valid as Pimelodella wolfi (Fowler 1941) -- (Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella wolfi (Fowler 1941). Heptapteridae. Distribution: Choró River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

wuchereri, Pimelodus Günther [A.] 1864:123 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Bahia, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.19.18 (147.5 mm, smallest of four). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1844.5.29.11-12 (2), 1852.9.13.128 (1), 1864.1.19.19-21 (4). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]. Lectotype selected by Silfvergrip 1996:24 [ref. 22347]. •Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:96 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:424 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:200 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Synonym of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Heptapteridae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

xetequepeque, Rhamdia Silfvergrip [A. M. C.] 1996:98, Pl. 2 (figs. 3-4) [A systematic revision of the neotropical catfish genus Rhamdia; ref. 22347] Jequetepeque River, just west of Chilete, 6°19.9'S, 78°25.9'W, Peru. Holotype: ROM 70112. Paratypes: NRM [ex ROM] 34053 (5), ROM 54761 (23). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]. •Valid as Rhamdia xetequepeque Silfvergrip 1996 -- (Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:425 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:202 [ref. 29155]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia xetequepeque Silfvergrip 1996. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Jequetepeque River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

yaguaraensis, Pimelodella Castaño [M. L.], Mojica C. [J. I.] & Royero [R.] 2005:49 [Acta Biológica Colombiana v. 19 (no. 1); ref. 28507] Described as "Pimelodella yaguaraensis" but often cited without quotes. Regarded as not available; a category for temporary reference and not for the permanent scientific record (see also their p. 67). For Colombian specimens. Current status: Synonym of Pimelodella. Heptapteridae.

yaguas, Mastiglanis Faustino-Fuster [D. R.] & Ortega [H.] 2020:325, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4820 (no. 2); ref. 37683] Yaguas River, Putumayo River basin, Putumayo Province, Loreto Department, Peru, 2°43'5.31"S, 70°31'42.12"W. Holotype: MUSM 66612. Paratypes: ANSP, DZUFRGS, FMNH, MCP, MUSM. •Valid as Mastiglanis yaguas Faustino-Fuster & Ortega 2020. Current status: Valid as Mastiglanis yaguas Faustino-Fuster & Ortega 2020. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Western Amazon basin, Loreto Department, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

yaharo, Pimelodella Conde-Saldaña [C. C.], Albornoz-Garzón [J. G.], García-Melo [J. E.], Dergam [J. A.] & Villa-Navarro [F. A.] 2019:563, Figs. 1-2a [Zootaxa 4668 (no. 4); ref. 36962] Río Jeréz, Dibulla, Departamento La Guajira, Colombia, 11°12'26.1"N, 73°15'16"W, elevation 69 meters. Holotype: CZUT-IC 10922. Paratypes: CZUT-IC, IAVHP. •Valid as Pimelodella yaharo Conde-Saldaña, Albornoz-Garzón, García-Melo, Dergam & Villa-Navarro 2019. Current status: Valid as Pimelodella yaharo Conde-Saldaña, Albornoz-Garzón, García-Melo, Dergam & Villa-Navarro 2019. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Coastal drainages of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Caribbean slope, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

yuncensis, Pimelodella Steindachner [F.] 1902:135 [47] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 72 (for 11 July 1901); ref. 10435] Pecasmayo, northern Peru. Syntypes: NMW (1, not found), ZSM 7870 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Neumann 2011:261 [ref. 31652]. On p. 47 of separate. •Valid as Pimelodella yuncensis Steindachner 1902 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:15 [ref. 9708], Burgess 1989:281 [ref. 12860], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:421 [ref. 27061], Ferraris 2007:195 [ref. 29155], Barriga Salazar 2014:114 [ref. 35745], Slobodian et al. 2017:98 [ref. 35643], Conde-Saldaña et al. 2019:572 [ref. 36962]). Current status: Valid as Pimelodella yuncensis Steindachner 1902. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Ecuador and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

zelimai, Rhamdella Reis [R. E.], Malabarba [L. R.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2014:42, Figs. 1-2, 3A, 4A [Arquivos de Zoologia (São Paulo) v. 45; ref. 33590] Santa Catarina, Praia Grande, rio Faxinalzinho, tributary to rio Mampituba, at Mãe dos Homens, Brazil (29°14’16"S, 50°02’47"W). Holotype: MCP 47745. Paratypes: MCP, UFRGS, LIRP. •Valid as Rhamdella zelimai Reis, Malabarba & Lucena 2014 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:417 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdella zelimai Reis, Malabarba & Lucena 2014. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Santa Catarina, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

zongolicensis, Rhamdia Wilkens [H.] 1993:375, Figs. 1-2 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 90; ref. 21171] Cueva del Ostoc, Sierra de Zongolica, Veracruz state, Mexico. Holotype: ZMH 8249. Paratypes: ZMH 8250 (3). Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155] with type as 9249. •Synonym of Rhamdia laticauda (Kner 1858) -- (Silfvergrip 1996:87 [ref. 22347], Bockmann & Guazzelli in Reis et al. 2003:423 [ref. 27061], Weber et al. 2003:278 [ref. 27394], Ferraris 2007:199 [ref. 29155]). •Synonym of Rhamdia reddelli Miller 1906 -- (Miller 2006:175 [ref. 28615]). •Valid as Rhamdia zongolicensis Wilkens 1993 -- (Weber & Wilkens 1998:998 [ref. 23617], Romero & Paulson 2001:27 [ref. 26040], Wilkens 2001:252 [ref. 26397], Nelson et al. 2004:83 [ref. 27807], Bichuette & Trajano 2005:588 [ref. 28555], Proudlove 2006:137 [ref. 28992], Page et al. 2013:83 [ref. 32708]). Current status: Valid as Rhamdia zongolicensis Wilkens 1993. Heptapteridae. Distribution: Veracruz state, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.