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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Mastacembelidae: [ 153 ] records


aculeatum, Ophidium Bloch [M. E.] 1786:72 [or 261], Pl. 159 (fig. 2) [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 2; ref. 465] Neotype locality: Kali Brantas basin, channelled stream through drained area at Campurdarat south to Tulungagung, 8°10'S, 111°20'E, Java Timur, Java, Indonesia. Neotype: ZRC 49866. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:98 [ref. 24282]. On p. 60 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 5 [ref. 21381]. Neotype designated by Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:168 [ref. 28284]. Most references result from aculeatus that was previously recognized as one widespread species. •Valid as Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Shrestha 1978:41 [ref. 15970], Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:98 [ref. 5802], Roberts 1989:180 [ref. 6439], Ataur Rahman 1989:261 [ref. 24860], Kottelat et al. 1993:167 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1994:189 [ref. 21379], Indra 1994:426 [ref. 24015], Banik & Choudhury 1996:580 [ref. 24736], Ng & Tan 1999:364 [ref. 24159], Rafique 2000:327 [ref. 25220], Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:121 [ref. 25674], Kottelat 2001:63 [ref. 25482], Choi et al. 2003:237, 557 [ref. 26218], Ataur Rahman 2003:285 [ref. 31338], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:168 [ref. 28284], Pethiyagoda et al. 2008:43 [ref. 30097], Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Ahmed et al. 2013:287 [ref. 32872], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989], Dhanze et al. 2018:370 [ref. 37780], Ng & Tan 2020:175 [ref. 37671]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch 1786). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Java (Indonesia). Habitat: freshwater.

aculeatum, Ophidium Basilewsky [S.] 1855:248 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Near Beijing, China. No types at ZIN. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Ophidium aculeatum Bloch 1786, which is now Macrognathus aculeatus. •In family Mastacembelidae -- (Mecklenburg & Sheiko 2004:2 [ref. 27604]). •Synonym of Rhynchobdella sinensis Bleeker 1870 -- (Kottelat & Lim 1994:189 [ref. 21379]). •Treated as valid as Mastacembelus aculeatus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Zheng 1989:371 [ref. 21202], Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:518 [ref. 23876], Cheng & Zhou 1997:404 [ref. 26385], Tang et al. 2001:15 [ref. 25373] although perhaps confused with Bloch's aculeatus). •Synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870) -- (Kottelat 2001:63 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

alboguttatus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1893:200 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 12 (no. 69); ref. 14522] Sittang River and adjacent streams from Toungoo to about 150 miles south, Myanmar. Syntypes: BMNH 1891.11.30.135-138 (4). •Valid as Mastacembelus alboguttatus Boulenger 1893 -- (Travers 1984:143 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:103 [ref. 5802], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1030 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Britz 2017:80 [ref. 35487]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus alboguttatus Boulenger 1893. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Ayeyarwaddy, Chindwin and Sittans River basins, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

albomaculatus, Mastacembelus Poll [M.] 1953:239, Fig. 33B [Exploration Hydrobiologique du Lac Tanganika, 1946-1947: Résultats Scientifiques v. 3 (no. 5A); ref. 12661] Kabimba Bay, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lake Tanganyika, depth 1-2 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 200. Paratypes: BMNH 1955.12.20.1714 (1), 1955.12.20.1715-1717 (1, 1, 1); IRSNB 201-204 (1, 1, 1, 1); MRAC 90976-80 (5). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:45-46 [ref. 20755], Derijst 1991:55 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Afromastacembelus albomaculatus (Poll 1953) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:415 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus albomaculatus (Poll 1953) -- (authors). •Valid as Mastacembelus albomaculatus Poll 1953 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019, 1022 [ref. 30552], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus albomaculatus Poll 1953. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika, eastern Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

albus, Macrognathus Plamoottil [M.] & Abraham [N. P.] 2014:100, Figs. 1-4 [International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology v. 2 (Issue 2); ref. 33317] Chenappady, Manimala River, Kerala, India. Holotype: ZSI/WGSR/IR/2386. Paratypes: ZSI/WGRC/IR/2387 (2). •Valid as Macrognathus albus Plamoottil & Abraham 2014 -- (Arunkumar 2016:2006 [ref. 35770], Arunkumar 2020:45 [ref. 37761]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus albus Plamoottil & Abraham 2014. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Manimala River drainage, Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

aleppensis, Mastacembelus Günther [A.] 1861:541 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Unjustified emendation of Rhynchobdella haleppensis Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Valid as Mastacembelus aleppensis Günther 1861 -- (Herrera 1896:34 [ref. 39336] as hallepensis with author as Cuvier). •Synonym of Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794) -- (Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:249 [ref. 37983]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

anguillaris, Zoarchias Mori [T.] 1928:71, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 2 (no. 1) (art. 4); ref. 15862] Tsi-nan, Shantung, northern China. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. •Not in Stichaeidae, family placement is in the Mastacembelidae (Mecklenburg & Sheiko 2004:2 [ref. 27604]). •Questionably a synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870) -- (Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: marine.

ansorgii, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1905:459 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 15 (no. 89) (art. 59); ref. 15344] Quanza River, Angola. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.5.29.59. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus ansorgii (Boulenger 1905) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:421 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Mastacembelus ansorgii Boulenger 1905 -- (Skelton 2019:237 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus ansorgii Boulenger 1905. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southwestern Africa: Angola. Habitat: freshwater.

apectoralis, Mastacembelus Brown [K. J.], Britz [R.], Bills [I. R.], Rüber [L.] & Day [J. J.] 2011:287, Figs. 1, 3, 4A [Journal of Zoology (London) 284 (no. 4); ref. 31286] Cape Kachese, Lake Tanganyika, northern Zambia, 8°29'17.24"S, 30°28'28.12"E. Holotype: SAIAB 79846. Paratypes: AMNH 252566 (5), BMNH 2011.1.27.4-8 (5), MRAC 2011-05-P-1-5 (5), SAIAB 186970 (9). •Valid as Mastacembelus apectoralis Brown, Britz, Bills, Rüber & Day 2011. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus apectoralis Brown, Britz, Bills, Rüber & Day 2011. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

aral, Rhynchobdella Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:479, Pl. 89 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Lectotype: ZMB 1420. Paralectotypes: ZMB 1419 (2). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:98 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:98 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:98 [ref. 5802], Pethiyagoda 1991:289 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1026 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:596 [ref. 23778], Zacharias et al. 1996:41 [ref. 25526], Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999:159 [ref. 24759], Rema Devi et al. 1999:164 [ref. 24758], Menon 1999:301 [ref. 24904], Karmakar 2000:35 [ref. 25662], Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:118 [ref. 25674], Mirza 2003:25 [ref. 27265], Shrestha 2008:210 [ref. 29923], Pethiyagoda et al. 2008:43 [ref. 30097], Britz 2010:306 [ref. 30685], Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:104 [ref. 33317], Arunkumar 2016:2006 [ref. 35770], Dhanze et al. 2018:372 [ref. 37780], Suresh et al. 2018:170 [ref. 36495], Arunkumar 2020:46 [ref. 37761]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Asia: Pakistan and northeastern India to Malaysia and East Indies. Habitat: freshwater.

argus, Mastacembelus Günther [A.] 1861:542 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Thailand. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1859.7.1.46. •Synonym of Mastacembelus erythrotaenia Bleeker 1850 -- (Roberts 1986:105 [ref. 5802], Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus erythrotaenia Bleeker 1850. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

armatus, Macrognathus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1800:283, 286 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 2; ref. 2709] Locality unknown. No types known. Also appeared in Sonnini 1803:153 [ref. 30473]. •Valid as Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Shrestha 1978:41 [ref. 15970], Coad 1981:17 [ref. 22348], Travers 1984:143 [ref. 5147], Feng in Kuang et al. 1986:326 [ref. 26639], Roberts 1986:104 [ref. 5802], Ataur Rahman 1989:262 [ref. 24860], Zheng 1989:371 [ref. 21202], Pethiyagoda 1991:291 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1031 [ref. 20764], Zhong in Pan et al. 1991:519 [ref. 23876], Indra 1994:426 [ref. 24015], Coad 1995:32 [ref. 23608], Sen 1995:597 [ref. 23778], Zhu 1995:187 [ref. 25213], Rainboth 1996:180 [ref. 22772], Zacharias et al. 1996:41 [ref. 25526], Banik & Choudhury 1996:580 [ref. 24736], Kottelat 1998:117 [ref. 23436], Manimekalan 1998:442 [ref. 24989], Kullander et al. 1999:152 [ref. 23689], Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999:160 [ref. 24759], Rema Devi et al. 1999:164 [ref. 24758], Menon 1999:303 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:327 [ref. 25220], Mirza 2000:356 [ref. 25207], Raju Thomas et al. 2000:444 [ref. 25319], Karmakar 2000:35 [ref. 25662], Kottelat 2001:63 [ref. 25482], Arunachalam et al. 2001:129 [ref. 25692], Kottelat 2001:149 [ref. 25780], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:51 [ref. 26359], Rafique et al. 2003:98 [ref. 27173], Mirza 2003:25 [ref. 27265], Yadav 2003:23 [ref. 27711], Ataur Rahman 2003:286 [ref. 31338], Shrestha 2008:211 [ref. 29923], Britz 2007:257 [ref. 29343], Yang & Zhou 2011:325 [ref. 31298], Conway et al. 2011:1755 [ref. 31594], Ahmed et al. 2013:287 [ref. 32872], Gurung et al. 2013:4884 [ref. 32969], Plamoottil & Abraham 2013:9 [ref. 33148], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:102 [ref. 33317], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971], Zhang et al. 2016:192 [ref. 34477], Narasimhaiah et al. 2016:69 [ref. 34975] as aramatus, Arunkumar & Manimekalan 2018:1739 [ref. 36172], Suresh et al. 2018:171 [ref. 36495], Vu et al. 2019:150 [ref. 37811], Duong et al. 2020:72 [ref. 37886]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Asia: Pakistan, India to Thailand, to ? China and ? Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

armatus, Mastacembelus Sykes [W. H.] 1839:158 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1838 (pt 6) (for 27 Nov. 1838); ref. 18720] Deccan, India. No types known. Appeared first as above, then in Sykes 1839:55 [ref. 4306]; more complete treatment in Sykes 1841:350, Pl. 60 (fig. 2) [ref. 18868]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Macrognathus armatus Lacepède 1800. •Questionably a synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

aureus, Macrognathus Britz [R.] 2010:56, Figs.1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2514; ref. 30857] Small hill stream near Sa Mow, 14 miles on road from Moguang to Taung Ni, Ayeyarwaddy River drainage, Kachin State, Myanmar. Holotype: BMNH 2010.5.24.26. Paratypes: BMNH 2010.5.24.27 (1), NRM 40688 (1). •Valid as Macrognathus aureus Britz 2010 -- (Kottelat 2013:311 [ef. 32989], Britz & Kottelat 2020:[5] [ref. 37336]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus aureus Britz 2010. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Ayeyarwaddy River drainage, Kachin State, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

aviceps, Mastacembelus Roberts [T. R.] & Stewart [D. J.] 1976:307, Pl. 14 (fig. f) [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 147 (no. 6); ref. 7388] Lower Congo River, near Inga, Democratic Republic of Congo, 5°31.5'S, 13°37.5'E. Holotype: MCZ 50564. Paratypes: BMNH 1976.5.21.98 [ex MCZ 50487] (1); MCZ 50487 (orig. 17, now 14), 50565 (9, 6 c&s); MRC [ex MCZ 50487] (1); USNM 216368 [ex MCZ 50487] (1). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus aviceps (Roberts & Stewart 1976) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:421 [ref. 6194]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus aviceps Roberts & Stewart 1976 -- (Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus aviceps Roberts & Stewart 1976. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

batesii, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1911:637 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 8 (no. 47); ref. 14784] Ja River at Bitye, Congo R basin, southern Cameroon. Syntypes: (13) BMNH 1903.7.28.179-181 (3), 1907.5.24.246 (1), 1908.5.30.158 (1), 1911.5.30.37 (1). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus batesii (Boulenger 1911) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:421 [ref. 6194], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879 -- (Vreven 2007:567 [ref. 30080]). •Valid as Mastacembelus batesii Boulenger 1911 -- (Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus batesii Boulenger 1911. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southern Cameroon. Habitat: freshwater.

billitonensis, Mastacembelus de Beaufort [L. F.] 1939:194 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 17 (pt 3); ref. 17180] Belitung Island, Indonesia. Syntypes: ZMA 111583 (3). Additional material: (3) Sumatra [not "typical locality"]. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:105 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

binhluensis, Mastacembelus Vu [T. H. N.], Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [T. H. T.] 2019:145, Figs. 1, 3 [Proceedings of the first national conference on Ichthyology; ref. 37811] Bình Lu, Tam Duròng, Lai Châu, northern Vietnam. Holotype: RIAH LC.05.08.001. Paratypes: RIAH LC.05.08.002-6 (5). •Valid as Mastacembelus binhluensis Vu, Nguyen & Nguyen 2019. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus binhluensis Vu, Nguyen & Nguyen 2019. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Nâm Na drainage, Sông Dà basin, northern Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

brachyrhinus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:55, Pl. 28 (fig. 4) [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 1 (fasc. 3); ref. 548] Matadi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype (unique): MRAC 66. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus brachyrhinus (Boulenger 1899) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:422 [ref. 6194], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus brachyrhinus Boulenger 1899. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

brachyrhynchus, Mastacembelus Bleeker [P.] 1866:232 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 16824] Sindangole, Halmahera. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevicauda, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1911:638 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 8 (no. 47); ref. 14784] Kribi River, Zima Country, Ja and Bumba rivers, southern Cameroon. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.7.28.68-72 (5), 1904.7.1.178-180 (3), 1906.5.28.193-196 (4), 1909.7.9.90-92 (3). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus brevicauda (Boulenger 1911) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:422 [ref. 6194], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879 -- (Vreven 2007:567 [ref. 30080]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West and central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

brichardi, Caecomastacembelus Poll [M.] 1958:389 [Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines v. 57 (no. 3-4); ref. 3521] Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 118574. Paratypes: MRAC 118992-94 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:32 [ref. 21528]. Also appeared as new in Poll 1959:113, Pl. 20 (figs a-d) [ref. 3522]. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus brichardi Poll 1958 -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:422 [ref. 6194]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus brichardi (Poll 1958) -- (Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus brichardi (Poll 1958). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

catchpolei, Mastacembelus Fowler [H. W.] 1936:323, Fig. 25 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 88; ref. 1424] Tinda tributary of Shari-Ituri in Bunia region of the Kibali-Ituri District, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: ANSP 65904. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:127 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus catchpolei Fowler 1936 -- (Gosse 1986:422 [ref. 6194]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus catchpolei Fowler 1936. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

catenatus, Mastacembelus Heckel [J. J.] 1847:248 (footnote) [Reisen in Europa, Asien und Africa v. 2 (pt 3); ref. 2068] Borneo. Holotype (unique): NMW 73350. Evidently intended as catenatus (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439]). See erratum, p. 360 (Kottelat 2013). •Status uncertain, same as Mastacembelus eruthrotaenia Bleeker 1840 -- (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439]). •Declared a nomen oblitum by Kottelat amnd a synonym of erythrotaenia -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus erythrotaenia Bleeker 1850. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

caudatus, Macrognathus McClelland [J.] 1842:586 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 2 (no. 8); ref. 2926] Afghanistan [Questioned]. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.3.19.918 (1?). •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Menon 1999:303 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

caudiocellatus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1893:199 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 12 (no. 69); ref. 14522] Fort Stedman, southern Shan States, Myanmar, elevation 3000 feet. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1893.6.30.130-132 (3). •Valid as Macrognathus caudiocellatus (Boulenger 1893) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:98 [ref. 5802], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1026 [ref. 20764], Karmakar 2000:35 [ref. 25662], Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:121 [ref. 25674], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:1-4 [ref. 33317] as cardiocellatus). •Valid as Mastacembelus caudiocellatus Boulenger 1893 -- (Kano et al. 2016:9 [ref. 34887]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus caudiocellatus (Boulenger 1893). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: South Asia: middle Salween River basin, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

christyi, Mastacembelus Worthington [E. B.] & Ricardo [C. K.] 1937:1107, Fig. 12 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1936 (pt 4); ref. 15306] Kirando, Lake Tanganyika. Syntypes: BMNH 1936.6.15.1741-1745 (5). •Synonym of Afromastacembelus moorii (Boulenger 1898) -- (Gosse 1986:418 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus moorii (Boulenger 1898) -- (authors). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus moorii Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

chrysogaster, Mastacembelus maculatus var. Bleeker [P.] 1852:93 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16831] Bogor, Tjipannas Island, Java; Pajacombo, Solok, Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: Not researched. •Synonym of Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

circumcinctus, Mastacembelus Hora [S. L.] 1924:475, Fig. 3 [Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 6 (pt 9); ref. 15450] Mouth of the Patelung River, inner portion of Talé Sap, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ZSI F10342/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:161 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:370 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Macrognathus circumcinctus (Hora 1924) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:99 [ref. 5802], Kottelat 2001:147 [ref. 25780], Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:121 [ref. 25674], Parenti & Lim 2005:193 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:533 [ref. 36606], Ng & Tan 2020:175 [ref. 37671]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus circumcinctus (Hora 1924). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

congicus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1896:311 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 17 (no. 100) (art. 49); ref. 14601] About 50 miles south of Mangala, Upper Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1896.3.9.4. •Valid as Afromastacembelus congicus (Boulenger 1896) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:415 [ref. 6194], Vreven & Teugels 1996:138 [ref. 22026]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus congicus (Boulenger 1896) -- (Vreven & Teugels 1997:85 [ref. 22885]). •Valid as Mastacembelus congicus Boulenger 1896 -- (Kullander & Roberts 2012:362 [ref. 31751], Van Steenberge et al. 2014:336 [ref. 33291], Skelton 2019:237 [ref. 36564], Kiselkewa et al. 2020:[11] 710 [ref. 38315], Munene et al. 2021:25 [ref. 39283]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus congicus Boulenger 1896. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Central Africa: Congo River system (Democratic Republic of Congo). Habitat: freshwater.

crassus, Mastacembelus Roberts [T. R.] & Stewart [D. J.] 1976:305, Pl. 14 (fig. d) [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 147 (no. 6); ref. 7388] Lower Congo River, near Bulu, Democratic Republic of Congo, 5°01'S, 14°01'E. Holotype: MCZ 50257. Paratypes: BMNH 1976.5.21.109-118 [ex MCZ 50258] (10); MCZ 50258 (now 161, 9 c&s), 50318 (14), 50400 (1); MRAC 76-17-P-39-42 [ex MCZ 50258] (4); USNM 216374 [ex MCZ 50258] (10). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus crassus Roberts & Stewart 1976 -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:422-423 [ref. 6194]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus crassus Roberts & Stewart 1976 -- (Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:218 [ref. 30676]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus crassus Roberts & Stewart 1976. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

cryptacanthus, Mastacembelus Günther [A.] 1867:102 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 1) (art. 2) (for 24 Jan. 1867); ref. 1986] Cameroon, western Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1866.6.26.11. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus cryptacanthus (Günther 1867) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:423 [ref. 6194], Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367], Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:856 [ref. 21590], Travers 1992:335 [ref. 14258], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Valid as Mastacembelus cryptacanthus Günther 1867 -- (Vreven 2007:565 [ref. 30080]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus cryptacanthus Günther 1867. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Nigeria. Habitat: freshwater.

cunningtoni, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1906:575, Pl. 41 (fig. 3) [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 17 (pt 6, no. 1); ref. 573] Lake Tanganyika. Syntypes: BMNH 1906.9.8.275 (1) Kazzaga, 1906.9.8.276-277 (2) Kituta. •Valid as Afromastacembelus cunningtoni (Boulenger 1906) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:416 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus cunningtoni (Boulenger 1906). •Valid as Mastacembelus cunningtoni Boulenger 1906 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286], Kullander & Roberts 2012:369 [ref. 31751]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus cunningtoni Boulenger 1906. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika and Lukuga River. Habitat: freshwater.

dayi, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1912:200 [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 15; ref. 17958] Mandalay, Myanmar. Lectotype: MSNG 15115. Based on Mastacembelus unicolor of Day 1876:339, Pl. 72 (fig. 2) and of Vinciguerra 1890:179. Lectotype selected by Britz 2017:80 [ref. 35487]. •Valid as Mastacembelus dayi Boulenger 1912 -- (Roberts 1986:105 [ref. 5802], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1032 [ref. 20764], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus alboguttatus Boulenger 1893 -- (Britz 2017:80 [ref. 35487]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus alboguttatus Boulenger 1893. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

decorsei, Mastacembelus Pellegrin [J.] 1919:213 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 44; ref. 15224] Gribingui River, Congo. Syntypes: MNHN 1919-0248 (1). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus decorsei (Pellegrin 1919) -- (Gosse 1986:423 [ref. 6194], Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:856 [ref. 21590], Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367], Travers 1992:335 [ref. 14258]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus decorsei Pellegrin 1919. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

dhanashorii, Rhynchobdella Hora [S. L.] 1921:205, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 22 (pt 3, no. 19); ref. 2202] Dhanashori stream, about 1 mile from Dimapur, Assam, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F9989/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:161-162 [ref. 20743]. See Das 2003:370 [ref. 27706]. •Questionably a synonym of Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1026 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:301 [ref. 24904] as dhanshorii, Kottelat 2013:311 [ef. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

dhanzei, Macrognathus Arunkumar [L.] 2020:46, Fig. 3 [International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies v. 8 (no. 5A); ref. 37761] Assam and Tripura, north-eastern India. no types known. No designation of types, not available. Current status: Unknown. Mastacembelidae.

dictyogaster, Mastacembelus maculatus var. Bleeker [P.] 1852:93 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16831] Blitong, Indonesia. Syntypes: RMNH. •Synonym of Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

dienbienensis, Mastacembelus Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [H. D.] in Nguyen 2005:632, Fig. 3 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 3; ref. 29809] Dien Bien Phu city, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I Inst., Bac Ninh. Paratypes: (3). Poor description; possibly in Sinobdella. Type specimens lost -- Endruweit 2014:157 [ref. 33205]. •Incertae sedis as Sinobdella dienbienensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2005 -- (Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Mastacembelus dienbienensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2005 -- (Vu et al. 2019:150 [ref. 37811]). Current status: Valid as Sinobdella dienbienensis (Nguyen & Nguyen 2005). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Dien Bien, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

dorsiocellatus, Macrognathus Britz [R.] 2010:296, Fig. 3 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 20 (no. 4) [Dec. 2009]; ref. 30685] Roadside stream about 64 kilometers on road Taungoo-Nyaunglaybin, 18°19'05"N, 96°30'07"E, Bago Division, Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 60293. Paratypes: many at BMNH 2009.7.3.1-2 (2), 2009.7.3.3-4 (2), NRM, USNM. •Valid as Macrognathus dorsiocellatus Britz 2010 -- (Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989], Britz & Kottelat 2020:[5] [ref. 37336]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus dorsiocellatus Britz 2010. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

ellipsifer, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:126, Pl. 47 (fig. 4) [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 1 (fasc. 5); ref. 589] Albertville, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lake Tanganyika. Holotype (unique): MRAC 246. •Valid as Afromastacembelus ellipsifer (Boulenger 1899) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:416 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus ellipsifer (Boulenger 1899). •Valid as Mastacembelus ellipsifer Boulenger 1899 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus ellipsifer Boulenger 1899. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Eastern Africa: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

erythrotaenia, Mastacembelus Bleeker [P.] 1850:6 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 23 (no. 5); ref. 16882] Rivers in Banjermassing, Borneo, Indonesia. RMNH 6437 (1 of 6). Regarded as a nomen protectum by Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]. •Valid as Mastacembelus erythrotaenia Bleeker 1850 -- (Travers 1984:143 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:105 [ref. 5802], Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:168 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:249 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:180 [ref. 22772], Ng & Tan 1999:364 [ref. 24159], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:36 [ref. 35802], Ng et al. 2019:533 [ref. 36606], Vu et al. 2019:150 [ref. 37811], Ng & Tan 2020:176 [ref. 37671]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus erythrotaenia Bleeker 1850. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Thailand and Cambodia to Malaya (Malaysia), Sumatra and Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Macrognathus Plamoottil [M.] & Abraham [N. P.] 2014:49, Figs. 1-6 [Journal of Experimental Zoology of India v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 33147] Karuthavadasserikkara, Manimala River, Kerala, India. Holotype: ZSI/WGRC/IR 2422. Paratypes: ZSI/WGRC/IR 2423 (3). •Valid as Macrognathus fasciatus Plamoottil & Abraham 2014 -- (Arunkumar 2016:2006 [ref. 35770], Arunkumar 2020:45 [ref. 37761]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus fasciatus Plamoottil & Abraham 2014. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Manimala River drainage, Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

favus, Mastacembelus armatus var. Hora [S. L.] 1923:180 [Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 15406] Mouth of Patelung River, near Lampaw, Thailand. Syntypes: (several specimens) ZSI F10340/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:161 [ref. 20743] erroneously with holotype. Also in Hora 1924:474, Fig. 2 [ref. 15450]. •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800), but a valid subspecies -- (Vu & Nguyen 1997:27 [ref. 26438]). •Valid as Mastacembelus favus Hora 1923 -- (Roberts 1986:105 [ref. 5802], Lim et al. 1990:51 [ref. 16753], Rainboth 1996:180 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 1998:117 [ref. 23436], Ng & Tan 1999:364 [ref. 24159], Britz 2007:257 [ref. 29343], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:533 [ref. 36606], Vu et al. 2019:150 [ref. 37811], Duong et al. 2020:72 [ref. 37886], Ng & Tan 2020:176 [ref. 37671], Fu et al. 2021:9572 [ref. 39347]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus favus Hora 1923. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia) and Mekong basin (Yunnan/China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and southern Vietnam). Habitat: freshwater.

flavidus, Mastacembelus Matthes [H.] 1962:64, Pl. 4 (fig. b) [Annales, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Série in 8o, Sciences Zoologiques No. 111; ref. 6071] Kalundu, Lake Tanganyika. Holotype: MRAC 130434. Paratypes: (8) BMNH 1906.9.8.273 (1); MRAC 130435-39 (5), 130848 (1). •Valid as Afromastacembelus flavidus (Matthes 1962) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:416 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus flavidus (Matthes 1962). •Valid as Mastacembelus flavidus Matthes 1962 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus flavidus Matthes 1962. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

flavomarginatus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:23 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 15 (pt 1, no. 1); ref. 547] Gabon. Syntypes: BMNH 1872.1.27.1 (1), 1888.12.13.40 (1), 1896.5.5.26 (1). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus flavomarginatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:423 [ref. 6194]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus flavomarginatus Boulenger 1898 -- (Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus flavomarginatus Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

frenatus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1901:5 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 7 (no. 37) (art. 1); ref. 5758] Northern end of Lake Tanganyika, Burundi. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1906.9.6.161. •Valid as Afromastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:416 [ref. 6194], Skelton 1993:340 [ref. 24071]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Seegers 1996:332 [ref. 23725], De Vos et al. 2001:132 [ref. 26059]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Skelton 2001:340 [ref. 27406]). •Valid as Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901 -- (Seegers et al. 2003:42 [ref. 28087], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286], Marshall 2011:260 [ref. 31755], Kullander & Roberts 2012:362, 369 [ref. 31751], Van Steenberge et al. 2014:336 [ref. 33291], Bruton et al. 2018:82 [ref. 36373], Skelton 2019:237 [ref. 36564], Kiselkewa et al. 2020:[11] 710 [ref. 38315], Roberts 2021:74 [ref. 38074]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Central Africa: Lake Tanganyika system. Habitat: freshwater.

goro, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1902:54, Pl. 15 (fig. 3) [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 2 (fasc. 2); ref. 562] Ubangi River at Banzyville, Democratic Republic of Congo, about 4°18'N, 21°11'E. Syntypes: BMNH 1901.12.26.66-67 (2), MRAC 1203 (5). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus goro (Boulenger 1902) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:423 [ref. 6194], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus goro Boulenger 1902 -- (Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus goro Boulenger 1902. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West and central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

greshoffi, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1901:81 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 7 (no. 37) (art. 12); ref. 14747] Stanley [Malebo] Pool, Congo River. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1900.11.26.3. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus greshoffi (Boulenger 1901) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:424 [ref. 6194], Vreven & Teugels 1997:85 [ref. 22885]). •Valid as Mastacembelus greshoffi Boulenger 1901 -- (Stiassny et al. 2021:1687 [ref. 39000]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus greshoffi Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Western-central Africa: Congo River system (Democratic Republic of Congo). Habitat: freshwater.

guentheri, Mastacembelus Day [F.] 1865:37 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1865 (pt 1) (art. 1); ref. 17367] Cochin, India. Syntypes and/or Day specimens: AMS B.8048 (1, non-type); BMNH 1865.7.17.26-27 (2) Malabar, 1975.9.30.24 (1, dry); ZSI 2150 (1, figured specimen), 2993 (1, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:297 [ref. 25110]. Also appeared in Day 1865:154, Pl. 11 [ref. 1074]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Questionably a synonym of Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Macrognathus malabaricus (Jerdon 1849) -- (Menon 1999:302 [ref. 24904]). •Valid as Mastacembelus guentheri Day 1865 -- (Indra 1993:190 [ref. 24009] as Mastocembelus guntheri). •Valid as Macrognathus guentheri (Day 1865) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1027 [ref. 20764], Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:121 [ref. 25674], Raju Thomas et al. 2002:51 [ref. 26359], Yadav 2003:23 [ref. 27711], Pethiyagoda et al. 2008:44 [ref. 30097], Plamoottil & Abraham 2013:9 [ref. 33148], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147], Arunkumar 2016:2006 [ref. 35770], Arunkumar 2020:45 [ref. 37761]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus guentheri (Day 1865). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

haleppensis, Rhynchobdella Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:480 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] "Frequens Haleppi, Simack il Inglese dictus". Mastacembelus aleppensis Günther 1861 is an unjustified emendation. •Synonym of Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794) -- (Coad 1991:22 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:32 [ref. 23608], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Coad 2015:2 [ref. 35412], Esmaeili et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:75 [ref. 36089], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:249 [ref. 37983]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hamiltonii, Macrognathus McClelland [J.] 1843:393 [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 4) (for 1844); ref. 2927] India, rivers in Bengal. No types known. •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Menon 1999:303 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

hodgsonii, Mastacembelus Günther [A.] 1861:543 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Not available, Kaup name on specimen from Nepal mentioned under Mastacembelus armatus var. ponticeriana. •In the synonymy of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae.

jammuensis, Macrognathus Malhotra [Y. R.] & Dutta [P. S.] 1975:153 [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India. v. 45 (B) (3); ref. 33270] Gadigarh, Jammu, India. Dept. Biosci. Univ. Jimmu. •Synonym of Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1026 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:301 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kadeiensis, Mastacembelus Roberts [T. R.] 2021:72, Fig. 2 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 26 (no. 3-4) [for 2020]; ref. 38074] Kadei River 30 km westnorthwest of Nola, Congo basin, Central African Republic. Holotype: CAS 247183. Paratype: (1) location unknown. •Valid as Mastacembelus kadeiensis Roberts 2021. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus kadeiensis Roberts 2021. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Central Africa: Kadei River drainage, Congo basin. Habitat: freshwater.

kakrimensis, Mastacembelus Vreven [E. J.] & Teugels [G. G.] 2005:359, Fig. 10 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 67; ref. 28650] Galekoulou River, affluent of Kakrima, bassin Konkoure, pont route Kindia-Telimele, about 10°37'N, 13°00'W, Guinea. Holotype: MRAC 92-59-P-4234. Paratypes: MNHN 1961-814 (1), 1991-252 (2)MRAC 92-59-P-4235-4240 (6). •Valid as Mastacembelus kakrimensis Vreven & Teugels 2005. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus kakrimensis Vreven & Teugels 2005. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

keithi, Mastacembelus Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1940:24, Pl. 19 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 16; ref. 2130] Brook flowing into Segaliud River, Borneo, Malaysia. Holotype: CAS-SU 33016. Paratypes: (8) BMNH 1938.12.1.267 [from Herre] (1), FMNH 51536 (1), CAS-SU 33017 (orig. 8). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Macrognathus keithi (Herre 1940) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Kottelat et al. 1993:167 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:249 [ref. 23210], Martin-Smith & Tan 1998:593 [ref. 23647], Parenti & Lim 2005:193 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:36 [ref. 35802], Ng & Tan 2020:175 [ref. 37671]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus keithi (Herre 1940). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Borneo (Sabah and North Borneo). Habitat: freshwater.

kobayashii, Mastacembelus Oshima [M.] 1926:195 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 38 (no. 453); ref. 20611] Shiao-li, Hsin-chu, Taiwan. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432]. See also Oshima 1929 [ref. 15916]. Probably now extinct (Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432]). •Synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870) but a valid subspecies -- (Ho & Shao 2011:40 [ref. 31432]). •Synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870) -- (Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Taiwan (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

kris, Macrognathus Ng [H. H.] & Tan [H. H.] 2020:171, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa 4819 (no. 1); ref. 37671] Rungan River, Kahayan River drainage, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, 02°02.016'S, 113°47.091'E, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 10978. Paratypes: CMK, MZB, NSMT, ZRC. •Valid as Macrognathus kris Ng & Tan 2020. Current status: Valid as Macrognathus kris Ng & Tan 2020. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Kahayan River basin, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo (Indonesia). Habitat: freshwater.

latens, Mastacembelus Roberts [T. R.] & Stewart [D. J.] 1976:307, Pl. 14 (fig. e) [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 147 (no. 6); ref. 7388] Lower Congo River, near Bulu, Democratic Republic of Congo, 5°01'S, 14°01'E. Holotype: MCZ 50529. Paratypes: MCZ 50530 (2). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus latens (Roberts & Stewart 1976) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:424 [ref. 6194]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus latens Roberts & Stewart 1976 -- (Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus latens Roberts & Stewart 1976. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

laticauda, Mastacembelus Ahl [E.] 1937:242 [Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin v. 22 (no. 2); ref. 15265] Near Freetown, Sierra Leone. Holotype (unique): ZMB 31301. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:95 [ref. 21847]. •Questionably valid as Caecomastacembelus laticauda (Ahl 1937) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus liberiensis (Boulenger 1898) -- (Gosse 1986:424 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Aethiomastacembelus liberiensis (Boulenger 1898) -- (Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:852 [ref. 21590]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus liberiensis Boulenger 1898 -- (Vreven & Teugels 2005:343 [ref. 28650]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus liberiensis Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

liberiensis, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:23 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 15 (pt 1, no. 1); ref. 547] Liberia. Lectotype: RMNH 5369a. Paralectotypes: RMNH 5369b (1). Based on Mastacembelus marchii of Steindachner (not Sauvage). Lectotype selected by Vreven & Teugels 2005:343 [ref. 28650] •Valid as Caecomastacembelus liberiensis (Boulenger 1898) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:424 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus liberiensis (Boulenger 1898) -- (Lévêque et al. 1989:123 [ref. 26480], Paugy et al. 1990:343 [ref. 26477], Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367], Travers 1992:337 [ref. 14258], Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:852 [ref. 21590]). •Valid as Mastacembelus liberiensis Boulenger 1898 -- (Vreven & Teugels 2005:343 [ref. 28650], Pezold et al. 2016:107 [ref. 34870]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus liberiensis Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West Africa: Senegal, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ivory Coast. Habitat: freshwater.

liemphuensis, Mastacembelus Vu [T. H. N.], Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [T. H. T.] 2019:145, Figs. 2, 4 [Proceedings of the first national conference on Ichthyology; ref. 37811] Liêm Phú, Van Bàn, Lào Cai, northern Vietnam. Holotype: ? RIAH 000022. Paratypes: (10) museum? •Valid as Mastacembelus liemphuensis Vu, Nguyen & Nguyen 2019. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus liemphuensis Vu, Nguyen & Nguyen 2019. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Nâm Na drainage, Sông Dà basin, northern Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatomaculatus, Macrognathus Britz [R.] 2010:304, Fig. 7 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 20 (no. 4) [Dec. 2009]; ref. 30685] Jorau River, a tributary of the Sankosh at Laskapara, Barobisha town outskirts, 26°28'52"N, 89°49'30"E, Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal, India. Holotype: BMNH 2009.7.3.7. Paratypes: BMNH 2009.7.3.8-12 (5); CAS 42592 (28), 50302 (1), 50331 (3) •Valid as Macrognathus lineatomaculatus Britz 2010 -- (Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147], Arunkumar 2016:2006 [ref. 35770], Arunkumar 2020:45 [ref. 37761]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus lineatomaculatus Britz 2010. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: India and Nepal. Habitat: freshwater.

loennbergii, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:23 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 15 (pt 1, no. 1); ref. 547] Bonge, Cameroon. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.6.27.1 [ex Stockholm Mus.]. Based on Mastacembelus cryptacanthus of Loennberg (not Günther). Type catalog: Wallin 1996:62 [ref. 32133] with syntypes as ZMUU 602. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus loennbergii (Boulenger 1898) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:424 [ref. 6194], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus loennbergii Boulenger 1898 -- (Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus loennbergii Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

longicauda, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1907:487 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 20 (no. 120) (art. 66); ref. 15138] Kribi River at Akok, southern Cameroon. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1908.5.30.189. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus longicauda (Boulenger 1907) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:425 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus cryptacanthus (Günther 1867) -- (Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367], Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:856 [ref. 21590]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus cryptacanthus Günther 1867. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalmum, Mastacembelus Meuschen [F. C.] 1778:40 [Museum Gronovianum; ref. 17682] Original not seen. Not available, published in a rejected work (Opinion 260). Suppressed. Mastacembelidae.

maculata, Rhynchobdella Reinwardt [C. G. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:461 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Not available, name mentioned in account of Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier; from Moluccas. Nomen Nudum. Mastacembelidae.

maculatus, Mastacembelus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:461 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Molucca Islands [in error, East Indies]. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5378 (2). Also appeared in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 47 (fig. 2) (opp. p. 190) [ref. 1908]. •Valid as Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439], Lim et al. 1990:51 [ref. 16753] with author Valenciennes). •Valid as Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Kottelat et al. 1993:167 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:249 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:178 [ref. 22772], Ng & Tan 1999:364 [ref. 24159], Tan & Lim 2004:111 [ref. 27716], Grinang & Lim 2004:291 [ref. 28551], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989], Sulaiman et al. 2018:36 [ref. 35802], Ng et al. 2019:533 [ref. 36606], Ng & Tan 2020:176 [ref. 37671], Jamaluddin et al. 2022:[7] [ref. 39245]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Cambodia and Vietnam to Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak). Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Mastacembelus Dabry de Thiersant [P.] 1872:186, Pl. 44 (fig. 5) [La pisciculture et la pêche en Chine; ref. 12507] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier 1832. •Synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1879) -- (Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870). Mastacembelidae.

malabaricus, Mastacembelus Jerdon [T. C.] 1849:147 [Madras Journal of Literature and Science v. 15 (pt 1) (no. 34) (art. 2); ref. 2346] Malabar [northern parts of Kerala]. India. No types known. •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Pethiyagoda et al. 2008:44 [ref. 30097], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Macrognathus malabaricus (Jerdon 1849) -- (Rema Devi et al. 1996:143 [ref. 24021], Menon 1999:302 [ref. 24904]). •Valid as Mastacembelus malabaricus Jerdon 1849 -- (Plamoottil & Abraham 2013:6 [ref. 33148], Plamoottil & Abraham 2013:102 [ref. 33317], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus malabaricus Jerdon 1849. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Kerala, India. Habitat: freshwater.

manipurensis, Mastacembelus Hora [S. L.] 1921:206, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 22 (pt 3, no. 19); ref. 2202] Khurda stream, near Thanga Island, Manipur Valley, India. Holotype: ZSI F9990/1 or 13630/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:161 [ref. 20743] as 13630/1. See Das 2003:370 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1031 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:303 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

marchei, Gyrinostomus Rochebrune [A. T. de] 1885:96 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 9; ref. 3791] Casamance River, Senegal, western Africa. Museo Bouvieri. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

marchei, Mastacembelus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:94 [5] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 3881] Ogooué River at Doumé, Gabon. Syntypes: MNHN A-0895 (2). On p. 5 of separate. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus marchei (Sauvage 1879) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:425 [ref. 6194], Vreven & Teugels 1996:138 [ref. 22026]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus marchei (Sauvage 1879) -- (Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Valid as Mastacembelus marchei Sauvage 1879 -- (Vreven 2007:561 [ref. 30080]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus marchei Sauvage 1879. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West-central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

marginatus, Mastacembelus Bleeker [P.] 1845:517 [Natuur-en Geneeskundig Archief voor Neȇrlandsch Indië v. 2 (3); ref. 312] Not available, no distinguishing features; from Batavia, Java. Nomen Nudum. Mastacembelidae.

marmoratus, Mastacembelus Perugia [A.] 1892:968 [2] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 10; ref. 3433] Congo. Syntypes: MSNG 12319 (9). On p. 2 of separate. Tortonese 1963:314 [ref. 10351]. Objectively invalid, preoccupied by Mastacembelus marmoratus Cuvier 1832. •Wrongly treated as valid as Caecomastacembelus marmoratus (Perugia 1892) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:425 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879 -- (Vreven 2007:567 [ref. 30080]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

marmoratus, Mastacembelus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:461 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Mysore, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5348 (2). Not the same as Mastacembelus marmoratus Perugia 1894. •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Menon 1999:303 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

mastacembelus, Ophidium Banks [J.] & Solander [D. C.] in Russell 1794:209, Pl. 6 [Natural History of Aleppo. Second Edition v. 2; ref. 19817] Kowick River, Aleppo [Quwayq River, Halab, Syria]. Syntypes: BMNH 1955.6.25.4-6 (3). •Valid as Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794) -- (Travers 1984:143 [ref. 5147], Coad 1991:22 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:32 [ref. 23608], Coad 1996:71 [ref. 25297], Coad 1996:86 [ref. 25304], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Coad 2010:258 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:375 [ref. 33391], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:895 [ref. 34062], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Coad 2015:2 [ref. 35412], Esmaeili et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:75 [ref. 36089], Çiçek et al. 2020:258 [ref. 37644], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:248 [ref. 37983]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Asia Minor and Middle East: Tigris River, Kor River and Persian Gulf basins (Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran). Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

meklongensis, Macrognathus Roberts [T. R.] 1986:99, Fig. 1a [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 33 (no. 2); ref. 5802] Kwae Noi River, Kao Lam Dam area, Mekong River basin, Thailand. Holotype: NMR 24780. Paratypes: NIFI (uncat.), NRM 24781 (2 or 4). •Valid as Macrognathus meklongensis Roberts 1986 -- (Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:121 [ref. 25674], Britz 2010:307 [ref. 30685], Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Britz & Kottelat 2020:[5] [ref. 37336]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus meklongensis Roberts 1986. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Mekong River basin, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

mellandi, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1914:386 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 14 (no. 83); ref. 14146] Solwezi River, tributary of Chifulowa River, Zambia [northern Rhodesia]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1914.9.21.13. •Synonym of Afromastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Gosse 1986:417 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Seegers 1996:332 [ref. 23725]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

micropectus, Mastacembelus Matthes [H.] 1962:61, Pl. 4 (fig. a) [Annales, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Série in 8o, Sciences Zoologiques No. 111; ref. 6071] Makobola, Lake Tanganyika. Holotype: MRAC 130405. Paratypes: (43) MRAC 130406-16 (12), 130417-30 (17), 130431-33 (3), 130804-12 (9). •Valid as Afromastacembelus micropectus (Matthes 1962) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:418 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus micropectus (Matthes 1962). •Valid as Mastacembelus micropectus Matthes 1962 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus micropectus Matthes 1962. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

moeruensis, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1914:446 [Revue de Zoologie Africaine v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 583] Lake Moero [Lake Mweru], Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype (unique): MRAC 14188. •Valid as Afromastacembelus moeruensis (Boulenger 1914) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:418 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus moeruensis (Boulenger 1914). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901 -- (Van Steenberge et al. 2014:336 [ref. 33291]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

moorii, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:496 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1898 (pt 3); ref. 20658] Mbity Rocks, Lake Tanganyika. Syntypes: BMNH 1898.9.9.67-68 (2). Appeared first as above, then in more detail in Boulenger 1898:22, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [ref. 547]. •Valid as Afromastacembelus moorii (Boulenger 1898) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:418 [ref. 6194], De Vos et al. 2001:130 [ref. 26059]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus moorii (Boulenger 1898). •Valid as Mastacembelus moorii Boulenger 1898 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus moorii Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

morehensis, Macrognathus Arunkumar [L.] & Tombi Singh [H.] 2000:119, Fig. 3 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 97 (pt 1); ref. 25674] Maklang River near Moreh Bazar, Chandel district, Manipur, India. Holotype: MUMF 203/1A [or 620/1A]. Paratypes: MUMF 203/8A (3). •Valid as Macrognathus morehensis Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000 -- (Britz 2010:303 [ref. 30685], Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Gurung et al. 2013:4884 [ref. 32969], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:104 [ref. 33317], Arunkumar 2016:2006 [ref. 35770], Dhanze et al. 2018:372 [ref. 37780], Britz & Kottelat 2020:[5] [ref. 37336], Arunkumar 2020:47 [ref. 37761]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus morehensis Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: South Asia: Chindwin River basin, India, Bhutan and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

mutombotombo, Mastacembelus Pellegrin [J.] 1936:61 [Arquivos do Museu Bocage No. 7; ref. 13733] Cubango [Okavango] River near Vila da Ponte, Angola. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1936-0157. •Synonym of Afromastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Gosse 1986:417 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Seegers 1996:332 [ref. 23725]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

niger, Mastacembelus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1879:95 [6] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 3; ref. 3881] Ogooué River at Doumé, Gabon. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0967. On p. 6 of separate. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus niger (Sauvage 1879) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:426 [ref. 6194], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Valid as Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879 -- (Vreven 2007:567 [ref. 30080] with new synonyms, Skelton 2019:228, 237 [ref. 36564], Kiselkewa et al. 2020:[11] 710 [ref. 38315]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Western-central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrofasciatus, Mastacembelus moorii David [L.] & Poll [M.] 1937:275, Fig. 31 [Annales du Musée du Congo Belge Sér. C (Zoologie) (Sér. 1) v. 3 (fasc. 5); ref. 1043] Rumonge, Lake Tanganyika. Holotype (unique): MRAC 45008. Type catalog: Derijst 1991:55 [ref. 21528]. •Synonym of Afromastacembelus moorii (Boulenger 1898) -- (Gosse 1986:418 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus moorii (Boulenger 1898). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus moorii Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigromarginatus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:23 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 15 (pt 1, no. 1); ref. 547] Ashantee, Guinea [?Ashanti, Ghana]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1899.10.26.5. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus nigromarginatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:426 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus nigromarginatus (Boulenger 1898) -- (Paugy et al. 1990:343 [ref. 26477], Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367], Travers 1992:337 [ref. 14258], Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:852 [ref. 21590]). •Valid as Mastacembelus nigromarginatus Boulenger 1898 -- (Vreven & Teugels 2005:332 [ref. 28650], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus nigromarginatus Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

notophthalmus, Mastacembelus Roberts [T. R.] 1989:181 [Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences No. 14; ref. 6439] Tapah Fisheries Station, Perak, Malaysia. Holotype: CAS-SU 39403. Paratypes: CAS 49497 (1); MZB 3948-50 (1, 1, 1); CAS-SU 35660 (3), 39402 (1), 39404 (11), 39406 (1). •Valid as Mastacembelus notophthalmus Roberts 1989 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:168 [ref. 23448], Britz 2007:257 [ref. 29343], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:533 [ref. 36606], Ng & Tan 2020:176 [ref. 37671]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus notophthalmus Roberts 1989. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia) and Sumatra, Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

oatesii, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1893:199 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 12 (no. 69); ref. 14522] Fort Stedman, Inle Lake, southern Shan States, Myanmar, elevation 3000 feet. Syntypes: (8) BMNH 1893.6.30.113-118 (6), FMNH 5707 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:55 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Mastacembelus oatesii Boulenger 1893 -- (Travers 1984:143 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:106 [ref. 5802], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1032 [ref. 20764], Yang & Zhou 2011:326 [ref. 31298], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:193 [ref. 34477], Kano et al. 2016:9 [ref. 34887]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus oatesii Boulenger 1893. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: China and Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

obscurus, Macrognathus Britz [R.] 2010:300, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 20 (no. 4) [Dec. 2009]; ref. 30685] Hpa Lap Chaung just south of Yuzana Myaing village, 8 kilometers left from Myitkina Myitzon road kilometer 11, 25°31'57"N, 97°22'15" [or 45"]E, Kachi State, Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 36330. Paratypes: USNM 372502 (2). •Valid as Macrognathus obscurus Britz 2010 -- (Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Britz & Kottelat 2020:[5] [ref. 37336]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus obscurus Britz 2010. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Northern Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellata, Rhynchobdella Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:445, [Pl. 239?] [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Puducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-4810 (1, dry), A-4811 (1, dry). Apparently an unneeded new name for and objective synonym of Ophidium aculeatum Bloch 1786 [now Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch 1786)]. The plate (Pl. 239) that is referenced to the name Rhynchobdella ocellata (in two places) bears the name Rhynchobdella aral, which also might be available from this work and independent of Rhynchobdella aral Bloch & Schneider 1801; needs research. See also Macrognathus ocellats Hamilton 1822. •Objective synonym of Macrognathus aral (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch 1786). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellatus, Macrognathus Hamilton [F.] 1822:29 [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Gangetic Provinces, in ponds. No types known. Mentioned by Roberts, Copeia 1980 (no. 3):389, but otherwise an overlooked name. Text somewhat unclear but regarded as available. A secondary senior homonym of Rhynchobdella ocellata Cuvier 1832. Unnecessary replacement name for Ophidium aculeatus Bloch 1786. •Synonym of Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch 1786). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ocellatus, Rhynchophorus van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1853:98 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Not available, name mentioned in synonymy. Nomen Nudum. Mastacembelidae.

ophidium, Mastacembelus Günther [A.] 1894:630 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 7 Nov. 1893); ref. 14529] Lake Tanganyika. Lectotype: BMNH 1889.1.30.22. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1889.1.30.23-24 (4) near Ujiji. Lectotype selected by Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140]. •Valid as Afromastacembelus ophidium (Günther 1894) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:419 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus ophidium (Günther 1894). •Valid as Mastacembelus ophidium Günther 1894 -- (Vreven 2005:1540, 1544 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus ophidium Günther 1894. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

orientalis, Rhynchobdella Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:478 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Kali Brantas basin, channelled stream through drained area at Campurdarat south to Tulungagung, 8°10'S, 111°20'E, Java Timur, Java, Indonesia. Neotype: ZRC 49866. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:98 [ref. 24282]. Unneeded replacement name for Ophidium aculeatum Bloch 1786 according to Paepke 1999; Pethiyagoda et al. 2008:43 [ref. 30097] suggest it is not a replacement name. It is a new name to include the type specimen of aculeatus (W.N.E.) but not technically a replacement name. After type selection of the same specimen for aculeata and orientalis, then orientalis is a junior objective synonym of aculeatus. •Synonym of Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Pethiyagoda et al. 2008:43 [ref. 30097], Kottelat 2013:311 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus aculeatus (Bloch 1786). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

orthosemos, Macrognathus Britz [R.] & Kottelat [M.] 2020:2, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 30 (no. 1): IEF-1138; ref. 37336] Chaung Gyi stream, tributary of Khamaungthawe stream, near upper Seikphyone village, Tenasserim drainage, Tanintharyi Region, Myanmar, 14°20'06"N, 98°26'07"E, elevation 220 meters. Holotype: MHNG 2784.082. Paratypes: BMNH 2019.10.16.1 (1), CMK. •Valid as Macrognathus orthosemos Britz & Kottelat 2020. Current status: Valid as Macrognathus orthosemos Britz & Kottelat 2020. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Tanintharyi Region, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

pancalus, Macrognathus Hamilton [F.] 1822:30, 364, Pl. 22 (fig. 7) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Ganges River drainage, India. No types known. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 20 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Mastacembelus pancalus (Hamilton 1822) -- (Shrestha 1978:41 [ref. 15970], Ataur Rahman 2003:286 [ref. 31338]). •Valid as Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton 1822 -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Ataur Rahman 1989:263 [ref. 24860], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1027 [ref. 20764], Sen 1995:597 [ref. 23778], Banik & Choudhury 1996:580 [ref. 24736], Rema Devi et al. 1999:165 [ref. 24758], Menon 1999:302 [ref. 24904], Rafique 2000:327 [ref. 25220], Karmakar 2000:35 [ref. 25662] as puncalus, Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:118 [ref. 25674], Mirza 2003:25 [ref. 27265], Shrestha 2008:211 [ref. 29923], Ahmed et al. 2013:287 [ref. 32872], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147] as puncalus, Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:104 [ref. 33317], Arunkumar 2016:2006 [ref. 35770], Arunkumar & Manimekalan 2018:1739 [ref. 36172], Dhanze et al. 2018:371 [ref. 37780], Suresh et al. 2018:171 [ref. 36495], Arunkumar 2020:48 [ref. 37761]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton 1822. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Asia: Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. Habitat: freshwater.

pantherinus, Mastacembelus Britz [R.] 2007:263, Figs. 5-6 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 29343] Lake Indawgyi, lower 300 meters of Nant Yen Khan Chaung, affluent of Lake Indawgyi, a little south of Lonton village, 25°06'00"N, 96°16'59"E, Kachin State, Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 55321. Paratypes: NRM 40687 (3), 40968 and 47972 (12), 41034 (1) •Valid as Mastacembelus pantherinus Britz 2007 -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus pantherinus Britz 2007. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Indawgyi, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

paucispinis, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1899:54, Pl. 28 (fig. 3) [Annales du Musee du Congo (Ser. Zoology) v. 1 (fasc. 3); ref. 548] Matadi, lower Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype (unique): MRAC 55. CAS 62907 paratype? •Valid as Caecomastacembelus paucispinis (Boulenger 1899) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:426 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus paucispinis (Boulenger 1899) -- (Travers 1992:337 [ref. 14258], Vreven & Teugels 1997:85 [ref. 22885]). •Valid as Mastacembelus paucispinis Boulenger 1899 -- (Roberts 2021:73 [ref. 38074]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus paucispinis Boulenger 1899. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

paucispinis, Mastacembelus Fowler [H. W.] 1939:75, Fig. 23 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 91; ref. 17188] Waterfall at Trang, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 68517. Paratypes: ANSP 68518 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:127 [ref. 13621]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Mastacembelus paucispinis Boulenger 1899. Replaced by Macrognathus tapirus Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005. •In the synonymy of Mastacembelus tapirus (Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005) -- (Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:168 [ref. 28284]). •In the synonymy of Macrognathus tapirus Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005 -- (Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus tapirus Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pavo, Macrognathus Britz [R.] 2010:301, Fig. 5 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 20 (no. 4) [Dec. 2009]; ref. 30685] Kyeintali Chaung, Han Thet Aung, Rakhine State, Myanmar. Holotype: BMNH 2009.7.3.5. Paratypes: BMNH 2009.7.3.6 (1), 2009.11.3.1-7 (7), 2009.12.14.1-6 (6), 2009.12.14.7-8 (2). •Valid as Macrognathus pavo Britz 2010 -- (Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Britz & Kottelat 2020:[5] [ref. 37336]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus pavo Britz 2010. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Kyeintali Chaung, Rakhine Yoma mountain range, Myanmar. Habitat: freshwater.

pentophthalmos, Mastacembelus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:172 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Kalu River at Modara Ela, Kalutara, 6°35'N, 79°58'E, Sri Lanka, elevation 2 meters. Neotype: NMSL FF 137. Neotype designated by Pethiyagoda et al. 2008:39, 45 [ref. 30097]. Original locality "Ceilona" [= Ceylon, = Sri Lanka] •Valid as Macrognathus pentophthalmos (Gronow 1854) -- (Pethiyagoda et al. 2008:38, 44 [ref. 30097], Britz 2010:307 [ref. 30685], Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus pentophthalmos (Gronow 1854). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Sri Lanka [apparently now extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

perakensis, Mastacembelus Myers [G. S.] in Herre & Myers 1937:74, Pl. 7 [Bulletin of the Raffles Museum No. 13; ref. 2123] Bukit Merah Reservoir, Krian District, Perak, Malaysia. Holotype: CAS-SU 30972. Paratypes: USNM 101189 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:143 [ref. 12291]. From the text, authorship of the freshwater part was by Herre and Myers, but this is in conflict with a statement on p. 53 that the descriptive matter is the work of the senior author excepting in Danio, Encheloclarias, and Mastacembelus. The latter statement is accepted for purposes of authorship of this taxon. •Valid as Macrognathus perakensis (Myers 1937) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Ng et al. 2019:533 [ref. 36606], Ng & Tan 2020:174 [ref. 37671]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

pictus, Mastacembelus Bleeker [P.] 1853:98 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 25 (art. 8); ref. 341] Not available, museum name mentioned in passing in synonymy. Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus erythrotaenia Bleeker 1850. Mastacembelidae.

plagiostomus, Mastacembelus Matthes [H.] 1962:66, Pl. 4 (fig. c) [Annales, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Série in 8o, Sciences Zoologiques No. 111; ref. 6071] Mulongwe (Uvira), Lake Tanganyika. Holotype: MRAC 130400. Paratypes: BMNH 1936.6.15.1746 (1); MRAC 130401 (1), 130402-04 (3), 131054 (1), 131129-30 (2). •Valid as Afromastacembelus plagiostomus (Matthes 1962) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:419 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus plagiostomus (Matthes 1962). •Valid as Mastacembelus plagiostomus Matthes 1962 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus plagiostomus Matthes 1962. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

platysoma, Mastacembelus Poll [M.] & Matthes [H.] 1962:22, Pl. 6 [Annales, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Série in 8o, Sciences Zoologiques No. 111; ref. 3538] Luhanga, Democratic Republic of Congo, Lake Tanganyika. Holotype: MRAC 94672. Paratypes: MRAC 131219 (1), 131220-24 (5), 131225-29 (7). Type catalog: Derijst 1991:55 [ref. 21528]. •Valid as Afromastacembelus platysoma (Poll & Matthes 1962) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:419 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembulus platysoma (Poll & Matthes 1962). •Valid as Mastacembelus platysoma Poll & Matthes 1962 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Vreven & Stiassny 2009:219 [ref. 30676], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus platysoma Poll & Matthes 1962. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Eastern Africa: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

polli, Mastacembelus Vreven [E. J.] 2005:1552, Fig. 8 [Journal of Natural History v. 39 (no. 18); ref. 28140] Cap Kabeyeye, Zambia, about 8°32'S, 30°43'E. Holotype: MRAC 78-25-P-41. Paratypes: MCZ 162850 [ex 50841] (1); MRAC 128687 (1), 128688 (1), 84-23-P-638 (1); SAIAB 42477 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Mastacembelus polli Vreven 2005 -- (Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus polli Vreven 2005. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

polyacantha, Rhynchobdella Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:479 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi] rivers, India. Lectotype: ZMB 1415. Paralectotypes: ZMB (1, stuffed, lost). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:99 [ref. 24282]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:99 [ref. 24282]. •Questionably a synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Paepke 1999:99 [ref. 24282]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Lacepède 1800) -- (Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ponticerianus, Mastacembelus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:460 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Ponducherry, India. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5375 (2). •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Menon 1999:303 [ref. 24904], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

praensis, Aethiomastacembelus Travers [R. A.] 1992:336, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 14258] Jimi River, a small tributary of the Pra River, 6°15'N, 1°30'W, Ghana. Holotype: MRAC 153592. Paratypes: CAS-SU 66747 (1), 66749 (10); USNM 288841 (9). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus praensis Travers 1992 -- (Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:851 [ref. 21590]). •Valid as Mastacembelus praensis (Travers 1992) -- (Vreven & Teugels 2005:332 [ref. 28650]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus praensis (Travers 1992). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Ghana. Habitat: freshwater.

punctatus, Mastacembelus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:463 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Calcutta, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5384. •Synonym of Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton 1822 -- (Menon 1999:302 [ref. 24904]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus pancalus Hamilton 1822. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1911:638 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 8 (no. 47); ref. 14784] Sierra Leone. Syntypes: BMNH 1911.4.6.2-3 (2). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus reticulatus (Boulenger 1911) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:426 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Aethiomastacembelus liberiensis (Boulenger 1898) -- (Lévèque et al. 1991:146 [ref. 31367], Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:852 [ref. 21590]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus liberiensis Boulenger 1898 -- (Vreven & Teugels 2005:343 [ref. 28650]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus liberiensis Boulenger 1898. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

reygeli, Mastacembelus Vreven [E. J.] & Snoeks [J.] 2009:1030, Fig. 7 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 75 (no. 5); ref. 30552] Zone entre le lieu dit "La chute" à 1 kilometer au sud de Rutungu jusqu'à Magera, Burundi, Lake Tanganyika, 3°44'S to 29°21'E. Holotype: MRAC 73-68-P-552. Paratypes: MRAC 93326-332 (7); MCZ 165965 (5). •Valid as Mastacembelus reygeli Vreven & Snoeks 2009. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus reygeli Vreven & Snoeks 2009. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika, southeastern Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

robertsi, Aethiomastacembelus Vreven [E. J.] & Teugels [G. G.] 1996:133, Fig. 4 [Copeia 1996 (no. 1); ref. 22026] Stanley Pool, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, about 4°06'S, 15°15'E. Holotype: MRAC 177695. Paratypes: MCZ 48418-19 (3, 1), 50316 (3), 50398 (2), 50560 (8), 50590 (14); MRAC 177696 (1). •Valid as Mastacembelus robertsi (Vreven & Teugels 1996) -- (authors). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus robertsi (Vreven & Teugels 1996). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

rostratum, Ophidium Shaw [G.] 1803:73, Pl. 7 (lower) [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Holotype (unique): BMNH 2006.4.5.4. •Synonym of Mastacembelus aculeatus (Bloch 1786) -- (Kottelat 2013:211 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus aculeatus (Bloch 1786). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

sanagali, Mastacembelus Thys van den Audenaerde [D. F. E.] 1972:360, Fig. 2 [Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines v. 86 (nos 3-4); ref. 7653] Sanaga River at Nachtigal near the ferry, Cameroon Republic. Holotype: MRAC 178715. Paratypes: MRAC 178716 (1). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus sanagali (Thys van den Audenaerde 1972) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:427 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus sanagali (Thys van den Audenaerde 1972) -- (Travers 1992:337 [ref. 14258], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Valid as Mastacembelus sanagali Thys van den Audenaerde 1972 -- (Vreven 2007:557 [ref. 30080]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus sanagali Thys van den Audenaerde 1972. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Sanaga River basin, Cameroon. Habitat: freshwater.

sclateri, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:28, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1903, v. 1 (pt 1) (art. 3); ref. 570] Mvile River, southern Cameroon. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.7.28.73-76 (4) or 1903.7.28.75-78 (4). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus sclateri (Boulenger 1903) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:427 [ref. 6194], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus marchei Sauvage 1879 -- (Vreven 2007:563 [ref. 30080]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus marchei Sauvage 1879. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

seiteri, Mastacembelus Thys van den Audenaerde [D. F. E.] 1972:360, Fig. 1 [Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines v. 86 (nos 3-4); ref. 7653] Sanaga River at Nachtigal, Cameroon. Holotype (unique): MRAC 178714. •Valid as Caecomastacembelus seiteri (Thys van den Audenaerde 1972) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:427 [ref. 6194], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Valid as Mastacembelus seiteri Thys van den Audenaerde 1972 -- (Vreven 2007:559 [ref. 30080]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus seiteri Thys van den Audenaerde 1972. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Sanaga River basin, Cameroon. Habitat: freshwater.

semiocellatus, Macrognathus Roberts [T. R.] 1986:99, Figs. 1 (b-d) [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 33 (no. 2); ref. 5802] Ubon Ratchatani market ("presumably caught in Mun River, near Ubon Ratchatani, Mekong basin"), Thailand. Holotype: NRM 24782. Paratypes: BMNH 1985.8.21.3-12 (11), CAS 57350-51 (11, 10), IRSNB 729 (10), KUMF (4 lots), MNHN 1985-0800 (10), NRM 24783-85 (6, 69, 1), NIFI (8 lots), TNRC (Thailand Nat. Res. Council, Bangkok) (8 lots), UMMZ 213430-40 (1, 1, 2, 20, 4, 2, 4, 1, 14, 9, 31). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:46 [ref. 20755]. •Synonym of Macrognathus taeniagaster (Fowler 1935) -- (Rainboth 1996:179 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Macrognathus semiocellatus Roberts 1986 -- (Kottelat 1998:117 [ref. 23436], Freyhof et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25184], Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:121 [ref. 25674], Kottelat 2001:147 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus semiocellatus Roberts 1986. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

sexdecimspinus, Afromastacembelus Roberts [T. R.] & Travers [R. A.] 1986:107, Figs. 1-5 [Cybium v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 6759] High gradient rapids of Cross River, near Widekum, Cameroon. Holotype: CAS 51558. Paratypes: BMNH 1985.10.4.1-2 (2); CAS 51559-60 (2, 1); MRAC 84-04-P-1 (1); MNHN 1986-0396 (1). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus sexdecimspinus (Roberts & Travers 1986) -- (Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:851 [ref. 21590], Travers 1992:337 [ref. 14258], Vreven 2004:102 [ref. 27762]). •Valid as Mastacembelus sexdecimspinus (Roberts & Travers 1986) -- (Vreven 2007:555 [ref. 30080], Roberts 2021:74 [ref. 38074]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus sexdecimspinus (Roberts & Travers 1986). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Cameroon. Habitat: freshwater.

shiloangoensis, Aethiomastacembelus Vreven [E. J.] 2004:98, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 27762] River Kiswila at Nord de Tondi, Mayumbe [= Kishuila, about 4°49'S, 13°10'E], Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 19961. Paratypes: MRAC 174146 (1), 19962-63 (1, 1). •Valid as Mastacembelus shiloangoensis (Vreven 2004) -- (Vreven 2007:559 [ref. 30080], Skelton 2019:228 [ref. 36564]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus shiloangoensis (Vreven 2004). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: West-central Africa: Shiloango River basin, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola. Habitat: freshwater.

shiranus, Mastacembelus Günther [A.] 1896:397 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 57); ref. 14608] Upper Shiré River, central Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1894.7.6.4-5 (2). •Valid as Afromastacembelus shiranus (Günther 1896) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:419 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus shiranus (Günther 1896) -- (Skelton 1993:340 [ref. 24071], Skelton 2001:340 [ref. 27406]). •Valid as Mastacembelus shiranus Günther 1896. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus shiranus Günther 1896. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Malawi and tributaries. Habitat: freshwater.

siamensis, Rhynchobdella aculeata var. Günther [A.] 1861:540 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 3; ref. 1964] Pachebore [Petchaburi], Thailand. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1861.10.8.14. •Valid as Macrognathus siamensis (Günther 1861) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:103 [ref. 5802], Rainboth 1996:179 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 1998:117 [ref. 23436], Freyhof et al. 2000:97 [ref. 25184], Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:121 [ref. 25674], Kottelat 2001:149 [ref. 25780], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:168 [ref. 28284], Britz 2010:307 [ref. 30685], Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Page & Burr 2011:466 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:115 [ref. 32708], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971], Robins et al. 2018:246 [ref. 35886]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus siamensis (Günther 1861). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam; established in Florida, U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

siangensis, Macrognathus Arunkumar [L.] 2016:2004, Fig. 1 [Journal of Research in Biology v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 35770] Siang river at Pasighat, East Siang district, Brahmaputra river basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India, 28°05'17"N, 95°19'54"E, elevation about 150 meters. Holotype: MUM NH 43. Paratypes: MUM. •Valid as Macrognathus siangensis Arunkumar 2016 -- (Arunkumar 2020:48 [ref. 37761]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus siangensis Arunkumar 2016. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Brahmaputra river basin, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Habitat: freshwater.

signatus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1905:647 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 16 (no. 96) (art. 72); ref. 15342] Lake Bangwelo [Bangweolo], Zambia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.11.10.13. Dorsal and anal fins abnormally short -- (Van Steenberge et al. 2014:336 [ref. 33291]). •Valid as Afromastacembelus signatus (Boulenger 1905) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:420 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus signatus (Boulenger 1905). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus signatus -- (Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus congicus Boulenger 1896 -- (Van Steenberge et al. 2014:336-337 [ref. 33291]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus congicus Boulenger 1896. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

simack, Ophidium Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:159 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] "Fluvio prope Halepum". Based on On Gronovius Zooph. pl. 8 (fig. 1) and Russell Hist Aleppo, pl. 12 (no. 2). •Synonym of Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794) -- (Coad 1991:22 [ref. 15702], Coad 1995:32 [ref. 23608], Fricke et al. 2007:76 [ref. 29533], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:249 [ref. 37983]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

simbi, Mastacembelus Vreven [E. J.] & Stiassny [M. L. J.] 2009:214, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 20 (no. 3); ref. 30676] Small rock outcrop across main channel of Congo River from Lenga Lenga, near border with Republic of Congo, 4°53'42.43"S, 14°24'18.70"E, Bas Congo Province, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: AMNH 247179. Paratypes: AMNH 247180 (4), 247181 (1), 248085 (12, 2 c&s); MCZ 168416 (2); MRAC 2009-17-P-1-4 (4); ZSM 38605 [ex AMNH 247179] (4). Type catalog: Neumann 2011:268 [ref. 31652] •Valid as Mastacembelus simbi Vreven & Stiassny 2009. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus simbi Vreven & Stiassny 2009. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Middle reaches, Congo River, central Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

sinensis, Rhynchobdella Bleeker [P.] 1870:249, Pl. (bottom fig.) [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 4; ref. 17069] China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Syntypes from James Maclaine, personal communication 12/7/2017. •Synonym of Mastacembalus aculeatus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Zheng 1989:371 [ref. 21202]). •Valid as Mastacembelus sinensis (Bleeker 1870) -- (Wang 1984:97 [ref. 22951], Wang et al. 2001:329 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Rhynchobdella sinensis Bleeker 1870 -- (Travers 1984:142 [ref. 5147]). •Valid as Pararhynchobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870) -- (Zhu 1995:187 [ref. 25213]). •Valid as Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870) -- (Kottelat 2001:63 [ref. 25482], Ho & Shao 2011: 40 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:193 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Sinobdella sinensis (Bleeker 1870). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

stappersii, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1914:446 [Revue de Zoologie Africaine v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 583] Lake Moero [Lake Mweru], Democratic Republic of Congo. Lectotype: MRAC 11854. Paralectotypes: (several) BMNH 1920.5.26.170-171 (2); MRAC 11706 (1), 11855 (1). Lectotype selected by Van Steenberge et al. 2014:336 [ref. 33291]. •Valid as Afromastacembelus stappersii (Boulenger 1914) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:420 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus stappersii (Boulenger 1914). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. •Valid as Mastacembelus stappersii Boulenger 1914 -- (Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901 -- (Van Steenberge et al. 2014:336 [ref. 33291]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

strigiventus, Mastacembelus Zhou [W.] & Yang [L.-P.] in Yang & Zhou 2011:328, Figs. 3, 8 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 31298] Nabang-He River, Irrawaddy drainage, Nabang, 24°40'N, 97°34'E, Yingjiang County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 7801024. Paratypes: KIZ 7801022-23 (2). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:355 [ref. 32939], •Questionably a synonym of Mastacembelus tinwini Britz 2007 -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Mastacembelus strigiventus Zhou & Yang 2011 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:193 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus strigiventus Zhou & Yang 2011. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Upper Irrawaddy River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

syriacus, Mastacembelus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:172 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Coic River, Syria. No types known. •Synonym of Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794) -- (Coad 2015:3 [ref. 35412], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:249 [ref. 37983]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks & Solander 1794). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniagaster, Mastacembelus Fowler [H. W.] 1935:136, Figs. 97-101 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 13881] Chantaboon [Chantaburi], southeastern Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 59852. Paratypes: ANSP 59853-58 (6), BMNH 1955.8.24.1 [ex ANSP 59859] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:127 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Macrognathus taeniagaster (Fowler 1935) -- (Rainboth 1996:179 [ref. 22772]). •Synonym of Macrognathus circumcinctus (Hora 1924) -- (Kottelat 2001:147 [ref. 25780] with question). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus circumcinctus (Hora 1924). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniatus, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1901:6 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 7 (no. 37) (art. 1); ref. 5758] North end of Lake Tanganyika. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1906.9.6.162. •Synonym of Afromastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Gosse 1986:417 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Seegers 1996:332 [ref. 23725]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

taiaensis, Caecomastacembelus Travers [R. A.] 1992:332, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 14258] Tributary of Taia River at Yele, Sierra Leone. Holotype: BMNH 1985.6.12.112. Paratypes: MRAC 73-10-P-7363-7371 (9), 73-10-P-7372 (1, c&s). Other material: BMNH 1915.4.13.73 (1), 1958.9.18.288 (1), 1958.9.22.94 (1), 1976.11.12.191-192 (2), 1976.11.12.193-194 (2). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus taiaensis Travers 1992 -- (Travers in Lévêque et al. 1992:854 [ref. 21590], Travers 1992:335 [ref. 14258]). •Valid as Mastacembelus taiaensis (Travers 1992) -- (Vreven & Teugels 2005:332 [ref. 28650]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus taiaensis (Travers 1992). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Sierra Leone. Habitat: freshwater.

tanganicae, Mastacembelus Günther [A.] 1894:629 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1893 (pt 4) (art. 2) (for 7 Nov. 1893); ref. 14529] Lake Tanganyika. Syntypes: BMNH 1889.1.30.16-21 (6). •Valid as Afromastacembelus tanganicae (Günther 1894) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:420 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus tanganicae (Günther 1894). •Valid as Mastacembelus tanganicae Günther 1894 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552], Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus tanganicae Günther 1894. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

tapirus, Macrognathus Kottelat [M.] & Widjanarti [E.] 2005:167, Fig. 14 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. no. 13; ref. 28284] Waterfall at Trang, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 68517. Paratypes: ANSP 68518 (1). Replacement name for Mastacembelus paucispinis Fowler 1939, preoccupied by Mastacembelus paucispinis Boulenger 1899. •Valid as Macrognathus tapirus Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005 -- (Britz 2010:55 [ref. 30857], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:533 [ref. 36606], Ng & Tan 2020:176 [ref. 37671]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus tapirus Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Thailand, Malaya (Malaysia), Sumatra (Indonesia), Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

thacbaensis, Mastacembelus Nguyen [H. D.], Nguyen [V. H.] & Ngo [S. V.] in Nguyen 2005:633, Fig. 4 [Freshwater fishes of Vietnam v. 3; ref. 29809] Thac Ba reservoir, Yen Bai Province, Vietnam. Holotype: NCNTTS I Inst., Bac Ninh. Paratypes: (5). •Questionably a synonym of Mastacembelus undulatus (McClelland 1843) -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Mastacembelus thacbaensis Nguyen, Nguyen & Ngo 2005 -- (Vu et al. 2019:150 [ref. 37811]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus undulatus (McClelland 1843). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Thac Ba reservoir, Yen Bai Province, Vietnam [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

thompsoni, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1918:578 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 11 (Appendix); ref. 15095] Sesheke, Zambia [n. Rhodesia]. Holotype (unique): SAM 14542 [now at AMG]. •Synonym of Afromastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Gosse 1986:417 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Seegers 1996:332 [ref. 23725]). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tinwini, Mastacembelus Britz [R.] 2007:258, Figs. 2, 3a [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 18 (no. 3); ref. 29343] Thaton market, Mon State, Myanmar. Holotype: NRM 55468. Paratypes: BMNH 2007.1.10.1 (1), CMK 19715 (6), NRM 48646 (12), USNM 385951 (4). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Mastacembelus tinwini Britz 2007 -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606], Jamaluddin et al. 2022:[7] [ref. 39245]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus tinwini Britz 2007. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Salween basin in Myanmar, Malaya (Malaysia). Habitat: freshwater.

traversi, Aethiomastacembelus Vreven [E. J.] & Teugels [G. G.] 1997:82, Fig. 2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 8 (no. 1); ref. 22885] Lualaba River, in rapids, kilometer 47 road Kisangani-Waie Rukula, about 0°14'N, 25°34'E, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype: MRAC 90-30-P-1951. Paratypes: MCZ 148434 (1); MRAC 118575 (1, tail mutilated), 73-22-P-5048 (1); CAS-SU 66748 (1). •Valid as Mastacembelus traversi (Vreven & Teugels 1997). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus traversi (Vreven & Teugels 1997). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

triolobus, Mastacembelus Zhou [W.] & Yang [L.-P.] in Yang & Zhou 2011:329, Figs. 4, 9 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 31298] Long-Jiang River, Irrawaddy drainage, Tuantian, 24°41'N, 98°39'E, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 764223. Paratypes: KIZ 764222 (1), 764224 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:355 [ref. 32939]. •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede 1800) -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Mastacembelus triolobus Zhou & Yang 2011 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:193 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus triolobus Zhou & Yang 2011. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Upper Irrawaddy River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

trispinosus, Mastacembelus Steindachner [F.] 1911:529 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 48 (no. 26); ref. 14812] Ituri (near Mawambi), tributary of Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo. Holotype (unique): NMW 73352. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1911:1183 [ref. 14811]. •Valid as Afromastacembelus trispinosus (Steindachner 1911) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:420 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus trispinosus (Steindachner 1911). •In Mastacembelus to agree with current placement of Caecomastacembelus. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus trispinosus Steindachner 1911. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Democratic Republic of Congo. Habitat: freshwater.

ubangensis, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1911:637 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 8 (no. 47); ref. 14784] Ubangi River at Banzyville, Democratic Republic of Congo. Syntypes: BMNH 1901.12.26.65 (1), MRAC 1204 (1). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus ubangensis (Boulenger 1911) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:427 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879 -- (Vreven 2007:567 [ref. 30080]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus niger Sauvage 1879. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

ubangipaucispinis, Mastacembelus Roberts [T. R.] 2021:71, Fig. 1 [aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology v. 26 (no. 3-4) [for 2020]; ref. 38074] Rapids in Ubangi River 43-47 km upriver from Ubangi, Central African Republic. Holotype (unique): NRM 64699. •Valid as Mastacembelus ubangipaucispinis Roberts 2021. Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus ubangipaucispinis Roberts 2021. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Central Africa: Ubangi River drainage, Congo basin. Habitat: freshwater.

undulatus, Macrognathus McClelland [J.] 1843:398, Pl. 22 (fig. 1) [Calcutta Journal of Natural History v. 4 (no. 4) (for 1844); ref. 2927] Chusan Island, China [doubtful, probably India]. •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Zheng 1989:371 [ref. 21202], Menon 1999:303 [ref. 24904]). •See Kottelat 2001:63 [ref. 25482]. •Valid as Mastacembelus undulatus (McClelland 1843) -- (Britz 2007:257 [ref. 29343], Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus undulatus (McClelland 1843). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southern China ?. Habitat: freshwater.

unicolor, Mastacembelus Cuvier [G.] (ex Kuhl & van Hasselt) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1832:453 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 8; ref. 1000] Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN 5693 (1); ? RMNH 1345 (2), ?1181 (1) Type information: Roberts 1993:45 [ref. 21799]. •Valid as Mastacembelus unicolor Cuvier 1832 -- (Travers 1984:143 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1989:182 [ref. 6439], Roberts 1993:45 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:168 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:249 [ref. 23210], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:193 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:314 [ref. 32989], Britz 2017:80 [ref. 35487], Sulaiman et al. 2018:36 [ref. 35802] with author Cuvier, Wilkinson & Tan 2018:602 [ref. 36226], Ng et al. 2019:534 [ref. 36606], Ng & Tan 2020:176 [ref. 37671]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus unicolor Cuvier 1832. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), Sumatra and Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

vaillanti, Mastacembelus Fowler [H. W.] 1905:491, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 57; ref. 1370] Baram River, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 114888 [ex WIAP 14206 (not 14150)]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:127 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Mastacembelus maculatus Cuvier 1832 -- (Roberts 1989:181 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832) -- (Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrognathus maculatus (Cuvier 1832). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

vanderwaali, Mastacembelus Skelton [P. H.] 1976:104, Figs. 2-3 [Annals of the Cape Provincial Museums (Natural History) v. 11 (no. 6); ref. 7392] Mainstream of Zambezi River at Katima Mulilo, eastern Caprivi, about 17°30'S, 24°16'E, Angola. Holotype: AMG P3183a. Paratypes: AMG P2712 (?5), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 5654 [ex AMG P3449] (3); NMBZ 3451(14). Type catalog: Skelton & Stuart 1987:187 [ref. 12628]. •Valid as Afromastacembelus vanderwaali (Skelton 1976) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:420 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Aethiomastacembelus vanderwaali (Skelton 1976) -- (Skelton 1993:340 [ref. 24071], Skelton 2001:341 [ref. 27406]). •Valid as Mastacembelus vanderwaali Skelton 1976 -- (Brown et al. 2011:287 [ref. 31286], Marshall 2011:261 [ref. 31755], Bruton et al. 2018:83 [ref. 36373]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus vanderwaali Skelton 1976. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Southern Africa. Habitat: freshwater.

venosus, Mastacembelus Valenciennes [A.] in Jacquemont 1838:no p., Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Voyage dans l'Inde pendant les années 1828 à 1832; ref. 17872] India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5702. This account not accompanied by "Nov." as in other new species. Plate probably dates to 1838, see Britz et al. 2017:540 [ref. 35498]. •Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800) -- (Kottelat 2013:313 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepède 1800). Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

victoriae, Mastacembelus Boulenger [G. A.] 1903:218 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 12 (no. 68) (art. 14); ref. 15015] Eastern Africa: Lake Victoria [Victoria Nyanza]. Syntypes: (3) BMNH 1903.12.2.6 (1), BMNH uncat. (2). •Synonym of Afromastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Gosse 1986:417 [ref. 6194]). •Synonym of Caecomastacembelus frenatus (Boulenger 1901) -- (Seegers 1996:332 [ref. 23725]). •Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901 -- (Seegers et al. 2003:42 [ref. 28087]). Current status: Synonym of Mastacembelus frenatus Boulenger 1901. Mastacembelidae. Habitat: freshwater.

zebratus, Mastacembelus Matthes [H.] 1962:68, Pl. 4 (fig. d) [Annales, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Série in 8o, Sciences Zoologiques No. 111; ref. 6071] Makobola, Lake Tanganyika. Holotype: MRAC 130397. Paratypes: 130398-99 (1, 1), 130800-01 (2), 131066 (1), 131131 (1). •Valid as Afromastacembelus zebratus (Matthes 1962) -- (Travers 1984:145 [ref. 5147], Gosse 1986:421 [ref. 6194]). •Valid as Caecomastacembelus zebratus (Matthes 1962) -- (authors). •Valid as Mastacembelus zebratus Matthes 1962 -- (Vreven 2005:1540 [ref. 28140], Vreven & Snoeks 2009:1019 [ref. 30552]). Current status: Valid as Mastacembelus zebratus Matthes 1962. Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

zebrinus, Mastacembelus Blyth [E.] 1858:281 [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 27 (no. 3); ref. 476] Maulmein, Myanmar. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Doubtful as types: AMS B.8019 (1). •Valid as Macrognathus zebrinus (Blyth 1858) -- (Travers 1984:144 [ref. 5147], Roberts 1986:103 [ref. 5802], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1028 [ref. 20764], Arunkumar & Tombi Singh 2000:121 [ref. 25674], Shrestha 2008:210 [ref. 29923], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:51 [ref. 33147], Kottelat 2013:312 [ref. 32989], Plamoottil & Abraham 2014:104 [ref. 33317]). Current status: Valid as Macrognathus zebrinus (Blyth 1858). Mastacembelidae. Distribution: Nepal, Myanmar and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.


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