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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Pempheridae: [ 99 ] records


adspersus, Pempheris Griffin [L. T.] 1927:139, Pl. 11 (Fig. 3) [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 58; ref. 15788] Bay of Islands, Auckland Provincial District, about 35°13'S, 174°12'E, New Zealand. Holotype: AIM MA 74995. Paratypes: AIM MA 74994 (1). Pempheris is feminine, so the spelling adspersa is probably correct. Trnski personal communication (12/1/2017) on type status. •Valid as Pempheris adspersus Griffin 1972 -- (Paulin et al. 1989:192 [ref. 24556], Paulin & Roberts 1992:102 [ref. 24625]). •Valid as Pempheris adspersa Griffin 1927 -- (Mooi 1998:158 [ref. 24167], Mooi 2000:89 [ref. 24459], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Roberts 2015:1296 [ref. 34193], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris adspersa Griffin 1927. Pempheridae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

adustus, Pempheris Bleeker [P.] 1877:50 [34] [Archives néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles v. 12; ref. 17114] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6161. On p. 34 of separate. Figured in Bleeker 1877:Pl. 383 (fig. 1) [ref. 6835]; earliest publication not established. •Possible synonym of Pempheris schwenkii Bleeker 1855 -- (Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Pempheris adusta Bleeker 1877 -- (Heemstra 1986:669 [ref. 5660], Fricke 1999:320 [ref. 24106], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Koeda et al. 2013:123 [ref. 33257], Koeda et al. 2014:301 [ref. 33297], Randall et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33585] not Red Sea, Koeda et al. 2015:275 [ref. 35336], Koeda et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35354], Koeda 2017:5 [ref. 37096], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326], Koeda in Motomura et al. 2021:37 [ref. 38121]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris adusta Bleeker 1877. Pempheridae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: eastern Malaya (Malaysia) and eastern Indonesia east to New Guinea, north to Japan and Ogasawara Islands. IUCN (2020): not assessed. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Pempheris McCulloch [A. R.] 1911:45, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Biological Results Endeavour [v. 1] (pt 1); ref. 2936] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: AMS B.7332. Paratypes: (3) AMS E.2086 (2). •Valid as Pempheris affinis McCulloch 1911 -- (Kuiter 1993:206 [ref. 23929], Mooi & Jubb 1996:127 [ref. 21271], Kuiter 1997:196 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris affinis McCulloch 1911. Pempheridae. Distribution: Coast of southern Australia. Habitat: marine.

analis, Pempheris Waite [E. R.] 1910:375, Pl. 36 [Transactions of the New Zealand Institute v. 42; ref. 14596] Washed up on beach at Denham Bay (29°16'S, 177°56'W), Raoul Islands, Kermadec Islands. Lectotype: CMC F701. Paralectotypes: (9) F1615 (1). Type catalog: Freeman & Tunnicliffe 1997:8 [ref. 22860]. Lectotype selected by Mooi 2000:97 [ref. 24459]. •Valid as Pempheris analis Waite 1910 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Paulin et al. 1989:192 [ref. 24556], Randall et al. 1990:213 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Mooi & Jubb 1996:129 [ref. 21271], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:196 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:213 [ref. 25919], Mooi 1998:158 [ref. 24167], Mooi 2000:97 [ref. 24459], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Bray & Paxton 2006:1277 [ref. 29093], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:114 [ref. 36167], Roberts 2015:1297 [ref. 34193], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris analis Waite 1910. Pempheridae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern Australia, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

andilana, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:17, Fig. 2 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Nosy Be, off Andilana Beach, near hotel at beach, Madagascar. Holotype: USNM 307628. Paratypes: BPBM, SAIAB, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris andilana Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:230 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris andilana Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Endemic to northwestern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Kurtus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:164, Pl. 41 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Australia [as New Holland]. No type known. •Synonym of Pempheris compressa (Shaw 1790) -- (Bray & Paxton 2006:1277 [ref. 29093]). Current status: Synonym of Pempheris compressa (Shaw 1790). Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

argenteus, Parapempheris von Bonde [C.] 1923:11, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] Ponta Malongane, 26.7666°S, 32.9000°E, Mozambique. Old locality: KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 188, depth 32 fathoms. Neotype: SAIAB 50530. Neotype designated by Randall & Bogorodsky 2016:6 [ref. 34332]. Combined with a feminine genus the specific adjective should have been argentea. •Synonym of Parapriacanthus ransonneti Steindachner 1870 -- (Heemstra 1986:669 [ref. 5660]). •Valid as Parapriacanthus argenteus (von Bonde 1923) -- (Randall & Bogorodsky 2016:6 [ref. 34332]). Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus argenteus (von Bonde 1923). Pempheridae. Distribution: Mozambique and South Africa. Habitat: marine.

argyrea, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:18, Figs. 3-4 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] La Digue, North Point, rocky shore, Seychelles, depth 0-1 meters. Holotype: BPBM 21599. Paratypes: BPBM, CAS, SAIAB, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris argyrea Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris argyrea Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

beryciformis, Parapriacanthus Franz [V.] 1910:33, Pl. 6 (fig. 46) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Japan. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WW II. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:278 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Parapriacanthus ransonneti Steindachner 1870 -- (Randall 1995:244 [ref. 22896]). Current status: Synonym of Parapriacanthus ransonneti Steindachner 1870. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

bexillon, Pempheris Mooi [R. D.] & Randall [J. E.] 2014:391, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 3780 (no. 2); ref. 33215] Grand Comore, 0.5 km north of the Coelacanth hotel, Comoro Islands, 11.8167°S, 43.0167°E, depth 5 - 10 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 30861. Paratypes: BPBM 41165 (1); CAS 33012 (1), 33403 (8); USNM 402278 (1). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Pempheris bexillon Mooi & Randall 2014 -- (Randall et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33585], Randall & Victor 2015:5 [ref. 34131], Pinheiro et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34187]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris bexillon Mooi & Randall 2014. Pempheridae. Distribution: Mozambique Channel, Mascarene Plateau, Comoro Islands. Habitat: marine.

bineeshi, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:20, Figs. 5-6 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Tamil Nadu, Tuticorin, India, depth 10-30 meters. Holotype: NBFGR-CH-1143. Paratypes: BPBM, ZSI/CLT. •Valid as Pempheris bineeshi Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris bineeshi Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

bruggemanni, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:22, Figs. 7-9 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] West side, S of Saint-Leu, Réunion, 21°11.600'S, 55°16.946'E. Holotype: MNHN 2015-0002. Paratypes: BPBM, SMF, URUN. •Valid as Pempheris bruggemanni Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris bruggemanni Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Réunion and Mauritius. Habitat: marine.

compressus, Sparus Shaw [G.] in White 1790:267, Pl. 53 (fig. 2) [Journal of a voyage to New South Wales; ref. 4654] New South Wales, Australia. No types known. Authorship according to Sherborn 1891:535 [ref. 32516]. •Valid as Pempheris compressa (Shaw 1790) -- (Paulin et al. 1989:192 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:207 [ref. 23929], Mooi & Jubb 1996:128 [ref. 21271], Kuiter 1997:196 [ref. 25488], Mooi 1998:158 [ref. 24167], Mooi 2000:87 [ref. 24459], Bray & Paxton 2006:1277 [ref. 29093], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris compressa (Shaw 1790). Pempheridae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

connelli, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:24, Figs. 10-11 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] KwaZulu-Natal, Aliwal Shoal, South Africa, 30.293°S, 30.817°E. Holotype: SAIAB 58560. Paratypes: SAIAB. •Valid as Pempheris connelli Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris connelli Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: South Africa. Habitat: marine.

convexa, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2014:64, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 12; ref. 33616] Oman, south coast, Sawda Island, 17°28’28"N, 56°36’5"E, Arabian Sea, depth 9 meters. Holotype: BPBM 36009. Paratypes: BPBM, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris convexa Randall & Victor 2014 -- (Randall & Victor 2015:6 [ref. 34131]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris convexa Randall & Victor 2014. Pempheridae. Distribution: Maldives and Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

cuprea, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2014:68, Fig. 3 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 12; ref. 33616] Mozambique (no further data). Holotype: SAIAB 51335. Paratypes: SAIAB. •Valid as Pempheris cuprea Randall & Victor 2014 -- (Randall & Victor 2015:6 [ref. 34131]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris cuprea Randall & Victor 2014. Pempheridae. Distribution: Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

darros, Parapriacanthus Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] 2016:8, Figs. 6-7 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 20; ref. 34332] Amirante Islands, D'Arros Island, Seychelles, 5°29'S, 53°18'E, depth 50-55 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 35551. •Valid as Parapriacanthus darros Randall & Bogorodsky 2016. Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus darros Randall & Bogorodsky 2016. Pempheridae. Distribution: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

darvelli, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2014:71, Figs. 4-6 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 12; ref. 33616] Jissah Island, 23°33'30.80"N, 58°39'8.64"E, Gulf of Oman, depth 6-7 meters. Holotype: BPBM 41178. Paratypes: USNM. •Valid as Pempheris darvelli Randall & Victor 2014 -- (Randall & Victor 2015:6 [ref. 34131]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris darvelli Randall & Victor 2014. Pempheridae. Distribution: Oman. Habitat: marine.

dispar, Pempheris Herre [A. W. C. T.] 1935:407 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 18 (no. 12); ref. 2109] Tenibuli, Ysabel Island, Solomon Islands. Holotype: FMNH 17326. Paratypes: FMNH 17328-32 (5), 17334 (1); CAS-SU 24440 (9); USNM 117317-18 (1, 1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:80 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:64 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Parapriacanthus dispar (Herre 1935) -- (Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Randall 2005:302 [ref. 28239], Bray & Paxton 2006:1276 [ref. 29093], Allen & Erdmann 2012:511 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2019:177 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus dispar (Herre 1935). Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Solomon Islands, south to northern Australia, New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands. Habitat: marine.

eatoni, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2014:76, Figs. 10-14 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 12; ref. 33616] KwaZulu-Natal, Scottburgh, 30°17.719"S, 30°45.251'E, South Africa, depth 1-2 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 189160. Paratypes: BPBM, SAIAB, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris eatoni Randall & Victor 2014 -- (Randall & Victor 2015:7 [ref. 34131]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris eatoni Randall & Victor 2014. Pempheridae. Distribution: Mozambique to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

ellipse, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:26, Figs. 12-13 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] South coast, Rahah Bay, Oman, 16°57'4"N, 54°49'4"E, depth 6-9 meters. Holotype: BPBM 35867. Paratypes: BPBM. •Valid as Pempheris ellipse Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris ellipse Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Oman. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Pempheris McCulloch [A. R.] 1911:47, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Biological Results Endeavour [v. 1] (pt 1); ref. 2936] Off Flinder's Island, Bass Strait, and off Wilson's Promontory, Victoria, Australia. Holotype: AMS I.10186. Paratypes: (15) AMS E.469 (1), 471-472 (1, 1, 1), I.10184-85 (1, 1), I. 10187-89 (1, 1, 1), I. 10842-45 (1, 1, 1, 1), E.1258 (3, now 1), E.3242 (2); QM I.1125-26 [ex AMS E.3242] (1, 1); TMH D137/13018 [ex AMS E.470] (1); WAM P.28591-001 [ex WAM 11519] (1). Type catalog: Andrews 1971:2 [ref. 31471], Hutchins & Smith 1991:27 [ref. 19335], Andrews 1992:112 [ref. 22689], Moore et al. 2008:29 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Parapriacanthus elongatus (McCulloch 1911) -- (Kuiter 1993:206 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:607 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:194 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Bray & Paxton 2006:1276 [ref. 29093], Mooi 2008:593 [ref. 30652], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus elongatus (McCulloch 1911). Pempheridae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: southern New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

erythraea, Pempheris Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:398 [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea [Al-Qusayr, Egypt, ca. 26°06'N 34°17'E]. No types known. Syntypes: (2) SMNS 3498 (2). Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:18 [ref. 14246]. Appeared in key as "P. erythrea, nob. (mangula, Kl.)." Based on Pempheris mangula (non Cuvier 1829) of Klunzinger 1871:469 [ref. 2622]. •Synonym of Pempheris mangula Cuvier 1829 -- (Dor 1984:166 [ref. 29757], Koeda et al. 2014:309 [ref. 33297]). •Valid as Pempheris erythraea Kossmann & Räuber 1877 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:105 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris erythraea Kossmann & Räuber 1877. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. IUCN (2020): Not assessed. Habitat: marine.

familia, Pempheris Koeda [K.] & Motomura [H.] 2017:[2], Figs. 1-3 [Ichthyological Research v. 65 (no. 1); ref. 35326] Off Ototojima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan, 27°08'N, 142°10'E, depth 16 meters. Holotype: KAUM-I 74713. Paratypes: NSMT. •Valid as Pempheris familia Koeda & Motomura 2017. Current status: Valid as Pempheris familia Koeda & Motomura 2017. Pempheridae. Distribution: Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Habitat: marine.

flavicycla, Pempheris flavicycla Randall [J. E.], Satapoomin [U.] & Alpermann [T. J.] in Randall, Bogorodsky, Alpermann, Satapoomin, Mooi & Mal 2014:4, Figs. 3-6 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation 2013 (v. 9); ref. 33103] Mafia Island, Chole Islands, Chole Bay, Tanzania, depth 0-2 meters. Holotype: BPBM 17633. Paratypes: BPBM, SAIAB, USNM, ZSI/CLT. •Valid as Pempheris flavicycla, subspecies flavicycla Randall, Bogorodsky & Alpermann, et al. 2014. •Valid as Pempheris flavicycla Randall, Bogorodsky & Alpermarr 2014 -- (Mooi & Randall 2014:389, 395 [ref. 33215]). •Synonym of Pempheris adusta Bleeker 1877 -- (Koeda et al. 2014:303 [ref. 33297]). •Valid as Pempheris flavicycla Randall, Satapoomin & Alpermann 2014 -- (Randall & Bineesh 2014:25 [ref. 33266], Randall et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33585], Randall & Victor 2014:82 [ref. 33616], Randall & Victor 2015:6 [ref. 34131], Pinheiro et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34187], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:507 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris flavicycla Randall, Satapoomin & Alpermann 2014. Pempheridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: East Africa, Socotra and Seychelles east to Myanmar and Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

gasparinii, Pempheris Pinheiro [H. T.], Bernardi [G.] & Rocha [L. A.] 2016:108, Figs. 1-2 [ZooKeys No. 561; ref. 34187] Trindade Island, Espírito Santo, Brazil, 20°30'S, 29°20'W, depth 1 meter. Holotype: CIUFES 2432. Paratypes: CAS, CIUFES, ZUEC PIS. •Valid as Pempheris gasparinii Pinheiro, Bernardi & Rocha 2016. Current status: Valid as Pempheris gasparinii Pinheiro, Bernardi & Rocha 2016. Pempheridae. Distribution: Trindade Island, Brazil. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Pempherichthys Klunzinger [C. B.] 1871:470 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 21; ref. 2622] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Lectotype: BMNH 1871.7.15.35. Paralectotypes: SMNS 1752 (1), ZMB 8007 (1). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:15 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:52 [ref. 29864]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Bogorodsky 2016:10 [ref. 34332]. •Synonym of Parapriacanthus ransonneti Steindachner 1870 -- (Heemstra 1986:669 [ref. 5660], Randall 1995:244 [ref. 22896]). •Valid as Parapriacanthus guentheri (Klunzinger 1871) -- (Dor 1984:165 [ref. 29757], DiBattista et al. 2015:20 [ref. 35706], Randall & Bogorodsky 2016:10 [ref. 34332], Golani & Fricke 2018:105 [ref. 36273], Zajonz et al. 2019:81 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus guentheri (Klunzinger 1871). Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra. Habitat: marine.

hadra, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:27, Fig. 14 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Kaafu Atoll, rocky wall of swimming pool opposite power station, Republic of Maldives, 4°10.180'N, 73°30.800'E. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 187537. •Valid as Pempheris hadra Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris hadra Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Maldives. Habitat: marine.

heemstraorum, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:29, Fig. 15 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Rodrigues, Mascarene Islands, 19.6509°S, 63.4297°, depth 4-7 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 69487. •Valid as Pempheris heemstraorum Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris heemstraorum Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Mascarene Islands. Habitat: marine.

hollemani, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:30, Fig. 16 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Anosy Region, Fort Dauphin, Libanona Beach, Madagascar, 25.5166°S, 32.6833°E. Holotype: SAIAB 200564. Paratype: SAIAB. •Valid as Pempheris hollemani Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:230 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris hollemani Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Endemic to southern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

ibo, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:31, Figs. 17-18 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Ibo Island, Mozambique, 12.3333°S, 40.6166°E. Holotype: SAIAB 191483. Paratypes: BPBM, SAIAB. •Valid as Pempheris ibo Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris ibo Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Mozambique and South Africa. Habitat: marine.

itoi, Pempheris Fowler [H. W.] 1931:61, Fig. 7 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 100, v. 11; ref. 1407] Tanakeke Island, Flores Sea, Indonesia. Holotype: USNM 89994. Paratypes: USNM 122597 (2). •Valid as Pempheris itoi Fowler 1931. Current status: Valid as Pempheris itoi Fowler 1931. Pempheridae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Pempheris Döderlein [L.] in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:125 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 20 (no. 15) (for 14 June 1883); ref. 20490] Tokyo, Japan. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1891.5.26.7-8 (2); NMW 76727-28 (2, 3); ZMH 4250 (2). Type catalog: Wilkens & Dohse 1993:418 [ref. 21161]. Species described in more detail in Steindachner & Döderlein 1883:29 [ref. 4247]. •Valid as Pempheris japonica Döderlein 1883 -- (Hayashi in Masuda et al. 1984:165 [ref. 6441], Kohno 1986:141 [ref. 22519], Mooi 1998:158 [ref. 24167], Nakabo 2000:878 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2000:179 [ref. 25987], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Nakabo 2002:878 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:352, 623 [ref. 26218], Motomura et al. 2010:131 [ref. 31256], Koeda et al. 2010:74 [ref. 32427] as japonicus, Koeda et al. 2010:80 [ref. 32428] as japonicus, Koeda et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32431], Koeda et al. 2015:275 [ref. 35336], Koeda 2017:6 [ref. 37096], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326], Kwun et al. 2017:142 [ref. 37287], Kim et al. 2020:139 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:78 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris japonica Döderlein 1883. Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: southern China and Taiwan to Philippines, north to Korea and southern Sea of Japan (Korea, Japan). Habitat: marine.

klunzingeri, Pempheris McCulloch [A. R.] 1911:47 [Biological Results Endeavour [v. 1] (pt 1); ref. 2936] King George Sound, Western Australia, 35°03'S, 117°57'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2559. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:15 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:52 [ref. 29864]. Replacement name for Pempheris muelleri Klunzinger 1880, preoccupied by Pempheris muelleri Poey 1860. •Valid as Pempheris klunzingeri McCulloch 1911 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:609 [ref. 22532], Mooi & Jubb 1996:128 [ref. 21271], Kuiter 1997:196 [ref. 25488], Mooi 1998:158 [ref. 24167], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Bray & Paxton 2006:1277 [ref. 29093], Mooi 2008:594 [ref. 30652], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Replacement Name. Current status: Valid as Pempheris klunzingeri McCulloch 1911. Pempheridae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

kruppi, Pempheris Randall [J. E.], Victor [B. C.] & Aideed [M. S.] in Randall & Victor 2015:33, Figs. 19-20 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Ras Belhaf, Gulf of Aden, Yemen, 13°58.361'N, 48°11.743'E, depth 8 meters. Holotype: SMF 35711. Paratypes: BPBM, NHCY-P, SMF, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris kruppi Randall, Victor & Aideed 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris kruppi Randall, Victor & Aideed 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Yemen and Socotra Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

kuriamuria, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:35, Figs. 21-22 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] South coast, Ras Hamar, Oman, 16°54'44.3"N, 53°47'25.9"E. Holotype: CAS 236521. Paratype: BPBM. •Valid as Pempheris kuriamuria Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris kuriamuria Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Oman. Habitat: marine.

kwazulu, Parapriacanthus Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] 2016:13, Fig. 12 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 20; ref. 34332] KwaZulu-Natal, Park Rynie, South Africa, 30°18.074'S, 30°49.254'E, depth 38 meters. Holotype: BPBM 41244. Paratypes: BPBM, SAIAB. •Valid as Parapriacanthus kwazulu Randall & Bogorodsky 2016. Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus kwazulu Randall & Bogorodsky 2016. Pempheridae. Distribution: KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Habitat: marine.

leiolepis, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:37, Fig. 23 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Chumbe Island, Zanzibar, 6.1666°S, 39.1833°E. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 200715. •Valid as Pempheris leiolepis Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris leiolepis Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Zanzibar. Habitat: marine.

lineatus, Pempheris Ogilby [J. D.] 1885:447 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 10 (pt 2); ref. 3262] Shark Reef, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS B.7334. Original adjective should have been lineata. •Synonym of Pempheris multiradiata Klunzinger 1879 -- (Bray & Paxton 2006:1278 [ref. 29093]). Current status: Synonym of Pempheris multiradiata Klunzinger 1879. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Pempheris Macleay [W.] 1881:516 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 2869] King George Sound, Western Australia; Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.16327-001 [ex MAMU F503] (2). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:207 [ref. 19518]. •Synonym of Pempheris multiradiata Klunzinger 1879 -- (Bray & Paxton 2006:1278 [ref. 29093]). Current status: Synonym of Pempheris multiradiata Klunzinger 1879. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

malabarica, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mahé and Malabar, India. Syntypes: MNHN A-0219 (1), A-0417 (1), B-2511 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:165 [ref. 20718]. •Valid as Pempheris malabarica Cuvier 1831 -- (Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Randall & Bineesh 2014:27 [ref. 33266], Randall et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33585], Psomadakis et al. 2015:287 [ref. 34104], Randall & Victor 2015:5 [ref. 34131], Psomadakis et al. 2020:508 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris malabarica Cuvier 1831. Pempheridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Oman and Pakistan east to Thailand and Cambodia. Habitat: marine.

mangula, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] 1829:195 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Coromandel coast, Visakhapatnum, India. Neotype: ZSI/CLT 2489. "Paraneotypes": BPBM 41079 (1), ZSI/CLT 2490 (3). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:165 [ref. 20718]. Neotype selected by Randall & Bineesh 2014:30 [ref. 33266] but a neotype was also selected by Koeda et al. 2014:309 [ref. 33297] as BPBM 41095. Available from footnote as, "P. mangula, N., Russel, 114". Also appeared in Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:304 [ref. 4881]. •Valid as Pempheris mangula Cuvier 1829 -- (Heemstra 1986:669 [ref. 5660], Fricke 1999:321 [ref. 24106], Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Jawad & Koeda 2013:1 [ref. 32729], Randall & Bineesh 2014:30 [ref. 33266], Koeda et al. 2014:309 [ref. 33297], Randall et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33585] not Red Sea, Randall & Victor 2015:6 [ref. 34131], Barik et al. 2020:198 [ref. 37824]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris mangula Cuvier 1829. Pempheridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India (revised on ref. 33266). But Red Sea and Indian Ocean [ref. 33297]. Not Red Sea (ref. 33585). Habitat: marine.

marei, Parapriacanthus Fourmanoir [P.] 1971:498, Fig. 7 [not 6] [Cahiers O. R. S. T. O. M. (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Série Océanographie v. 9 (no. 4); ref. 7673] Maré Island, Loyauté Islands, depth 1.5 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN. •Valid as Parapriacanthus marei Fourmanoir 1971 -- (Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Randall 2005:302 [ref. 28239], Allen & Erdmann 2012:512 [ref. 31980]). Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus marei Fourmanoir 1971. Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Loyalty Islands, Vanuatu and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

marisrubri, Pempheris flavicycla Randall [J. E.], Bogorodsky [S. V.] & Alpermann [T. J.] in Randall, Bogorodsky, Alpermann, Satapoomin, Mooi & Mal 2014:9, Figs. 7-9 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation 2013 (v. 9); ref. 33103] Saudi Arabia, Ragbigh, Red Sea, 22°42'35"N, 39°01"19"E, depth 10-12 meters. Holotype: ZMF 33630. Paratypes: BPBM, CAS, KAUMM, SMF, USNM (if valid). •Valid as Pempheris flavicycla, subspecies marisrubri Randall, Bogorodsky & Alpermann 2014 -- (DiBattista et al. 2015:21 [ref. 35706], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[16] 254 [ref. 36492]). •Synonym of Pempheris flavicycla Randall, Bogorodsky & Alpermann 2013 -- (Randall & Bineesh 2014: 25 [ref. 33266]). •Synonym of Pempheris adusta Bleeker 1788 -- (Koeda et al. 2014:303 [ref. 33297]). •Synonym of Pempheris erythraea Kossmann & Räuber 1877 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:105 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pempheris erythraea Kossmann & Räuber 1877. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

megalops, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:38, Fig. 24 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] La Digue, North Point, Seychelles, depth 0-1 meter. Holotype (unique): BPBM 41063. •Valid as Pempheris megalops Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris megalops Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

mexicana, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:308 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Acapulco, Mexico. Holotype: MNHN A-0241 [ex ZMB]. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:166 [ref. 20718]. Also appeared in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 31 (fig. 2) (opp. p. 179) [ref. 1908] •Synonym of Pempheris schomburgkii Müller & Troschel 1848. Current status: Synonym of Pempheris schomburgkii Müller & Troschel 1848. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

micromma, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:39, Figs. 25-26 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] South coast, Rahah Bay, Oman, 16°57'N, 54°49'12"E, depth 0-1.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 41157. Other material: (15 juveniles) believed to be the same species. •Valid as Pempheris micromma Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris micromma Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Oman. Habitat: marine.

molucca, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] 1829:195 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: MNHN A-0217 (1) Jakarta (coll. Renard), ?MNHN A-0220 (1) Molucca Islands [Bauchot's holotype]; ?RMNH 1483 (1) Moluccas. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:166 [ref. 20718] as holotype and paratypes. Available from footnote as, "P. molucca, N., Renard, I, xv, 85; et Valent., no. 46." ('Ikan toetetoe' of Valentyn 1726:360, fig. 46 [ref. 30358].). Spelled moluca by Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:306 [ref. 4881]. •Mention -- (Dor 1984:166 [ref. 29757]). •Possible synonym of Pempheris mangula Cuvier 1829 -- (Heemstra 1986:669 [ref. 5660]). •Valid as Pempheris molucca Cuvier 1829 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:391 [ref. 27969] as moluca, Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Koeda et al. 2014:311 [ref. 33297], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 20 [ref. 38321]). •A nomen dubium -- (Randall et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33585]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris molucca Cuvier 1829. Pempheridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

muelleri, Pempheris Klunzinger [C. B.] 1879:256 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 22); ref. 18913] King George Sound, Western Australia, 35°03'S, 117°57'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2559. Type catalog: Fricke 1992:15 [ref. 20296], Fricke 1995:17 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:52 [ref. 29864]. Name appeared as Mülleri in original. Also appeared in Klunzinger 1880:380 [56 of separate], Pl. 6 [ref. 2624]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Pempheris muelleri Poey 1860, replaced by Pempheris klunzingeri McCulloch 1911. •Synonym of Pempheris klunzingeri McCulloch 1911 -- (Bray & Paxton 2006:1277 [ref. 29093]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Pempheris klunzingeri McCulloch 1911. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

muelleri, Pempheris Poey [F.] 1860:203 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes and/or Poey specimens: MCZ 17318 (2), NMW 78663 (1), USNM 4721 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:195 [ref. 22926] wrongly with a holotype. Originally as mülleri. •Synonym of Pempheris schomburgkii Müller & Troschel 1848 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:273 [ref. 25013] as mulleri). Current status: Synonym of Pempheris schomburgkii Müller & Troschel 1848. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

multiradiatus, Pempheris Klunzinger [C. B.] 1879:257 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 22); ref. 18913] King George Sound, Western Australia. Syntypes: NMW 78547 (1); SMNS 2557 (3), 2676 (4), 24577 [ex SMNS 2676] (1, skeleton, not found). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:15 [ref. 20296], Fricke 2005:52 [ref. 29864] dated 1880. Also appeared in Klunzinger 1880:381 [57 of separate] [ref. 2624]. •Valid as Pempheris multiradiatus Klunzinger 1879 -- (Kuiter 1993:207 [ref. 23929]). •Valid as Pempheris multiradiata Klunzinger 1879 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:610 [ref. 22532], Mooi & Jubb 1996:128 [ref. 21271], Kuiter 1997:198 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Bray & Paxton 2006:1277 [ref. 29093], Mooi 2008:595 [ref. 30652], Koeda et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32431], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris multiradiata Klunzinger 1879. Pempheridae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

muscat, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:40, Fig. 27 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Gulf of Oman, Cat Island, Oman, 23°35'8"N, 58°36'34"E, depth 5-6 meters. Holotype: BPBM 35845. Paratypes: BMNH 1889.4.15.35-38, BPBM. •Valid as Pempheris muscat Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris muscat Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Oman. Habitat: marine.

nesogallica, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:306 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Lectotype: MNHN B-2514. Paralectotypes: MNHN A-0222 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:166-167 [ref. 20718]. Lectotype desigated by Koeda et al. 2014:315 [ref. 33297]. •Synonym of Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier 1831 -- (Fricke 1999:322 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Pempheris nesogallica Cuvier 1831 -- (Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:327 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Koeda et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32431], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706] as aff. nesogallica, Mooi & Randall 2014:396 [ref. 33215], Koeda et al. 2014:315 [ref. 33297], Randall et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33585] not Red Sea, Randall & Victor 2014:82 [ref. 33616], Randall & Victor 2015:7 [ref. 34131], Fricke et al. 2018:231 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris nesogallica Cuvier 1831. Pempheridae. Distribution: South Africa to Madagascar and Mascarenes. Habitat: marine.

nyctereutes, Pempheris Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1902:339, Fig. 14 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1289); ref. 2447] Hokuto, Taipei City [Hokoto], Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 42902 [orig. no. 286] (apparently lost). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]. Holotype apparently lost according to Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Pempheris nyctereutes Jordan & Evermann 1902 -- (Hayashi in Masuda et al. 1984:165 [ref. 6441], Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:879 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:879 [ref. 26193], Koeda et al. 2010:74 [ref. 32427], Koeda et al. 2010:81 [ref. 32428], Ho & Shao 2011:48 [ref. 31432], Koeda et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32431], Koeda et al. 2015:275 [ref. 35336], Koeda in Kimura et al. 2018:195 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris nyctereutes Jordan & Evermann 1902. Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Vietnam east to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

orbis, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:42, Fig. 28 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Gulf of Aqaba, Dahab, Red Sea. Holotype: SMNHTAU P.5284. Paratypes: HUJ. •Valid as Pempheris orbis Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:105 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris orbis Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

ornata, Pempheris Mooi [R. D.] & Jubb [R. N.] 1996:120, Figs. 1-3, 4a, 5 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 48 (no. 2); ref. 21271] Rapid Bay, 35°31'09"S, 138°11'05"E, South Australia, depth 9.1 meters. Holotype: AMS I.33831-001. Paratypes: (19) AMS I.33831-002 (1); BMNH 1995.7.17.1 (1); MPM 31496 (2); NMV A15835 (4); NTM S.14104-001 (1); ROM 69303 (1); USNM 337545 (2); WAM P.30996-001 (2). Additional material: (20) AMS I.220221-002 (1), I.20186-001 (2); I.20247-013 (3); WAM P.27916-001 (2), P.28300-014 (11). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:30 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Pempheris ornata Mooi & Jubb 1996 -- (Kuiter 1997:198 [ref. 25488], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Bray & Paxton 2006:1278 [ref. 29093], Mooi 2008:595 [ref. 30652], Koeda et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32431], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris ornata Mooi & Jubb 1996. Pempheridae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean: Western Australia, South Australia. Habitat: marine.

otaitensis, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:304, Pl. 191 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Tahiti, Society Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0927. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:167 [ref. 20718]. Appeared in Lesson 1831:167 [ref. 2776], but with clear citation to Cuvier; date of Lesson uncertain but probably after April 1831, so authorship is changed to Cuvier. Spelled taitensis on Pl. 191. •Synonym of Pempheris oualensis Cuvier 1831 -- (Dor 1984:166 [ref. 29757], Randall et al. 1990:214 [ref. 15987], Fricke 1999:321 [ref. 24106], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:336 [ref. 28867]). •Valid as Pempheris otaitensis [author as Lesson] -- (Randall et al. 1997:214 [ref. 25919], Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:288 [ref. 25191], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830] dated 1830, Randall 2005:302 [ref. 28239] with question). •Valid as Pempheris otaitensis Cuvier 1831 -- (Randall 1999:17 [ref. 25829], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Bray & Paxton 2006:1278 [ref. 29093], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Mooi & Randall 2014:395 [ref. 33215]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris otaitensis Cuvier 1831. Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Tahiti. Habitat: marine.

oualensis, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:299 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Kosrae, Caroline Islands, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-0221. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:167 [ref. 20718]. Also appeared in Lesson 1831:168 [ref. 2776] with description quoted from Cuvier; apparently Lesson appeared after Cuvier's publication so author is Cuvier. •Valid as Pempheris oualensis Cuvier 1831 -- (Dor 1984:166 [ref. 29757], Hayashi in Masuda et al. 1984:165 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:214 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356], Mooi & Jubb 1996:128 [ref. 21271], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:161 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:321 [ref. 24106], Allen 2000:89 [ref. 37268], Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:151 [ref. 25480], Randall & Earle 2000:15 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Lobel & Lobel 2004:72 [ref. 27576], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:302 [ref. 28239], Bray & Paxton 2006:1278 [ref. 29093], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Koeda et al. 2010:72 [ref. 32427], Koeda et al. 2010:81 [ref. 32428], Allen & Erdmann 2012:512 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32431], Larson et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:160 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:97 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:6 [ref. 33988], Koeda et al. 2015:276 [ref. 35336], Koeda et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35333], Koeda 2017:7 [ref. 37096], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326], Fricke et al. 2019:177 [ref. 36673], Koeda in Motomura et al. 2021:38 [ref. 38121]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris oualensis Cuvier 1831. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Line Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to Ryukyu Islands and Ogasawara Islands (Japan), south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

pathirana, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:43, Fig. 29 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Trincomalee District, Koddiyar Pattu, Foul Point, Sri Lanka, 8°31'36"N, 81°19'E, depth 0-2 meters. Holotype: USNM 432500. Paratypes: BPBM, SAIAB, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris pathirana Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris pathirana Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

peza, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:44, Fig. 30 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Ponta do Ouro, Mozambique, 26.833°S, 32.8833°E. Holotype: SAIAB 50637. Paratypes: BPBM, SAIAB. •Valid as Pempheris peza Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris peza Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

poeyi, Pempheris Bean [T. H.] 1885:229 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 8 (no. 516); ref. 14442] Cuba. Holotype (unique): USNM 37184 [ex USNM 4721]. •Valid as Pempheris poeyi Bean 1885 -- (Cervigón 1993:322 [ref. 24474], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:273 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754], Mooi 2003:1661 [ref. 27099], Pinheiro et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34187], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris poeyi Bean 1885. Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

polio, Pempheris Breder [C. M., Jr.] 1927:32, Figs. 15-16 [Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection Yale University v. 1 (art. 1); ref. 635] Isle of Pines, Cuba (or Saddle Rock, Bahamas). Holotype: YPM 182. Paratypes: YPM 183 (1). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:24 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Pempheris schomburgkii Müller & Troschel 1848. Current status: Synonym of Pempheris schomburgkii Müller & Troschel 1848. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

pseudelongatus, Parapriacanthus Garafino [S.] & Roscalo [P. I.] 2010:no page number [ ref. 30837] An artificial fake new species and reference and authorship originated by Fishbase -- created for testing purposes, but unfortunately picked up by Google and present on the internet. Pempheridae.

punctulatus, Parapriacanthus Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] 2016:14, Figs. 2B, 13-16 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 20; ref. 34332] Ponta Malongane, Mozambique, 26.7666°S, 32.9000°E. Holotype: SAIAB 201845. Paratypes: BPBM, SAIAB, USNM. •Valid as Parapriacanthus punctulatus Randall & Bogorodsky 2016 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:230 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus punctulatus Randall & Bogorodsky 2016. Pempheridae. Distribution: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and Mozambique to Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar and Saint Brandon's Shoals. Habitat: marine.

rahah, Parapriacanthus Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] 2016:17, Fig. 17 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 20; ref. 34332] South coast of Oman, Rahah Bay, cave in dropoff known as Hole-in-the-Wall, Arabian Sea, 16°57'N, 59°49'E, depth 14 meters. Holotype: BPBM 36324. Paratypes: BPBM, USNM. •Valid as Parapriacanthus rahah Randall & Bogorodsky 2016. Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus rahah Randall & Bogorodsky 2016. Pempheridae. Distribution: Oman. Habitat: marine.

ransonneti, Parapriacanthus Steindachner [F.] 1870:623 [1], Pl. 1 (figs. 1-2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] Nagasaki, Japan. Syntypes: NMW 37101 (1), 38606 (1). On p. 1 of separate. •Valid as Parapriacanthus ransonneti Steindachner 1870 -- (Hayashi in Masuda et al. 1984:165 [ref. 6441], Heemstra 1986:669 [ref. 5660], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:213 [ref. 15987], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356] as ransonnari, Randall 1995:244 [ref. 22896] [not this species], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:194 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:213 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:161 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:320 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:878 [ref. 25182], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Nakabo 2002:878 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:352, 623 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:114 [ref. 27510], Kim & Sasaki 2004:181 [ref. 27983], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:326 [ref. 28072], Bray & Paxton 2006:1276 [ref. 29093], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:130 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:512 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Randall & Bogorodsky 2016:3 [ref. 34332], Koeda et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35333], Koeda 2017:3 [ref. 37096], Motomura et al. 2017:165 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:230 [ref. 35805], Fujiwara et al. 2020:33 [ref. 38631], Sonoyama et al. 2020:77 [ref. 37637], Wada et al. 2021:43 [ref. 38521]). Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus ransonneti Steindachner 1870. Pempheridae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Mozambique Channel, Madagascar and Mascarenes east to Marshall Islands and Fiji, north to southern Sea of Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia, Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Former Red Sea records are now assigned to P. guentheri (Klunzinger 1871). Habitat: marine.

rapa, Pempheris Mooi [R. D.] 1998:155, Fig. 1 [Pacific Science v. 52 (no. 2); ref. 24167] Haurei Bay, Rapa Iti, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 5-10 feet. Holotype: BPBM 12889. Paratypes: AMS I.37829-001 (1), BPBM 37408 (4), MNHN 1997-0057 (1), MPM 31325 (1), ROM 70538 (1), USNM 344109 (1). •Valid as Pempheris rapa Mooi 1998 -- (Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Randall 2005:302 [ref. 28239], Koeda et al. 2013:236 [ref. 32431], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris rapa Mooi 1998. Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Rapa Island. Habitat: marine.

rhomboidea, Pempheris Kossmann [R.] & Räuber [H.] 1877:398, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Verhandlungen des Naturhistorisch-Medizinischen Vereins zu Heidelberg. v. 1; ref. 18432] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMB 9850. Paralectotypes: (2) ZMB 9850 (missing). Spelled rhomboidea in plate caption, in index and in key, rhomboideus in main heading; Pempheris is feminine so rhomboidea is correct. Also appeared in Kossmann & Räuber 1877:18, Pisces Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [ref. 14246] with 2 spellings. Lectotype selected by Koeda et al. 2014:312 [ref. 33297]. •Synonym of Pempheris mangula Cuvier 1829 -- (Dor 1984:166 [ref. 29757] as rhomboideus, Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356], Koeda et al. 2014:309 [ref. 33297]). •Valid as Pempheris rhomboidea Kossmann & Räuber 1877 -- (Randall et al. 2014:388 [ref. 33585], Randall & Victor 2015:6 [ref. 34131], Pinheiro et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34187], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[21] 259 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:105 [ref. 36273], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Zajonz et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36871], Bariche & Fricke 2020:134 [ref. 37515], Golani 2021:60 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:65 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris rhomboidea Kossmann & Räuber 1877. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea; northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

rochai, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:45, Fig. 31 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] South coast, Ras Hamar, Oman, 16°54'N, 53°57'E. Holotype (unique): CAS 236522. •Valid as Pempheris rochai Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris rochai Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Oman. Habitat: marine.

rubricauda, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:46, Fig. 32 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Nosy Be, Nosy Vorona, Madagascar, 13°25'28"S, 48°21'52"E, depth 3 meters. Holotype: MNHN 2015-003. Paratypes: BPBM, URUN. •Valid as Pempheris rubricauda Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Fricke et al. 2018:231 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris rubricauda Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Endemic to northwestern Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

russellii, Pempheris Day [F.] 1888:788 [The fishes of India Suppl.; ref. 1082] Karachi, India; Sind, Pakistan. Syntypes: ZSI F910 (1, figured specimen). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762]. Based on Day's treatment of Pempheris molucca on p. 175, Pl. 42 (fig. 2) (not of Cuvier). Literature sources also added, including "Sparus mangulakutti" Russell 1803:10, Pl. 14 [ref. 13862]. •Synonym of Pempheris mangula Cuvier 1829 -- (Koeda et al. 2014:309 [ref. 33297]). •Valid as Pempheris russellii Day 1888 -- (Randall et al. 2014:377 [ref. 33585], Psomadakis et al. 2015:288 [ref. 34104], Randall & Victor 2015:7 [ref. 34131]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris russellii Day 1888. Pempheridae. Distribution: Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

sarayu, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Bineesh [K. K.] 2014:33, Fig. 12 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 10; ref. 33266] Kerala, Kovalam, 300 meters north of lighthouse, off Raja Hotel, India, 0-7 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 27666. •Valid as Pempheris sarayu Randall & Bineesh 2014 -- (Randall & Victor 2015:6 [ref. 34131]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris sarayu Randall & Bineesh 2014. Pempheridae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: India (1 specimen). Habitat: marine.

sasakii, Liopempheris Jordan [D. S.] & Hubbs [C. L.] 1925:228, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (no. 2); ref. 2486] Toba market, Japan. Holotype: FMNH 58751 [ex CM 7860, not 7861]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:92 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:52 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Pempheris nyctereutes Jordan & Evermann 1902 -- (Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Pempheris sasakii Jordan & Hubbs 1925 -- (Koeda et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32431]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris sasakii Jordan & Hubbs 1925. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

schomburgkii, Pempheris Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] in Schomburgk 1848:669 [15] [The history of Barbados; comprising a geographical description of the island and an account of its geology and natural productions.; ref. 17812] Barbados, West Indies. No types known. Appeared first as above; reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1848:15. •Valid as Pempheris schomburgkii Müller & Troschel 1848 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:191 [ref. 23100] as schomburgki, Cervigón 1993:323 [ref. 24474] as schomburgki, Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221] as schomburgki, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:273 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:163 [ref. 27754] as schomburgki, Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:112 [ref. 26784], Mooi 2003:1661 [ref. 27099], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:89 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:38 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:149 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:454 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:154 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:58 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:20 [ref. 34324], Pinheiro et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34187], Robertson et al. 2016:146 [ref. 34961], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Robertson et al. 2020:160 [ref. 38098], Carvalho-Filho et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:503 [ref. 38945], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris schomburgkii Müller & Troschel 1848. Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

schreineri, Pempheris Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Pempheridae p. 2 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Fernando de Noronha Territory, Brazil. Syntypes: (2) ? MNRJ 2427 (1). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:403 [ref. 12732] as holotype. On p. 214 when continuously paginated. •Possibly valid as Pempheris schreineri Miranda Ribeiro 1915. Current status: Valid as Pempheris schreineri Miranda Ribeiro 1915. Pempheridae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: marine.

schwenkii, Pempheris Bleeker [P.] 1855:314 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 348] Batoe [Batu Islands, Sumatera Utara Province, Indonesia, eastern Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: (2) RMNH 6160 (2). •Valid as Pempheris schwenki Bleeker 1855 -- (Dor 1984:166 [ref. 29757], Heemstra 1986:669 [ref. 5660], Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Pempheris schwenkii Bleeker 1855 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:214 [ref. 15987], Mooi & Jubb 1996:128 [ref. 21271], Allen 1997:144 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:196 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:214 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:161 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:322 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:879 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Nakabo 2002:879 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Shibukawa et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:114 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:18 [ref. 27624], Heemstra et al. 2004:3324 [ref. 27945], Kim & Sasaki 2004:181 [ref. 27983], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:326 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:303 [ref. 28239], Bray & Paxton 2006:1278 [ref. 29093], Fricke et al. 2009:70 [ref. 30213], Motomura et al. 2010:131 [ref. 31256], Koeda et al. 2010:74 [ref. 32427], Koeda et al. 2010:80 [ref. 32428], Allen & Erdmann 2012:513 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32431], Jawad & Koeda 2013:1 [ref. 32729], Fricke et al. 2013:261 [ref. 32706], Larson et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:97 [ref. 33932], Randall & Bineesh 2014:36 [ref. 33266], Randall & Victor 2014:69 [ref. 33616], Koeda et al. 2015:275 [ref. 35336], Koeda et al. 2016:8 [ref. 35354], Koeda 2017:9 [ref. 37096], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326], Kwun et al. 2017:142 [ref. 37287], Fricke et al. 2018:231 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:106 [ref. 36273], Koeda in Kimura et al. 2018:196 [ref. 36460], Barik et al. 2020:198 [ref. 37824], Kim et al. 2020:139 [ref. 39118]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris schwenkii Bleeker 1855. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Mozambique, Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes east to Tonga, north to southern Korea, southern Japan and Ogasawara Islands, south to Western Australia and Queensland (Australia). Habitat: marine.

sergey, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:47, Fig. 33 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Saudi Arabia, Sharm Obhur, in front of Marine Station, Red Sea, 21°42'34"N, 39°05'45.70"E, depth 12-17 meters. Holotype: SMF 35717. Paratypes: BPBM, KAUMM, SMF. •Valid as Pempheris sergey Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:106 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris sergey Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

sharm, Parapriacanthus Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] 2016:18, Figs. 18-19 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 20; ref. 34332] Gulf of Aqaba, southern end of Sinai Peninsula, Sharm el Sheikh, boat pier, Red Sea. Holotype: BPBM 21526. Paratypes: BPBM, USNM. •Valid as Parapriacanthus sharm Randall & Bogorodsky 2016 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[5] 243 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:105 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Parapriacanthus sharm Randall & Bogorodsky 2016. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

shimoni, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:49, Fig. 34 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Shimoni, Kenya, 4.6500°S, 39.8333°E. Holotype: SAIAB 51257. Paratypes: SAIAB, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris shimoni Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris shimoni Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Kenya. Habitat: marine.

shirleen, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:50, Fig. 35 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Egypt, Hurghada, 300 yards north of pier of Institute of Oceanography & Fisheries, Red Sea, 27°16'38"N, 33°47'1"E. Holotype: USNM 402228. Paratype: USNM. •Valid as Pempheris shirleen Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:106 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris shirleen Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

smithorum, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:51, Fig. 36 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Zanzibar, Chumbe Island, Tanzania, 6.1666°S, 39.1833°E. Holotype: SAIAB 51259. Paratypes: BPBM. •Valid as Pempheris smithorum Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris smithorum Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Tanzania. Habitat: marine.

tau, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:52, Fig. 37 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Gulf of Aqaba, east coast of Sinai Peninsula, Nuweiba, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype: HUJ 10979. Paratypes: BPBM, SMNHTAU. •Valid as Pempheris tau Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:106 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris tau Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

ternay, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:53, Fig. 38 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Mahé, Ternay Marine National Park, Cape Matoopa, southern end, Seychelles, 4°39.03'S, 55°22.71'E, depth 6 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 77935. •Valid as Pempheris ternay Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris ternay Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Seychelles. Habitat: marine.

tilman, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:54, Fig. 39 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Aqaba, Jordan, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Holotype: SMF 35779 [ex. SMF 23763]. Paratypes: BPBM. •Valid as Pempheris tilman Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:106 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris tilman Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

tiran, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:55, Fig. 40 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Saudi Arabia, Strait of Tiran, Red Sea, 28°11.051'N, 34°38.372'E, depth 6 meters. Holotype: CAS 236818. Paratypes: BPBM. •Valid as Pempheris tiran Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:106 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris tiran Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Northern Red sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

tominagai, Pempheris Koeda [K.], Yoshino [T.] & Tachihara [K.] in Koeda, Yoshino, Imai & Tachihara 2014:317, Fig. 7 [Zootaxa 3793 (no. 3); ref. 33297] Sharm el-Sheikh, 34°17'41"N, 27°51'29"E, Egypt. Holotype: NSMT-P 106826. Paratypes: BMNH 1982.9.9.1 (1); NSMT-P 106827 (1), 106828 (2); SAIAB 77935 (1), 97406 (2), 62146 (1), 75871 (5); SMNS 21172 (1); URM-P 46567 (1), 46568 (2), •Valid as Pempheris tominagai Koeda, Yoshino & Tachihara 2014 -- (Randall et al. 2014:387 [ref. 33585], Randall & Victor 2015:10 [ref. 34131], Pinheiro et al. 2016:112 [ref. 34187], Golani & Fricke 2018:106 [ref. 36273], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris tominagai Koeda, Yoshino & Tachihara 2014. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

touea, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] 1829:195 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Indian seas. No types known. Available from footnote as, "Pempheris touea, N., Sparus argenteus, J. White, app., 267, ou Kurtus argenteus, Bl., Schn., 164." •Synonym of Pempheris compressa (Shaw 1790). Current status: Synonym of Pempheris compressa (Shaw 1790). Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

trinco, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:57, Fig. 42 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Trincomalee, Dutch Point, Sri Lanka, depth 5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 18771. Paratypes: BPBM, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris trinco Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris trinco Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

ufuagari, Pempheris Koeda [K.], Yoshino [T.] & Tachihara [K.] 2013:232, Fig. 1a [Zootaxa 3609 (no. 2); ref. 32431] 25°48'45"N, 131°13'59"E, Kameike port, Minami Daito Island, Daito Islands, Japan. Holotype: NSMT-P 108633. Paratypes: BPBM 35182 (1), 35286 (1); NSMT-P 35498 (1), 108634 (1); URM-P 46315-46318 (4), 46322 (1). •Valid as Pempheris ufuagari Koeda, Yoshino & Tachihara 2013 -- (Mooi & Randall 2014:395 [ref. 33215], Koeda et al. 2015:275 [ref. 35336], Koeda 2017:11 [ref. 37096], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris ufuagari Koeda, Yoshino & Tachihara 2013. Pempheridae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Daito Islands and Ogasawara Islands (Japan). Habitat: marine.

umbra, Catalufa Snyder [J. O.] 1911:528 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 40 (no. 1836); ref. 4152] Misaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): USNM 68229. Types: Shinohara & Williams 2006:558 [ref. 31656]. •Synonym of Pempheris japonica Döderlein 1883 -- (Shinohara & Williams 2006:558 [ref. 31656] as japonicus). Current status: Synonym of Pempheris japonica Döderlein 1883. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

unwini, Pempheris Ogilby [J. D.] 1889:60, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney No. 2 (art. no. 3); ref. 18489] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1478. •Synonym of Parapriacanthus ransonneti Steindachner 1870 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:92 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:213 [ref. 15987], Randall 1995:244 [ref. 22896]). Current status: Synonym of Parapriacanthus ransonneti Steindachner 1870. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

vanicolensis, Pempheris Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:305 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN A-223 (now 1), A-0418 (now 1), B-2512 (1), B-2513 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:167 [ref. 20718]. •Valid as Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier 1831 -- Some records to 1914 are misidetificationa. (Dor 1984:166 [ref. 29757], Winterbottom et al. 1989:41 [ref. 13251], Francis 1993:162 [ref. 25479], Goren & Dor 1994:46 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:244 [ref. 22896], Kuiter 1997:196 [ref. 25488], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Fricke 1999:322 [ref. 24106], Mooi in Randall & Lim 2000:622 [ref. 25122], Allen 2000:105 [ref. 25868], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:103 [ref. 26753], Allen & Adrim 2003:41 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S111 [ref. 27377], Adrim et al. 2004:122 [ref. 27715], Golani 2005:47 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:91 [ref. 29533], Imamura 2009:177 [ref. 30434], Koeda et al. 2010:78 [ref. 32428], Allen & Erdmann 2012:513 [ref. 31980], Koeda et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32431], Fricke et al. 2014:97 [ref. 33932], Randall et al. 2014:1 [ref. 33103], Koeda et al. 2014:315 [ref. 33297], Koeda et al. 2015:275 [ref. 35336], Koeda et al. 2016:50 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:230 [ref. 35805], Fricke et al. 2019:178 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:508 [ref. 37272], Kovačić et al. 2021:89 [ref. 39014]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris vanicolensis Cuvier 1831. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Maldives east to Samoa, north to Philippines and Ryukyu Islands (southern Japan), south to Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. New locality [On ref. 33103]: west to Papua New Guinea, Raja Ampat Islands, Bali, Sumatra and Phuket (Thailand). Now Western Pacific and Andaman Islands [ref. 33297]. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:58, Fig. 43 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Saudi Arabia, off Al Lith, Red Sea, 20°15.111'N, 39°57.825'E, depth 3 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 33629. •Valid as Pempheris viridis Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Golani & Fricke 2018:106 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris viridis Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

wilsoni, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:60, Figs. 45-48 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Gulf of Oman, Fahal Island, Oman, 23°40'52"N, 58°30'11.3"E. Holotype (unique): CAS 236523. •Valid as Pempheris wilsoni Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris wilsoni Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Oman. Habitat: marine.

woodlarkensis, Pempheris Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:448 [170] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 170 of reprint. Pempheridae. Habitat: marine.

xanthomma, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:62, Figs. 49-50 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Gulf of Aden, Ras Majdaha, Yemen, 14°00.868'N, 48°25.572'E. Holotype: SMF 35712. Paratypes: BPBM, NHCY-P, SMF, USNM. •Valid as Pempheris xanthomma Randall & Victor 2015. Current status: Valid as Pempheris xanthomma Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Gulf of Aden, Yemen. Habitat: marine.

xanthopterus, Pempheris Tominaga [Y.] 1963:286, Figs. 12-13 [Journal of the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo Section IV Zoology v. 10 (pt 1); ref. 3708] Manazuri, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: ZUMT 51967. Paratypes: (over 300) ZUMT. Treating the specific name as an adjective, the name should be xanthoptera. •Synonym of Pempheris schwenkii Bleeker 1855 -- (Kim & Sasaki 2004:182 [ref. 27983]). •Valid as Pempheris xanthoptera Tominaga 1963 -- (Hayashi in Masuda et al. 1984:165 [ref. 6441], Kohno 1986:135 [ref. 22519], Koeda et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32431]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris xanthoptera Tominaga 1963. Pempheridae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ypsilychnus, Pempheris Mooi [R. D.] & Jubb [R. N.] 1996:123, Figs. 4b, 7-8 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 48 (no. 2); ref. 21271] Broome, 17°59'S, 122°11'E, Western Australia, depth 1 meter. Holotype: WAM P.28059-019. Paratypes: AMS I.15557-187 (7); CSIRO C 3443 (1); MPM 31024 (4); NTM 13227-001 (1); SMNS 14293 (2); USNM 337546 (1); WAM P.28059-023 (1), P.28416-019 (1). Additional material: (44) AMS (5 lots, 13), CSIRO (4 lots, 4), NTM (1 lot, 1), WAM (13 lots, 24). Type catalog: Fricke 2005:52 [ref. 29864], Moore et al. 2008:30 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Pempheris ypsilychnus Mooi & Jubb 1996 -- (Mooi 1998:158 [ref. 24167], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:264 [ref. 25841], Hutchins 2001:35 [ref. 25847], Mooi 2001:3204 [ref. 26110], Bray & Paxton 2006:1279 [ref. 29093], Koeda et al. 2013:237 [ref. 32431] as ypsilychna, Larson et al. 2013:152 [ref. 32988], Koeda & Motomura 2017:[4] [ref. 35326] as ypsilychna). Current status: Valid as Pempheris ypsilychnus Mooi & Jubb 1996. Pempheridae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

zajonzi, Pempheris Randall [J. E.] & Victor [B. C.] 2015:64, Fig. 51 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 18; ref. 34131] Socotra Archipelago, Socotra Island, Ras Qatanin, 150 meters off coast on shipwreck, Yemen, 12°20'03"N, 53°34'26"E, depth 2-4 meters. Holotype: SMF 35713. Paratypes: SMF. •Valid as Pempheris zajonzi Randall & Victor 2015 -- (Zajonz et al. 2019:82 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pempheris zajonzi Randall & Victor 2015. Pempheridae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Socotra. Habitat: marine.


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