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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Prochilodontidae: [ 52 ] records


affinis, Prochilodus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1875:128 [2] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Rio das Velhas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Lectotype: ZMUC 81. Paralectotypes: ZMUC 77 (1) Rio das Velhas, ZMUC 78 (1) Ribeirao do Mato, ?ZMUC 79 (1, skel.) Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:48 [ref. 9588]. Also described in Lütken 1875:189 (and p. X of summary) [ref. 19674]. Castro & Vari 2004:99 [ref. 28606] provide information on type specimens; lectotype selected on p. 99. •Synonym of Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes 1850 -- (Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:96 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes 1850. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

amazonensis, Prochilodus Fowler [H. W.] 1906:316, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58; ref. 1373] Lower Amazon River, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21350. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Semaprochilodus amazonensis (Fowler 1906) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:11 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine 1841) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:152 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine 1841). Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Prochilodus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:63, Pl. 38 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Rio Desiderio, Municipio de Sao Desiderio, near Barreiras, Bahia, Brazil. Neotype: MZUSP 28778. As Pacu argenteus on plate. See Castro & Vari 2004:87-88 [ref. 28606] for information on original description and type locality; neotype designated by Castro & Vari 2004:88 [ref. 28606]. Original type locality (Rio São Francisco, at Januária, 15°29’37''S, 44°21’25''W, Minas Gerais, Brazil) see Koerber 2021:88 [ref. 38172]. •Valid as Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:54 [ref. 23791], Britski 2001:20 [ref. 26046], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061] with author as Agassiz, López et al. 2003:12 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Castro & Vari 2003:85 [ref. 28606] with author as Agassiz, Silva et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37809], Koerber 2021:88 [ref. 38172]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South America: São Francisco River basin (Brazil); introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Prochilodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:71 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Not an original description. Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

asper, Prochilodus Lütken [C. F.] 1875:226 [37] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1874 (nos 12-16); ref. 17563] Venezuela [probably Lake Maracaibo system]. Lectotype: ZMUC 73. Paralectotypes: ?NMW 56635 (1), ZMUC 72 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:48 [ref. 9588]. On p. 37 of separate. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:135 [ref. 28606]. •Synonym of Prochilodus reticulatus Valenciennes 1850 -- (Castro & Vari 2003:132 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus reticulatus Valenciennes 1850. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

banana, Pacu Natterer [J.] in Kner 1859:158 [22] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] Cujabá, Brazil. On p. 22 of separate. Not available, name mentioned in passing. Nomen Nudum. Prochilodontidae.

beani, Prochilodus Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:5, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Truando, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 1662. Paratypes: USNM 306593 [ex USNM 1662] (1). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:34 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Prochilodus magdalenae Steindachner 1879 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:106 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus magdalenae Steindachner 1879. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

beni, Prochilodus Pearson [N. E.] 1924:29, Pl. 9 (fig. 2) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Cachuela Esperanza, Amazon system, Bolivia. Holotype (unique): CAS 58881 [ex IU 17288]. •Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:124 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

binotatus, Prochilodus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:260, Pl. 29 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Rio Branco, South America. No types known. •Status uncertain, apparently a composite -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:156 [ref. 28606]). Nomen Dubium. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

brama, Prochilodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:82 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Rio Tocantins, at São João das Duas Barras, Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-1066 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:35 [ref. 19577]. Details of original locality from Castro & Vari 2004:151 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Semaprochilodus brama (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:147 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Valid as Semaprochilodus brama (Valenciennes 1850). Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Tocantins and Xingu River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevis, Prochilodus Steindachner [F.] 1875:536 [38], Pl. 6 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 70 (1. Abth.); ref. 18771] Bahia, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 56638. Paralectotypes: NMW 56636 (4). MCZ 20160 (8) probably are not types. On p. 38 of separate. For information on types and lectotype designation see Castro & Vari 2003:92-93 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Prochilodus brevis Steindachner 1875 -- (Torelli et al. 1997:70 [ref. 24612], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:89 [ref. 28606], Petry et al. 2016:303 [ref. 34966], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684], Silva et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus brevis Steindachner 1875. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South America: coastal rivers and tributaries of São Francisco River (northeastern Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

britskii, Prochilodus Castro [R. M. C.] 1993:58, Fig. [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 106 (no. 1); ref. 21063] Upriver from fall, about 10°36'S, 58°04'W, north of city of Juará, Rio Apiacá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 41519. Paratypes: MZUSP 38856-61 (6, 38856 c&s). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:492 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Prochilodus britskii Castro 1993 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:94 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus britskii Castro 1993. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Apiacá River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

caudifasciatus, Prochilodus Starks [E. C.] 1906:773, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 30 (no. 1468); ref. 10101] Río Perené at Perené, east slope of Andes, Peru. Holotype (unique): USNM 53473. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:34 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Prochilodus caudifasciatus Starks 1906 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:11 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:124 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cearaensis, Prochilodus Steindachner [F.] 1911:329 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 48 (no. 15) (for 22 June 1911); ref. 14815] Rio Ipú, Ceará State, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 56640:2. Paralectotypes: NMW 56639 (2) 56640 (1). Species originally spelled cearáënsis. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:93 [ref. 28606]. •Synonym of Prochilodus brevis Steindachner 1875 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:89 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus brevis Steindachner 1875. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

cephalotes, Prochilodus Cope [E. D.] 1878:686 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Nauta, Peruvian Amazon, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21211. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Prochilodus cephalotes Cope 1878 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:11 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:124 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

corimbata, Salmo Natterer [J.] in Kner 1859:146 [10] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] Ipanema, Brazil. No types known. On p. 10 of separate. •Synonym of Prochilodus vimboides Kner 1859 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:140 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus vimboides Kner 1859. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

costatus, Prochilodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:79 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Rio São Francisco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8636 (dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:35 [ref. 19577]. •Valid as Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes 1850 -- (Casatti & Castro 1998:232 [ref. 23663], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:96 [ref. 28606], Silva et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus costatus Valenciennes 1850. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South America: São Francisco River basin (Brazil); introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

dobulinus, Prochilodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:81 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Rio Araguaia, Brazil. No types known. •Status uncertain -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:152 [ref. 28606]). Nomen Dubium. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Prochilodus Ahl [E.] 1937:136 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1937 (nos 1-3); ref. 15264] Cauca near Caceres. Holotype (unique): NMW 68274. Replacement name for Prochilodus steindachneri Eigenmann 1922, preoccupied by Prochilodus steindachneri Fowler 1906. •Synonym of Prochilodus magdalenae Steindachner 1879 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:106 [ref. 28606]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus magdalenae Steindachner 1879. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

harttii, Prochilodus Steindachner [F.] 1875:533 [35], Pl. 5 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 70 (1. Abth.); ref. 18771] Rio Jequitinhonha, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 56645. Paralectotypes: (several) NMW 56646-48 (4, 1, 1). On p. 35 of separate. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2004:103 [ref. 28606]. Name spelled hartii on p. 533 and p. 534, but harttii on p. 538 of Steindachner 1875 [ref. 18771]; named for Charles Frederick Hartt, naturalist of the Thayer Expedition. Correction mandatory on ICZN Art. 32.5.1 as harttii (C. Scharpf, personal communication, 17 July 2015). •Valid as Prochilodus harttii Steindachner 1875 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061] as hartii, Castro & Vari 2003:101 [ref. 28606] as hartii, Silva et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus harttii Steindachner 1875. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South America: Pardo and Jequitinhonha River basins (eastern Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

humeralis, Prochilodus Günther [A.] 1860:419 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1859 (pt 3) (art. 7); ref. 18210] Western Andes of Ecuador. Lectotype: BMNH 1860.6.16.197. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1860.6.16.198-199 (2). Ref. 18210 published in 1859 and 1860, p. 419 in 1860. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:76 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther 1860) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:32 [ref. 37559] as Ichthyolephas humeralis, Ortega & Vari 1986:11 [ref. 9708], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:73 [ref. 28606], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745] as Ichthyolephas, Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:95 [ref. 34894]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther 1860). Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South America: Pacific versant rivers (Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

insignis, Prochilodus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:261, Pl. 30 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Rio Branco, Amazon system, South America. No types known. •Valid as Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine 1841) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:152 [ref. 28606], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:85, 186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633], Careaga et al. 2020:76 [ref. 37774], Silvano et al. 2020:145 [ref. 38133]). Current status: Valid as Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine 1841). Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South America: central and western portions of Amazon River basin and tributary rivers (Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

jaraqui, Salmo Natterer [J.] in Kner 1859:148 [12] [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] Manaus, Brazil. On p. 12 of separate. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kneri, Prochilodus Pellegrin [J.] 1909:155 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 15; ref. 21553] Orinoco River, Venezuela. Lectotype: MNHN 1887-0708. Paralectotypes: MNHN 1887-0709 and 0710 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:36 [ref. 19577]. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:161 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Semaprochilodus kneri (Pellegrin 1909) -- (Taphorn 1992:487 [ref. 23654], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:158 [ref. 28606], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Semaprochilodus kneri (Pellegrin 1909). Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Amazon and Orinoco river basins: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

labeo, Prochilodus Loubens [G.], Lauzanne [L.] & Géry [J.] 1991:231, Fig. 8 [Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale v. 24 (no. 3); ref. 21061] Villa Tunari, Río Chaparé, Mamoré basin, Bolivia. Holotype: MNHN 1989-0120. Paratypes: Géry coll. 272.1 (1), 272.2 (1); MHNG 2448.31-32 (1, 2); MNHN 1989-0121 to 0122 (9, 13), 1989-0125 (1), 1989-0131 (1, c&s). •Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:124 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

lacustris, Prochilodus Steindachner [F.] 1907:152 [1] [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse v. 44 (no. 10) (for 25 Apr. 1907); ref. 18795] Piaui, Lago de Parnaguá, Lagoa da Missão, Santa Filomena and Rio Mendonho, tributary of Rio Parnaiba, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 56674:4. Paralectotypes: NMW 56674:1-3 and 5 (4). On p. 1 of separate. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:106 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Prochilodus lacustris Steindachner 1907 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:103 [ref. 28606], Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321], Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus lacustris Steindachner 1907. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Parnaíba and Mearium river basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Prochilodus Steindachner [F.] 1879:150 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 15) (for 19 June 1879); ref. 20478] Bolivar, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:152 [p. 4 in separate] [ref. 18782]. •Valid as Semaprochilodus laticeps (Steindachner 1879) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:161 [ref. 28606], DoNascimiento 2016:530 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Semaprochilodus laticeps (Steindachner 1879). Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Paca Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale; ref. 20720] La Plata River, at Buenos-Aires, Brazil. No types known. Name available from plate, description in Valenciennes 1847:9 [ref. 5010], as Pacu lineatus. Pl. 8 was published in 1837. •Valid as Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Malabarba 1989:125 [ref. 14217], Gómez & Chebez 1996:54 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:32 [ref. 27632] dated 1847, Britski et al. 1999:72 [ref. 24147], Butí & Cancino 1999:71 [ref. 25277], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131], Castro & Vari 2003:106 [ref. 28606], Koerber 2011:1 [ref. 31122], Koerber 2014:2 [ref. 33621] not in Argentina, Litz & Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:84, 186 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:12 [ref. 35117], Zhang et al. 2016:211 [ref. 34477], Bertaco et al. 2016:415 [ref. 34561], Reis et al. 2016:14 [ref. 34496], Nión et al. 2016:27 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:16 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1837). Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Paraná-Paraguay and Parába di Sul River basins: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

longirostris, Prochilodus Steindachner [F.] 1879:195 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 18) (for 17 July 1879); ref. 20479] Río Cauca, Colombia. Lectotype: NMW 56680. Paralectotypes: (several) NMW 56681-82 (1, 2). Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:188 [p. 70 of separate] [ref. 4229]. •Valid as Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Steindachner 1879) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:76 [ref. 28606], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Steindachner 1879). Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Cauca River and Magdalena River basins, northern Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Prochilodus asper var. Steindachner [F.] 1879:78 [62], Pl. 12 (fig. 1) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 39; ref. 4227] Cienaga, Magdalena River, Colombia. Lectotype: NMW 56627. Paralectotypes: NMW 56624-27 (4, 5, 2, 2), 56628 (3). On p. 62 of separate. Available from figure, species mentioned on p. 35 of text as Prochilodus asper. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:117 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Prochilodus magdalenae Steindachner 1879 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:113 [ref. 28606], García-Quintero & Navarro-Navarro 2008:88 [ref. 29580], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus magdalenae Steindachner 1879. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenensis, Prochilodus Posada [A.] 1909:300 [Los peces del norte de Colombia; ref. 5005] Río Magdalena, Colombia. Apparently an unjustified emendation of Prochilodus asper magdalenae Steindachner 1879; not treated by Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061]. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

marggravii, Salmo (Curimata) Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:80 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] On Official Index (Opinion 772); from South America. •Many references under this name are in the synonymy of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Castro & Vari 2004:85 [ref. 28606]). Suppressed. Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae.

mariae, Prochilodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:231, Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Río Meta, Barrigón, Colombia. Holotype: CAS 15150 [ex IU 15150]. Paratypes: CAS 23942 [ex IU 15150] (1). Also appeared at same time in Eigenmann 1922:163 [ref. 12408]. •Valid as Prochilodus mariae Eigenmann 1922 -- (Taphorn 1992:483 [ref. 23654], Marín 2000:67 [ref. 26252], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:118 [ref. 28606], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:81 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus mariae Eigenmann 1922. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Orinoco River and upper Negro River basins: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maripicru, Prochilodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1912:271, Pl. 35 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 1227] Maripicru Creek, branch of Ireng River, Guyana. Holotype: FMNH 53597 [ex CM 2066]. Paratypes: FMNH 53598 [ex CM 1067] (1), IU 12255 (1, not at CAS). Type catalog: Henn 1928:54 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:70 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Prochilodus maripicru Eigenmann 1912. •Synonym of Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus Jardine 1841 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:132 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus Jardine 1841. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

neglectus, Ichthyoelephas longirostris Dahl [G.] 1971:108 [Los peces del norte de Colombia; ref. 23522] Pools and swamps adjacent to Rio Magdalena, Caribbean Sea watershed, Colombia. No types known. •Synonym of Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Steindachner 1879) -- (Castro & Vari 2003:77 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Steindachner 1879). Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigricans, Prochilodus Spix [J. B. von] & Agassiz [L.] 1829:64, Pl. 39 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Lago Janauacá, along the Rio Solimões, Amazon basin. Neotype: MZUSP 21575. As Pacu nigricans on plate. Neotype designated by Castro & Vari 2003:128 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:32 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:11 [ref. 9708], Castro 1993:61 [ref. 21063], Loubens & Panfili 1995:17 [ref. 22314], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061] with author as Agassiz, Castro & Vari 2003:123 [ref. 28606], Barriga Salazar 2014:105 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:84, 186 [ref. 35004], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South America: Amazon and Tocantins River basins (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru). Habitat: freshwater.

novemradiatus, Salmo Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:387 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Originally as Salmo 9-radiatus. Also appeared in Devincenzi 1925:312, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Prochilodus lineatus Valenciennes [= Pacu lineatus Valenciennes 1837]. •Synonym of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:108 [ref. 28606], Litz & Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:12 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:16 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1837). Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

oligolepis, Prochilodus Günther [A.] 1864:295 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Ipanema, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 56694. Paralectotypes: NMW 56693 (1), 56695 (2). Based on Prochilodus nigricans of Kner 1859:146. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:143 [ref. 28606]. •Synonym of Prochilodus vimboides Kner 1859 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:140 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus vimboides Kner 1859. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ortonianus, Prochilodus Cope [E. D.] 1878:685 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Nauta, Peru. Holotype (unique): ANSP 21267. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Prochilodus ortonianus Cope 1878. •Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:123 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

patalo, Ichthyoelephas Posada [A.] 1909:302, 2 text-figs. on 301 [Los peces del norte de Colombia; ref. 5005] Río Cauca, Colombia. No types known. Originally as pataló. •Synonym of Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Steindachner 1879) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Steindachner 1879). Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

platensis, Prochilodus Holmberg [E. L.] 1891:186 [Revista Argentina de Historia Natural (Buenos Aires) v. 1; ref. 2192] Río de La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. No types known. •Valid as Prochilodus platensis Holmberg 1891 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:55 [ref. 23791], Haro et al. 1996:6 [ref. 25004], López et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27366]). •Synonym of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:107 [ref. 28606], Litz & Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:12 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:16 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1837). Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

reticulatus, Prochilodus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:92 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. MNHN A-8639. Syntypes: (6) MNHN A-8637 (1, dry), A-8638 (1, dry), A-8640 (1, dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:36 [ref. 19577]. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:135 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Prochilodus reticulatus Valenciennes 1850 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:37 [ref. 23651], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:132 [ref. 28606], García-Quintero & Navarro-Navarro 2008:88 [ref. 29580], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus reticulatus Valenciennes 1850. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

rubrotaeniatus, Prochilodus Jardine [W.] in Schomburgk 1841:258, Pl. 28 [The Natural history of fishes of Guiana; ref. 18707] Rio Branco, Rio Negro, and Essequibo River, South America. No types known. Spelled rubro-taeniatus originally. Authorship by Jardine is discussed by Castro & Vari 2003:139 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus Jardine 1841 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:11 [ref. 9708], Géry et al. 1991:31 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:134 [ref. 22818], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:136 [ref. 28606] with author as Jardine, DoNascimiento 2016:530 [ref. 34727] with author as Jardine & Schomburgk, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus Jardine 1841. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Widespread in South America: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

scrofa, Prochilodus Steindachner [F.] 1881:129 [29], Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 43; ref. 14290] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 56702. Paralectotypes: (1) whereabouts unknown. On p. 29 of separate. See Miquelarena et al. 1997:69 [ref. 23469]. Castro & Vari 2003:111 [ref. 28606] suggest that the type locality was the shipping point or the locality was in the state of Rio de Janeiro. •Valid as Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner 1881 -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:55 [ref. 23791], Sverlij et al. 1998:33 [ref. 27632] dated 1882, López et al. 2003:13 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:72 [ref. 28131]). •Synonym of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:66 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:107 [ref. 28606], Litz & Koerber 2014:7 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:12 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:16 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1837). Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

squamilentus, Semaprochilodus Fowler [H. W.] 1941:172, Fig. 83 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 93; ref. 1437] Rio Parnahyba, Therezina, Piauhy, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 69480. Paratypes: ANSP 69481 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621] with note on status [locality may be in error]. •Valid as Semaprochilodus squamilentus Fowler 1941. •Synonym of Semaprochilodus brama (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:147 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Semaprochilodus brama (Valenciennes 1850). Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

steindachneri, Prochilodus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1922:1153 [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 1243] Cauca near Caceres. Holotype (unique): NMW 68274. Based on Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus (non Schomburgk) Steindachner 1880:68 [ref. 14403]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Prochilodus steindachneri Fowler 1906, replaced by Prochilodus eigenmanni Ahl 1937. •In the synonymy of Prochilodus magdalenae Steindachner 1879 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:114 [ref. 28606]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus magdalenae Steindachner 1879. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

steindachneri, Prochilodus Fowler [H. W.] 1906:309, Fig. 11 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58; ref. 1373] Rio Parahyba do Sul, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8207. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. Castro & Vari 2003:143 [ref. 28606] as first revisors, selected P. vimboides Kner 1859 over P. corimbata (Kner 1859). •A species of Steindachnerina in the Curimatidae -- (Vari & Williams Vari 1989:469 [ref. 12508]). •Synonym of Prochilodus vimboides Kner 1859 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:140 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus vimboides Kner 1859. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

taeniurus, Curimatus Valenciennes [A.] in Humboldt & Valenciennes 1821:166 [Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland v. 2 (Title page 1833); ref. 5612] Upper Rio Negro system, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8641(dry). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:35 [ref. 19577]. •Valid as Semaprochilodus taeniurus (Valenciennes 1821) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061] dated 1817, Castro & Vari 2003:152 [ref. 28606] dated 1817, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35633], Silvano et al. 2020:150 [ref. 38133]). Current status: Valid as Semaprochilodus taeniurus (Valenciennes 1821). Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South Amwerica: central portions of Amazon River basin and tributaries (Brazil and Colombia). Habitat: freshwater.

theraponura, Prochilodus Fowler [H. W.] 1906:313, Fig. 14 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 58; ref. 1373] Ambyiacu River, Ecuador [= Rio Ambiyacu, Peru]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8033. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:148 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Semaprochilodus theraponura (Fowler 1906) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:11 [ref. 9708]). •Synonym of Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine 1841) -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:152 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine 1841). Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

tigris, Curimatus Fowler [H. W.] 1913:518, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 65; ref. 1389] Tributary of Rio Madeira near Porto Velho, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 39156. Paratypes: ANSP 39157-81 (25), 39184 (1, missing); Géry coll. [ex ANSP 39182-83]; USNM 92957 [ex ANSP 39185-86] (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:67 [ref. 13621], Vari & Howe 1991:19 [ref. 19022]. •Young Prochilodus -- (Vari & Castro 1988:779 [ref. 12872]). •Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:124 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Synonym of Prochilodus nigricans Spix & Agassiz 1829. Prochilodontidae. Habitat: freshwater.

varii, Semaprochilodus Castro [R. M. C.] 1988:504, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 101 (no. 3); ref. 6684] Marowijne River, Marowijne District, about 25 kilometers south of Albina, Suriname. Holotype: ZMA 106222. Paratypes: AMNH 16406 (1); MZUSP 37177-78 (2); USNM 285719 (4, 1 c&s); ZMA 106372 (5), 119877 (6). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:39 [ref. 19022], Oyakawa 1996:496 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Semaprochilodus varii Castro 1988 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:136 [ref. 22818], Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:68 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:168 [ref. 28606]). Current status: Valid as Semaprochilodus varii Castro 1988. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: Marowijne (= Maroni) River basin: French Guiana and Suriname. Habitat: freshwater.

vimboides, Prochilodus Kner [R.] 1859:148 [12], Pl. 2 [not 3] (fig. 4) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 17; ref. 2631] Ypanema [Ipanema], São Paulo, Brazil. Lectotype: NMW 79466 (dry). Paralectotypes: NMW 79464-65 (1, 1, dry). On p. 12 of separate. Lectotype selected by Castro & Vari 2003:143 [ref. 28606]. •Valid as Prochilodus vimboides Kner 1859 -- (Castro & Vari in Reis et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2003:140 [ref. 28606], Catelani et al. 2014:931 [ref. 37496], Petry et al. 2016:303 [ref. 34966], Silva et al. 2020:8 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Prochilodus vimboides Kner 1859. Prochilodontidae. Distribution: South America: coastal rivers of Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.