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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Soleidae: [ 293 ] records


abnormis, Achirus Weber [M.] & de Beaufort [L. F.] 1929:163 [Fishes Indo-Australian Archipelago v. 5; ref. 16063] Fish market, Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109466. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •In Aserragodes Kaup 1858 based on placement of Beaufortella -- (see Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:192 [ref. 21500]). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

achira, Synaptura Duncker [G.] 1904:168 [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 21; ref. 5560] Sukakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: part of RMNH 6711. Lectotype selected by Kottelat (2013). •Synonym of Achiroides leucorhynchos Bleeker 1851 -- (Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Achiroides leucorhynchos Bleeker 1851. Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater.

aegyptiaca, Solea vulgaris forma Chabanaud [P.] 1927:35 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 488; ref. 782] Ismailia, Egypt, Mediterranean Sea. Neotype: MNHN 1902-0009. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]. Neotype designated by Vachon et al. 2008:21 [ref. 29607]. •Synonym of Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Torchio 1973:628 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1318 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212]). •Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:949 [ref. 15614], Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112]). •Valid as Solea aegyptiaca Chabanaud 1927 -- (Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:21 [ref. 29607], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649] as aegyptica, Chanet et al. 2012:581 [ref. 34114], Golani et al. 2014:321 [ref. 33139], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:104 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Solea aegyptiaca Chabanaud 1927. Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea endemic; Gulf of Suez, Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant). Habitat: brackish, marine.

aenea, Synaptura Smith [H. M.] 1931:32, Fig. 15 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 79 (no. 2873); ref. 4047] Lop Buri River at Lop Buri, central Thailand. Holotype: USNM 90311 (not found in 1980). Additional material: (1). •Synonym of Achiroides harmandi (Sauvage 1878) -- (Rainboth 1996:221 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Brachirus aenea (Smith 1931) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25559], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314]). •Synonym of Brachirus harmandi (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus harmandi (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Distribution: Thailand (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

albida, Bathysolea Roule [L.] 1916:28 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 320; ref. 3818] Cape Verde Islands, station 1186, depth 660 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM (lost). Type catalog: Belloc 1949:13 [ref. 21544], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. See also Roule 1919:91, Pl. 5 (figs. 4-4a) [ref. 19805]. •Synonym of Bathysolea lactea Roule 1916 -- (Desoutter 1990:1037 [ref. 18967], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:408 [ref. 23363], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Bathysolea lactea Roule 1916. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

albidus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:305, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Lembeh Strait, off Kungkungan Bay, Sulawesi, Indonesia, depth 15 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 38802. •Valid as Aseraggodes albidus Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1050 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fricke et al. 2019:317 [ref. 36673]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes albidus Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Sulawesi (Indonesia); New Ireland (Papua New Guinea). Habitat: marine.

alboguttata, Solea Fowler [H. W.] 1929:251, Fig. 1 (top) [Annals of the Natal Museum v. 6 (pt 2); ref. 1403] Off Natal Bluff, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665]). Current status: Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

albomaculata, Synaptura Kaup [J. J.] 1858:96 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Coromandel coast, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-3436. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. Kottelat (2013) cites as inland record from Myanmar. •Valid as Synaptura albomaculata Kaup 1858 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1048 [ref. 20764], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] with question, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). •Valid as Dagetichthys albomaculatus (Kaup 1858) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:406 [ref. 32765] as albomaculata, Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871], Psomadakis et al. 2020:596 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys albomaculatus (Kaup 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

alleni, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:85, Fig. 2 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Bintuni River, small mangrove creek, 2°07'S, 133°31'E, ca. 19 kilometers upstream of Bintuni Bay, Papua Province, Indonesia, New Guinea, depth 0.1-1.0 meters. Holotype: WAM P.29959. Paratypes: BPBM 40459 (2), NTM 16247-001 (2), USNM 387649 (3), WAM P.29959-015 (6), ZMB 33742 (2). Plus 3 non-type specimens at NTM. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus alleni Randall 2007. Current status: Valid as Leptachirus alleni Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: West Papua, Indonesia. Habitat: brackish.

altipinnis, Synaptura Alcock [A. W.] 1890:441 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Off Vizagapatam coast, east-northeast of Bimilipatnam, India, Investigator station 93, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F12917. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743]. Figured in Alcock 1898: Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [ref. 20534]. •Valid as Zebrias altipinnis (Alcock 1890) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1993:235 [ref. 24016], Randall 1995:246 [ref. 23283], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:598 [ref. 27969], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:48 [ref. 27712], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:597 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias altipinnis (Alcock 1890). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in Randall, Bogorodsky & Mal 2013:6, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32941] North Malé Atoll, North Malé Island, east end of island off building of Marine Research Section, Ministry of Fisheries, outer surge zone of seaward reef, Republic of Maldives, depth 1-1.5 meters. Holotype (unique): PBM 33022. •Valid as Aseraggodes andersoni Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes andersoni Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Soleidae. Distribution: Maldives. Habitat: marine.

angulatus, Pleuronectes Guichenot [A.] 1850:107 [Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poissons; ref. 1940] Oran, Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. •Possible synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Desoutter 1990:1039 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Uncertain as Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

angulosa, Solea Kaup [J. J.] 1858:94 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] La Rochelle, France, Bay of Biscay, northeastern Atlantic; Algeria, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3223 (1), 0000-3242 (1), 0000-3241 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:323-324 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Dicologoglossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1039 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Microchirus theophila (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of the younger Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:323 [ref. 25922] based on current usage). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

annandalei, Zebrias Talwar [P. K.] & Chakrapany [S.] 1967:119, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society, Calcutta v. 20 (no. 2); ref. 20557] Puri Beach, Orissa, India. Holotype: ZSI F5011/2. Paratypes: ZSI F5012/2 (1). See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706] with second author as Chakrapani and date 1968 and species as annandelei. Soleidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

annectens, Pseudaustroglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1937:932 [1] [Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences v. 205; ref. 794] Estuary of Congo River, depth 20 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 806. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]. Author suggested that this taxon might be based on a hybrid between Synaptura lusitanica x Austroglossus microlepis; if proposed for a hybrid the taxon is unavailable. Hybrid. Soleidae.

annularis, Brachirus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:346, Fig. 99 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] China Sea, vicinity of Taiwan, 21°40'N, 116°58'E, Albatross station D.5315, depth 148 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93095. Paratypes: USNM 93206 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Synaptura annularis (Fowler 1934) -- (Gonzales et al. 1994:491 [ref. 22282], Nakabo 2000:1387 [ref. 25182], Nair 2006:118 [ref. 29899] dated 1933, Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461] as annlaris). •Valid as Zebrias annularis (Fowler 1934) -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Brachirus annularis Fowler 1934 -- (Li & Wang 1995:309 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2002:1387 [ref. 26193], Hoese & Bray 2006:1844 [ref. 29000], Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Psomadakis et al. 2020:595 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus annularis Fowler 1934. Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

arafurensis, Synaptura Günther [A.] 1880:49 [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Arafura Sea, Challenger station 190, depth 35 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.69. •Synonym of Dexillus muelleri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1846 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Dexillus muelleri (Steindachner 1879). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

argentea, Pleuronectes Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Petiver) 1788:77 [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Philippines. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. Based on the 'Solea philippensis argentea of Petiver 1702:41, Pl. 26 [ref. 30233]. Soleidae.

aspilos, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1852:74 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 16832] Singapore. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1862.6.3.5. Type catalog: Okamoto & Motomura 2021:356 [ref. 38068]. •Valid as Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1851, Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809], Okamoto & Motomura 2021:355 [ref. 38068]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia and Singapore east to Philippines, New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) and Samoa, north to Ryukyu Islands (Japan), south to Shark Bay (Western Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

atlanticus, Monochirus hispidus Chabanaud [P.] 1940:150 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 13167] Banjul (formerly Bathurst), western coast of Africa. Holotype: IRSNB (lost in WWII). Paratypes: (numerous) BMNH 1872.2.6.9 (1), 1924.1.31.1 (1); IRSNB 52 (1); MNHN 1942-0079 (1). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922]. Also described as new (Monochirus atlanticus) in Chabanaud 1949:57 [ref. 13003]. •Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814 -- (Torchio 1973:634 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Monochirus atlanticus Chabanaud 1940 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922] with doubt as to status as a subspecies, Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3022 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:194 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:298 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Monochirus atlanticus Chabanaud 1940. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Spain south to Gabon, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

aurantiaca, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:467 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: (at least 13) BMNH 1848.1.12.545-547 and 549 (skins), 1856.12.10.139 and 141 (skins), 1982.3.12.9 (1). Based on literature sources and specimens. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967] as auriantiaca). • Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

auroculus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:195, Fig. 2 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Moorea, off northwestern coast, 17°31'00"S, 149°555'30"E, Society Islands, depth 18-24 meters. Holotype: ROM 61358. Paratypes: BPBM 39690 (1), ROM 61357 (1), USNM 381623 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes auroculus Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes auroculus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

australis, Microchirus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:6 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] 15 miles southwest of Moita Seca, Angola, 6°16'S, 12°07'E, depth 50 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 96. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Microchirus boscanion (Chabanaud 1926) -- (Desoutter 1994:232 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus boscanion (Chabanaud 1926). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

azevia, Solea de Brito Capello [F.] 1867:166 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 14041] Lisbon/Lisboa, Portugal; Gibraltar; Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands; Bilbao, northeastern Atlantic; Barcelona, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4850 [or 4805] (1) Lisbon, ZMB 6456 (1) Lisbon. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Microchirus theophila (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1314 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1994:232 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:152 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3015 [ref. 34618] dated 1868, Martins & Carneiro 2018:88 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:192 [ref. 37250], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) south to Senegal, including Madeira; strays to British Isles. Habitat: marine.

bahamondei, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Meléndez C. [R.] 1987:99, Figs. 1-4 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 27; ref. 9173] Off Mataveri O Tai near southern end of western coast, Easter Island, depth 20 feet. Holotype: BPBM 6610. Paratypes: AMS IB.6385 (1), I.25700-001 (1); BPBM 6611 (1), 14755 (1), 14790 (1), 30554 (2), 30851 (2); LACM 6560 (13); MNHN 1985-0885 (1); MNHNC P.6142 (1); UBC 65-452 (1), 65-455 (1), 65-457 (3); MZUC 2096 (1); NSMT-P 44015 (1); USNM 274719 (1). Type catalog: Meléndez C. et al. 1993:208 [ref. 24124], Desoutter et al. 2001:318-319 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Aseraggodes bahamondei Randall & Meléndez C. 1987 -- (Pequeño 1989:76 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:241 [ref. 24556], Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:133 [ref. 20996], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:621 [ref. 24023], Francis et al. 1999:578 [ref. 24249], Meléndez C. & Cornejo C. 2001:70 [ref. 26163], Randall 2002:253 [ref. 26248], Randall & Bartsch 2005:137 [ref. 28374], Randall 2005:197 [ref. 28892], Hoese & Bray 2006:1842 [ref. 29000], Dyer & Westneat 2010:610 [ref. 31446], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167], Munroe 2015:1704 [ref. 34321]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes bahamondei Randall & Meléndez C. 1987. Soleidae. Distribution: South Pacific: Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island and Kermadec Islands east to Easter Island and Desventuradas Islands (Chile). Habitat: marine.

balius, Pardachirus Randall [J. E.] & Mee [J. K. L.] 1994:343, Pls. 1-2 [Fauna of Saudi Arabia v. 14; ref. 21638] Off Raysut, 19°24' to 25'N, 57°48'E, southern Oman, Arabian Sea, depth 26-30 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34506. Paratypes: BMNH 1994.5.10.1 (1); BPBM 36319 (1); CAS 73287 (3); ROM 40267 (1), 40269 (1); USNM 329542 [ex BPBM 35976] (1). •Valid as Pardachirus balius Randall & Mee 1994 -- (Randall 1995:360 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Randall & Johnson 2007:7 [ref. 29291], Jawad et al. 2018:124 [ref. 36262]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus balius Randall & Mee 1994. Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea and Somalia. Habitat: marine.

barbatus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:658, 660 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality. •Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757], Randall & Johnson 2007:9 [ref. 29291], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

barnardi, Coryphaesopia cornuta Chabanaud [P.] 1934:430 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 59; ref. 791] Off Amatikulu Hill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 26 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1904.11.4.3. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:869 [ref. 5665], Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

barnardi, Synaptura Smith [J. L. B.] 1931:148, Pl. 16 [Records of the Albany Museum Grahamstown v. 4 (pt 1); ref. 4062] Great Fish Point, South Africa, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] [ex AMG] 138. •Synonym of Synaptura marginata Boulenger 1900 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665]). •Synonym of Dagetichthys marginata (Boulenger 1900) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:407 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989] as marginatus). Current status: Synonym of Dagetichthys marginatus (Boulenger 1900). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

beauforti, Aseraggodes Chabanaud [P.] 1930:189 [Zoologische Mededeelingen (Leiden) v. 13 (no. 3-4); ref. 16264] Timor Sea, 10°27.9'S, 123°28.7'W, Siboga station 302, depth 216 meters. Lectotype: ZMA 115242 (49,2 mm). Paralectotypes: (11) ZMA 123862 [ex ZMA 115242] (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922] with a different location than given below. Based Aseraggodes cyaneus of Weber 1913:435 (not Solea cyanea Alcock). Lectotype selected by Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:308 [ref. 29399]; the smaller specimen not this species. •Valid as Aseraggodes beauforti Chabanaud 1930 -- (Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:308 [ref. 29399], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes beauforti Chabanaud 1930. Soleidae. Distribution: Timor Sea. Habitat: marine.

bensbach, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:88, Fig. 3 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] 12 kilometers downstream of Balamuk, 8°59'S, 141°14'E, Bensbach River, Papua New Guinea. Holotype: WAM P.27820-003. Paratypes: BPBM 40462 (1); WAM P.27820-007 (1), P.27822-004 (2), P.31342-004 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. Name treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Leptachirus bensbach Randall 2007. Current status: Valid as Leptachirus bensbach Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Bensbach River, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

bleekeri, Solea Boulenger [G. A.] 1898:2 [Marine Investigations in South Africa No. 1; ref. 14678] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3571. Also p. 2 of v. 1 in 1902. •Valid as Solea bleekeri Boulenger 1898 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:438 [ref. 28072]). •Synonym of Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814) -- (Vachon et al. 2005:315 [ref. 29620]). •Valid as Pegusa bleekeri (Boulenger 1898) -- (Fricke et al. 2018:373 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa bleekeri (Boulenger 1898). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borbonica, Solea Regan [C. T.] 1905:393, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 13; ref. 15384] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MHNG 678.03. Type catalog: Mahnert 1976:475 [ref. 21535], Weber 1998:13 [ref. 23532]. •Valid as Soleichthys borbonica (Regan 1905) -- (Quéro 1997:324 [ref. 23236]). •Synonym of Soleichthys tubifera (Peters 1876) -- (Fricke 1999:574 [ref. 24106], Munroe & Menke 2004:252 [ref. 27772]). •Synonym of Soleichthys tubiferus (Peters 1876) or a valid species -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597]). Current status: Synonym of Soleichthys tubiferus (Peters 1876). Soleidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Réunion Island and Mauritius, Mascarenes [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

borehami, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 1996:429, Figs. 1-3 [Pacific Science v. 50 (no. 4); ref. 21993] In cave off channel entrance at northeast end of Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, depth 29 meters. Holotype: BPBM 7834. Paratypes: AMS I.37164-001 [ex BPBM 7834] (1); BMNH 1996.1.24.1 (1); BPBM 31030 (1), 33478 (1), 36804 (1), 36867 (1); CAS 85567 (1); NSMT-P 48114 (1); USNM 339301 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes borehami Randall 1996 -- (Randall 2002:248 [ref. 26248], Mundy 2005:521 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:466 [ref. 30952], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes borehami Randall 1996. Soleidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

boscanion, Solea (Microchirus) Chabanaud [P.] 1926:127 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 32 (no. 2); ref. 15579] Eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: MNHN 1886-0007 (1), 1886-0008 (1) Coast of Spain, 1886-0013 (1), 1886-0014 (1), 1909-0467 (5) Sudan; Lab. Pêches et Productions Coloniales d'Origine Animale (1) Lévrier Bay. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892]). •Valid as Microchirus boscanion (Chabanaud 1926) -- (Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1314 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1040 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:230 [ref. 22326], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Zenetos et al. 2010:412 [ref. 31201], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3016 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:89 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:193 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:297 [ref. 38139], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus boscanion (Chabanaud 1926). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

bourbonensis, Rhombus Guichenot [A.] (ex Kaup) 1863:C-29 [Faune ichthyologique 2nd Partie, Annexe C.; ref. 1943] Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]. Nomen nudum, not available. Nomen Nudum. Soleidae.

brasiliensis, Solea Kaup [J. J.] 1858:95 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Montevideo, Uruguay [in error, eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): MNHN-1460. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922] and locality correction. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Solea brasiliensis Agassiz 1831; replaced by Solea kaupi Berg 1895. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

brasiliensis, Solea Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:87, Pl. 48 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Mediterranean Sea [not Brazil]. Syntypes: MHNN 804 (1). Type catalog: Kottelat 1984:150 [ref. 21784]. Type information: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). •Valid as Solea brasiliensis Agassiz 1831 -- (Nión et al. 2016:55 [ref. 35565]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

breviceps, Brachirus Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:36 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.865 (poor condition). •Valid as Brachirus breviceps Ogilby 1910 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus breviceps Ogilby 1910. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

brevirostris, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Gon [O.] 2006:170, Fig. 1 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 28662] Off Al Almal Hotel, just east of Matsumudu, 12°09'30"S, 44°24'E, Anjouan Island, Comoro Islands, depth 6-18 meters. Holotype: ROM 76770. Paratypes: BPBM 40150 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes brevirostris Randall & Gon 2006 -- (Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes brevirostris Randall & Gon 2006. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Comoro Islands. Habitat: marine.

brownii, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:477 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Atlantic coast of southern states of North America. Syntypes: BMNH 1852.8.16.23 (1), 1852.12.9.27 (1), Based on literature sources and 2 specimens. •Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Current status: Synonym of Trinectes maculatus (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

buglossa, Solea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Unneeded replacement name for Pleuronectes solea Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Pleuronectes solea Linnaeus 1758 -- (Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). •Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

cadenati, Pegusa Chabanaud [P.] 1954:255, Figs. 2-15 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 16 (no. 1); ref. 12641] Cape Verde Islands, western Africa. Holotype: MNHN 1952-0275 [ex IFAN 50-1165]. Paratypes: (11) BMNH 1953.6.22.1 [ex IFAN 50-1160] (1); IFAN 50-1161 (1), 50-1167 (1), 50-1168 (1); MNHN 1952-276 (2), 1952-277 (2), 1952-0278 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:323 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Pegusa cadenati Chabanaud 1954 -- (Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3023 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa cadenati Chabanaud 1954. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Cape Verde Islands and possibly Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

cadenati, Synaptura Chabanaud [P.] 1948:512 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 20 (no. 6); ref. 19524] Lomé, Togo, depth 4-5 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1949-0001. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Synaptura cadenati Chabanaud 1948 -- (Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Synaptura lusitanica de Brito Capello 1868 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]). •Valid as Dagetichthys cadenati (Chabanaud 1948) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:410 [ref. 32765], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3011 [ref. 34618], Reiner 2019:295 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys cadenati (Chabanaud 1948). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Congo, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

caecus, Typhlachirus Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1931:415, Fig. 5 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 13 (pts 3-4); ref. 2036] Malacca Strait, eastern Indian Ocean. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (5) MNHN 1942-0080 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. Appeared first as Cryptops coeca Hardenberg 1931, which is regarded as unavailable. •Valid as Typhlachirus caecus Hardenberg 1931 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Proudlove 2006:269 [ref. 28992], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989], Evseenko & Bolshakov 2018:553 [ref. 36418], Tan & Grinang 2020:7 [ref. 37930]). Current status: Valid as Typhlachirus caecus Hardenberg 1931. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

callizona, Synaptura Regan [C. T.] 1903:57, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 11 (no. 61) (art. 5); ref. 15040] Arafura Sea (?). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.68. •Valid as Pseudaesopia callizona (Regan 1903) -- (Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988]). •Valid as Zebrias callizona (Regan 1903). Current status: Valid as Zebrias callizona (Regan 1903). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Territory, Australia. Habitat: marine.

cancellata, Synaptura McCulloch [A. R.] 1916:60, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 2944] Near Fremantle, Western Australia. Holotype: AMS I.13199. Other specimens or paratypes: (5) AMS E.2486-87 (2?). •Valid as Strabozebrias cancellatus (McCulloch 1916) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] with question). •Valid as Zebrias cancellatus (McCulloch 1916) -- (Gomon et al. 1994:862 [ref. 22532], Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:819 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias cancellatus (McCulloch 1916). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

canus, Pleuronectes Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:91 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Brachirus pan (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Brachirus pan (Hamilton 1822). Soleidae.

capellonis, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1868:722 [56], Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 57 (1. Abth.); ref. 18779] Gibraltar; Hvar [Lesina], Croatia, Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Syntypes: NMW 14035-36 (1, 1), 14037-38 (3), 14059-60 (2). On p. 56 of separate. •Synonym of Solea kleini (Bonaparte 1933, ? = Risso 1826 = 1927) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Synaptura kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Current status: Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Heteromycteris Kaup [J. J.] 1858:103 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Cape Province, South Africa. Holotype: MNHN B-2288. Paratypes (?): MNHN B-2289 (3). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25922] with a holotype and paratypes. Locality by inference. Kaup perhaps saw only one specimen, therefore no paratypes. •Valid as Heteromycteris capensis Kaup 1858 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:179 [ref. 25472], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris capensis Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic to southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

capensis, Solea (Pegusa) Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1902:110, Pl. 9 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 2; ref. 1644] Fish-Hoek and Muizenberg, False Bay; 4.5 miles off Cape St. Blaize, depth 30 fathoms; and Algoa Bay, South Africa. Holotype: SAM 15423. Paratypes: BMNH 1901.7.27.9 (1); SAM 15405-06 [? = 15423-24] (1, 1). •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665]). •Valid as Solea capensis Gilchrist 1902 -- (Desoutter 1990:1045 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Valid as Solea capensis Gilchrist 1902. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic off South Africa. Habitat: marine.

captivus, Zebrias Randall [J. E.] 1995:243, Fig. 1 [Journal of South Asian Natural History v. 2 (no. 2); ref. 23283] Persian Gulf off Bahrain. Holotype: BPBM 29478. Paratypes: USNM 334423 (1). •Valid as Zebrias captivus Randall 1995 -- (Randall 1995:362 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:234 [ref. 23922], Eagderi et al. 2019:125 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias captivus Randall 1995. Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

chapleaui, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:309, Fig. 3 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Rausch Pass, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea, depth 30 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 15863. •Valid as Aseraggodes chapleaui Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1050 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fricke et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes chapleaui Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Madang, Papua New Guinea and Raja Ampat Islands (West Papua, Indonesia). Habitat: marine.

cheni, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Senou [H.] 2007:304, Figs. 1-4 [Zoological Studies v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 29156] Seven-star Rock, 21°45.5'N, 120°49.4'E, Taiwan, depth 48 meters. Holotype: ASIZP 66518. Paratypes: KPM-NI 9576 (1), 9577-78 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Aseraggodes cheni Randall & Senou 2007 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Koeda et al. 2016:108 [ref. 35333]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes cheni Randall & Senou 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan and southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

cheni, Heteromycteris japonica japonica morpha Chabanaud [P.] (ex Norman) 1935:220 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 60 (no. 1) (for 26 Mar. 1935); ref. 25931] Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. Not available, infrasubspecific (from China, specimen is BMNH 1930.7.28.7). •In the synonymy of Heteromycteris japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Infrasubspecific. Current status: Synonym of Heteromycteris japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae.

chirophthalmus, Solea Regan [C. T.] 1915:129 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 15 (no. 85); ref. 15006] Lagos, Nigeria. Syntypes: (5) BMNH 1914.11.2.61-63 (3), MNHN 1926-0010 [ex BMNH 1914.11.2.64] (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922] as chirophthalma. The original spelling was chirophthalmus but evidently should be emended to chirophthalma. •Valid as Vanstraelenia chirophthalmus (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter 1990:1048 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:237 [ref. 22326]). •Valid as Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3029 [ref. 34618], Reiner 2019:298 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

ciliata, Synaptura Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:14, Pl. 34 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Inner harbor, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 15428. •Synonym of Synaptura marginata Boulenger 1900 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665]). •Synonymy of Dagetichthys marginata (Boulenger 1900) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:407 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989] as marginatus). Current status: Synonym of Dagetichthys marginatus (Boulenger 1900). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cinerascens, Synaptura Günther [A.] 1862:482 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Sri Lanka. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1854.3.21.30. •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989] with question). •Valid as Brachirus cinerascens (Günther 1862) -- (Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cinerea, Solea Guichenot [A.] (ex Valenciennes) 1850:106 [Histoire naturelle des reptiles et poissons; ref. 1940] Algier, Algeria, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3296 (8). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324-325 [ref. 25922]. Virtually no distinguishing features presented, marginally available. •Synonym of Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cinerea, Synaptura De Vis [C. W.] 1883:288 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 1088] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.118. •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cleverleyi, Solea Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1906:160, Pl. 44 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 4; ref. 1647] Walvis Bay, southwestern Africa. Holotype (unique): SAM 15401. •Synonym of Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858 -- (Desoutter 1990:1046 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:870 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1994:242 [ref. 22326]). Current status: Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cochinensis, Zebrias Rama-Rao [K. V.] 1967:99, Fig. 1 [Journal of the Zoological Society of India v. 19 (nos 1-2); ref. 22121] Off Vypeen Island, Cochin, India, 16-20 meters. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Zebrias cochinensis Rama-Rao 1967 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias cochinensis Rama-Rao 1967. Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

coeca, Cryptops Hardenberg [J. D. F.] 1931:125 [Treubia, Buitenzorg v. 13 (pt 1); ref. 16298] Rokan River mouth, Sumatra, Indonesia. No types known. Description as "no eyes, tentacles on the finrays, etc." footnote says the new species will be published in a short time. Later published as Typhlachirus caecus Hardenberg 1931; Cryptops coeca regarded as not available, not sufficient distinguishing features. •In the synonymy of Typhlachirus caecus Hardenberg 1931. Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Typhlachirus caecus Hardenberg 1931. Soleidae.

commersonnii, Pleuronectes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:599, 654 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]. Figured on Pl. 12 (fig. 2) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name commersonnien; see discussion in Munroe & DeSoutter 2001:273-277 [ref. 25706]. The correct spelling is commersonnii. Based on description and illustration in manuscript by Commerson (Philibert Commerson, 1727-1773, French explorer and naturalist). •Valid as Synaptura commersoniana (Lacepède 1802) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:235 [ref. 24016], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356]). •Valid as Synaptura commersoni (Lacepède 1802) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122]). •Synonym of Bothus mancus (Broussonet 1782) in Bothidae but text only -- (Fricke 1999:570 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Synaptura commersonnii (Lacepède 1802) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922], Munroe 2001:3888 [ref. 26314] as commersonii, Munroe & Desoutter 2001:273 [ref. 25706], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461] as commersonii, Yoshida et al. 2013:220 [ref. 34464], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321]). •Valid as Dagetichthys commersonii (Lacèpede 1802) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:405 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:327 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:396 [ref. 35064], Eagderi et al. 2019:124 [ref. 37020], Psomadakis et al. 2020:596 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys commersonnii (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Seychelles, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf east to Indonesia, north to Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cornuta, Aesopia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:98 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] British Indies [India, Indian Ocean]. Syntypes: MNHN 1998-1304 (1), 1998-1305 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Coryphaesopia cornuta (Kaup 1858) -- (Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858 -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Gon 1986:869 [ref. 5665], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:105 [ref. 15757], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:204 [ref. 21500], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:322 [ref. 16193], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:177 [ref. 26476], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1386 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1386 [ref. 26193], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Shinohara et al. 2005:443 [ref. 28370], Hoese & Bray 2006:1842 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:320 [ref. 31170], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:101 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1049 [ref. 31980], Psomadakis et al. 2015:326 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:396 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:222 [ref. 35490], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:174 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:295 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:123 [ref. 37020], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:595 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Aesopia cornuta Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: South Africa, East Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Indonesia, north to southern Japan, south to northern Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

corymbus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bartsch [P.] 2007:107, Figs. 1-3 [Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin v. 83 (no. 2); ref. 29373] Gulf of Carpentaria, 17°25'S, 140°10'E, Queensland, Australia, depth 10 meters. Holotype: AMS I.15557-061. Paratypes: BMNH 40512 (1), QM I.11272 (2), ZMB 33764 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes corymbus Randall & Bartsch 2007 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes corymbus Randall & Bartsch 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

craticula, Synaptura McCulloch [A. R.] 1916:62, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 2944] Near Bowen, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS E.2700. Paratypes: AMS I.13616 (1) The name craticula can be a noun, but in this case the feminine declension of craticulus is probably meant, because McCulloch also used adjectives for the other soles he named. Treated by Norman 1926 [ref. 3216] as an adjective. •Valid as Zebrias craticulus (McCulloch 1916) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477] as craticula, Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977] as craticula, Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847] as craticula, Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1851 [ref. 29000] as craticulatus, Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988] as craticula). Current status: Valid as Zebrias craticulus (McCulloch 1916). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

crossolepis, Zebrias Zheng [P.-S.] & Chang [Y.-W.] 1965:271 [English p. 277], Fig. 3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 7953] Jieshi Harbor, Guangdong, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NSMC] 29861. Paratypes or other material (24): ASIO (?), ASIZB [now NSMC] (9). Type catalog: Zhang 1996:503 [ref. 24036] Ye et al. 2015:108 [ref. 33808]. First author's name as Cheng in English summary. •Valid as Zebrias crossolepis Zheng & Chang 1965 -- (Li & Wang 1995:315 [ref. 16193], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461] as crosslepis, Ye et al. 2015:108 [ref. 33808], Voronina et al. 2016:400 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias crossolepis Zheng & Chang 1965. Soleidae. Distribution: China and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

crypticus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Allen [G. R.] 2007:110, Fig. 1 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29913] Christmas Island, 10°26'S, 105°40'E, Indian Ocean, depth 16-18 meters. Holotype: WAM P.28990-020. Paratypes: WAM P.26108-016 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Aseraggodes crypticus Randall & Allen 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1050 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes crypticus Randall & Allen 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Christmas Island, Indian Ocean (2 specimens). Habitat: marine.

cuneata, Solea Moreau [É.] (ex de la Pylaie) 1881:312 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Moreau); ref. 3040] Atlantic coast of France. Syntypes: (2) MNHN 1898-0951 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922] with a paratype. •Valid as Dicologoglossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:179 [ref. 25472], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:152 [ref. 26753]). •Valid as Solea cuneata Moreau 1881 -- (Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643]). •Valid as Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1312 [ref. 13677], Heemstra & Gon 1986:870 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1994:239 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:22, 41 [ref. 30263], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3013 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:93 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:192 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:296 [ref. 38139], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887]). Current status: Valid as Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), including Madeira, Canary Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cyanea, Solea Alcock [A. W.] 1890:439 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 6 (no. 36) (art. 52); ref. 86] Off Ganjam coast, Investigator station 79, depth 33 fathoms, and off Vizagapatam coast, Investigator, depth 20-25 fathoms, India. Syntypes: BMNH 1928.3.20.136 [ex ASI F12818] (1), ZSI F12918 (1) depth 33 fathoms. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:377 [ref. 27516], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:45 [ref. 22148]. •Valid as Aseraggodes cyaneus (Alcock 1890) -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:67 [ref. 13251], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:106 [ref. 15757], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805], Psomadakis et al. 2020:595 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes cyaneus (Alcock 1890). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Gulf of Aden east to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

cyclurus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:198, Fig. 6 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Papara, Teavaraa Pass, Tahiti, Society Islands, depth 27.5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 8105. Paratypes: ROM 61359 (1), USNM 379462 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes cyclurus Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes cyclurus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Society Islands [provisional specimen from Fiji]. Habitat: marine.

cynoglossa, Solea Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:14, 53 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Parenti 2019:117 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

darwinensis, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:90, Fig. 4 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] East Alligator River, 3 kilometers upstream from Cahills Crossing, 12°27'S, 132°58'E, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype: NTM S.10618-001. Paratypes: BPBM 40477 (1); NTM S.10868-001 (1), S.15583-01 (1), S.16036-001 (1). •Valid as Leptachirus darwinensis Randall 2007 -- (Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Leptachirus darwinensis Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean: Northern Territory (Australia). Habitat: freshwater.

dicholepis, Synaptura Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:844 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] New Hanover, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9861. Type catalog: Okamoto & Motomura 2021:356 [ref. 38068]. •Valid as Brachirus dicholepis (Peters 1877) -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1876, Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809], Fricke et al. 2019:317 [ref. 36673]). •Synonym of Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852) -- (Okamoto & Motomura 2021:355 [ref. 38068]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

diringeri, Parachirus Quéro [J.-C.] 1997:320, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 21 (no. 3); ref. 23236] Cape Homard, Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1996-0118. Paratypes: MNHN 1996-0119 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:322-323 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Parachirus diringeri Quéro 1997 -- (Fricke 1999:572 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Aseraggodes diringeri (Quéro 1997) -- (Randall 2005:211 [ref. 28892], Randall & Gon 2006:173 [ref. 28662], Randall & Senou 2007:307 [ref. 29156], Fricke et al. 2009:114 [ref. 30213], Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes diringeri (Quéro 1997). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa and western Mascarenes east to Chagos Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

dori, Soleichthys Randall [J. E.] & Munroe [T. A.] 2008:77, Figs. 1-2 [Electronic Journal of Ichthyology, Bulletin of the European Ichthyology Society. v. 2; ref. 29862] 7 kilometers south of Nuweiba, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, depth 2-4 meters. Holotype: BPBM 20784. Paratypes: HUJ 7725 (1); TAU [= SMNHTAU] P.5112 (1), P.7934 (1), P.11245 (2); USNM 291079 (1), 291080 (1), 291081 (2), 291082 (1). •Valid as Soleichthys dori Randall & Munroe 2008 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys dori Randall & Munroe 2008. Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Aseraggodes Weber [M.] 1913:438, Fig. 82 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Java Sea, 6°16.5'S, 114°37'E, Siboga station 319, depth 82 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109390. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Aseraggodes dubius Weber 1913 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Larson et al. 2013:225 [ref. 32988], Voronina et al. 2016:396 [ref. 35064], Kimura & Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:295 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes dubius Weber 1913. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea, Timor Sea and Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia. Habitat: marine.

elongata, Solea Day [F.] 1877:426, Pl. 90 (fig. 4) [The fishes of India Part 3; ref. 4886] Madras, India. Syntypes (2) and/or Day specimens: ?AMS B.8278-79 (2); ZSI 1091 (1, lost), 1094 (1, lost), 2714 (1, figured specimen, lost). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:162 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:297 [ref. 25110]. Reasons for loss of ZSI type specimens during WWII see Chopra 1947:349-350 [ref. 33077]. •Valid as Solea elongata Day 1877 -- (Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:361 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:234 [ref. 23922], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:16 [ref. 29607], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:84 [ref. 35264], Psomadakis et al. 2015:327 [ref. 34104], Ali et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:124 [ref. 37020], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321]). Current status: Valid as Solea elongata Day 1877. Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to Sri Lanka and western Bay of Bengal, India. Habitat: marine.

elongatus, Typhlachirus Pellegrin [J.] & Chevey [P.] 1940:155, Fig. 1 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 65; ref. 13132] Bac Lieu to Vinh Chau, Vietnam. Syntypes: MNHN 1939-0270 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Brachirus elongatus (Pellegrin & Chevey 1940) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Typhlachirus elongatus Pellegrin & Chevey 1940 -- (Evseenko & Bolshakov 2018:553 [ref. 36418], Tan & Grinang 2020:7 [ref. 37930]). Current status: Valid as Typhlachirus elongatus Pellegrin & Chevey 1940. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Mekong River delta (southern Vietnam). Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

elongatus, Xenobuglossus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:13 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] Walvis Bay, Namibia, 22°54'S, 14°30'E, southeastern Atlantic, depth 8 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 426. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Desoutter 1994:242 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalmus (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter 1990:1048 [ref. 18967], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3029 [ref. 34618] as chirophthalma). Current status: Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

fasciata, Solea Basilewsky [S.] 1855:261 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Shantung [Shandong], China. Holotype or syntype: ZIN 5273 (1, lost). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:280 [ref. 37075]. Type specimen ZIN 5273 lost during WWII; see Voronina & Volkova 2019:280 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Zebrias fasciatus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Gomon 1987:21 [ref. 17667], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:201 [ref. 21500], Nakabo 2000:1386 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1386 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:440, 687 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) -- (Li & Wang 1995:317 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Wang et al. 2014:50 [ref. 34516]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific off northern China (if valid). Habitat: marine.

fasciata, Synaptura Macleay [W.] 1882:14 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 2870] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16281-001 [ex MAMU F1168]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Solea fasciata Basilewsky 1855 when both are in Zebrias; replaced by Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987. •Objective synonym of Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:865 [ref. 22532], Hoese & Bray 2006:1852 [ref. 29000]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] 1824:230 [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) v. 7; ref. 3144] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also appeared in Nardo 1827:32 [ref. 3146] and 1827:481 [ref. 19740]. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

filamentosa, Synaptura (Synaptura) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:93 [8] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 18663] Laos Cambodgien. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9643. On p. 8 of separate. •Synonym of Euryglossa orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440]). •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

filiger, Aseraggodes Weber [M.] 1913:436, Pl. 11 (fig. 4) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Buka Bucht, Rotti Island, Siboga station 299, depth 34 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109387. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Coryphillus filiger (Weber 1913) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314]). •Valid as Aseraggodes filiger Weber 1913 -- (Randall 2002:252 [ref. 26248] as filifer, Yoshida et al. 2013:217 [ref. 34464]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes filiger Weber 1913. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: brackish, marine.

firmisquamis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bartsch [P.] 2005:134, Fig. 6 [Micronesica v. 38 (no. 1); ref. 28374] Outside barrier reef southwest of Koror, Palau, depth 6 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 30652. •Valid as Aseraggodes firmisquamis Randall & Bartsch 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes firmisquamis Randall & Bartsch 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Palau. Habitat: marine.

fischerei, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1879:150 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 15) (for 19 June 1879); ref. 20478] Río Mamoni near Chepo, Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW. Species originally described as above, but later as fischeri when illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:161 [p. 13 in separate], Pl. 2 (fig. 8) [ref. 18782]. Soleidae.

fitzroiensis, Synaptura De Vis [C. W.] 1882:319 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 3); ref. 17382] Mouth of Fitzroy River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: AMS I373 (1, destroyed in 1909), QM I.79. •Valid as Brachirus fitzroiensis (De Vis 1882) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus fitzroiensis (De Vis 1882). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

fluviatilis, Solea Ramsay [E. P.] 1882:111 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 18594] Hunter River, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: not at AMS. If a synonym of macleayanus then the habitat should be marine. •Synonym of Aseraggodes macleayanus (Ramsay 1881) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). •Synonym of Synclidopus macleayanus (Ramsay 1881) -- (Randall 2005:193 [ref. 28892]). Current status: Synonym of Synclidopus macleayanus (Ramsay 1881). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

foliacea, Solea Richardson [J.] 1846:279 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; coasts of China. No types known. Non-types: BMNH 1851.12.27.213-214. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 28a [ref. 11606]). •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Li & Wang 1995:305 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Brachirus foliaceus (Richardson 1846) -- (Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809] as foliacea). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

frechkopi, Microchirus Chabanaud [P.] 1952:1 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 28 (no. 69); ref. 12687] 25 miles southwest of Point Banda, 3°57'30"S, 10°36'30"E, South Atlantic, depth 85 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 433. Paratypes: (15) IRSNB 434-438 (2, 1, 2, 1, 1); MNHN 1951-0018 (1); MRAC 140350-54 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 140355-56 (2). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:321 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Microchirus frechkopi Chabanaud 1952 -- (Desoutter 1990:1041 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:225 [ref. 22326], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3017 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus frechkopi Chabanaud 1952. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Gulf of Guinea. Habitat: marine.

fulvomarginata, Solea Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:13, Pl. 33 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] False Bay, South Africa. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.9.26.1 [from Gilchrist] (1), SAM 15402 (1). Originally as fulvo-marginata. •Valid as Solea fulvomarginata Gilchrist 1904 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:438 [ref. 28072]). •Valid as Barnardichthys fulvomarginatus (Gilchrist 1904) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:23 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Valid as Barnardichthys fulvomarginata (Gilchrist 1904). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic and western Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

greenii, Solea Günther [A.] 1889:249 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 21); ref. 18208] Southwestern coast of Ireland, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1889.10.28.14. Described in more detail in Günther 1889:419 [ref. 18783]. •Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888) -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:406 [ref. 23363]). Current status: Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

guttulatus, Aseraggodes Kaup [J. J.] 1858:103 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] [Not specified] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1246. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Aseraggodes guttulatus Kaup 1858 -- (Quéro 1997:320 [ref. 23236], Fricke 1999:572 [ref. 24106], Randall & Gon 2006:175 [ref. 28662], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Randall et al. 2013:3 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes guttulatus Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Réunion (western Mascarenes) and Maldives east to South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

haackeana, Solea (Achirus) Steindachner [F.] 1883:195 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse v. 20 (no. 22); ref. 20488] St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 14330-33 (1, 1, 1, 1). Species later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1884:1104 [p. 40 of separate], Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 4234]. •Valid as Aseraggodes haackeanus (Steindachner 1883) -- (Randall & Meléndez 1987:104 [ref. 9173], Gomon et al. 1994:860 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Randall 2005:210 [ref. 28892], Hoese & Bray 2006:1842 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:817 [ref. 30616], Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:119 [ref. 36167]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes haackeanus (Steindachner 1883). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, southwestern Pacific: Western Australia; South Australia, Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

harmandi, Synaptura (Anisochirus) Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:94 [9] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 18663] Me Kong River, Cambodia. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9517. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Euryglossa harmandi (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440], Rainboth 1996:221 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Brachirus harmandi (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1998:117 [ref. 23436], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:49 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus harmandi (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Distribution: Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. Habitat: freshwater.

hartzfeldii, Achirus Bleeker [P.] 1853:123 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 16900] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2) ?BMNH 1862.6.3.24 (1). •Valid as Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker 1853) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1847 [ref. 29000], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1055 [ref. 31980], Motomura et al. 2017:223 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker 1853). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines south to Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

hediste, Synaptura Mees [G. F.] 1964:49, Pl. 4 [Fisheries Bulletin Western Australia No. 9 (pt 4); ref. 9231] Off Cheyne Head, King George Sound, Western Australia. Holotype: WAM P.5532-001. Paratypes: WAM P.5533-001 (1), P.5534-001 (1). Type catalog: Hutchins & Smith 1991:43 [ref. 19335], Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Incertae sedis in Soleidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1852 [ref. 29000]). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

hedleyi, Pardachirus Ogilby [J. D.] 1916:144, Pl. 17 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 3297] Port Jackson, N. S. W; Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (9) QM I.2491-92 (1, 1, not found), I.2493 (1), I.2494 (1, not found), I.2495-97 (1, 1, 1). •Valid as Pardachirus hedleyi Ogilby 1916 -- (Clark & George 1979:115 [ref. 6992], Kuiter 1993:390 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:384 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1847 [ref. 29000], Randall & Johnson 2007:8 [ref. 29291]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus hedleyi Ogilby 1916. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

heemstrai, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Gon [O.] 2006:177, Figs. 6-7 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 28662] Aliwal Shoal, 30°15'S, 30°49'E, Clives Reef, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 27 meters. Holotype: SAIAB 46335. Paratypes: AMS I.43580 (1); BMNH 2005.4.20.1 (1); BPBM 40151 (1); CAS 222154 (1); MNHN 2005-0654 (1); NSMT-P 70720 (1); ROM 72970 (1); SAIAB 46405 (1), 57367 (1), 59705 (1), 62264 (1), 64690 (2), 65224 (1); USNM 383129 (1). Published in 2006. •Valid as Aseraggodes heemstrai Randall & Gon 2006 -- (Randall et al. 2013:1 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes heemstrai Randall & Gon 2006. Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

heinii, Solea Steindachner [F.] 1903:153 [31], Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. v. 71; ref. 15046] Qishn, Yémen, Arabian coast. Syntypes: (7) NMW (lost). Not included in abstract [ref. 14894]. On p. 29 of separate. •Valid as Solea heinii Steindachner 1903 -- (Coad 1991:27 [ref. 15702], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:18 [ref. 29607], Ali et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36183]). Current status: Valid as Solea heinii Steindachner 1903. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

helotes, Aesopia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:99 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Coromandel, India. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]. Based on Russell, drawing 71. •Status uncertain -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) -- (Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787). Soleidae.

heraldi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bartsch [P.] 2005:129, Figs. 1-2 [Micronesica v. 38 (no. 1); ref. 28374] Outer reef flat, Kwajalein Island, Kwajalein Atoll [Ralik Chain], Marshall Islands, western Pacific. Holotype: BPBM 18445. Paratypes: USNM 141788 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes heraldi Randall & Bartsch 2005 -- (Randall 2005:205 [ref. 28892], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes heraldi Randall & Bartsch 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Marshall Islands. Habitat: marine.

herrei, Aseraggodes Seale [A.] 1940:12, Pl. 2 [Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 1932-40, Los Angeles v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 12332] Post Office Bay, Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): CAS 5747. •Valid as Aseraggodes herrei Seale 1940 -- (Krupp in Fischer et al. 1995:1614 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:621 [ref. 24023], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Nelson et al. 2004:182 [ref. 27807], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:195 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:188 [ref. 32708], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fourriére et al. 2016:460 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:612 [ref. 34923]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes herrei Seale 1940. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

heterolepis, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1856:65 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1862.6.3.1. Type catalog: Okamoto & Motomura 2021:356 [ref. 38068]. •Valid as Brachirus heterolepis (Bleeker 1856) -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1054 [ref. 31980], Fricke et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33932]). •Synonym of Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852) -- (Okamoto & Motomura 2021:355 [ref. 38068]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

heterorhinos, Solea Bleeker [P.] 1856:64 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 1; ref. 311] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Syntypes: ? AMS B.7685 (1); BMNH 1862.6.3.12 (1); RMNH 6758 (3). •Valid as Aesopia heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977]). •Valid as Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Li & Wang 1995:289 [ref. 16193], Myers 1999:280 [ref. 23965], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1385 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:451 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1385 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495], Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Munroe & Menke 2004:248 [ref. 27772], Randall 2005:617 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1849 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862], Motomura et al. 2010:231 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:108 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1056 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:191 [ref. 33932], Fricke et al. 2019:317 [ref. 36673], Fujiwara et al. 2020:38 [ref. 38631]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Marshall Islands, Tonga and Samoa, north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan), south to New South Wales (Australia). Former Red Sea records are now assigned to Soleichthys dori Randall & Munroe, 2008 Habitat: marine.

hexophthalma, Solea Bennett [E. T.] 1831:147 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] Atlantic coast of northern Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.12.26.540 [or 520] [ex Zool. Soc.]. Species name misspelled exophthalma by Gruvel & Bouyat 1906:155 [ref. 30367]. •Valid as Dicologoglossa [sic] hexophthalma (Bennett 1831) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1313 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1039 [ref. 18967], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:73 [ref. 36649]). •Valid as Solea hexophthalma Bennett 1831 -- (Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519]). •Valid as Monochirus hexophthalmus (Bennett 1831) -- (Reiner 2019:297 [ref. 38139]). •Valid as Microchirus hexophthalmus (Bennett 1831) -- (Desoutter 1994:234 [ref. 22326], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3018 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:92 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:193 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus hexophthalmus (Bennett 1831). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: including Madeira, São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

hispidus, Monochirus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1814:17 [Précis des découvertes et travaux somiologiques de Mr. C. S. Rafinesque-Schmaltz; ref. 3582] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814 -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1317 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:153 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3022 [ref. 34618], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:194 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:101 [ref. 37117], Bariche & Fricke 2020:103 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:87 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814. Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Galicia (Spain) south to Ghana. Habitat: marine.

hogani, Synclidopus Johnson [J. W.] & Randall [J. E.] 2008:247, Figs. 1-4 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 52 (part 2); ref. 29797] Daintree River, upstream from Daintree township, 16°14.69'S, 145°18.44'E, Queensland, Australia, depth 0.4-0.8 meters. Holotype: QM I.38104. Paratypes: AMS I.44260-001 (1); BPBM 40656 (1); QM I.36402 (1), I.38105 (2). Plus non-type material (1). •Valid as Synclidopus hogani Johnson & Randall 2008. Current status: Valid as Synclidopus hogani Johnson & Randall 2008. Soleidae. Distribution: Daintree River, Queensland, Australia. Habitat: freshwater.

holcomi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2002:248, Figs. 1-2 [Pacific Science v. 56 (no. 3); ref. 26248] Off Ala Moana Beach Park, near a rock wall, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, depth 0.6 meters. Holotype: BPBM 38448. Paratypes: BPBM 37852 (1), CAS 214207 (1), MNHN 2001-1113 (1), NSMT-P.60933 (1), USNM 365371 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes holcomi Randall 2002 -- (Mundy 2005:521 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:467 [ref. 30952], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes holcomi Randall 2002. Soleidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

humilis, Solea Cantor [T. E.] 1849:1201 [219] [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 18 (pt 2); ref. 715] Sea of Penang, Malaysia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1860.3.19.480 (skin). On p. 219 of separate. •Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846 -- (Li & Wang 1995:287 [ref. 16193], Munroe 2001:3887 [ref. 26314], Vachon et al. 2008:12 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

impar, Solea Bennett [E. T.] 1831:147 [Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London 1830-31 (pt 1); ref. 5778] West Africa, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.9.13.163 [ex Zool. Soc.]. •Valid as Solea impar Bennett 1831 -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1319 [ref. 13677], Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112], Golani 2021:87 [ref. 38303]). •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:955 [ref. 15614], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753]). •Valid as Pegusa impar (Bennett 1831) -- (Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:194 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:103 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa impar (Bennett 1831). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Senegal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

indica, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:474 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Madras, India. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1846.11.22.--. Soleidae.

insignis, Vanstraelenia Chabanaud [P.] 1950:10 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] 10 miles northwest of Luanda, 8°37'S, 13°12'E, depth 60 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 416. Paratypes: IRSNB 417-425 (1, 2, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1); MNHN 1951-0016 (1); MRAC 140357-58 (1, 1), 140359-61 [?60-61 exchanged] (3, or 1), 140362 (1), 140363-64 (2), 140365 (1), 140366-67 (2). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:47 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalmus (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter 1990:1049 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915) -- (Desoutter 1994:239 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3029 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Vanstraelenia chirophthalma (Regan 1915). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Aesopia Bleeker [P.] 1860:71 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 8 (art. 1); ref. 374] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Pseudaesopia japonica (Bleeker 1860) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:195 [ref. 21500], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1385 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] as Pseudoaesopia dated 1862, Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1385 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:440, 687 [ref. 26218], Hoese & Bray 2006:1849 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:108 [ref. 32413], Sonoyama et al. 2020:124 [ref. 37637]). •Valid as Zebrias japonicus (Bleeker 1860) -- (Li & Wang 1995:314 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias japonicus (Bleeker 1860). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific; antitropical. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Achirus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:186 [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Holotype (unique): RMNH 4832. Type information: Boeseman 1947:151 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Heteromycteris japonica (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Ohashi & Motomura 2011:106 [ref. 32413]). •Valid as Heteromycteris japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:266 [ref. 19754], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:188 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:300 [ref. 16193], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1383 [ref. 25182], Shimizu 2001:45 [ref. 25799], Nakabo 2002:1383 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:440, 687 [ref. 26218], Voronina et al. 2016:398 [ref. 35064], Sonoyama et al. 2020:123 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

jaubertensis, Achirus Rendahl [H.] 1921:16 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 61 (no. 9); ref. 3700] 45 nautical miles west-southwest of Cape Jaubert, northwestern Australia, depth 72 feet. Holotype: NRM 9895. Paratypes: MNHN 1959-0612 (1), NRM 25900 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Rendahlia jaubertensis (Rendahl 1921) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1849 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Rendahlia jaubertensis (Rendahl 1921). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

jenny, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Gon [O.] 2006:182, Fig 8 [Israel Journal of Zoology v. 51 (no. 3); ref. 28662] Off Flic en Flac, 20°15'S, 57°22'E, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 8-15 meters. Holotype (unique): SAIAB 52097. •Valid as Aseraggodes jenny Randall & Gon 2006 -- (Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes jenny Randall & Gon 2006. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Mauritius (Mascarenes endemic). Habitat: marine.

jerreus, Pleuronectes Cuvier [G.] 1829:343 [Le Règne Animal (Edition 2) v. 2; ref. 995] Vizagapatam, India. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:344-345 [ref. 25922]. Available from footnote as, "Pl. jerreus, N., ou Jerré potoo, B., Russel, 71." •Unidentifiable -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:344 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1789) -- (Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787). Soleidae.

kaiana, Solea Günther [A.] 1880:49, Pl. 21 (fig. C) [Report on the shore fishes procured during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876 v. 1 (pt 6); ref. 2011] Kai Islands, Indonesia, Banda Sea, Challenger station 192, depth 129 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1879.5.14.64. •Valid as Aseraggodes kaianus (Günther 1880) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:192 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:295 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1385 [ref. 25182], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1385 [ref. 26193], Park et al. 2007:77 [ref. 29188], Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:311 [ref. 29399], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:104 [ref. 32413], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes kaianus (Günther 1880). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Arafura Sea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

kaupi, Solea Berg [C.] 1895:79 [Anales del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Buenos Aires v. 4; ref. 261] Eastern Atlantic [not Montevideo, Uruguay]. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1998-1460. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922] with correction of type locality. Replacement for Solea brasiliensis Kaup 1858, preoccupied by Solea brasilinesis Agassiz 1831. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25922]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

keralensis, Zebrias (Nematozebrias) Joglekar [A.] 1976:68, Fig. 1 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 197 (no. 1-2); ref. 7341] Aleppy Kerala coast, Arabian Sea, India. Holotype: ZSI F6822/2. Paratypes: ZSI F6823/2 (3). •Valid as Zebrias keralensis Joglekar 1976 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias keralensis Joglekar 1976. Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

kikori, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:93, Fig. 5 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Kikori River, 4 kilometers southwest of Ero village, 7°28'S, 144°26'E, Papua New Guinea, depth 0-1.2 meters. Holotype: WAM P.31210-002. Paratypes: BPBM 40466 (3), NTM S.16250-001 (3); USNM 387207 (3); WAM P.30977-020 (13), P.31210-018 (6); ZMB 33746 (3). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. Name is treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Leptachirus kikori Randall 2007. Current status: Valid as Leptachirus kikori Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Kikori River, southern Papua New Guinea. Habitat: brackish.

kimurai, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:312, Fig. 7 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Dumaguete fish market, Negros, Philippines. Holotype: BPBM 22165. Paratypes: USNM 385814 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes kimurai Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Fricke 2015:7 [ref. 33807]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes kimurai Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Habitat: marine.

kleinii, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1827:255 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Solea kleini (Risso 1827) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1319 [ref. 13677]). •Valid as Synaptura kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922] but dating to 1810, Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112], Golani 2021:87 [ref. 38303]). •Valid as Synapturichthys kleini (Risso 1827) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:155 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:75 [ref. 36649], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3028 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:95 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:195 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519], Iglésias et al. 2021:183 [ref. 38818]). Current status: Valid as Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic; southwestern Indian Ocean (South Africa). Habitat: brackish, marine.

klunzingeri, Pardachirus Weber [M.] 1907:250, Pl. 13 (fig. 2) [Süsswasserfische von Neu-Guinea v. 5 (Zool.) pt 2; ref. 4599] Mouth of the Merauke River, Papua, Indonesia; Port Darwin; plus one more. Syntypes: (3) SMNS 2521 (1) Port Darwin, ZMA 109407 (1). Weber specimens: BMNH 1913.12.15.38-39 (2), MNHN 1859-592 (2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236], Fricke 1995:19 [ref. 28100] with a syntype at SMNS but dates to Weber 1917, Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864]. Based on 3 specimens; the syntype that is described and figured (ZMA 109407) would make the best lectotype; it is from Papua. Randall 2007:96 [ref. 29914] treats a holotype that is lost. •Valid as Aseraggodes klunzingeri (Weber 1907) -- (Roberts 1978:69 [ref. 8886], Larson & Martin 1990:76 [ref. 16606], Allen 1991:206 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 2000:154 [ref. 27467], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] as Bleeker 1851, Allen et al. 2002:324 [ref. 25930], Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Leptachirus klunzingeri (Weber 1907) -- (Randall 2007:96 [ref. 29914], Morgan et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31262]). Current status: Valid as Leptachirus klunzingeri (Weber 1907). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific and southeastern Indian Ocean. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

kobensis, Solea (Achirus) Steindachner [F.] 1896:218 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 11; ref. 14618] Kobe, Japan. Holotype (unique): NMW 14318. •Valid as Aseraggodes kobensis (Steindachner 1896) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:192 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:294 [ref. 16193], Chen et al. 1997:177 [ref. 26476], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:645 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1385 [ref. 25182], Shinohara et al. 2001:336 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:1385 [ref. 26193], Randall 2002:252 [ref. 26248], Choi et al. 2003:440, 687 [ref. 26218], Randall 2007:466 [ref. 30952], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:104 [ref. 32413], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Yoshida et al. 2013:218 [ref. 34464], Motomura et al. 2017:222 [ref. 35490], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36460], Okamoto et al. 2019:992 [ref. 37093], Sonoyama et al. 2020:123 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes kobensis (Steindachner 1896). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Laccadives Islands; eastern Malaysia and Gulf of Thailand east to Philippines, north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

krempfi, Synaptura Durand [J.] 1940:39, Pl. 7 [Institut Océanographic de l'Indochine Note 36; ref. 13008] Grand Lac, Cambodia. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (3) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Euroglossa siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1984:817 [ref. 11440]). •In a category synonyms/misidentifications under Euryglossa panoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Rainboth 1996:222 [ref. 22772]). •Synonym of Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Desoutter et al. 2001:347 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater.

kruppi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in Randall, Bogorodsky & Mal 2013:7, Fig. 2 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32941] Unnamed small island off Qunfudhah, east side, 19°16.813’N, 40°53.265’E, coral patch near outer edge of fringing reef, Saudia Arabia, Red Sea, depth 2 meters. Holotype (unique): SMF 33620. •Valid as Aseraggodes kruppi Randall & Bogorodsky 2013 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes kruppi Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

lactea, Bathysolea Roule [L.] 1916:9 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 19523] Cape Verde Islands, station 1186, depth 660 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM (lost). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. Type lost by Chabanaud. •Valid as Bathysolea lactea Roule 1916 -- (Desoutter 1990:1037 [ref. 18967], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:109 [ref. 15757], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:408 [ref. 23363], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3007 [ref. 34618] doubtful species). Current status: Valid as Bathysolea lactea Roule 1916. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern central Atlantic: off Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

lagarderae, Bathysolea Quéro [J.-C.] & Desoutter [M.] 1990:107, Fig. 1 [Cybium v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 15757] Off Madagascar, 12°36'00"S, 47°17'03"E, depth 310 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1988-415. Paratypes: MNHN 1988-0416 (2, 1 cleared and stained), 1988-0417 to 0419 (2, 1, 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al 2001:320 [ref. 25922], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]. •Valid as Bathysolea lagarderae Quéro & Desoutter 1990 -- (Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:408 [ref. 23363], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Bathysolea lagarderae Quéro & Desoutter 1990. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

lakdoensis, Dagetichthys Stauch [A.] & Blanc [M.] 1964:173, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 4200] Upper Bénoué basin, northern Cameroon, western Africa. Holotype: MNHN 1962-0309. Paratypes: MNHN 1962-0310 through 0317 (8). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:320-321 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Dagetichthys lakdoensis Stauch & Blanc 1964 -- (Desoutter 1986:430 [ref. 6212], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:863 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Chapleau & Desoutter 1996:103 [ref. 22306], Vachon et al. 2008:404 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys lakdoensis Stauch & Blanc 1964. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Africa: Bénoué River basin, Lower Niger-Benue ecoregion endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

lascaris, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:311, Pl. 7 (fig. 32) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): MNHN B-0873 (dry, no skeleton). Type catalog: Bertin 1945:378 [ref. 21554], Desoutter et al. 2001:323 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1320 [ref. 13677], Ben-Tuvia 1990:955 [ref. 15614], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112]). •Valid as Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:872 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967], Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:548 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3024 [ref. 34618], Ounifi-Ben Amor et al. 2018:948 [ref. 36368], Martins & Carneiro 2018:87 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:194 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:103 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:87 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to South Africa, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

lateralis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:199, Figs. 7-8 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Ua Huka, Marquesas Islands, depth 4.5-9 meters. Holotype: BPBM 10092. Paratypes: BPBM 12757 (1), USNM 392053 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes lateralis Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes lateralis Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Marquesas Islands. Habitat: marine.

lenisquamis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:201, Fig. 9 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Camp Cove, 33°50'S, 151°17'E, Sydney Harbor. New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: NMV A 19646. Paratypes: AMS I.27047-001 (1), 27063-013 (1), 28514-002 (1); BMNH 2004.10.26.4 (1); BPBM 39610 (1); CAS 221846 (1); NMV A 3607 (1), 5827 (1), 25543-002 (2); NSMT P 70086 (1); USNM 380210 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes lenisquamis Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes lenisquamis Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

leucorhynchos, Achiroides Bleeker [P.] 1851:411 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Surakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6771 (1 of 6). •Valid as Achiroides leucorhynchos Bleeker 1851 -- (Roberts 1989:183 [ref. 6439] as leucorhynchus, Kottelat et al. 1993:170 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:221 [ref. 22772], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Achiroides leucorhynchos Bleeker 1851. Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

lineata, Solea Ramsay [E. P.] 1883:406 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 20899] Port Stephens, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS A.13191. •Described from a damaged juvenile, status uncertain -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:248 [ref. 27772]). •Valid as Soleichthys lineatus (Ramsay 1883) -- (Munroe & Menke 2004:253 [ref. 27772]). •Synonym of Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1849 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

linguatula, Solea (Monochirus) Swainson [W.] 1839:303 [The natural history and classification v. 2; ref. 4303] Based on Rondelet 324. Monochirus is masculine, so species probably should have been lingulatus if an adjective. Possibly preoccupied by Monochirus linguatulus Thompson 1839. Soleidae.

linguatulus, Monochirus Thompson [W.] 1839:405 [Annals of Natural History, or Magazine of Zoology, Botany, and Geology v. 2 (no. 12) (art. 47); ref. 17906] Brixham, England. Syntypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Described independently of Monochirus linguatula Swainson 1839; earliest not researched; based on specimens and literature sources. Soleidae.

lingula, Monochirus Costa [O. G.] 1847-48:50, Pl. 49 [Fauna del regno di Napoli v. 3 (pt 2); ref. 980] Naples, Italy, western Mediterranean Sea. Original not seen. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

lipophthalma, Synaptura Károli [J.] 1882:176 [Természetrajzi Füzetek, Budapest v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1881); ref. 14295] Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): MNSB 1115 (whereabouts unknown). In JNMP? •Valid as Typhlachirus lipophthalmus (Károli 1882) -- (Evseenko & Bolshakov 2018:553 [ref. 36418], Tan & Grinang 2020:4 [ref. 37930]). Current status: Valid as Typhlachirus lipophthalmus (Károli 1882). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Sarawak, Borneo (Malaysia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

longipinnis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:314, Fig. 8 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Nil Desperandum Reef, 6°37'S, 129°47'E, Banda, Indonesia, depth 9 meters. Holotype (unique): BPBM 36647. •Valid as Aseraggodes longipinnis Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1051 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes longipinnis Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Banda, Indonesia (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

longisquamis, Capartella Chabanaud [P.] 1950:19 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] French Equatorial Africa, 10°05'N, 77°W, depth 320-360 meters. Holotype (unique): IRSNB 432. Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:46 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888) -- (Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:402 [ref. 23363], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

lorentz, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:96, Fig. 7 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Lorentz River, Papua Province, Indonesia, New Guinea. Holotype: ZMA 109399. Paratypes: BMNH 1913.12.15.38-39 (2); BPBM 40460 (1); USNM 387648 (1); WAM P.32818-001 (1); ZMA 123605-08 (4). Plus 2 non-types at MNHN. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus lorentz Randall 2007. Current status: Valid as Leptachirus lorentz Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Lorentz River, Papua Province, southern New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater.

lucapensis, Zebrias Seigel [J. A.] & Adamson [T. A.] 1985:13, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 98 (no. 1); ref. 17276] Vicinity of Hundred Islands, Lucap Bay, Lingayen Gulf, Philippines. Holotype: LACM 37436-6 (1). Paratypes: LACM 37346-8 (1). •Valid as Zebrias lucapensis Seigel & Adamson 1985 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Voronina et al. 2016:401 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias lucapensis Seigel & Adamson 1985. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Philippines and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

lusitanica, Synaptura de Brito Capello [F.] 1868:62 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa v. 2 (no. 5); ref. 17968] Lisbon and Setubal, Portugal [eastern Atlantic]. Syntypes: (8) BMNH 1867.7.23.9 (1), MNHN 0000-4804 (1), lost in fire (probably 6). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Synaptura lusitanica (de Brito Capello 1868) -- (Torchio 1973:634 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1323 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:864 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864] as lusitanica lusitanica). •Valid as Dagetichthys lusitanicus (de Brito Capello 1868) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:408 [ref. 32765], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3012 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:94 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:192 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:295 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys lusitanicus (de Brito Capello 1868). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

luteus, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:312 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, northwestern Mediterranean Sea, depth 60 meters. Neotype: MNHN 1986-0259. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:323 [ref. 25922]. Neotype designated by Desoutter 1987:438 [ref. 6742]. Another neotype designated by Fricke 1999:53 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Monochirus luteus (Risso 1810) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:180 [ref. 25472], Fricke 1999:53 [ref. 24101], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577]). •Valid as Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1311 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:152 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:190 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:73 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:548 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3010 [ref. 34618], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:192 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:102 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:28 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:98 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:86 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Scotland and southern Norway south to Morocco, including Azores. Habitat: brackish, marine.

macleayana, Solea Ramsay [E. P.] 1881:462 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 18588] Manly Beach, Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (several) AMS I.16278-001 [ex MAMU F1167] (1). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Aseraggodes macleayanus (Ramsay 1881) -- (Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Synclidopus macleayanus (Ramsay 1881) -- (Randall 2005:193 [ref. 28892], Johnson & Randall 2008:245 [ref. 29797]). Current status: Valid as Synclidopus macleayanus (Ramsay 1881). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Australia. Habitat: marine.

macrolepis, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1858:7 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 5 (art. 7); ref. 364] Singkawang, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Euryglossa macrolepis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Mohsin & Ambak 1996:596 [ref. 27969]). •Valid as Brachirus macrolepis (Bleeker 1858) -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus macrolepis (Bleeker 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean and western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

macronasus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in Randall, Bogorodsky & Mal 2013:10, Figs. 4-6 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32941] Gulf of Aqaba, Egypt, Dahab, dive site, "lighthouse", 28°29’54.94"N, 34°31’11.71"E, coral reef, depth 5 meters. Holotype: BPBM 41155. Paratypes: BPBM 42256 (1), SAIAB 190254 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes macronasus Randall & Bogorodsky 2013 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes macronasus Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Solea Bleeker [P.] (ex Cuvier) 1851:409 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker refers lists Cuvier as author, but we find no species with this name dating to Cuvier. •Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846 -- (Li & Wang 1995:287 [ref. 16193], Vachon et al. 2008:12 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Achirus Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Bleeker 1851:18 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 9); ref. 16875] Name only in the synonymy of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). •In the synonymy of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:13 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

maculipinnis, Monochirus Kaup [J. J.] (ex Agassiz) 1858:101 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] A misspelling of Monochir maculipennis Agassiz 1851 and not an original description. Mentioned by Desoutter et al. 2001:340 [ref. 25992]. Misspelling. Soleidae.

maculosus, Soleichthys Muchhala [N.] & Munroe [T. A.] 2004:58, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Research v. 51 (no. 1); ref. 27597] Gulf of Carpentaria, northwestern Queensland, Australia, 12°31'S, 141°02'E, depth 51 meters. Holotype: QM I.28800. Paratypes: CSIRO H 4201-03 (1), H 4202-01 (1); QM I.23399 (1), I.30098 (2). •Valid as Soleichthys maculosus Muchhala & Munroe 2004 -- (Munroe & Menke 2004:253 [ref. 27772], Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys maculosus Muchhala & Munroe 2004. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

maculosus, Zebrias Oommen [V. P.] 1977:285, Fig. 7 [Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society v. 74 (pt 2); ref. 7272] Arabian Sea, 9°30'N, 75°50'E, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype: IFP F55a. Paratypes: IFP [Mus. Mar. Res. Integrated. Fish. Proj.] F55b-c (2). •Valid as Zebrias maculosus Oommen 1977 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias maculosus Oommen 1977. Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

magnoculus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:203, Fig. 10 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Isle Ua, 22°42'40"S, 166°48'50"E, New Caledonia, depth 9-18 meters. Holotype: ROM 64830. Paratypes: ROM 76686 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes magnoculus Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes magnoculus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

mangilli, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:310 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922] as no type at MNHN and as mangili.. Spelled mangili in Risso 1827:255 [ref. 3757]. Species name misspelled maugilii by Cuvier 1831:252 [ref. 30376]. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892] as mangili, Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967] as mangili, Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

margaritifera, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:468 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] Borneo?. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1844.11.17.62. •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

marginata, Synaptura Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:11, Pls. 2, 3 (fig. 1) [Marine Investigations in South Africa No. 8; ref. 14723] Algoa Bay, South Africa, 33°52'30"S, 25°47'30"E, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.12.17.36. •Valid as Synaptura marginata Boulenger 1900 -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665], Nakabo 2000:1387 [ref. 25182], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:105 [ref. 26368], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693], Nakabo 2002:1387 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:216 [ref. 27510], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:437 [ref. 28072], Shao et al. 2008:265 [ref. 29952], Motomura et al. 2010:232 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:109 [ref. 32413]). •Valid as Dagetichthys marginata (Boulender 1900) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:407 [ref. 32765], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989] as marginatus, Okamoto & Motomura 2021:365 [ref. 38068]). Current status: Valid as Dagetichthys marginatus (Boulenger 1900). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Delagoa Bay south to Knysna (South Africa). Habitat: brackish, marine.

marmorata, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1853:90 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 16911] Lawajong, Solor Island, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Brachirus marmoratus (Bleeker 1853) -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1054 [ref. 31980]). •Synonym of Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852) -- (Okamoto & Motomura 2021:355 [ref. 38068] as marmoratus). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

marmoratus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Commerson) 1802:658, 660, Pl. 12 ( fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Neotype: BPBM 20092. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:340-341 [ref. 25922] Figured on Pl. 12 (fig. 3) of Lacepède 1801 [ref. 2710], but with vernacular name. Neotype designation by Fricke 1999:574 [ref. 24106] is invalid; see Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Neotype designated by Randall & Johnson 2007:9 [ref. 29291]. •Valid as Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Clark & George 1979:110 [ref. 6992], Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757], Heemstra & Gon 1986:872 [ref. 5665], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:110 [ref. 15757], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:361 [ref. 22896], Quéro 1997:323 [ref. 23236], Carpenter et al. 1997:233 [ref. 23922], Fricke 1999:573 [ref. 24106], Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Heemstra et al. 2004:3331 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:437 [ref. 28072], Randall & Johnson 2007:11 [ref. 29291], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:433 [ref. 33460], Ali et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273], Arndt & Fricke 2019:29 [ref. 36883], Eagderi et al. 2019:124 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, western Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Sri Lanka. Habitat: marine.

martine, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Bogorodsky [S. V.] in Randall, Bogorodsky & Mal 2013:13, Fig. 7-9 [Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation v. 8; ref. 32941] Lakshadweep (Laccadive Islands), Andrott Island, lagoon, sand bottom, India, depth 1.5 meters. Holotype: UOK 132. Paratypes: SAIAB 80938 (1), UOK 133 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes martine Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes martine Randall & Bogorodsky 2013. Soleidae. Distribution: India. Habitat: marine.

matsubarai, Heteromycteris Ochiai [A.] 1963:17, Pl. 8; Fig. 8b [Biogeographical Society of Japan (Tokyo) 1963; ref. 7982] Tanegashima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 26154. Paratypes: FAKU 26153 (1), 26155-60 (6), 26834-35 (2), 26397 (1). •Valid as Heteromycteris matsubarai Ochiai 1963 -- (Kyushin et al. 1982:266 [ref. 19754], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:188 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:302 [ref. 16193], Nakabo 2000:1383 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1383 [ref. 26193], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:107 [ref. 32413]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris matsubarai Ochiai 1963. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

matsuurai, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:315, Figs. 9-10 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Northeast coast of Kodek Bay, Lombok, Indonesia, depth 15 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P-71517. Paratypes: CAS 46099 (1), ROM 48617 (1), USNM 273855 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes matsuurai Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1051 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes matsuurai Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia and Philippines. Habitat: marine.

mbaoensis, Solea senegalensis var. Pellegrin [J.] 1907:87 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 32; ref. 15166] M'bao, between Dakar and Rufisque, Senegal. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1907-0254. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]. Originally as m'baoensis. Also appeared in Pellegrin 1907:83 [ref. 14411]. •Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881) -- (Desoutter 1990:1039 [ref. 18967] as Dicologoglossa, Desoutter 1994:242 [ref. 22326], Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau 1881). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

megalepidoura, Brachirus Fowler [H. W.] 1934:347, Fig. 100 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 85 (for 1933); ref. 1416] Off east coast of Leyte Island, Philippines, Albatross station D.5204, depth 15 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 93081. Paratypes: USNM 93552-54 (2, 2, 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. Spelled megalepidura by Chabanaud 1938. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

melanochira, Solea Moreau [É.] 1874:115, Pl. 15 (figs. A-C) [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 2; ref. 17791] Arcachon basin, France. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-6916 (1), 0000-7308 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858 -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1046 [ref. 18967], Ben-Tuvia 1990:953 [ref. 15614], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Vachon et al. 2008:22 [ref. 29607], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3026 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

melanoptera, Synaptura Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:13, Pl. 32 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Off East London, South Africa, 33°06'45"S, 27°55'45"E, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 43 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAM 15429. •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665]). Current status: Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

melanorhynchus, Plagusia Bleeker [P.] 1850:15 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16884] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1880.4.21.186 (1), NMV 46409 (1). Originally as melanorhijnchus. •Valid as Achiroides melanorhynchus (Bleeker 1850) -- (Roberts 1989:183 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:170 [ref. 23448], Rainboth 1996:221 [ref. 22772], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:169 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:195 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:463 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Achiroides melanorhynchus (Bleeker 1850). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

melanospilos, Achirus Bleeker [P.] 1854:257 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 345] Manado, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 6756. Correct spelling is melanospilos. •Valid as Aseraggodes melanospilos (Bleeker 1854) [commonly as melanospilus] -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Liachirus melanospilos (Bleeker 1854) [commonly as melanospilus] -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Li & Wang 1995:297 [ref. 16193], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:597 [ref. 27969] as melanospilus, Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1384 [ref. 25182], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] as melanospilus, Nakabo 2002:1384 [ref. 26193] as melanospilus, Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377] as melanospilus, Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461] as melanospilus, Ohashi & Motomura 2011:107 [ref. 32413] as melanospilus, Allen & Erdmann 2012:1055 [ref. 31980], Yoshida et al. 2013:219 [ref. 34464], Voronina et al. 2016:398 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:224 [ref. 35490] as melanospilus, Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Liachirus melanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia east to Philippines, north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

melanosticta, Solea (Achirus) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:845 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] Bougainville Island, depth 40 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9814. •Valid as Aseraggodes melanostictus (Peters 1877) -- (Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Myers 1999:279 [ref. 23965], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1876, Randall 2002:252 [ref. 26248], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830] dated 1876, Myers & Donaldson 2003:649 [ref. 27495] dated 1876, Randall & Bartsch 2005:131 [ref. 28374], Randall 2005:204 [ref. 28892], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:355 [ref. 28867], Hoese & Bray 2006:1844 [ref. 29000], Randall & Allen 2007:111 [ref. 29913], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Larson et al. 2013:225 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes melanostictus (Peters 1877). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microcephala, Solea Günther [A.] 1862:466 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] New South Wales, Australia. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1855.9.19.1247 (1). •Valid as Aesopia microcephala (Günther 1862) -- (Kuiter 1993:389 [ref. 23929], Kuiter 1997:384 [ref. 25488]). •Valid as Soleichthys microcephalus (Günther 1862) -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:250 [ref. 27772], Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys microcephalus (Günther 1862). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

microchirus, Pleuronectes Delaroche [F. E.] 1809:356 [70], Pl. 20 (fig. 2) [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] Barcelona, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922] as no type at MNHN. On p. 70 and Pl. 1 of separate. •Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

microlepidota, Rhinosolea Fowler [H. W.] 1946:211, Fig. 71 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 98; ref. 1456] Aguni Shima, Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 72084. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Rhinosolea microlepidota Fowler 1946 -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Nakabo 2000:1386 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1386 [ref. 26193]). Current status: Valid as Rhinosolea microlepidota Fowler 1946. Soleidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

microlepidotus, Aseraggodes Weber [M.] 1913:438, Pl. 11 (fig. 2) [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Saleh Bay, Sumbawa Island, Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia, 8°19'S, 117°41'E, Siboga station 312, depth 274 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109405. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:107 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Aseraggodes microlepidotus Weber 1913 -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:318 [ref. 29399], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes microlepidotus Weber 1913. Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

microlepis, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1863:456 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 15; ref. 17016] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3555. •Valid as Austroglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1863) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:869 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1990:1037 [ref. 18967], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:179 [ref. 25472], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:437 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Austroglossus microlepis (Bleeker 1863). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Monochirus Parnell [R.] 1837:222 [L'Institut v. 5 (no. 217); ref. 18521] Devonshire, Great Britain. No types known. Also appeared in Parnell 1837:527 [ref. 18520], earliest not established. •Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:631 [ref. 6892]). Current status: Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

monochir, Solea Bonaparte [C. L.] 1833:fasc. 5, punt. 28, Pl. 103 (fig. 2) [Iconografia della fauna italica; ref. 516] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: ANSP 8594-96 (3, missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814 -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:153 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

morrowi, Aseraggodes Chabanaud [P.] 1954:800, Pls. 24, 25 (fig. 2A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 12) v. 7 (no. 83) (art. 98); ref. 12674] Shimoni, Kenya. Holotype (unique): YPM 3740 [ex BOC 6224]. Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25 [ref. 16741], Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Pardachirus morrowi (Chabanaud 1954) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:872 [ref. 5665], Quéro Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922], Randall & Johnson 2007:11 [ref. 29291], Fricke et al. 2018:373 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus morrowi (Chabanaud 1954). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: East Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

muelleri, Synaptura Steindachner [F.] 1879:30 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 20480] Cleveland Bay near Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 19°16'S, 146°48'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2278. Type catalog: Fricke 1995:19 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:60 [ref. 29864]. Species originally as Mülleri, change mandatory; later described in more detail in Steindachner 1879:4 [ref. 4228]. •Valid as Dexillichthys muelleri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3885 [ref. 26314]). •Valid as Brachirus muelleri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122]). •Valid as Dexillus muelleri (Steindachner 1879) -- (Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Hoese & Bray 2006:1846 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Motomura et al. 2017:223 [ref. 35490]). Current status: Valid as Dexillus muelleri (Steindachner 1879). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Habitat: marine.

multifasciata, Aesopia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:97 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1998-1306. •Synonym of Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]). •Valid as Soleichthys multifasciatus (Kaup 1858) -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:255 [ref. 27772], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys multifasciatus (Kaup 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

munroi, Strabozebrias Whitley [G. P.] 1966:238, Pl. 13 [Australian Zoologist v. 13 (pt 3); ref. 4734] Gulf of Carpentaria, 17°32'20"S, 140°33'35"E, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.7210. Paratypes: AMS 15557-063 (3). •Valid as Strabozebrias munroi Whitley 1966 -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Phyllichthys munroi (Whitley 1966) -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314]). •Valid as Zebrias munroi (Whitley 1966) -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1851 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias munroi (Whitley 1966). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish, marine.

napai, Achirus Montrouzier [X.] 1857:488 [210] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] On p. 210 of reprint. Not available, manuscript name mentioned in passing in synonymy under Achirus barbatus; Woodlark I., South Pacific. •In the synonymy of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Clark & George 1979:113 [ref. 6992], Randall & Johnson 2007:13 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

nasutus, Pleuronectes Pallas [P. S.] 1814:425 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Crimea, Ukraine, Black Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:355 [ref. 25922], Voronina & Volkova 2019:281 [ref. 37075] (no types at ZIN). •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:955 [ref. 15614], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649]). •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810), but a valid subspecies nasuta -- (Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:173 [ref. 31251]). •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908]). •Valid as Solea nasuta (Pallas 1814) -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1321 [ref. 13677], Evseenko 2003:S70 [ref. 28535], Vasil'eva 2007:190 [ref. 30517], Parin et al. 2014:549 [ref. 33547]). •Valid as Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814) -- (Ali et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36183], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:195 [ref. 37250], Iglésias et al. 2020:302 [ref. 37987] as cf. nasuta, Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519], Abliazov et al. 2021:12 [ref. 38576]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa nasuta (Pallas 1814). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; Sea of Azov; northeastern Atlantic: adjacent Portugal. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nebulosa, Synaptura Chen [J. T. F.] & Weng [H. T. C.] 1965:76, Fig. 52 [Biological Bulletin, Department of Biology, College of Science, Tunghai University, v. 25, 27, Ichthyological Series, No. 5; ref. 9207] Tungkong, southwestern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NMMBP 5173 (formerly THUP 02768). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. Genus originally misspelled once as Synatura on p. 76. •Synonym of Brachirus annularis Fowler 1934 -- (Li & Wang 1995:309 [ref. 16193]), Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Synaptura annularis (Fowler 1934) -- (Gonzales et al. 1994:491 [ref. 22282]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus annularis Fowler 1934. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

nigra, Synaptura Macleay [W.] 1880:49 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 5 (pt 1); ref. 17579] Sydney market (Botany Bay at mouth of Cook's River and Port Jackson), New South Wales, Australia. Paratypes: (several) AMS I.16280-001 [ex MAMU F225a] (3). Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. Combined with a masculine genus, the adjective should be niger. •Valid as Synaptura nigra Macleay 1880 -- (Kuiter 1993:391 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:861 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:384 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Brachirus nigra (Macleay 1880) -- (Gomon 2008:818 [ref. 30616]). •Valid as Brachirus niger (Macleay 1880) -- (Gomon 2008:818 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus niger (Macleay 1880). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: southern Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria (Australia). Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigrocirratus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:205, Fig. 12 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Southeast of Evans Head, off Iluka, 29°20'S, 153°29'E, New South Wales, Australia, depth 40-51 meters. Holotype: AMS I.26535-001. Paratypes: AMS I.321 (1), I.26535-008 (2), IA.5449 (2); NMV A 21382 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes nigrocirratus Randall 2005 -- (Randall et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32941], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes nigrocirratus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

nigromaculata, Synaptura punctatissima var. Pellegrin [J.] 1905:141 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 30; ref. 15374] Nouakchott, Mauritania, West coast of Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1905-0296. •Synonym of Synaptura lusitanica de Brito Capello 1868, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Desoutter 1990:1048 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Synaptura lusitanica de Brito Capello 1868 -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Dagetichthys lusicanicus (de Brito Capello 1868) -- (Vachon et al. 2008:408 [ref. 32765]). Current status: Synonym of Dagetichthys lusitanicus (de Brito Capello 1868). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

nigrostriolata, Solea Steindachner [F.] & Kner [R.] 1870:427 [7], Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4250] Viti-Levu, Fiji Islands. Syntypes: (2) NMW [ex MGH 5427] On p. 7 of separate. •Synonym of Soleichthys heterorhinos (Bleeker 1856) -- (Li & Wang 1995:289 [ref. 16193]). •Valid as Soleichthys nigrostriolatus (Steindachner & Kner 1870) -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:248 [ref. 27772], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys nigrostriolatus (Steindachner & Kner 1870). Soleidae. Distribution: Fiji Islands. Habitat: marine.

nitidus, Liachirus Günther [A.] 1862:479 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] China. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.3.16.198-199 (2), 1862.6.3.22 (1). •Synonym of Liachirus melanospilos (Bleeker 1854) -- (Li & Wang 1995:297 [ref. 16193] as melanospilus). Current status: Synonym of Liachirus melanospilos (Bleeker 1854). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

normani, Aseraggodes Chabanaud [P.] 1930:241 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 5 (no. 26); ref. 16074] Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1925.7.22.73. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. Type figured in Norman 1926:290, fig. 12 [ref. 3216]. Also appeared in Chabanaud 1930:191 [ref. 16264]. •Valid as Aseraggodes normani Chabanaud 1930 -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1926, Randall & Bartsch 2005:137 [ref. 28374], Randall 2005:207 [ref. 28892], Hoese & Bray 2006:1844 [ref. 29000], Randall & Bartsch 2007:109 [ref. 29373], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941], Larson et al. 2013:225 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes normani Chabanaud 1930. Soleidae. Distribution: Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia. Habitat: marine.

normani, Heteromycteris hartzfeldi hartzfeldi morpha Chabanaud [P.] 1935:221 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 60 (no. 1) (for 26 Mar. 1935); ref. 25931] Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. Not available, infrasubspecific, hartzfeldi a misspelling. •In the synonymy of Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker 1853). Infrasubspecific. Current status: Synonym of Heteromycteris hartzfeldii (Bleeker 1853). Soleidae.

obtusus, Pleuronectes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Machado 1857:23 [Catálogo de los peces que habitán ó frecuentan las costas de Cadiz y Huelva con inclusion de los del Rio Guadalquivir.; ref. 17320] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only; not available. Based on Pleuronectes obtusus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817 [ref. 17319], apparently an unpublished work. Also appeared in Graells 1887:178 [30438]. •In the synonymy of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Soleidae.

obtusus, Pleuronectes Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:4 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Name only, not available. Possibly unpublished. See also Pleuronectes obtusus Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Machado 1857. Also appeared in Graells 1887:178 [30438]. •In the synonymy of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Buglossidium luteum (Risso 1810). Soleidae.

ocellatus, Aseraggodes Weed [W. H., III] 1961:293, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1961 (no. 3); ref. 9387] North of Sweat Bay, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka, depth 0-6 feet. Holotype: YPM 1288. Paratypes: YPM 1289 (16). Type catalog: Moore & Boardman 1991:25-26 [ref. 16741]. •Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:9 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellatus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:269 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Surinami [Suriname, in error]. Holotype: NRM 19. Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:273 [ref. 20707]. •Valid as Monochirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665]). •Valid as Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1315 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1041 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:225 [ref. 22326], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:153 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:115 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3019 [ref. 34618], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805], Martins & Carneiro 2018:91 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:193 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:102 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:28 [ref. 37519], Golani 2021:86 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Spain south to Sierra Leone, including Madeira; southwestern Indian Ocean: South Africa to Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Solea Risso [A.] 1827:248 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] France, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: MNHN 0000-3249. •Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Desoutter 1990:1041 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

oculofasciatus, Soleichthys Munroe [T. A.] & Menke [S. B.] 2004:255, Figs. 2, 4 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27772] Trunk Reef, Australia, 18°23.5'S, 146°45'E, depth 49 meters. Holotype: QM I.23589. Paratypes: QM I.23194 (1). •Valid as Soleichthys oculofasciatus Munroe & Menke 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys oculofasciatus Munroe & Menke 2004. Soleidae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

oculus, Solea Alcock [A. W.] 1889:285, Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 58 (pt 2, no. 3); ref. 85] About 32 miles southwest of Puri, Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal, Investigator station 38, depth 7 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1890.12.4.8-9 [ex ZSI] (2), ZSI F12429-30 (2). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:45 [ref. 22148]. •Valid as Heteromycteris oculus (Alcock 1889) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1993:235 [ref. 24016], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:48 [ref. 27712], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:596 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris oculus (Alcock 1889). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean, western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

ommatura, Solea Richardson [J.] 1846:279 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; coasts of China; Sea of Borneo. Syntypes: Cambridge Philosophical Soc. (2, whereabouts unknown) Type information: Whitehead 1970:218 [ref. 11606]. •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:198 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:317 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Wang et al. 2014:50 [ref. 34516]). Current status: Synonym of Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

orientalis, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Senou [H.] 2007:307, Fig. 5 [Zoological Studies v. 46 (no. 3); ref. 29156] Shikoku, between Shirahama and Kinohana, east of Kashima-jima, Kochi Prefecture, Japan, depth 3 meters. Holotype: ZUMT 59828. Paratypes: SAIAB 34992 (1), ZUMT 59827 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Aseraggodes orientalis Randall & Senou 2007 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:62 [ref. 31432], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes orientalis Randall & Senou 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:157 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tranquebar [Tharangambadi], India. Syntypes: ZMB 7404 (1, right skin), 7405 (1, dry, lost), 7407 (1, right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:139-140 [ref. 24282] with syntypes; listing of ZMB 7404 as holotype by Eschmeyer et al. 1998:1250 [Catalog of Fishes] technically may have established a lectotype. •Valid as Synaptura orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212], Ataur Rahman 1989:28 [ref. 24860], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Nakabo 2000:1387 [ref. 25182]). •Valid as Euryglossa orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1047 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:27 [ref. 15702], Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:360 [ref. 22896], Rainboth 1996:222 [ref. 22772], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:596 [ref. 27969], Rema Devi et al. 1996:144 [ref. 24021], Carpenter et al. 1997:233 [ref. 23922], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:188 [ref. 25703]). •Valid as Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Lu & Wu in Kuang et al. 1986:334 [ref. 26639], Li & Wang 1995:305 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25559], Munroe 2001:3883 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1387 [ref. 26193], Ataur Rahman 2003:43 [ref. 31338], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Hoese & Bray 2006:1845 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:12 [ref. 31461], Coad 2010:268 [ref. 36620], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989], Psomadakis et al. 2015:326 [ref. 34104], Voronina et al. 2016:396 [ref. 35064], Ali et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:372 [ref. 35805], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:296 [ref. 36460], Eagderi et al. 2019:123 [ref. 37020], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321], Okamoto & Motomura 2021:366 [ref. 38068]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to northern Vietnam and Taiwan, south to northern Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

ornatus, Pleuronectes Griffith [E.] & Smith [C. H.] 1834:517, Pl. 59 (opp. p. 517) [The class Pisces, arranged by the Baron Cuvier; ref. 1908] No locality stated. Holotype (unique): BMNH (whereabouts unknown). Based on a specimen in BMNH. •Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

ovalis, Solea Richardson [J.] 1846:279 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Coasts of China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:218, Pl. 10b [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Solea ovalis Richardson 1846 -- (Li & Wang 1995:286 [ref. 16193]). •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Li & Wang 1995:305 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Distribution: China (if valid). Habitat: marine.

ovata, Solea Richardson [J.] 1846:279 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China; China seas. Syntypes: BMNH 1848.3.16.197-200 (4). •Valid as Solea ovata Richardson 1846 -- (Feng in Pan et al. 1991:530 [ref. 23876], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3887 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:12 [ref. 29607], Yoshida et al. 2013:219 [ref. 34464], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:94 [ref. 34319], Voronina et al. 2016:399 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:225 [ref. 35490], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:319 [ref. 36495] misidentified, Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321]). Current status: Valid as Solea ovata Richardson 1846. Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to northern Vietnam and southern China. Habitat: marine.

pan, Pleuronectes Hamilton [F.] 1822:130, 373, Pl. 24 (fig. 42) [An account of the fishes found in the river Ganges; ref. 2031] Eastern Ganges River estuaries from Dhaka downwards. No types known. Hamilton's original illustration reproduced by Britz 2019:Pl. 76 [ref. 37532]. •Valid as Euryglossa pan (Hamilton 1822) -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:1046 [ref. 20764]). •Valid as Synaptura pan (Hamilton 1822) -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:27 [ref. 24860], Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448]). •Valid as Brachirus pan (Hamilton 1822) -- (Li & Wang 1995:307 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Ataur Rahman 2003:42 [ref. 31338], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus pan (Hamilton 1822). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

panoides, Synaptura Bleeker [P.] 1851:440 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 16897] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Syntypes (2) and/or Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1862.6.3.7 (1) Singapore. Originally as panöides. •Valid as Euryglossa panoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Kottelat 1984:817 [ref. 11440], Rainboth 1996:222 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Synaptura panoides Bleeker 1851 -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:250 [ref. 23210]). •Valid as Brachirus panoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:218 [ref. 34464], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus panoides (Bleeker 1851). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia: Thailand and Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

pavoninus, Achirus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:658, 660 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] No locality stated [probably Indonesia]. Holotype (unique): MNHN (whereabouts unknown). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]. •Objective synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus Lacepède 1802 -- (Fricke 1999:574 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Clark & George 1979:113 [ref. 6992], Kyushin et al. 1982:267 [ref. 19754], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:450 [ref. 15987], Kuiter 1993:390 [ref. 23929], Li & Wang 1995:291 [ref. 16193], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:597 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:384 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:450 [ref. 25919] in Paradachirus, Anderson et al. 1998:29 [ref. 23611], Myers 1999:280 [ref. 23965], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1384 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:450 [ref. 25191], Sakai et al. 2001:123 [ref. 25693] in Paradachirus, Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922], Munroe 2001:3886 [ref. 26314], Nakabo 2002:1384 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:64 [ref. 26830], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:216 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624], Tan & Lim 2004:111 [ref. 27716], Randall 2005:617 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Bray 2006:1847 [ref. 29000], Randall & Johnson 2007:12 [ref. 29291], Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213], Matsuura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:321 [ref. 31170], Motomura et al. 2010:231 [ref. 31256], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:107 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1055 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:219 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33932], Voronina et al. 2016:398 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:224 [ref. 35490], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:297 [ref. 36460], Fricke et al. 2019:317 [ref. 36673], Psomadakis et al. 2020:597 [ref. 37272], Akaike et al. 2021:31 [ref. 38809], Ota et al. 2021:69 [ref. 38495]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Sri Lanka and Myanmar east to Tonga, north to Kochi Prefecture (Japan), south to Onslow (Western Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

pectoralis, Synaptura Kaup [J. J.] 1858:96 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-0173. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Austroglossus pectoralis (Kaup 1858) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:870 [ref. 5665], Desoutter 1990:1037 [ref. 18967], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:179 [ref. 25472], Desoutter et al. 2001:327 [ref. 25922], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:437 [ref. 28072]). Current status: Valid as Austroglossus pectoralis (Kaup 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic to southwestern Indian Ocean: southern Africa. Habitat: marine.

pegusa, Monochirus Risso [A.] 1827:258 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Apparently wrongly treated as an original description with a holotype by Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922]. This is apparently a misidentification (new combination) of Pleuronectes pegusa Lacepède 1802 as redescribed by Risso 1810. Soleidae.

pegusa, Pleuronectes Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:596, 635 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922]. Spelled peguza on p. 596, pegusa on p. 635. First reviser not researched. Solea pegusa Yarrell 1829 is apparently a new combination. •Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Desoutter et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

pelvicus, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 2005:208, Fig. 14 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 28892] Gilette Cay, Swain Reefs, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IB.6134. •Valid as Aseraggodes pelvicus Randall 2005 -- (Randall & Senou 2007:309 [ref. 29156], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes pelvicus Randall 2005. Soleidae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

penescalaris, Zebrias Gomon [M. F.] 1987:21 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 17667] Anxious Bay, South Australia, 33°28'S, 134°48'E, depth 30 fathoms. Holotype: SAMA A96. Paratypes: AMS I.20194-029 (7); CSIRO H 572-03 (1); SAMA A1085 (4), A1662 (1), A1697 (1), A6554 (2). •Valid as Zebrias penescalaris Gomon 1987 -- (Kuiter 1993:389 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:863 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1851 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:820 [ref. 30616]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias penescalaris Gomon 1987. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: South Australia and Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

persimilis, Solea Günther [A.] 1909:346 [Journal des Museum Godeffroy v. 6 (no. 16); ref. 14377] New Britain Island, Bismarck Archipelago. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1880.3.17.8. •Valid as Aseraggodes persimilis (Günther 1909) -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314]). •Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:12 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus pavoninus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Distribution: Western central Pacific [if valid]. Habitat: marine.

pilosa, Solea (Monochir) Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1869:709 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1869; ref. 14098] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7074. Soleidae.

polli, Capartella Chabanaud [P.] 1950:16 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] 53 miles west of Ambrizette, 7°16'S, 12°08'E, depth 380-420 meters. Holotype: IRSNB 427. Paratypes: (16) IRSNB 428-431 (1, 1, 3, 1); MNHN 1951-0019 [ex MRAC] (1); MRAC 140368-69 (1), 140370 (1), 140371-72 (2), 140373-76 (4). Type catalog: Walschaerts 1987:46 [ref. 20755], Desoutter et al 2001:320 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888) -- (Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Bathysolea polli (Chabanaud 1950) -- (Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:406 [ref. 23363], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3008 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Bathysolea polli (Chabanaud 1950). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal to Angola. Habitat: marine.

polus, Rhombus Risso [A.] 1827:480, Fig. 32 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]. •Unidentifiable -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]). Soleidae.

polylepis, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:99, Fig. 8 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] East Alligator River, Cannon Hill Lagoon, 12°22.0'S, 132°57.2'E, Northern Territory, Australia, depth 1-4 meters. Holotype: NTM S.14083-007. Paratypes: NTM S.14083-007 (1), S.14476-001 (2), S.14546-001 (3); WAM P.32819-001 (2); ZMB 33743 (1). Plus 190 non-type specimens at NTM. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:50 [ref. 30117]. •Synonym of Leptachirus darwinensis Randall 2007 -- (Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Synonym of Leptachirus darwinensis Randall 2007. Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

poropterus, Achirus Bleeker [P.] 1851:410 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 6831] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia; Padang, western Sumatra, Indonesia. Syntypes: (5). •Valid as Achirus poropterus Bleeker 1851 -- (Allen 1991:205 [ref. 21090], Miesen et al. 2016:97 [ref. 34492]). •Valid as Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Clark & George 1979:114 [ref. 6992], Kottelat et al. 1993:170 [ref. 23448], Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1848 [ref. 29000], Randall & Johnson 2007:14 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989], Fricke et al. 2014:190 [ref. 33932]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Indonesia east to New Guinea, north to Philippines, south to northern Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

proboscideus, Monodichthys Chabanaud [P.] 1925:356 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 31 (no. 5) [1925]; ref. 780] Cape Blanc [Blanco], Mauritania. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1925-0242. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Heteromycteris proboscideus (Chabanaud 1925) -- (Desoutter 1986:430 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1040 [ref. 18967], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:861 [ref. 21590], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:180 [ref. 25472], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781], Desoutter et al. 2001:322 [ref. 25922], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3014 [ref. 34618], Reiner 2019:296 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Heteromycteris proboscideus (Chabanaud 1925). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to southern Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

profundicola, Solea Vaillant [L. L.] 1888:190 [Expéditions scientifiques du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman"; ref. 4496] Portugal, depth 1290 meters. Lectotype: MNHN 1883-0128. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1903.6.29.27 (1, poor condition); MNHN 1883-0126 (1, missing), 1883-0127 (1), 1886-0015 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:325-326 [ref. 25922] with MNHN 1883-0128 as holotype. Lectotype selected by Eschmeyer 1998:1382 [ref. 23416]; status depends on interpretation of mention of a catalog with the measured specimen; the measured specimen alone is not automatically the holotype when more than one specimen is involved, but it is a measured syntype. •Valid as Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888) -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1310 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1038 [ref. 18967], Quéro & Desoutter 1990:109 [ref. 15757], Desoutter & Chapleau 1997:406 [ref. 23363], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25922], Bañón et al. 2016:325 [ref. 34397], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3009 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:191 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:294 [ref. 38139], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887]). Current status: Valid as Bathysolea profundicola (Vaillant 1888). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Ireland south to Angola, including Madeira, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

punctatissima, Synaptura Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:249, Pl. (fig. 2) [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876 (for 27 Apr. 1876); ref. 10019] Victoria, West Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9330. •Synonym of Synaptura lusitanica de Brito Capello 1868 -- (Torchio 1973:634 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1047 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Dagetichthys lusitanicus (de Brito Capello 1868). Current status: Synonym of Dagetichthys lusitanicus (de Brito Capello 1868). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

punctatus, Achirus Desjardins [J.] 1837:40 [Rapport Annuel sur les travaux de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Ile Maurice No. 8; ref. 20928] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]. Original not seen. Name given as Achirus punctulatus by Monod 1976:21 [ref. 30339]. For comments on authorship see Monod 1976:21 [ref. 30339]. •Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Fricke 1999:573 [ref. 24106]). •Questionably a synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:9 [ref. 29291]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus marmoratus (Lacepède 1802). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

punctatus, Phyllichthys McCulloch [A. R.] 1916:67 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 5; ref. 2944] Busselton Geographe Bay, southwestern Australia. Syntypes: AMS I.12963-64 (2). •Valid as Phyllichthys punctatus McCulloch 1916 -- (Allen & Swainston 1988:146 [ref. 25477], Allen 1997:234 [ref. 23977], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Hoese & Bray 2006:1848 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Phyllichthys punctatus McCulloch 1916. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

quadriocellata, Solea von Bonde [C.] 1922:20, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 192, depth 30 or 33 fathoms. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.3.27.9. •Synonym of Monochirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665]). •Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus ocellatus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

quagga, Aesopia Kaup [J. J.] 1858:98 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Mumbai, India. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1998-1307. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:318 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Zebrias quagga (Kaup 1858) -- (Krishnan & Mishra 1994:301 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Li & Wang 1995:312 [ref. 16193], Randall 1995:246 [ref. 23283], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:598 [ref. 27969], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:48 [ref. 27712], Hoese & Bray 2006:1851 [ref. 29000], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:321 [ref. 31170], Golani & Bogorodsky 2010:84 [ref. 35264], Larson et al. 2013:228 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:220 [ref. 34464], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2015:94 [ref. 34319], Voronina et al. 2016:401 [ref. 35064], Motomura et al. 2017:226 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:373 [ref. 35805], Imamura in Kimura et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36460], Jawad et al. 2018:125 [ref. 36262] as Z. quagga s.l., Eagderi et al. 2019:125 [ref. 37020], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:597 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias quagga (Kaup 1858). Soleidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Gulf of Aden and Persian Gulf east to Philippines, north to northern Vietnam and southern China, south to northern Australia. Habitat: marine.

ramsaii, Solea Ogilby [J. D.] 1889:70, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Australian Museum, Sydney No. 2 (art. no. 3); ref. 18489] Lord Howe Island. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1951. The correct original spelling is ramsaii -- Ogilby dropped the terminal y and used the spelling ramsaii twice. •Valid as Aseraggodes ramsaii (Ogilby 1889) -- (Randall & Meléndez 1987:104 [ref. 9173] as ramsayi, Francis 1993:168 [ref. 25479] as ramsayi, Randall 2005:209 [ref. 28892], Hoese & Bray 2006:1844 [ref. 29000], Randall & Senou 2007:309 [ref. 29156], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes ramsaii (Ogilby 1889). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Lord Howe Island and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

rautheri, Achirus Chabanaud [P.] 1931:95, Figs. 1-10 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 93 (nos 3/4); ref. 16265] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, 12°28'S, 130°50'E. Holotype (unique): SMNS 2521. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922], Fricke 2005:59 [ref. 29864]. The holotype is also a syntype of Pardachirus klunzingeri Weber 1907. •Synonym of Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967]). •Synonym of Pardachirus hedleyi Ogilby 1916 -- (Clark & George 1979:115 [ref. 6992], Desoutter et al. 2001:341 [ref. 25922]). •Incertae sedis in Soleidae -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1852 [ref. 29000]). •Valid as Pardachirus rautheri (Chabanau7 1931) -- (Randall & Johnson 2007:14 [ref. 29291], Morgan et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31262], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Pardachirus rautheri (Chabanaud 1931). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish.

regani, Synaptura Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1906:160, Pl. 45 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 4; ref. 1647] 2 1/2 miles from mouth of Umhlanga River, off KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 22-26 fathoms. Syntypes: BMNH 1903.12.31.12 [ex SAM] (1), SAM 15424 (1). •Valid as Zebrinus regani (Gilchrist 1906) -- (Dor 1984:271 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Zebrias regani (Gilchrist 1906) -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:874 [ref. 5665], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:246 [ref. 23283]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias regani (Gilchrist 1906). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Habitat: marine.

robertsi, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:102, Fig. 9 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Tidal creek on right side of the Lower Fly River, 1 kilometer upriver from D'Albertis Island, 8°12'54"S, 142°03'54"E, Western Province, Papua New Guinea, depth 0-1.0 meters. Holotype: USNM 217314. Paratypes: BMNH 2007.2.9.1 (1); BPBM 40506 (1); NTM S.16389-001 (1); USNM 217313 (2), 389200 (12); WAM P.28150-001 (1), P.28151-006 (3). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus robertsi Randall 2007 -- (Allen et al. 2008:190 [ref. 30265]). Current status: Valid as Leptachirus robertsi Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Lower Fly River basin, Papua New Guinea. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

rudis, Solea Costa [O. G.] 1847:Pleuronettidae p. 40, Pl. 45 [Fauna del regno di Napoli Part 1; ref. 976] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Published 18 Nov. 1847. Soleidae.

russellii, Solea Bleeker [P.] 1851:15 [Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. v. 24 (art. 9); ref. 16875] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (6) BMNH 1862.6.3.6 (1) Bleeker coll. Based on literature and specimens. Soleidae.

salinarum, Brachirus Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:35 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Salt pans at Kimberly, northern Queensland, Australia. Holotype: QM I.870 (123 mm). Paratypes: QM I.870 (1 of 2, 105 mm). •Valid as Brachirus salinarum Ogilby 1910 -- (Allen et al. 2002:325 [ref. 25930], Hoese & Bray 2006:1846 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus salinarum Ogilby 1910. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: freshwater.

satapoomini, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:318, Fig. 13 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] West coast, Ko Racha Noi, southeast end of Thailand, 7°28'16"N, 98°19'35"E, Andaman Sea, depth 1.5-9 meters. Holotype (unique): ROM 69819. •Valid as Aseraggodes satapoomini Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1051 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes satapoomini Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Similan Islands, Andaman Sea (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

savignyi, Synaptura Kaup [J. J.] 1858:97 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] Naples, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-3292 (3), 0000-3312 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Solea kleini (Bonaparte 1933, ? = Risso 1827) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922] dated 1810). Current status: Synonym of Synapturichthys kleinii (Risso 1827). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sayaensis, Brachirus Voronina [E. P.] 2019:419, Figs. 2-4 [Journal of Ichthyology v. 59 (no. 3); ref. 36809] Saya de Malha Bank, Indian Ocean, 10°41'S, 61°12'E, depth 120 - 123 meters. Holotype: ZIN 49162. Paratype: ZIN 49163 (1). Type catalog: Voronina & Volkova 2019:278 [ref. 37075]. •Valid as Brachirus sayaensis Voronina 2019. Current status: Valid as Brachirus sayaensis Voronina 2019. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Saya de Malha Bank endemic. Habitat: marine.

scalaris, Zebrias Gomon [M. F.] 1987:21 [Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 17667] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.16281-001 [ex MAMU F1168]. Replacement name for Synaptura fasciata Macleay 1882, secondarily preoccupied in Zebrias by Solea fasciata Basilewsky 1855. •Valid as Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987 -- (Kuiter 1993:389 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:864 [ref. 22532], Johnson 1999:753 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1852 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:820 [ref. 30616]). Replacement Name. Current status: Valid as Zebrias scalaris Gomon 1987. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: southern Queensland and Victoria. Habitat: marine.

sclerolepis, Synaptura Macleay [W.] 1878:363, Pl. 10 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 2 (pt 4); ref. 17573] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): MAMU F225. Type catalog: Stanbury 1969:205 [ref. 19518]. •Valid as Phyllichthys sclerolepis (Macleay 1878) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:374 [ref. 23967], Johnson 1999:752 [ref. 25471], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1848 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Phyllichthys sclerolepis (Macleay 1878). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

scriba, Solea Valenciennes [A.] 1837:Pl. 18 (fig. 3) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Holotype (1 of 3): MNHN A-8745 (1), A-9826 (1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922] with syntypes, but the species dates to the plate in Jan. 1839, so there is a holotype if identifiable; text published in 1843. Eschmeyer et al 1998 dated to the wrong reference. •Synonym of Solea lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Torchio 1973:629 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967], Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae.

sejunctus, Phyllichthys Whitley [G. P.] 1935:237, Pl. 18 (fig. 2) [Records of the Australian Museum v. 19 (no. 4); ref. 4683] Fitzallen Island, Whitsunday Passage, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.6292. •Valid as Phyllichthys sejunctus Whitley 1935 -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Hoese & Bray 2006:1848 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Valid as Phyllichthys sejunctus Whitley 1935. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

selheimi, Synaptura Macleay [W.] 1882:71 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 7 (pt 1); ref. 14344] Palmer River, Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (several) MAMU? (probably lost). •Valid as Brachirus selheimi (Macleay 1882) -- (Larson & Martin 1990:76 [ref. 16606], Desoutter et al. 2001:325 [ref. 25559], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1883, Allen et al. 2002:326 [ref. 25930], Hoese & Bray 2006:1846 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:226 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:67 [ref. 35250], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus selheimi (Macleay 1882). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

senegalensis, Solea Kaup [J. J.] 1858:94 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 24 (pt. 1); ref. 2578] St. Louis, Senegal [eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9825. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858 -- (Torchio 1973:630 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1322 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1045 [ref. 18967], Ben-Tuvia 1990:953 [ref. 15614], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:22 [ref. 29607], Golani et al. 2014:319 [ref. 33139], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3026 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:85 [ref. 36550], Carneiro et al. 2019:195 [ref. 37250], Ousselam & Selfati in Stern et al. 2019:437 [ref. 36863], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:87 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858. Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

senoui, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:320, Figs. 14-15 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Mabul Island, Malaysia [off southeastern Sabah, Malaysia, Sulawesi Sea, western Pacific, ca. 4°15'N, 118°38'E], depth 17 meters. Holotype (unique): KPM-NI 1853. •Valid as Aseraggodes senoui Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1052 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32941], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes senoui Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Mabul Island, Sabah, Malaysia (one specimen). Habitat: marine.

serpenpellis, Soleichthys Munroe [T. A.] & Menke [S. B.] 2004:253, Figs. 2-3 [Records of the Australian Museum v. 56 (no. 2); ref. 27772] Gulf of Carpentaria, 12-18°S, Queensland, Australia. Holotype: AMS IB.7211. Paratypes: QM I.11204 (1), WAM P.5739 (1). Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Soleichthys serpenpellis Munroe & Menke 2004 -- (Hoese & Bray 2006:1850 [ref. 29000], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys serpenpellis Munroe & Menke 2004. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

setifer, Synaptura Paradice [W. E. J.] in Paradice & Whitley 1927:101, Fig. 3 [Memoirs of the Queensland Museum v. 9 (pt 1); ref. 15810] Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.1535. •Valid as Paradicula setifer (Paradice 1927) -- (Larson & Williams 1997:373 [ref. 23967], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] with authors as Paradice & Whitley, Hoese & Bray 2006:1847 [ref. 29000], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988]). Current status: Valid as Paradicula setifer (Paradice 1927). Soleidae. Distribution: Australia and New Guinea. Habitat: brackish.

siamensis, Synaptura Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:94 [9] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 18663] Stung Strang, Laos. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9644. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922]. On p. 9 of separate. •Valid as Euryglossa siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1984:816 [ref. 11440]). •In a category synonyms/misidentifications under Euryglossa panoides (Bleeker 1851) -- (Rainboth 1996:222 [ref. 22772]). •Valid as Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Desoutter et al. 2001:328 [ref. 25922], Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

siammakuti, Soleichthys Wongratana [T.] 1975:22, Figs. 1-5 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 56 (nos 1/3); ref. 7484] Fish Market Bangkok, Gulf of Thailand. Holotype: MFLB (uncat.). Paratypes: SMF 12650 (1). •Valid as Soleichthys siammakuti Wongratana 1975 -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Munroe & Menke 2004:253 [ref. 27772], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys siammakuti Wongratana 1975. Soleidae. Distribution: Gulf of Thailand. Habitat: marine.

simonensis, Solea von Bonde [C.] 1922:19, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 1); ref. 520] Simonstown, False Bay, South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1922.3.27.15. •Synonym of Solea bleekeri Boulenger 1898 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665]). •Synonym of Solea turbyneu Gilchrist 1904 -- (Vachon et al. 2005:315 [ref. 29620]). Current status: Synonym of Solea turbynei Gilchrist 1904. Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sindensis, Solea Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:133 [Records of the Indian Museum (Calcutta) v. 5 (pt 2) (art. 12); ref. 14478] Karachi market, Pakistan. Soleidae.

sinusarabici, Aseraggodes Chabanaud [P.] 1931:296 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 56; ref. 785] Gulf of Suez, Egypt, Red Sea, 29°11'N, 32°55'E. Lectotype: MNHN 1959-0611. Paralectotypes: (11) MNHN 1959-0588 (1), 1966-0136 to 0139 (4), 1966-0141 (1), 2005-0274 [ex 1959-0611] (2) Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:319 [ref. 25922]. Originally as sinus-arabici, correction mandatory. Lectotype selected by Randall & Gon 2006:186 [ref. 28662] but with catalog numbers confused. •Valid as Aseraggodes sinusarabici Chabanaud 1931 -- (Dor 1984:270 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:71 [ref. 25356], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377], Randall & Gon 2006:185 [ref. 28662], Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes sinusarabici Chabanaud 1931. Soleidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Aseraggodes Woods [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:73, Fig. 151 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Ocean reef, Bock Island, Rongerik Atoll, Marshall Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 141766. •Valid as Aseraggodes smithi Woods 1966 -- (Myers 1999:279 [ref. 23965], Randall 2002:252 [ref. 26248], Randall et al. 2004:31 [ref. 27624] as cf smithi, Randall & Bartsch 2005:137 [ref. 28374]). •Synonym of Aseraggodes xenicus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1963) -- (Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:328 [ref. 29399]). Current status: Synonym of Aseraggodes xenicus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1963). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

smithi, Chabanaudetta Joglekar [A.] 1971:370, Figs. 1-2 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 187 (nos 5/6); ref. 21783] Nontabury, Thailand. Holotype: ZSI F 6284/2. Paratypes: ZSI F 6285/2 (1). •Synonym of Euryglossa siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 1984:817 [ref. 11440]). •Synonym of Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878) -- (Kottelat 2001:164 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus siamensis (Sauvage 1878). Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater.

smithii, Synaptura Regan [C. T.] 1903:57, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 11 (no. 61) (art. 5); ref. 15040] Inland Sea, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1902.10.31.152. •Synonym of Pseudaesopia japonica (Bleeker 1860) -- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:195 [ref. 21500]). •Synonym of Zebrias japonicus (Bleeker 1860). Current status: Synonym of Zebrias japonicus (Bleeker 1860). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

solea, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:270 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Charente-Maritime, France [Bay of Biscay, eastern Atlantic]. Neotype: MNHN 2000-5637. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:54 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. Neotype then designated by Borsa & Quignard 2001:2298 [ref. 25908] and with the same number by Vachon et al. 2008:20 [ref. 29607]. •Wrongly as a synonym of Solea vulgaris vulgaris Quensel 1806 -- (Torchio 1973:628 [ref. 6892] with question, Desoutter 1990:1046 [ref. 18967]). •Valid as Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:948 [ref. 15614], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:863 [ref. 21590], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Fricke 1999:53 [ref. 24101], Borsa & Quignard 2001:2301 [ref. 25908], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Fricke 2007:27 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:192 [ref. 30517], Fricke 2008:57 [ref. 30182], Vachon et al. 2008:20 [ref. 29607], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649], Chanet et al. 2012:582 [ref. 34114], Wirtz et al. 2013:135 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:549 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3027 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:84 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:195 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:104 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:29 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:87 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Senegal, including Madeira, Canary Islands and ?Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sorsogonensis, Synaptura Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:106, Fig. 22 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] Bacon, Sorsogon, Luzon Island Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55916. Type catalog: Okamoto & Motomura 2021:356 [ref. 38068]. •Valid as Brachirus sorsogonensis (Evermann & Seale 1907) -- (Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3884 [ref. 26314]). •Synonym of Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852) -- (Okamoto & Motomura 2021:355 [ref. 38068]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus aspilos (Bleeker 1852). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

stanalandi, Solea Randall [J. E.] & McCarthy [L. J.] 1989:197, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Ichthyology v. 36 (no. 2); ref. 14260] Off UPM Beach, Half Moon Bay near Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf. Holotype: BPBM 32806. Paratypes: USNM 300936 (1). •Valid as Solea stanalandi Randall & McCarthy 1989 -- (Randall 1995:361 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:234 [ref. 23922], Vachon et al. 2005:318 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:17 [ref. 29607], Ali et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36183], Eagderi et al. 2019:124 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Valid as Solea stanalandi Randall & McCarthy 1989. Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf endemic. Habitat: marine.

steinitzi, Aseraggodes Joglekar [A.] 1971:166, Figs. 1-3 [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India (nos 1-2) (for 1970); ref. 27575] Cundabilu, Dahlak Archipelago, Eritrea, Red Sea, 15°44'N, 39°53'E. Holotype: ZSI F 6280. Paratypes: USNM (1) [not received], ZSI uncat. (1). See Das 2003:377 [ref. 27706]. •Valid as Aseraggodes steinitzi Joglekar 1971 -- (Randall & Gon 2006:187 [ref. 28662], Randall et al. 2013:4 [ref. 32941], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[7] 245 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:175 [ref. 36273]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes steinitzi Joglekar 1971. Soleidae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

stephanica, Solea Chabanaud [P.] 1926:12 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 51; ref. 15581] Lévrier Bay, coast of western Africa. Syntypes: MNHN 1926-0005 to 0008 (1, 1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]. •Synonym of Microchirus theophila (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). •Synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

sundaicus, Brachirus Bleeker [P.] 1865:[20], Pl. 236 (fig. 4) [Atlas ichthyologique des Indes Orientales Néêrlandaises; ref. 428] Rio, Batang; Tjirutjup, Belitung Island, Indonesia. Syntypes: (2). Plate published in 1865, text published in 1870. •Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Kottelat 2013:464 [ref. 32989] with question). •Valid as Brachirus sundaicus Bleeker 1865 -- (Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809]). Current status: Synonym of Brachirus orientalis (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

suzumotoi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:322, Fig. 16-19 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Ambon Island harbour, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype: BPBM 36545. Paratypes: AMS I.43820-001 (1), BPBM 36471 (1), CAS 223735 (1), MNHN 2006-0770 (1), NSMT-P62058 (1), USNM 38195 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes suzumotoi Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1052 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes suzumotoi Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: marine.

swinhonis, Synaptura Steindachner [F.] 1867:586 [Sitzungsberichte der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 55 (pts 4-5); ref. 4213] Hong Kong, South China Sea. Holotype (unique): NMW 43070. •Valid as Synaptura swinhonis Steindachner 1867 -- (authors). •Valid as Brachirus swinhonis (Steindachner 1867) -- (Li & Wang 1995:310 [ref. 16193], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Voronina 2019:423 [ref. 36809], Okamoto & Motomura 2021:366 [ref. 38068]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus swinhonis (Steindachner 1867). Soleidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

synapturoides, Solea Jenkins [J. T.] 1910:28, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 10428] Off Ganjam coast, India, depth 24-30 fathoms. Syntypes: MNHN 1976-0380 (1), ZSI F3430/1 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Desoutter et al. 2001:326-327 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Zebrias synapturoides (Jenkins 1910) -- (Randall 1995:246 [ref. 23283], Randall 1995:362 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:235 [ref. 23922], Munroe 2001:3882 [ref. 26314], Desoutter et al. 2001:326 [ref. 25922], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S123 [ref. 27377], Psomadakis et al. 2015:327 [ref. 34104] as cf. synapturoides, Ali et al. 2018:345 [ref. 36183], Suresh et al. 2018:320 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:125 [ref. 37020], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:598 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias synapturoides (Jenkins 1910). Soleidae. Distribution: Northern Indian Ocean: Persian Gulf east to India and Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

textilis, Solea Ramsay [E. P.] & Ogilby [J. D.] 1886:6 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales (Series 2) v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 18604] Gulf of St. Vincent, 10 miles west of Glenelg Jetty, South Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS I.1. •Synonym of Aseraggodes haackeanus (Steindachner 1883) -- (Randall & Meléndez 1987:105 [ref. 9173], Hoese & Bray 2006:1843 [ref. 29000]). Current status: Synonym of Aseraggodes haackeanus (Steindachner 1883). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

texturatus, Aseraggodes Weber [M.] 1913:437, Fig. 81 [Die Fische der Siboga-Expedition; ref. 4602] Timor Sea, 10°27.9'S, 123°28.7'E, Siboga station 302, depth 216 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMA 109388. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Aseraggodes texturatus Weber 1913 -- (Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes texturatus Weber 1913. Soleidae. Distribution: Timor Sea [one specimen]. Habitat: marine.

theophilus, Pleuronectes Risso [A.] 1810:313 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:345-346 [ref. 25922]. •Questionably a synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892]). •Valid as Microchirus theophila (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967]). •Unidentifiable with certainty -- (Desoutter et al. 2001:346 [ref. 25922]). •Synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867) -- (Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3015 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Microchirus azevia (de Brito Capello 1867). Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

thepassii, Achirus Bleeker [P.] 1854:500 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 6 (no. 3); ref. 344] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Bleeker specimens: BMNH 1863.6.3.19 (1). •Synonym of Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851) -- (Clark & George 1979:114 [ref. 6992], Randall & Johnson 2007:14 [ref. 29291], Kottelat 2013:465 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pardachirus poropterus (Bleeker 1851). Soleidae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

therese, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] 1996:434, Figs. 4-6 [Pacific Science v. 50 (no. 4); ref. 21993] Cave in reef 200 meters southwest of bulk garbage pier on southeast side of Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaiian Islands, depth 8 meters. Holotype: BPBM 34845. Paratypes: AMS I.37165-001 (1); BMNH 1996.1.24.2 (1); BPBM 7832 (4), 30650 (1), 31311-12 (1, 1), 31314 (2), 36794 (7); CAS 85568 (3); NSMT-P 48115 (1); USNM 339302 (1). Additional material: BPBM 31313 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes therese Randall 1996 -- (Randall 2002:248 [ref. 26248], Mundy 2005:521 [ref. 28379], Randall 2007:466 [ref. 30952], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes therese Randall 1996. Soleidae. Distribution: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

trichodactyllus, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] 1827:32, 38 (no. 138) [Giornale di fisica, chimica e storia naturale, medicina, ed arti. (series 2) Dec. II, v. 10; ref. 3146] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). No types known. Also in Nardo 1827:col. 481 and 487 [ref. 19740] [and spelled trichodactylus] -- essentially the same as ref. 3146, but with minor changes; earliest not determined. Apparently not the same as Pleuronectes trichodactylus Linnaeus 1758; apparently a new name for Pleuronectes microchirus Delaroche 1809. •Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814 -- (Torchio 1973:633 [ref. 6892], Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque 1814. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

trichodactylus, Pleuronectes Linnaeus [C.] 1758:268 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia. No types known. Misspelled tricodactylus (and misidentified) by Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler:4 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:178 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Monochirus trichodactylus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Li & Wang 1995:291 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Valid as Monochirus trichodactylus (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Distribution: Western central Pacific. Habitat: marine.

triophthalmus, Solea Bleeker [P.] 1863:27, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Abraoun, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3575. •Valid as Pegusa triophthalma (Bleeker 1863) -- (Desoutter 1986:430 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1045 [ref. 18967], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:862 [ref. 21590], Poll & Gosse 1995:79 [ref. 24781] as Pegusia, Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3025 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Valid as Pegusa triophthalma (Bleeker 1863). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern central Atlantic. Habitat: brackish, marine.

triramus, Leptachirus Randall [J. E.] 2007:104, Fig. 10 [Records of the Western Australian Museum v. 24 (pt 1); ref. 29914] Wattie Creek, 17°24'S, 130°52'E, Victoria River, Northern Australia, depth 0-2 meters. Holotype: NTM S.11543-004. Paratypes: QM I.38113 (3); NTM S.11543-009 (1); USNM 387647 (2); WAM P.20608 (4), P.30067-007 (4). Plus non-types provisionally identified. Type catalog: Moore et al. 2008:51 [ref. 30117]. •Valid as Leptachirus triramus Randall 2007 -- (Morgan et al. 2011:20 [ref. 31262], Larson et al. 2013:227 [ref. 32988], Pusey et al. 2017:69 [ref. 35250]). Current status: Valid as Leptachirus triramus Randall 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia: Northern Territory and Western Australia. Habitat: freshwater.

tubifera, Solea Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1876:444 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 18495] Île aux Fouquets, 8 kilometers east of Mahébourg, Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZMB 9470. Type locality see Möbius 1880 [ref. 30489]. Correct spelling is apparently tubifer (masculine ending) when in Soleichthys. •Valid as Soleichthys tubifera (Peters 1876) -- (Fricke 1999:574 [ref. 24106] dated 1877, Fricke et al. 2009:115 [ref. 30213] dated 1877). •Valid as Soleichthys tubiferus (Peters 1876) -- (Muchhala & Munroe 2004:57 [ref. 27597], Randall & Munroe 2008:76 [ref. 29862], Voronina et al. 2016:399 [ref. 35064]). Current status: Valid as Soleichthys tubiferus (Peters 1876). Soleidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: Réunion and Mauritius (western Mascarenes endemic) and Vietnam. Habitat: marine.

turbynei, Solea Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:10, Pl. 28 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Mossel Bay, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 18 fathoms, and other localities. Syntypes: (numerous) BMNH 1903.12.31.11 (1), SAM 15409 (11). •Synonym of Solea bleekeri Boulenger 1898 -- (Heemstra & Gon 1986:873 [ref. 5665]). •Valid as Solea turbynei Gilchrist 1904 -- (Vachon et al. 2005:315 [ref. 29620], Vachon et al. 2008:18 [ref. 29607]). Current status: Valid as Solea turbynei Gilchrist 1904. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Tanzania to about Cape Town, South Africa. Habitat: brackish, marine.

typica, Solea vulgaris forma Chabanaud [P.] 1927:32 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 488; ref. 782] Baltic Sea, North Sea, eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea. •Synonym of Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806 -- (Torchio 1973:628 [ref. 6892]). •Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

umbratilis, Solea Alcock [A. W.] 1894:131 [17], Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal v. 63 (pt 2); ref. 90] Bay of Bengal, 21°52'N, 68°06'E. Lectotype: BMNH 1895.1.3.7[ex ZSI F13619]. Paralectotypes: USNM 46759 [ex ZSI F13620] (1); ZSI F13616 (1), F13618 (1), F13624 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:159 [ref. 20743], Menon and Rama-Rao 1970:378 [ref. 27516] with orignal genus as Soles, Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:45 [ref. 22148]. On p. 17 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1895: Pl. 15 (fig. 4) [ref. 20532]. Lectotype selected by Randall & Gon 2006:189 [ref. 28662]. •Valid as Aseraggodes umbratilis (Alcock 1894) -- (Randall & Gon 2006:188 [ref. 28662], Randall et al. 2013:3 [ref. 32941], Psomadakis et al. 2015:326 [ref. 34104] as cf. umbratilis). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes umbratilis (Alcock 1894). Soleidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Solea Shen [S.-C.] 1967:200, Figs. 97-101b [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 20 (nos 1-2); ref. 20549] Ta-Men Island, off Hong Kong. Holotype (unique): NTUM. •Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846 -- (Li & Wang 1995:287 [ref. 16193]). Current status: Synonym of Solea ovata Richardson 1846. Soleidae. Habitat: marine.

variegatus, Pleuronectes Donovan [E.] 1808:3 unnum. pp., Pl. 117 [The natural history of British fishes, including scientific and general descriptions of the most interesting species, and an extensive selection of accurately finished coloured plates.; ref. 17408] England. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808) -- (Torchio 1973:632 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1316 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1990:1042 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:217 [ref. 22326], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:153 [ref. 26753], Fricke et al. 2007:116 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:191 [ref. 30517], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:548 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3020 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:90 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:561 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:193 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:101 [ref. 36864], Kovačić et al. 2020:28 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:97 [ref. 38887]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus variegatus (Donovan 1808). Soleidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Senegal, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

variolosa, Solea Kner [R.] 1867:289, Pl. 14 (fig. 1) [Reise der öesterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18426] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): NMW 85305. Soleidae.

vermeuleni, Solea Metzelaar [J.] 1919:279, Fig. 60 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Cape Blanc [Blanco], [Mauritania/Spanish Sahara], northwestern coast of Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMA 112927. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:108 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810) -- (Desoutter 1990:1044 [ref. 18967]). Current status: Synonym of Pegusa lascaris (Risso 1810). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

villosa, Synaptura Weber [M.] 1907:251, Pl. 13 (fig. 3) [Süsswasserfische von Neu-Guinea v. 5 (Zool.) pt 2; ref. 4599] Wagani River, southern New Guinea. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1913.12.15.37 (1) Lorenz R.; ZMA 108181-82 (1, 2). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:109 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Synaptura villosa Weber 1907 -- (Allen 1991:206 [ref. 21090], Allen et al. 2000:155 [ref. 27467] dated 1908). •Valid as Brachirus villosus (Weber 1907) -- (Roberts 1978:69 [ref. 8886], Munroe 2001:3881 [ref. 26314] dated 1908, Allen et al. 2008:191 [ref. 30265]). Current status: Valid as Brachirus villosus (Weber 1907). Soleidae. Distribution: Central-southern New Guinea (Papua Province, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). Habitat: freshwater.

vulgaris, Solea Quensel [C.] 1806:54, 230 [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm v. 27; ref. 3569] North Sea; Baltic Sea. No types known. •Valid as Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806 -- (Torchio 1973:628 [ref. 6892], Quéro et al. in Whitehead et al. 1986:1322 [ref. 13677], Desoutter 1986:431 [ref. 6212], Desoutter 1990:1046 [ref. 18967], Goren & Dor 1994:72 [ref. 25356], Arruda 1997:120 [ref. 24952]). •Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ben-Tuvia 1990:948 [ref. 15614], Desoutter in Lévêque et al. 1992:863 [ref. 21590], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:154 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:63 [ref. 37112], Vachon et al. 2008:21 [ref. 29607], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:74 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:549 [ref. 33547], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3027 [ref. 34618], Bariche & Fricke 2020:104 [ref. 37515]). Current status: Synonym of Solea solea (Linnaeus 1758). Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Solea Risso [A.] 1827:247 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. If independent, then objectively invalid; preoccupied by Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806. 1°Homonym. Soleidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

whitakeri, Aseraggodes Woods [L. P.] in Schultz et al. 1966:71, Fig. 150 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 202, v. 3; ref. 5366] Coral head north end of lagoon, Kieshiechi Island, Rongelap Atoll, Marshall Islands, depth 20 feet. Holotype (unique): USNM 141765. •Valid as Aseraggodes whitakeri Woods 1966 -- (Myers 1999:279 [ref. 23965], Randall 2005:210 [ref. 28892], Randall & Senou 2007:309 [ref. 29156], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes whitakeri Woods 1966. Soleidae. Distribution: Western and South Pacific east to Society Islands. Habitat: marine.

whitleyi, Liachirus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:563 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 22 (no. 5); ref. 12944] District of Livingstone, about 23°S, east coast of Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): AMS IA.4227. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:343 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Liachirus whitleyi Chabanaud 1950 -- (Hutchins 2001:47 [ref. 25847]). Current status: Valid as Liachirus whitleyi Chabanaud 1950. Soleidae. Distribution: Australia. Habitat: marine.

winterbottomi, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:325, Fig. 22 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Mouth of Bais Bay, 9°37'N, 123°10'E, Negros, Philippines, depth 7.5 meters. Holotype: ROM 55042. Paratypes: BPBM 40444 (1), ROM 55040 (1). •Valid as Aseraggodes winterbottomi Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1052 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:7 [ref. 32941], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes winterbottomi Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Philippines (three specimens). Habitat: marine.

wittei, Microchirus Chabanaud [P.] 1950:7 [Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique v. 26 (no. 55); ref. 801] 21 miles west of Point Dandé, 8°30'S, 12°58'30"E, depth 190-230 meters. Lectotype: IRSNB 408. Paralectotypes: IRSNB 409-414 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1); MNHN 1951-0017 (1); MRAC 140343-46 (1, 1, 1, 1), 140347-48 (2), 140349-50 (1, 1); non-types IRSNB 415 (2). Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:321-322 [ref. 25922]. In list of materials for other species, Chabanaud recorded "Localité du holotype" but for wittei he did not, but evidently IRSNB 408 was intended holotype; Lectotype selected by Desoutter 1994:223 [ref. 22326]. •Valid as Microchirus wittei Chabanaud 1950 -- (Desoutter 1990:1043 [ref. 18967], Desoutter 1994:223 [ref. 22326], Desoutter-Meniger & Munroe in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:3021 [ref. 34618], Carneiro et al. 2019:194 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Microchirus wittei Chabanaud 1950. Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Congo, including Madeira. Habitat: marine.

xenicus, Parachirus Matsubara [K.] & Ochiai [A.] 1963:94, Figs. 6-8 [Bulletin of the Misaki Marine Biological Institute, Kyoto University No. 4; ref. 2908] Ankyaba, Amami Islands, Japan. Holotype: not at FAKU. Paratypes: (58) ? FAKU 130781 (5). •Valid as Parachirus xenicus Matsubra & Ochiai 1963 -- (Clark & George 1979:107 [ref. 6992], Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:354 [ref. 6441], Heemstra & Gon 1986:871 [ref. 5665], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1384 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1384 [ref. 26193], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:216 [ref. 27510]). •Valid as Aseraggodes xenicus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1963) -- (Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007:327 [ref. 29399], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:105 [ref. 32413], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1053 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:9 [ref. 32941], Koeda et al. 2016:109 [ref. 35333], Fujiwara et al. 2020:38 [ref. 38631]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes xenicus (Matsubara & Ochiai 1963). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Andaman Sea and Indonesia east to Palau and Marshall Islands, north to Kagoshima Prefecture (southern Japan). Habitat: marine.

zanzibaricus, Barbourichthys Chabanaud [P.] 1934:388 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 58 (no. 6); ref. 790] Zanzibar, Tanzania, East Africa. Holotype (unique): MCZ 11321. Type catalog: Desoutter et al. 2001:342 [ref. 25922]. •Valid as Barbourichthys zanzibaricus Chabanaud 1934 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S122 [ref. 27377]). Current status: Valid as Barbourichthys zanzibaricus Chabanaud 1934. Soleidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

zebra, Pleuronectes Bloch [M. E.] 1787:27, Pl. 187 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 3; ref. 468] East Indies [label says Indian Ocean]. Lectotype: ZMB 2423. Paralectotypes: ZMB 7406 (1, dry, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:140 [ref. 24282]. On p. 20 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 6 [ref. 21381]. Lectotype selected by Paepke 1999:140 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787) -- (Ochiai in Masuda et al. 1984:355 [ref. 6441], Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:198 [ref. 21500], Kottelat et al. 1993:171 [ref. 23448], Li & Wang 1995:317 [ref. 16193], Cheng & Zhou 1997:459 [ref. 26385], Evseenko 1998:61 [ref. 23643], Mishra et al. 1999:89 [ref. 25315], Munroe in Randall & Lim 2000:646 [ref. 25122], Munroe 2001:3889 [ref. 26314], Wang et al. 2001:318 [ref. 26566], Choi et al. 2003:440, 688 [ref. 26218], Ho et al. 2009:13 [ref. 31461], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1057 [ref. 31980], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 12 [ref. 38321]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787). Soleidae. Distribution: Eastern Indian Ocean, western Pacific: Indonesia and Philippines, to China, Taiwan and Japan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

zebrina, Solea Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:185, Pl. 95 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH D1308 (stuffed). Paralectotypes: RMNH D1306-07 (2, stuffed), 3580 (3). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:151 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Zebrias zebra (Bloch 1787)-- (Lindberg & Fedorov 1993:198 [ref. 21500], Li & Wang 1995:317 [ref. 16193], Kottelat 2013:466 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Nakabo 2000:1386 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1386 [ref. 26193], Ohashi & Motomura 2011:1079 [ref. 32413], Wang et al. 2014:50 [ref. 34516], Jeong in Kimura et al. 2018:298 [ref. 36460]). Current status: Valid as Zebrias zebrinus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Soleidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: northern Vietnam and southern China to Japan. Habitat: marine.

zentilis, Pleuronectes Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 121 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy of Solea vulgaris Quensel 1806. Also not available from Ninni 1872:61 [ref. 17995] where Chiereghini manuscript is quoted but name not treated as valid. Nomen Nudum. Soleidae.

zizette, Aseraggodes Randall [J. E.] & Desoutter-Meniger [M.] 2007:329, Fig. 25 [Cybium v. 31 (no. 3); ref. 29399] Siberut, Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, depth 0.3-1.5 meters. Holotype (unique): ANSP 145364. •Valid as Aseraggodes zizette Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007 -- (Allen & Erdmann 2012:1053 [ref. 31980], Randall et al. 2013:5 [ref. 32941]). Current status: Valid as Aseraggodes zizette Randall & Desoutter-Meniger 2007. Soleidae. Distribution: Mentawai Islands (Indonesia). Habitat: marine.