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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Sphyraenidae: [ 84 ] records


acutipinnis, Sphyraena Day [F.] 1876:342, Pl. 79 (fig. 1) [The fishes of India Part 2; ref. 1081] Sind [Sindh], Pakistan, Arabian Sea, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1599. Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:160 [ref. 23762]. Based on one specimen originally; specimen described by Talwar 1968:197 [ref. 26958]. Kottelat (2013) cites a freshwater record. •Valid as Sphyraena acutipinnis Day 1876 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302], de Sylva & Williams 1986:722 [ref. 6301], Francis 1993:164 [ref. 25479], Francis & Randall 1993:132 [ref. 20996], Randall 1995:367 [ref. 22896], Chen et al. 1997:35 [ref. 26476], Fricke 1999:555 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Senou 2001:3689 [ref. 26303], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:373 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:498 [ref. 28379], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049], Fricke et al. 2009:110 [ref. 30213], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989], Abdussamad et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33861], Duffy & Ahyong 2015:117 [ref. 36167], Psomadakis et al. 2015:308 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:358 [ref. 35805], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Psomadakis et al. 2020:563 [ref. 37272], Morishita & Motomura 2020:564 [ref. 37508]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena acutipinnis Day 1876. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa and Madagascar east to Hawaiian, Marquesas and Tuamotu islands, north to southern Japan, south to Kermadec Islands. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Sphyraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:98 [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 2802 (1, dry), 2805 (1); •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Dor 1984:193 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

afra, Sphyraena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1844:32 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1844; ref. 13442] St. Paolo de Loanda [Luanda], Angola. No types known. •Valid as Sphyraena afra Peters 1844 -- (de Sylva & Williams 1986:722 [ref. 6301], de Sylva 1990:860 [ref. 19190], Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:790 [ref. 21590], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:167 [ref. 25472], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2868 [ref. 34618], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena afra Peters 1844. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

africana, Sphyraena Gilchrist [J. D. F.] & Thompson [W. W.] 1909:256 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 6 (pt 3, no. 5); ref. 1650] Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAM 10149. •Synonym of Sphyraena acutipinnis Day 1876 -- (Daget 1986:350 [ref. 6203], de Sylva & Williams 1986:722 [ref. 6301], Randall 1995:367 [ref. 22896], Senou 2001:3689 [ref. 26303]). •Valid as Sphyraena africana Gilchrist & Thompson 1909 -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1337 [ref. 25182], Nakabo 2002:1337 [ref. 26193], Fricke et al. 2018:358 [ref. 35805], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Morishita & Motomura 2020:564 [ref. 37508]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena africana Gilchrist & Thompson 1909. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: East Africa east to Hawaiian, Marquesas and Tuamotu islands, north to southern Japan. Habitat: marine.

agam, Sphyraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:99, Pl. 25 (fig. 2) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMF 2818 (1, dry) and SMF 17529 (2, skeletons). •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [= Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], Mundy 2005:497 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

akerstromi, Sphyraena Whitley [G. P.] 1947:131, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Australian Zoologist v. 11 (pt 2); ref. 4708] Lowendal Island, between Barrow Island and the Monte Bello Group, Western Australia. Holotype: apparently not saved. Paratypes: (3) apparently not saved. •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:85 [ref. 6302], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

altipinnis, Sphyraena Ogilby [J. D.] 1910:8 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 23; ref. 3288] Aru Islands, north of Australia. Holotype (unique): AFAQ 1066 (apparently lost). •Questionably a synonym of Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870 or Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:85-86 [ref. 6302]). •Synonym of Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829 -- (Bray & Hoese 2006:1751 [ref. 29049], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

americana, Acus Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1803:327 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Appeared as Acus americana, rostro longiori in account of Sphyraena acus. Regarded as non-binominal and unavailable. Sphyraenidae.

antillana, Sphyraena Plumier [C.] in Lacepède 1803:327 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Appeared as Sphyraena antillana, argentocaerulea in account of Sphyraena becuna. Regarded as non-binominal and unavailable. Sphyraenidae.

arabiansis, Sphyraena Abdussamad [E. M.] & Retheesh [T. B.] in Abdussamad et al. 2015:2, Figs. 1-5 [Indian Journal of Fisheries v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 33861] Lakshadweep Islands, south-eastern Arabian Sea, India. Holotype: CMFRI GB 31.143.2.1. Paratypes: CMFRI GB 31.143.2.1.1 (1), CMFRI GB 31.143.2.1.2 (1). Plus additional specimens not retained. •Valid as Sphyraena arabiansis Abdussamad & Retheesh 2015 -- (Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Morishita et al. 2020:[7] [ref. 37447]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena arabiansis Abdussamad & Retheesh 2015. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: Lakshadweep Islands, Arabian Sea. Habitat: marine.

argentea, Sphyraena Girard [C. F.] 1854:144 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 5769] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Sphyraena argentea Girard 1854 -- (Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:235 [ref. 9277], McAllister 1990:155 [ref. 14674], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1620 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:460 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:124 [ref. 25206], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:803 [ref. 25968], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], Béarez 2008:95 [ref. 30486], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:458 [ref. 34668], Pietsch & Orr 2015:67 [ref. 34694], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:611 [ref. 34923], Kells et al. 2016:310 [ref. 35888], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Burton & Lea 2019:91 [ref. 37205]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena argentea Girard 1854. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

aureoflammea, Sphyraena Seale [A.] 1910:502 [The Philippine Journal of Science Section A v. 4 (no. 6) (for 1909); ref. 4000] Zamboanga, Mindanao, Philippines. Holotype: BSMP 4138 (apparently destroyed). Paratypes: (4) BSMP •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302], Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:137 [ref. 28229], Kottelat 2013:446 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

barracuda, Esox Edwards [M.] in Catesby 1771:1 [The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands; ref. 774] Bahamas, Western Atlantic. Catesby 1771 is a rejected work, and unavailable (Opinions 89 and 259) but the appendix by Edwards is available. This species should date to authorship as above and not to Walbaum 1792. Kottelat (2013) treats as a marine and an inland record. •Valid as Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771) -- (Russell 2003:1810 [ref. 27114], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:749 [ref. 28815], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Wirtz et al. 2007:40 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:441 [ref. 30952], Béarez 2008:95 [ref. 30486], Fricke 2008:56 [ref. 30182], Fricke et al. 2009:110 [ref. 30213], García-Hernández et al. 2009:94 [ref. 37265], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Motomura et al. 2010:229 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1037 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:272 [ref. 32706], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:82 [ref. 33341], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989], Wirtz et al. 2014:10 [ref. 33516], Abdussamad et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33861], Fricke et al. 2014:187 [ref. 33932], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:309 [ref. 34104], Pinheiro et al. 2015:32 [ref. 34324] with author as Walbaum, Miesen et al. 2016:95 [ref. 34492], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2869 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:148 [ref. 34961], Koeda et al. 2016:105 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:358 [ref. 35805] with author as Catesby [ex Edwards], Golani & Fricke 2018:120 [ref. 36273], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Carneiro et al. 2019:295 [ref. 37250], Eagderi et al. 2019:115 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:306 [ref. 36673], Reiner 2019:270 [ref. 38139], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 17 [ref. 38321], Morishita et al. 2020:[7] [ref. 37447], Psomadakis et al. 2020:564 [ref. 37272], Robertson et al. 2020:163 [ref. 38098], Sonoyama et al. 2020:111 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Sea of Japan), except for eastern Pacific (waifs reaching Galápagos Archipelago). Habitat: brackish, marine.

barracuda, Esox Walbaum [J. J.] 1792:94 [Petri Artedi sueci genera piscium Part 3; ref. 4572] West Indies. No types known. See Esox barracuda Edwards in Catesby 1771. •Treated as valid as Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Kyushin et al. 1977:56 [ref. 19756], Dor 1984:193 [ref. 29757], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441], Daget 1986:350 [ref. 6203], de Sylva & Williams 1986:723 [ref. 6301], Robins & Ray 1986:214 [ref. 23100], Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:465 [ref. 25598], Winterbottom et al. 1989:51 [ref. 13251], de Sylva 1990:861 [ref. 19190], Randall et al. 1990:291 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:153 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:444 [ref. 23827], Senou 1992:2 [ref. 24321], Kottelat et al. 1993:126 [ref. 23448], Cervigón 1993:390 [ref. 24474], Francis 1993:164 [ref. 25479], Randall et al. 1994:229 [ref. 21645], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:367 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:195 [ref. 27969], Matsuura & Suzuki 1997:369 [ref. 23360], Carpenter et al. 1997:220 [ref. 23922], Takahashi et al. 1997:49 [ref. 24971], Randall et al. 1997:291 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:276 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:555 [ref. 24106], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:459 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:323 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:79 [ref. 25466], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:642 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1334 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:336 [ref. 25191], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:296 [ref. 27511], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:270 [ref. 25480], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Randall & Earle 2000:20 [ref. 25806], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634], Sakai et al. 2001:122 [ref. 25693], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Rocha & Rosa 2001:992 [ref. 25909], Senou 2001:3690 [ref. 26303], Nakabo 2002:1334 [ref. 26193], Alvarez-León 2002:228 [ref. 26373], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Collette et al. 2003:125 [ref. 26784], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:208 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:77 [ref. 27576], Smith et al. 2003:67 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra et al. 2004:3327 [ref. 27945], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:372 [ref. 28072], Mundy 2005:497 [ref. 28379], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049], Matsuura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:308 [ref. 31170], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Wirtz et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32972], Larson et al. 2013:214 [ref. 32988], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

becuna, Sphyraena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:325, 327, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] No locality [Martinique Island, West Indies]. No types known. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:721 [ref. 21541]. Based on Plumier drawing and manuscript. •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Sphyraena Williams [F.] 1959:122, Pl. 2d [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 13) v. 2 (no. 14); ref. 12038] Msuka Bay, North Pemba, 4°53.5'S, 39°43'E, depth 7 fathoms. Holotype: BMNH 1958.12.8.1. Paratypes: (2) BMNH 1958.12.8.2 (1). •Valid as Sphyraena bleekeri Williams 1959 -- (de Sylva 1975:85 [ref. 6302]). •Synonym of Sphyraena putnamae Jordan & Seale 1905 -- (Dor 1984:195 [ref. 29757], de Sylva & Williams 1986:725 [ref. 6301] as putnamiae, Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122] as putnamiae, Senou 2001:3696 [ref. 26303], Fricke & Kulbicki 2006:354 [ref. 28867]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena putnamae Jordan & Seale 1905. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

bocagei, Sphyraena Osório [B.] 1891:114 [Jornal do Sciências Mathemáticas, Physicas e Naturaes, Lisboa (Ser. 2) No. 6; ref. 14502] São Thomé and Rolhos Islands, West Africa. No types known. •Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (de Sylva 1990:863 [ref. 19190], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2871 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

borealis, Sphyraena DeKay [J. E.] 1842:39, Pl. 60 (fig. 196) [Zoology of New-York; ref. 1098] New York harbor, New York, U.S.A. Holotype or syntypes: New York State coll. (whereabouts unknown). •Valid as Sphyraena borealis DeKay 1842 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:214 [ref. 23100], Scott & Scott 1988:401 [ref. 25518], McAllister 1990:155 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:153 [ref. 23239], Murdy et al. 1997:189 [ref. 23144], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:323 [ref. 25013], Rountree in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:506 [ref. 26158], Russell 2003:1810 [ref. 27114], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:750 [ref. 28815], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:82 [ref. 33341], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Robertson et al. 2020:163 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena borealis DeKay 1842. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

brachygnathos, Sphyraena Bleeker [P.] 1855:368 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16937] Batjan; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Syntypes: (3) RMNH 6024 (2, poor condition). Original as Sphijraena brachijgnathos, the Dutch ij equivalent to y in Latin. Günther 1860:340 emended the name to brachygnathus. •Synonym of Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302]). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:137 [ref. 28229], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

branneri, Sphyraena Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1915:Sphyraenidae p. 4 [Arquivos do Museu Nacional de Rio de Janeiro v. 17; ref. 3711] Pernambuco, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNRJ 1742. Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:407 [ref. 12732]. On p. 64 when continuously paginated. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Sphyraena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:324, 327, Pl. 10 (fig. 2) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] China. •Possibly a senior synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302]). •Regarded as a nomen dubium -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:148 [ref. 28229]). Nomen Dubium. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

chrysotaenia, Sphyraena Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:128, 129, Pl. 9 (fig. 3) [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: SMNS 2073 (4) Kosseir; NMW 77364 (3); ZMB 10577 and 10578 (2). Type catalog: Fricke 1992:18 [ref. 20296]. Fricke 2005:60 [ref. 29864] •Synonym of Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Senou 2001:3691 [ref. 26303], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:374 [ref. 28072], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049]). •Questionably a synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Parin 2003:S25 [ref. 28536]). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Bray & Hoese 2006:1751 [ref. 29049]). •Valid as Sphyraena chrysotaenia Klunzinger 1884 -- (Tortonese 1973:566 [ref. 7192], Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:1194 [ref. 13677], de Sylva & Williams 1986:723 [ref. 6301], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Larson & Williams 1997:365 [ref. 23967], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Corsini & Economidis 1999:197 [ref. 24060], Massutí et al. 2001:98 [ref. 26220], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:138 [ref. 26753], Kara & Bourehail 2003:59 [ref. 27026], Golani 2005:58 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:109 [ref. 29533], Pastore 2009:1299 [ref. 30405], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:68 [ref. 36649], Abdussamad et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33861], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:142 [ref. 37515], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 17 [ref. 38321], Golani 2021:81 [ref. 38303]). •Synonym of Sphyraena pinguis Günther 1874 -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:145 [ref. 28229], Parin et al. 2014:507 [ref. 33547], Golani & Fricke 2018:121 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:116 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena pinguis Günther 1874. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea; western Indian Ocean: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to western India; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant) (if valid). Habitat: marine.

commersonii, Sphyraena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:352 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Indian Seas. Syntypes: MNHN A-8414 (1, dry). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:676 [ref. 21541]. On Lacepède 1803:pl. 8 (fig. 3) [ref. 4930]. •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Fricke 1999:556 [ref. 24106]). •Not in Sphyraena obtusata group -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:149 [ref. 28229]). •See Randall 2005:606 [ref. 28239]. •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792) [= Edwards1771] -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], de Sylva & Williams 1986:723 [ref. 6301], Mundy 2005:497 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

dentatus, Sphyraena Saville-Kent [W.] (ex De Vis) 1893:293, 370 [The Great Barrier Reef of Australia; its products and potentialities; ref. 13269] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. No types known. De Vis name mentioned; name only, not available. Nomen Nudum. Sphyraenidae.

dubia, Sphyraena Bleeker [P.] 1863:70, Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [Natuurkundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) v. 18 (1862); ref. 395] Ashantee, Guinea. Holotype (unique): RMNH 454. Holotype figured by Boeseman 1963:Pl. 1 (fig. 3) [ref. 21734]. •Valid as Sphyraena dubia Bleeker 1863 -- (Daget 1986:350 [ref. 6203]). •Synonym of Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1990:862 [ref. 19190], Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:790 [ref. 21590], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2870 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

dussumieri, Sphyraena Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:508 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] Red Sea; Mauritius; Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. No types known. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:721 [ref. 21541]. •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Dor 1984:193 [ref. 29757], de Sylva & Williams 1986:723 [ref. 6301], Fricke 1999:555 [ref. 24106], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

ensis, Sphyraena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:106 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 2 (for 1882); ref. 18357] Mazatlán, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Syntypes: USNM 28210, 28297, 28373, 29223, 29536, 29611. •Valid as Sphyraena ensis Jordan & Gilbert 1882 -- (Pequeño 1989:63 [ref. 14125], Allen & Robertson 1994:195 [ref. 22193], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1620 [ref. 22830], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:193 [ref. 24555], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:460 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:124 [ref. 25206], Shane 2001:160 [ref. 25756], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], Béarez 2008:95 [ref. 30486], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:150 [ref. 34871], Kells et al. 2016:310 [ref. 35888], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:92 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:299 [ref. 36544], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena ensis Jordan & Gilbert 1882. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: southern California (U.S.A.) south to northern Chile, including southern Gulf of California (Mexico) and Malpelo Island (Colombia). IUCN (2010): LC. Habitat: brackish, marine.

esocina, Sphyraena Schinz [H. R.] 1822:467 [Das Thierreich v. 2; ref. 3926] Based on Esox sphyraena of Bloch. •Objective synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Daget 1968:1059 [ref. 26392]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

flavicauda, Sphyraena Rüppell [W. P. E. S.] 1838:99, 100, Pl. 25 (fig. 3) [Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig. Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 3844] Massawa, Eritrea, Red Sea. Lectotype: SMF 506. Paralectotypes: SMF 6776 (1, dry), 8141-43 (3). Rüppell specimens: BMNH 1860.11.9.62-63 (2). Lectotype established by Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757] if not designated earlier. Also designated by Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:141 [ref. 28229] as SMF 6776 (invalid). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:137 [ref. 28229]). •Valid as Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302], Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441], de Sylva & Williams 1986:724 [ref. 6301], Randall et al. 1990:291 [ref. 15987], Gomon et al. 1994:667 [ref. 22532], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:367 [ref. 22896], Carpenter et al. 1997:220 [ref. 23922], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Myers 1999:276 [ref. 23965], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Allen 2000:94 [ref. 37268], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1336 [ref. 25182], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:336 [ref. 25191], Allen 2000:123 [ref. 25868], Matsuura & Peristiwady in Matsuura & Peristiwady 2000:297 [ref. 27511], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Senou 2001:3691 [ref. 26303], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:525 [ref. 26145], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:138 [ref. 26753], Nakabo 2002:1336 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Kara & Bourehail 2003:59 [ref. 27026], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:208 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Golani 2005:59 [ref. 37112], Randall 2005:606 [ref. 28239], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049], Fricke et al. 2007:109 [ref. 29533], Pastore 2009:1299 [ref. 30405], Motomura et al. 2010:229 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1037 [ref. 31980], Ali et al. 2018:340 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:358 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:120 [ref. 36273], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027] with author as Rüppel, Elbaraasi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36864], Eagderi et al. 2019:116 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36673], Kara & Bourehail 2020:364 [ref. 37740], Golani 2021:81 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Seychelles, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Philippines and New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), north to southern Japan, south to northern Australia; Mediterranean Sea (Red Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

forsteri, Sphyraena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:353 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] New Guinea. Neotype: MNHN A-3537. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:676, 721 [ref. 21541]. As Sphyraena forsteri? Originally based on a drawing of fish from Tahiti. Neotype designated by Klausewitz & Bauchot 1967:117 [ref. 20910]. •Valid as Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:80 [ref. 6302], Kyushin et al. 1977:60 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:47 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441], de Sylva & Williams 1986:724 [ref. 6301], Winterbottom et al. 1989:51 [ref. 13251], Randall et al. 1990:292 [ref. 15987], Gomon et al. 1994:665 [ref. 22532], Krishnan & Mishra 1994:295 [ref. 24014], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:368 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:196 [ref. 27969], Carpenter et al. 1997:220 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:292 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:276 [ref. 23965], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1335 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:20 [ref. 25806], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103 [ref. 26368], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Senou 2001:3692 [ref. 26303], Nakabo 2002:1335 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Matsuura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:208 [ref. 27510], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Mishra & Krishnan 2003:41 [ref. 27712], Adrim et al. 2004:127 [ref. 27715], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:374 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:607 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:498 [ref. 28379], Bray & Hoese 2006:1750 [ref. 29049], Gomon 2008:775 [ref. 30616], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1038 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:214 [ref. 32988], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:309 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:208 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:340 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:358 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:120 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:226 [ref. 36460], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Eagderi et al. 2019:116 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 17 [ref. 38321], Morishita et al. 2020:[6] [ref. 37447], Psomadakis et al. 2020:564 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Society Islands and Marquesas Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia and Tonga. Habitat: marine.

goodingi, Sphyraena Seale [A.] 1906:18, Fig. 4 [Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum of Polynesian Ethnology and Natural History v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 3999] Nukuhiva, Marquesas Islands, southern Pacific. Holotype (unique): BPBM 2112. •Synonym of Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:81 [ref. 6302]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

grandisquamis, Sphyraena Steindachner [F.] 1866:51 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe v. 3 (no. 7); ref. 20460] Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): NMW 5479. Appeared first in the abstract as above, then in Steindachner 1866:446 [p. 23 of separate] [ref. 4210]. •Synonym of Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049]). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:137 [ref. 28229], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

guachancho, Sphyraena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:342 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] No locality [likely Havana]. No types known. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:721 [ref. 21541]. Spelled guaguanche in Poey 1860:186 [ref. 3499]. •Valid as Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier 1829 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:395 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:214 [ref. 23100], de Sylva 1990:862 [ref. 19190], Boschung 1992:153 [ref. 23239], Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:790 [ref. 21590], Cervigón 1992:444 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:391 [ref. 24474], Murdy et al. 1997:188 [ref. 23144], Matsuura & Suzuki 1997:369 [ref. 23360], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:460 [ref. 24550], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:323 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25466], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Russell 2003:1811 [ref. 27114], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:751 [ref. 28815], Wirtz et al. 2007:22, 40 [ref. 30263], Matamoros et al. 2009:26 [ref. 31241], Mabragaña et al. 2011:table S2 [ref. 31800], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32972], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2870 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:52 [ref. 35565], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:346 [ref. 36407], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Carneiro et al. 2019:295 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:271 [ref. 38139], Ribeiro et al. 2019:6 [ref. 36717]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Atlantic: including Madeira, Canary Islands, São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

guentheri, Sphyraena Haly [A.] 1875:270 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 15 (no. 88) (art. 35); ref. 18241] Colón, (Atlantic) Panama [BMNH binder says Venezuela, Sclater coll.]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 63.12.16.1. Original as güntheri. •Synonym of Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1990:862 [ref. 19190]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

hasselquistii, Mugil Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:xxxii (118-119) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No locality. No types known. Latinized only on p. xxxii. Name available from index and reference to description on p. 119. See Cuvier & Valenciennes 1836:57-58 [ref. 1005] and Cestreus rondeletii Walbaum 1793. •Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm., 5/03). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

helleri, Sphyraena Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:387, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Holotype (unique): USNM 49692. See Randall 1995:367 [ref. 22896]. •Status uncertain -- (de Sylva 1975:82 [ref. 6302]). •Synonym of Sphyraena acutipinnis Day 1876 -- (de Sylva & Williams 1986:722 [ref. 6301], Anderson et al. 1998:28 [ref. 23611]). •Valid as Sphyraena helleri Jenkins 1901 -- (Pequeño 1989:63 [ref. 14125], Randall et al. 1990:292 [ref. 15987], Randall et al. 1997:292 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:276 [ref. 23965], Randall 1999:29 [ref. 25829], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1337 [ref. 25182], Randall & Earle 2000:20 [ref. 25806], Senou 2001:3693 [ref. 26303], Nakabo 2002:1337 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Randall 2005:607 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:498 [ref. 28379], Bray & Hoese 2006:1750 [ref. 29049], Randall 2007:442 [ref. 30952], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1038 [ref. 31980], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Fricke et al. 2019:307 [ref. 36673], Morishita & Motomura 2020:546 [ref. 37508]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena helleri Jenkins 1901. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Central Pacific: Hawaiian Islands. Habitat: marine.

hupferi, Sphyraena Fischer [J. G.] 1885:70 [Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten v. 2; ref. 18083] Cameroon. Holotype (unique): ZMH H394 [ex ZMH 3869]. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:161 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:405 [ref. 21161]. •Synonym of Sphyraena afra Peters 1844 -- (de Sylva 1990:860 [ref. 19190]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena afra Peters 1844. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

iburiensis, Sphyraena Doiuchi [R.] & Nakabo [T.] 2005:133, Figs. 1, 2A, 3A-B [Ichthyological Research v. 52 (no. 2); ref. 28229] Iburi, Kochi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype: FAKU 70514. Paratypes: FAKU 65254 (1), 65818 (1), 66400-01 (2), 66639-40 (1, 1), 66663 (1),66816 (1), 66821(1), 66917-18 (2), 68921-24 (4), 68926-29 (3), 68973 (1), 68975 (1), 69005 (1), 69014-16 (3), 69018-20 (3), 69022-23 (2), 69549 (1), 73468 (1), 87404 (1); KPM-NI 10405-16 (12). •Valid as Sphyraena iburiensis Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005 -- (Doiuchi et al. 2011:99 [ref. 31140], Golani & Fricke 2018:120 [ref. 36273], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena iburiensis Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea, northwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

idiastes, Sphyraena Heller [E.] & Snodgrass [R. E.] 1903:190, Pl. 2 [Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 5; ref. 2089] Seymour Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype: CAS-SU 12331. Paratypes: CAS-SU 12321 (1, not found). Non-types: a small specimen doubtfully included. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:64 [ref. 12291]. Appeared first without distinguishing features in Jenkins 1901:388 [ref. 2340] and attributed to Snodgrass & Heller. •Valid as Sphyraena idiastes Heller & Snodgrass 1903 -- (de Sylva 1975:87 [ref. 6302], Pequeño 1989:63 [ref. 14125] as idiasthes, Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1621 [ref. 22830], Franke & Acero P. 1996:768 [ref. 22923], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:571 [ref. 24023], McCosker et al. 1997:25 [ref. 22816], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:193 [ref. 24555], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], Béarez 2008:95 [ref. 30486], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:194 [ref. 30957], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena idiastes Heller & Snodgrass 1903. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific: Peru, Ecuador and Colombia, Galápagos Islands. Habitat: marine.

intermedia, Sphyraena Pastore [M. A.] 2009:1300, Figs. 2 (upper), 3C, 5 (middle), 6B, 7 (=5B) [Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom v. 89 (no. 6); ref. 30405] Mar Grande, Gulf of Taranto, Italy, Mediterranean Sea, 40°23'54.82''N 17°10'56.63''E. Holotype: IAMC-CNR 3274. Paratypes: IAMC-CNR 3255 (1). Plus 17 additional non-type specimens. Permanently unavailable, primary homonym of the fossil taxon Sphyraena intermedia Bassani 1889 (see Ballen 2019:400 [ref. 37027]). Described as a "potential" new species, but considered as intentionally established (ICZN Art. 16.1). •Probably as synonym of S. sphyraena or S. viridensis -- (Psomadakis et al. 2012:18 [ref. 33457]). 1°Homonym. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

japonica, Sphyraena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:354 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Japan. No types known. As Sphyraena japonica? Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Sphyraena japonica Bloch & Schneider 1801. Also based on Houttuyn, so Cuvier's name is also a synonym. •Incorrectly treated as valid as Sphyraena japonica Cuvier 1829 -- (Wu & Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:201 [ref. 26639], Choi et al. 2003:416, 670 [ref. 26218], Sonoyama et al. 2020:111 [ref. 37637]). •Homonym and synonym of Sphyraena japonica Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Questionably a synonym of Sphryaena acutipinnis Day 1876 -- (Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena acutipinnis Day 1876. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

jello, Sphyraena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:349 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Vizagapatam, India. Surviving syntype: MNHN A-8411 (1, dry). Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:676-677 [ref. 21541] as holotype. Based on the 'Jellow' in description and illustration by Russell 1803:59, Pl. 174 [ref. 13862], and on a MNHN specimen from Vizagapatam (the surviving syntype), collected by Leschenault (Jean Baptiste Louis Claude Théodore Leschenault de la Tour, 1773-1826, French naturalist). •Valid as Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:86 [ref. 6302], Kyushin et al. 1977:58 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:46 [ref. 19754], Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], de Sylva & Williams 1986:724 [ref. 6301], Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:292 [ref. 15987], Senou 1992:4 [ref. 24321], Kottelat et al. 1993:126 [ref. 23448], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:368 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:197 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:221 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:36 [ref. 26476] with author and date as Cuvier & Valenciennes 1824, Randall et al. 1997:292 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:276 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:556 [ref. 24106], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:336 [ref. 25191], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:271 [ref. 25480], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Senou 2001:3694 [ref. 26303], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:374 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:608 [ref. 28239], Bray & Hoese 2006:1750 [ref. 29049], Fricke 2008:56 [ref. 30182], Pastore 2009:1302 [ref. 30405], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1038 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:214 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:201 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:187 [ref. 33932], Abdussamad et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33861], Psomadakis et al. 2015:309 [ref. 34104], Motomura et al. 2017:208 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:340 [ref. 36183], Fricke et al. 2018:359 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:120 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:305 [ref. 36495], Eagderi et al. 2019:116 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 17 [ref. 38321], Morishita et al. 2020:[7] [ref. 37447], Psomadakis et al. 2020:564 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:111 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Madagascar, Mauritius (Mascarenes) and Persian Gulf east to Fiji and Tonga, north to central Japan, south to Western Australia, New South Wales (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

kadanar, Sphyroena Thiollière [V. J. de l'I.] in Montrouzier 1857:427 [149] [Annales de la Société d'Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles de Lyon (sér. 2) v. 8 (1856); ref. 17789] Woodlark Island, South Pacific. No types known. On p. 149 of reprint. As Sphyroena kadanar (Lucioperca? kadanar, mss.). •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302] as kadenar, Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

kenie, Sphyraena Klunzinger [C. B.] 1884:128, 129, Pl. 9 (figs. 2-2a) [Die Fische des Rothen Meeres; ref. 2625] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Holotype (unique): NMW 75385 or ZMB 13267 (poor condition). Unjustified emendation of Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870:823 [ref. 2621]. •Synonym of Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870. Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

koehleri, Sphyraena Curtiss [A.] 1938:43 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Lagoon near Tautira, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

langsar, Sphyraena Bleeker [P.] 1855:367 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 7 (no. 3); ref. 16937] Batjan and Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 6023 (smaller syntype). Paralectotypes: RMNH 6023 (1). Lectotype selected by Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:142 [ref. 28229]. •Synonym of Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302]). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:137 [ref. 28229], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989], Eagderi et al. 2019:116 [ref. 37020]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leverianus, Gadus Shaw [G.] 1803:153 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Southern Ocean. No types known. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

lineata, Sphyraena Stead [D. G.] 1908:47, Pl. 15 [The edible fishes of New South Wales; ref. 18743] New South Wales, Australia. Lectotype: QM I.1523. Paralectotypes: lost. Lectotype selected by Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:142 [ref. 28229]. •Synonym of Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049]). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:137 [ref. 28229], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lucasana, Sphyraena Gill [T. N.] 1863:86 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 15; ref. 1679] Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico. Holotype: USNM 6353. •Valid as Sphyraena lucasana Gill 1863 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:195 [ref. 22193], Sommer in Fischer et al. 1995:1621 [ref. 22830], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:460 [ref. 24550], Lea & Rosenblatt 2000:125 [ref. 25206], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], Béarez 2008:95 [ref. 30486], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena lucasana Gill 1863. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

mediterranea, Sphyraena viridensis Relini [M.] & Orsi Relini [L.] 1997:59, Figs. 2-3 [Cybium v. 21 (no. 2); ref. 23099] Mediterranean Sea. Proposed conditionally for a possible Mediterranean subspecies of S. viridensis as "This might justify distinguishing a Mediterranean form of S. viridensis, i.e., S. viridensis mediterranea." Regarded as conditionally proposed and unavailable. •Possibly a subspecies of Sphyraena viridensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Kara & Bourehail 2003:59 [ref. 27026]). Current status: Uncertain as Sphyraena viridensis Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae.

megalolepis, Sphyraena Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1877:842 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1876; ref. 3454] Carteret Harbour, Lambom Island, near Cape Saint-George, southern New Ireland, Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea, western Pacific, ca. 4°48'S, 152°51'E. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302]). •Not in Sphyraena obtusata group -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:149 [ref. 28229]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

microps, Sphyraena Marshall [T. C.] 1953:54, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Ichthyological Notes, Department of Harbours and Marine, Queensland No. 2; ref. 12701] Off Comboyuro, inside entrance to Moreton Bay, and Cape Moreton, southern Queensland, Australia. Syntypes: (2) QM I.30811 [ex DHMB 1374] (head only), 1 other not saved. •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:85 [ref. 6302], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

minor, Esox sphyraena var. Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xvi [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] No locality stated (Red Sea). No types known. Not available, a phrase. •In the synonym of Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829 -- (Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

natalensis, Sphyraena von Bonde [C.] 1923:10, Pl. 3 (fig. 2) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 3 (art. 1); ref. 521] KwaZulu-Natal coast, 24°35'40"S, 31°21'17"E, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, Pickle station 299, depth 36 fathoms. Syntypes: (6) SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 82 (1). Type information: Winterbottom 1974:9 [ref. 19544]. •Synonym of Sphyraena africana Gilchrist & Thompson 1909 -- (de Sylva 1975:82 [ref. 6302]). •Synonym of Sphyraena acutipinnis Day 1876 -- (de Sylva & Williams 1986:722 [ref. 6301], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena acutipinnis Day 1876. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

nigripinnis, Sphyraena Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1843:34, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Fauna Japonica Parts 2-4; ref. 4371] Nagasaki, Japan. Holotype (unique): lost. Type catalog: Boeseman 1947:45 [ref. 12876]. •Questionably the same as the younger Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870 -- (de Sylva 1975:85 [ref. 6302]). •Questionably a synonym of Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870 -- (Senou 2001:3697 [ref. 26303]). •Valid as Sphyraena nigripinnis Temminck & Schlegel 1843 -- (Winterbottom et al. 1989:51 [ref. 13251], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena nigripinnis Temminck & Schlegel 1843. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan. Habitat: marine.

novaehollandiae, Sphyraena Günther [A.] 1860:335 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 2; ref. 1963] Hobson's Bay, Port Phillip, Victoria, Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.6.17.37 (left half skin). Originally as novae Hollandiae. See Randall 1995:367 [ref. 22896]. •Valid as Sphyraena novaehollandiae Günther 1860 -- (de Sylva 1975:81 [ref. 6302], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441], de Sylva & Williams 1986:725 [ref. 6301], Paulin et al. 1989:206 [ref. 24556], Kuiter 1993:265 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:666 [ref. 22532], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Mundy 2005:499 [ref. 28379], Bray & Hoese 2006:1751 [ref. 29049], Gomon 2008:775 [ref. 30616], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Hoschke et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36626], Morishita & Motomura 2020:547 [ref. 37508]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena novaehollandiae Günther 1860. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: South coast of Australia and Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

nuageuse, Sphyrene Liénard [F.] 1843:64 [Rapport Annuel sur les travaux de la Société d'Histoire Naturelle de l'Ile Maurice No. 13 (for 1842-1843); ref. 20927] [Ile Maurice] Mauritius, Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Name not available, vernacular name only, as 'Sphyrène nuageuse'. Genus should have been Sphyraena. For comments on authorship see Monod 1976:22 [ref. 30339]. •In the synonymy of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae.

obtusata, Sphyraena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:350 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Puducherry, India. Lectotype: MNHN A-5486. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-9600 (2) Port Jackson, A-3530 (1) Réunion, A-3531 (1) Malabar, B-1878 (1) Réunion. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:677 [ref. 21541]. Lectotype selected by Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:141 [ref. 28229]. •Possible synonym (in part) of Sphyraena chrysotaenia Klunzinger 1884 -- (de Sylva & Williams 1986:723 [ref. 6301]). •Possible synonym (in part) of Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva & Williams 1986:724 [ref. 6301], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377]). •Synonym in part of Sphyraena acutipinnis Day 1876 -- (Fricke 1999:555 [ref. 24106]). •Valid as Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302], Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441], Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:230 [ref. 24016], Kuiter 1993:265 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:667 [ref. 22532], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:368 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:197 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:221 [ref. 23922], Chen et al. 1997:36 [ref. 26476], Myers 1999:277 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:556 [ref. 24106], Mishra & Srinivasan 1999:251 [ref. 24754], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Senou 2001:3695 [ref. 26303], Choi et al. 2003:416, 670 [ref. 26218], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Parin 2003:S25 [ref. 28536], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:373 [ref. 28072], Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:137 [ref. 28229], Bray & Hoese 2006:1751 [ref. 29049], Vasil'eva 2007:175 [ref. 30517], Gomon 2008:774, 776 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2009:110 [ref. 30213], Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:309 [ref. 31170], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1039 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:214 [ref. 32988], Kottelat 2013:446 [ref. 32989], Yoshida et al. 2013:201 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:187 [ref. 33932], Psomadakis et al. 2015:310 [ref. 34104], Miesen et al. 2016:95 [ref. 34492], Motomura et al. 2017:208 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:340 [ref. 36183], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Fricke et al. 2018:359 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:121 [ref. 36273], Suresh et al. 2018:307 [ref. 36495], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Eagderi et al. 2019:116 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:308 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:108 [ref. 36871] as cf. obtusata, Bogorodsky et al. 2020:533 [ref. 38001], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 17 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:565 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Socotra, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, Mascarenes and Persian Gulf east to Samoa, north to southern Japan and Korea, south to Lord Howe Islands and New Caledonia. Habitat: brackish, marine.

permisca, Sphyraena Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:45, Pl. 2 (fig. 8) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 3; ref. 4105] Bazaruto Island, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 83. •Synonym of Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:86 [ref. 6302], Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], de Sylva & Williams 1986:724 [ref. 6301], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena jello Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

picuda, Sphyraena sphyraena var. Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:110, Pl. 29 (upper fig.) [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] South America. No types known. Described as a variety in text, as Sphyraena picuda in plate. •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Dor 1984:194 [ref. 29757], de Sylva 1990:861 [ref. 19190], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:323 [ref. 25013], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2869 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

picudilla, Sphyraena Poey [F.] 1860:162 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 25967 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:185 [ref. 22926]. •Valid as Sphyraena picudilla Poey 1860 -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:394 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:214 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:154 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:444 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:393 [ref. 24474], Aguilera 1998:51 [ref. 24221], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2000:401 [ref. 24427], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:168 [ref. 27754], Nelson et al. 2004:175 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:752 [ref. 28815], Nión et al. 2016:52 [ref. 35565], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027]). •Synonym of Sphyraena borealis DeKay 1842 -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:323, 324 [ref. 25013], Russell 2003:1810 [ref. 27114]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena borealis DeKay 1842. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

pinguis, Sphyraena Günther [A.] 1874:157 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 13 (no. 74) (art. 23); ref. 14189] Yantai [Chefoo], Shantung Province, China, Western North Pacific. Syntypes: BMNH 1874.1.16.15-16 (2). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302]). •Valid as Sphyraena pinguis Günther 1874 -- (Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441], Chen et al. 1997:36 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:239 [ref. 26385], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24670], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Nakabo 2000:1336 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:272 [ref. 25480], Wang et al. 2001:202 [ref. 26566], Gavrenkov 2002:131 [ref. 25961], Nakabo 2002:1336 [ref. 26193], Choi et al. 2003:416, 670 [ref. 26218], Parin 2003:S25 [ref. 28536], Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:143 [ref. 28229], Vasil'eva 2007:175 [ref. 30517], Gomon 2008:776 [ref. 30616], Motomura et al. 2010:229 [ref. 31256], Parin et al. 2014:507 [ref. 33547], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:85 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:310 [ref. 34104], Fricke et al. 2018:359 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:121 [ref. 36273], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:227 [ref. 36460], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Eagderi et al. 2019:116 [ref. 37020], Kovačić et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37519], Psomadakis et al. 2020:565 [ref. 37272], Sonoyama et al. 2020:111 [ref. 37637], Sasaki in Motomura et al. 2021:76 [ref. 38121]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena pinguis Günther 1874. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, South Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to Philippines and New Guinea, north to central Japan, south to South Australia; immigrated into eastern Mediterranean through Suez Canal. Habitat: marine.

piscatorum, Sphyraena Cadenat [J.] 1964:673, Figs. 1, 4, 8C, 10 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 26 (no. 2); ref. 17963] Gorée, Senegal. Holotype (unique): IFAN. Additional material: BMNH 1901.8.1.82 (1), RMNH 6025 (1) Guinea. •Valid as Sphyraena piscatorum Cadenat 1964 -- (Daget 1986:350 [ref. 6203]). •Synonym of Sphyraena afra Peters 1844 -- (de Sylva & Williams 1986:722 [ref. 6301], de Sylva 1990:860 [ref. 19190], Daget in Lévêque et al. 1992:790 [ref. 21590], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2868 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena afra Peters 1844. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

putnamae, Sphyraena Jordan [D. S.] & Seale [A.] 1905:4, Pl. 13 [Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Sciences (Iowa). v. 10; ref. 10645] Hong Kong [People's Republic of China, South China Sea, western Pacific]. Holotype: CAS-SU 9063 [also cataloged 9263]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 9339 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:64 [ref. 12291]. Spelled putnamae in Pl. 13, as putnamiae on pp. 1 and 4; named for Mrs. Putnam, so putnamae is correct; first reviser not researched; putnamae was selected by Eschmeyer 1998:1410 [ref. 23416]. •Valid as Sphyraena putnamae Jordan & Seale 1905 -- (Dor 1984:195 [ref. 29757] as putnamiae, Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:121 [ref. 6441] as putnamiae, de Sylva & Williams 1986:725 [ref. 6301] as putnamiae, Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Randall et al. 1990:292 [ref. 15987] as putnamiae, Talwar & Jhingran 1991:904 [ref. 20764] as putnamiae, Senou 1992:3 [ref. 24321] as putnamiae, Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356] as putnamiae, Mohsin & Ambak 1996:198 [ref. 27969] as putnamiae, Carpenter et al. 1997:221 [ref. 23922] as putnamiae, Myers 1999:277 [ref. 23965] as putnamiae, Johnson 1999:743 [ref. 25471] as putmaniae, Krupp et al. 2000:331 [ref. 25117] as putnamiae, Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122] as putnamiae, Nakabo 2000:1334 [ref. 25182], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:271 [ref. 25480] as putnamiae, Iwatsuki et al. 2000:104 [ref. 26368] as putnamiae, Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Senou 2001:3696 [ref. 26303], Nakabo 2002:1334 [ref. 26193], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377] as putnamiae, Mishra & Krishnan 2003:41 [ref. 27712], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:374 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:608 [ref. 28239], Bray & Hoese 2006:1752 [ref. 29049], Pastore 2009:1302 [ref. 30405], Kimura in Matsuura & Kimura 2009:309 [ref. 31170], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1039 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:215 [ref. 32988], Bogorodsky et al. 2014:430 [ref. 33460], Abdussamad et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33861], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2015:85 [ref. 34319], Psomadakis et al. 2015:310 [ref. 34104], Koeda et al. 2016:106 [ref. 35333], Ali et al. 2018:340 [ref. 36183] as putnamiae, Fricke et al. 2018:359 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:121 [ref. 36273], Jawad et al. 2018:122 [ref. 36262], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:227 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:306 [ref. 36495], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Eagderi et al. 2019:117 [ref. 37020], Zajonz et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 17 [ref. 38321], Morishita et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37447], Psomadakis et al. 2020:565 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena putnamae Jordan & Seale 1905. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-West Pacific: East Africa, Socotra, Madagascar and Persian Gulf east to Fiji and Tuvalu, north to southern Japan, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia) and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

qenie, Sphyraena Klunzinger [C. B.] 1870:823 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 20; ref. 2621] Al-Qusair, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, Red Sea. Syntypes: NMW 75385 (1), ZMB 13267 (1). Emended to kenie by Klunzinger 1884:129 [ref. 2625]; also seen as genie. •Valid as Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870 -- (de Sylva 1975:85 [ref. 6302], Dor 1984:195 [ref. 29757], de Sylva & Williams 1986:726 [ref. 6301], Senou 1992:4 [ref. 24321], Goren & Dor 1994:52 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Carpenter et al. 1997:222 [ref. 23922], Randall et al. 1997:293 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:277 [ref. 23965], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:643 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:337 [ref. 25191], Randall & Earle 2000:20 [ref. 25806], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Senou 2001:3697 [ref. 26303], Allen & Adrim 2003:63 [ref. 26830], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S120 [ref. 27377], Myers & Donaldson 2003:648 [ref. 27495], Randall et al. 2004:30 [ref. 27624], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:375 [ref. 28072], Randall 2005:608 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:499 [ref. 28379], Bray & Hoese 2006:1750 [ref. 29049], Randall 2007:442 [ref. 30952], Béarez 2008:95 [ref. 30486], Pastore 2009:1302 [ref. 30405], Erisman 2011:39 [ref. 31460], Allen & Erdmann 2012:1039 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:180 [ref. 32708], Larson et al. 2013:215 [ref. 32988], Fricke et al. 2014:187 [ref. 33932], Abdussamad et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33861], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:8 [ref. 33988], Psomadakis et al. 2015:311 [ref. 34104], Trnski 2015:1600 [ref. 34198], Fricke et al. 2018:359 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:121 [ref. 36273], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Eagderi et al. 2019:117 [ref. 37020], Fricke et al. 2019:309 [ref. 36673], Zajonz et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36871], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 17 [ref. 38321], Morishita et al. 2020:[2] [ref. 37447], Psomadakis et al. 2020:566 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indo-Pacific: East Africa, Persian Gulf, Socotra, Seychelles, Madagascar and Mauritius (Mascarenes) east to Mexico and Ecuador (eastern Pacific), Tuamotu Archipelago and Marquesas Islands, north to Hawaiian Islands, south to Western Australia, Queensland (Australia), New Caledonia, Tonga, New Zealand and Rapa. Habitat: marine.

raghava, Sphyraena Chaudhuri [B. L.] 1917:500, Figs. 20-21 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 5 (no. 6); ref. 15087] Satpara, outer channel of Chilka Lake, Orissa, India. Holotype (unique): ZSI F9453/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:142 [ref. 20743]. •Questionably a synonym of Sphyraena idiastes Heller & Snodgrass 1903 -- (de Sylva 1975:87 [ref. 6302]). •Synonym of Sphyraena putnamae Jordan & Seale 1905 -- (Talwar & Jhingran 1991:905 [ref. 20764] as putnamiae). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena putnamae Jordan & Seale 1905. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

rondeletii, Cestreus Walbaum [J. J.] 1793:20 [J. T. Kleinii ichthyologia enodata; ref. 12604] [Habitat in mari mediterraneo et Nilo] Mediterranean Sea; Nile River, Egypt. No types known. Brief description given with reference to a description for a variety of Mugil cephalus in Walbaum 1792:226 (letter "alpha") [ref. 4572], which was based on an earlier (pre-linnean) description by Hasselquist. See Mugil hasselquistii Bloch & Schneider 1801. •Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (P. Parenti, pers. comm., 5/03). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

sagittalis, Sphyraena Goldfuss [G. A.] 1820:33 [Handbuch der Zoologie 2 parts; ref. 1829] Mediterranean Sea; [West Sea] northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

schermus, Esox Nardo [G. D.] (ex Chiereghini) 1847:col. 127 [Sinonimia moderna delle specie registrate nell' opera intitolata: ...; ref. 17994] Not available, Chiereghini name mentioned in synonymy; genus misspelled Exos. Nomen Nudum. Sphyraenidae.

schlegelii, Sphyraena Steindachner [F.] 1896:209 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 11; ref. 14618] Kobe, Japan. Syntypes: NMW 5499 (2). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:83 [ref. 6302]). •Synonym of Sphyraena pinguis Günther 1874 -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:146 [ref. 28229]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena pinguis Günther 1874. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

snodgrassi, Sphyraena Jenkins [O. P.] 1901:388, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 19 (1899); ref. 2340] Honolulu, Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands. Syntypes: USNM 49693 (5). •Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Walbaum 1792 [= Edwards 1771]) -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Mundy 2005:497 [ref. 28379], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena barracuda (Edwards 1771). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

spet, Esox Haüy [R. J.] 1787:377 [Encyclopédia méthodique. Histoire naturelle; ref. 18253] No locality. Not available from Haüy 1787 as above or from Bonnaterre 1788:173 [ref. 4940] in which "Spet" or "Le Spet" is a vernacular name for Esox sphyraena Linnaeus 1758. As Sphyraena spet in Lacepède 1803:324, 326 [ref. 4930] and 1804:93. •In the synonymy of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (de Sylva 1990:863 [ref. 19190]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae.

spet, Sphyraena Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:324, 326 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Mention -- (de Sylva 1990:863 [ref. 19190]). •Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:566 [ref. 7192], Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:1195 [ref. 13677], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2871 [ref. 34618]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

sphiroena, Esox Cornide [J.] 1788:86 [Ensayo de una historia de los peces y otras producciones marinas de la costa de Galicia; ref. 5057] Appeared as Esox sphiroena dorso...; non-binominal and not available; perhaps a misspelling of Esox sphryraena Linnaeus. Misspelling. Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae.

sphyraena, Esox Linnaeus [C.] 1758:313 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: NRM 3541 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:259 [ref. 20707]. Misspelled sphiraena in Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:9 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:183 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:566 [ref. 7192], Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:1195 [ref. 13677], de Sylva 1990:863 [ref. 19190], Relini & Orsi Relini 1997:216 [ref. 23099], Matsuura & Suzuki 1997:369 [ref. 23360], Arruda 1997:113 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:324 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:79 [ref. 25466], Massutí et al. 2001:98 [ref. 26220], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:138 [ref. 26753], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Kara & Bourehail 2003:59 [ref. 27026], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Parin 2003:S25 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:59 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:109 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:176 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Pastore 2009:1299 [ref. 30405], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:68 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:508 [ref. 33547], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2871 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:174 [ref. 36550], Almeida & Alves 2019:273 [ref. 37509], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Carneiro et al. 2019:295 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36864], Reiner 2019:271 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:95 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37519], Abliazov et al. 2021:12 [ref. 38576], Golani 2021:81 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, São Tomé and Principe; central Atlantic: Saint Paul's Rocks; western Atlantic: Bermuda and Brazil. Habitat: brackish, marine.

sphyraenoides, Esox Forster [J. R.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:353 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Name in synonymy of Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier 1829. Nomen Nudum. Sphyraenidae.

stellata, Sphyraena Morishita [S.] & Motomura [H.] 2020:552, Figs. 2C, 7-9, 11C [Zootaxa 4772 (no. 3); ref. 37508] Off Okidomari Port, Okinoerabu-jima Island, Amami Islands, Japan, 27°24'16"N, 128°32'57"E, depth 20 meters. Holotype: KAUM-I. 122319. Paratypes: BMNH 1930.8.5.15 (1), BPBM, FRLM, KAUM-I., MNHN, NSMT, USNM. •Valid as Sphyraena stellata Morishita & Motomura 2020. Current status: Valid as Sphyraena stellata Morishita & Motomura 2020. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Indo-Pacific. Habitat: marine.

strenua, Sphyraena De Vis [C. W.] 1883:287 [Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales v. 8 (pt 2); ref. 1088] Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.1317. •Synonym of Sphyraena flavicauda Rüppell 1838 -- (de Sylva 1975:84 [ref. 6302], Bray & Hoese 2006:1749 [ref. 29049]). •Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829 -- (Doiuchi & Nakabo 2005:137 [ref. 28229], Kottelat 2013:445 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

tessera, Sphyraena Smith [J. L. B.] 1956:43, Pl. 2 (fig. 6) [Ichthyological Bulletin, Department of Ichthyology, Rhodes University No. 3; ref. 4105] Deep water near Assumption Island, 9°50'S, 46°20'E., Seychelles, western Indian Ocean. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 90. Paratypes: (1 head saved) not researched. •Synonym of Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870 -- (de Sylva 1975:86 [ref. 6302], de Sylva & Williams 1986:726 [ref. 6301]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena qenie Klunzinger 1870. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

tome, Sphyraena Fowler [H. W.] 1903:750, Pl. 46 (upper fig.) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 55; ref. 1361] Sambaia [probably Brazil]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 11463. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Sphyraena tome Fowler 1903 -- (Matsuura & Suzuki 1997:369 [ref. 23360], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Spier et al. 2018:16 [ref. 36103], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena tome Fowler 1903. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

toxeuma, Sphyraena Fowler [H. W.] 1904:502, Pl. 9 (middle fig.) [Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. Second series. v. 12 (pt 4); ref. 1367] Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 27470. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:157 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier 1829 -- (de Sylva 1975:81 [ref. 6302], de Sylva & Williams 1986:724 [ref. 6301], Gomon et al. 1994:666 [ref. 22532], Randall 1995:368 [ref. 22896]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena forsteri Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Habitat: marine.

viridensis, Sphyraena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:339 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] St. Jago, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3561. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:678 [ref. 21541]. •Valid as Sphyraena viridensis Cuvier 1829 -- (Tortonese 1973:566 [ref. 7192], Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:1196 [ref. 13677], de Sylva 1990:864 [ref. 19190], Relini & Orsi Relini 1997:216 [ref. 23099], Santos et al. 1997:104 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:113 [ref. 24952], Vacchi et al. 1999:325 [ref. 24369], Massutí et al. 2001:98 [ref. 26220], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:139 [ref. 26753], Kara & Bourehail 2003:59 [ref. 27026], Golani 2005:59 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:109 [ref. 29533], Pastore 2009:1299 [ref. 30405], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:68 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:134 [ref. 32972], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2872 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:175 [ref. 36550], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Carneiro et al. 2019:296 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:95 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37519], Dulčić & Bragičević in Santín et al. 2021:208 [ref. 38223], Golani 2021:82 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena viridensis Cuvier 1829. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Portugal, Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, possibly more widespread. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Sphyraena Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:327 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Blanc & Hureau 1971:721, 728 [ref. 21541]. Substitute name for Esox sphyraena Linnaeus 1758 and Sphyraena spet Lacepède 1803 (de Sylva 1990:863 [ref. 19190]). •Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:566 [ref. 7192], de Sylva 1990:863 [ref. 19190], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:138 [ref. 26753]). Current status: Synonym of Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

waitii, Sphyraena Ogilby [J. D.] 1908:29 [Annals of the Queensland Museum No. 9 (pt 1); ref. 3285] Port Jackson District, New South Wales, Australia. Holotype (unique): QM I.863 (on loan to Rose, perhaps lost). •Status uncertain -- (de Sylva 1975:82 [ref. 6302]). •Valid as Sphyraena waitii Ogilby 1908 -- (Gomon 2008:774 [ref. 30616], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Morishita & Motomura 2020:564 [ref. 37508]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena waitii Ogilby 1908. Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Queensland and New South Wales, Australia. Habitat: marine.