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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Synaphobranchidae: [ 75 ] records


abyssale, Dysomma Kamohara [T.] 1938:12, Fig. 3 [On the offshore bottom-fishes of Prov. Tosa; ref. 2551] Sagami Sea, Japan. Neotype: FMNH 76869. Type catalog: Kamohara 1961:2 [ref. 19282] as original type missing, Ibarra & Stewart 1987:33 [ref. 12367]. Neotype designated by Robins & Robins 1976:256 [ref. 3784]. •Valid as Meadia abyssalis (Kamohara 1938) -- (Ida in Okamura et al. 1982:59, 317 [ref. 8256], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:27 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:81, 315 [ref. 8057] as abyssale, Robins & Robins 1989:240 [ref. 13287], Mok et al. 1991:44 [ref. 19973], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:69 [ref. 22017], Fricke 1999:60 [ref. 24106], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:213 [ref. 25086], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465] as abyssale, Shinohara et al. 2001:292 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:213 [ref. 26001], Karmovskaya 2003:440 [ref. 27168], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:129 [ref. 28379], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Shinohara et al. 2014:236 [ref. 33330], Ho et al. 2015:179 [ref. 34130], Smith & Stewart 2015:245 [ref. 34234], Vo et al. 2021:185 [ref. 38239]). Current status: Valid as Meadia abyssalis (Kamohara 1938). Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: western Mascarenes east to Hancock Seamount, Hawaiian Islands and Society Islands, north to southern Japan, south to New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

achiropteryx, Dysomma Prokofiev [A. M.] 2019:317, Fig. 1 [Munis Entomology & Zoology v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 36804] Andaman Sea off Phuket Island, depth 508-518 meters. Holotype: PMBC [240 mm TL]. Paratypes: PMBC (4). •Valid as Dysomma achiropteryx Prokofiev 2019. Current status: Valid as Dysomma achiropteryx Prokofiev 2019. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

affinis, Synaphobranchus Günther [A.] 1877:445 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Off Inoshima, Japan. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1887.12.7.250. Non-types: (11 mentioned in Günther 1887). See also Günther 1887:254 [ref. 2013]. •Valid as Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877 -- (Ida in Okamura et al. 1982:63, 319 [ref. 8256], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:67, 174, 231, 315 [ref. 8379], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:83, 316 [ref. 8057], Castle 1986:190 [ref. 5644], Okamura & Machida 1987:108 [ref. 22279], Paxton et al. 1989:108 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125], Robins & Robins 1989:223 [ref. 13287], Golovan et al. 1989:77 [ref. 14113], Paulin et al. 1989:71 [ref. 24556], Smith 1990:197 [ref. 13616], Gomon et al. 1994:197 [ref. 22532], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:72 [ref. 22017], Shinohara et al. 1996:157 [ref. 26605], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1171 [ref. 22986], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:248 [ref. 23897], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Fricke 1999:61 [ref. 24106], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:214 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:16 [ref. 25650], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:118 [ref. 25968], Shinohara et al. 2001:292 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:214 [ref. 26001], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Moore et al. 2003:174 [ref. 27076], Karmovskaya 2003:437 [ref. 27168], Myers & Donaldson 2003:612 [ref. 27495], Love et al. 2005:19 [ref. 37547], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:130 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:263 [ref. 28995], Smith 2008:164 [ref. 30621], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], Melo et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30460], Costa & Mincarone 2010:353 [ref. 37483], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Almeida et al. 2010:66 [ref. 31350], Zhang et al. 2010:314 [ref. 31511], Parin et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33547], Ho et al. 2015:179 [ref. 34130], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:45 [ref. 37485], Smith & Stewart 2015:247 [ref. 34234], Smith 2016:1652 [ref. 34556], Fricke et al. 2018:42 [ref. 35805], Carneiro et al. 2019:59 [ref. 37250], Fricke et al. 2019:53 [ref. 36673], Reiner 2019:64 [ref. 38139], Psomadakis et al. 2020:272 [ref. 37272], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:61 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical through temperate seas, but not in northeastern North Pacific. Habitat: marine.

alticorpus, Dysomma Fricke [R.], Golani [D.], Appelbaum-Golani [B.] & Zajonz [U.] 2018:2, Figs. 1-2 [Comptes Rendus Biologies v. 341 (no. 2); ref. 35780] Red Sea, Gulf of Aqaba, Israel, off Eilat, ca. 29°30'45"N, 34°56'30"E, depth 350 meters. Holotype (unique): HUJ 17054. •Valid as Dysomma alticorpus Fricke, Golani, Appelbaum-Golani & Zajonz 2018 -- (Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma alticorpus Fricke, Golani, Appelbaum-Golani & Zajonz 2018. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic: Gulf of Aqaba. Habitat: marine.

anguillaris, Dysomma Barnard [K. H.] 1923:443 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 13 (pt 8, no. 14); ref. 191] Off Tugela River mouth, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 63 fathoms [115 meters]. Holotype (unique): SAM 12774. •Valid as Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923 -- (Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:27 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:81, 315 [ref. 8057], Castle 1986:189 [ref. 5644], Robins & Ray 1986:60 [ref. 23100], Robins & Robins 1989:245 [ref. 13287], Smith 1989:687 [ref. 13285], Cervigón 1991:48 [ref. 24472], Chen & Mok 1995:930 [ref. 21892], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:244 [ref. 23897], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:213 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Lee & Kim 2000:203 [ref. 25177], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:148 [ref. 27754], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Shinohara et al. 2001:292 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:213 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:143, 491 [ref. 26218], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Shinohara et al. 2005:391 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:128 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], Zhang et al. 2010:306 [ref. 31511], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Shinohara et al. 2014:236 [ref. 33330], Ho et al. 2015:91 [ref. 34124], Ho et al. 2015:177 [ref. 34130], Koeda et al. 2016:9 [ref. 35333], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780], Fricke et al. 2018:41 [ref. 35805], Hibino in Kimura et al. 2018:20 [ref. 36460], Ho & Tighe 2018:53 [ref. 36037], Fricke et al. 2019:53 [ref. 36673], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804], Sonoyama et al. 2020:17 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and warm temperate seas (including Sea of Japan). Habitat: marine.

angustus, Sinomyrus Lin [S.-Y.] 1933:94, Fig. 1 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 2783] Hoitow, Hainan, China. Holotype (unique): FESC (now at PRFRI) 405. •Synonym of Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:246 [ref. 13287], Ho et al. 2015:87 [ref. 34124], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780]). Current status: Synonym of Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Habitat: marine.

aphododera, Dysomma Ginsburg [I.] 1951:452, Fig. 7 [Texas Journal of Science v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 1804] Off Padre Island, Texas, U.S.A., 26°30'N, 96°26'W, depth 50 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 154992. Paratypes: USNM 154993 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:37 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:246 [ref. 13287], Ho et al. 2015:91 [ref. 34124], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780]). Current status: Synonym of Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Habitat: marine.

arx, Ilyophis Robins [C. H.] in Robins & Robins 1976:265, Figs. 4, 6, 7b, 8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 127; ref. 3784] Southeastern Pacific, 1°48'S, 90°19'W, depth 3225 meters. Holotype: ANSP 133808. Paratypes: ANSP 133809 (2), 133810 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:158 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Ilyophis arx Robins 1976 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:238 [ref. 13287], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Karmovskaya & Parin 1999:323 [ref. 23869]). Current status: Valid as Ilyophis arx Robins 1976. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific and eastern North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

australis, Synaphobranchus Regan [C. T.] 1913:235, Pl. 8 (fig. 5) [Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh v. 49 (pt 2, no. 2); ref. 3651] Southern Indian Ocean; South Atlantic. Syntypes: BMNH 1887.12.4.255 (1) 46°46'S, 45°31'E, Challenger station 146, depth 2515 meters; NMSZ 1921.143.318 (1) 48°06'S, 10°05'W, depth 1742 fathoms. Type catalog: Herman et al. 1990:1 [ref. 20727]. •Synonym of Histiobranchus bathybius (Günther 1877) -- (Blache et al. 1973:252 [ref. 7185], Castle 1986:189 [ref. 5644], Robins & Robins 1989:230 [ref. 13287], Gon 1990:103 [ref. 21680], Duhamel et al. 2005:92 [ref. 32059]). •Valid as Synaphobranchus australis Regan 1913 -- (Karmovskaya & Merrett 1998:1026 [ref. 23683]). •Valid as Histiobranchus australis (Regan 1913) -- (Mundy 2005:129 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:262 [ref. 28995], Smith 2008:162 [ref. 30621], Melo et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30460] as cf. australis, Almeida & Biscoito 2012:495 [ref. 32244], Smith & Stewart 2015:242 [ref. 34234], Carneiro et al. 2019:58 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Histiobranchus australis (Regan 1913). Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Southern Hemisphere: all oceans; also the Azores. Habitat: marine.

bathybius, Synaphobranchus Günther [A.] 1877:445 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 20 (no. 119) (art. 56); ref. 2009] Original: North Pacific; south of Tokyo, Japan; South Atlantic between Cape of Good Hope and Kerguelen Island. Lectotype: BMNH 1887.12.7.251. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1887.12.7.252-254 (3), 1899.7.19.1 (1, skeleton); NMI block reg. no. 114.1899 (1). Type catalog: Wheeler & O'Riordan 1969:94 [ref. 20752]. Also appeared in Günther 1887:254, Pl. 62 (fig. B) [ref. 2013]. Lectotype established by Norman & Trewavas 1939:358 [ref. 21470]. •See Smith 1989:684 [ref. 13285]. •Valid as Synaphobranchus bathybius Günther 1877 -- (Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:213 [ref. 25086], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:213 [ref. 26001], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Duhamel et al. 2005:92 [ref. 32059], Møller et al. 2010:20 [ref. 31169], Svendsen et al. 2011:255 [ref. 31757], Parin et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33547], Ho et al. 2015:179 [ref. 34130]). •Valid as Histiobranchus bathybius (Günther 1877) -- (Blache et al. 1973:252 [ref. 7185], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Saldanha & Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:587 [ref. 13676], Castle 1986:189 [ref. 5644], Okamura & Machida 1987:109 [ref. 22279], Matarese et al. 1989:34 [ref. 26885], Paxton et al. 1989:108 [ref. 12442], Robins & Robins 1989:230 [ref. 13287], Paulin et al. 1989:72 [ref. 24556], Gon 1990:103 [ref. 21680], Gomon et al. 1994:196 [ref. 22532], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1171 [ref. 22986], Santos et al. 1997:21 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:59 [ref. 24952], Karmovskaya & Merrett 1998:1023 [ref. 23683], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:16 [ref. 25650], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:123 [ref. 25968], Moore et al. 2003:173 [ref. 27076], Love et al. 2005:19 [ref. 37547], Mundy 2005:129 [ref. 28379], Almeida & Biscoito 2012:495 [ref. 32244], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:44 [ref. 37485] as cf. bathybius, Smith 2016:1651 [ref. 34556], Carneiro et al. 2019:58 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Histiobranchus bathybius (Günther 1877). Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Atlantic, Pacific and southern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

blachei, Ilyophis Saldanha [L.] & Merrett [N. R.] 1982:624, Figs. 2-5 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 21 (no. 6); ref. 8423] Porcupine Sea Bight, eastern North Atlantic, Discovery station 9774, 51°04.4'N, 11°59.3'W, depth 1494-1572 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1981.3.17.1. Paratypes: BMNH 1981.3.17.2 (1), 1981.6.16.1-2 (2); Discovery Coll. uncat (4); ISH 89-1981 (1); MNHN 1981-0613 (1); Mus. Bocage Lisbon T.2531 (1), T.2532 (1). Type catalog: Krefft 1987:74 [ref. 20751], Bauchot et al. 1993:103 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Ilyophis blachei Saldanha & Merrett 1982 -- (Saldanha & Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:587 [ref. 13676], Robins & Robins 1989:239 [ref. 13287], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1161 [ref. 22986], Santos et al. 1997:20 [ref. 23531], Saldanha & Biscoito 1997:195 [ref. 24962], Pakhorukov 2001:377 [ref. 25409], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Smith 2008:163 [ref. 30621], Melo et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30460], Smith & Stewart 2015:244 [ref. 34234], Smith 2016:1651 [ref. 34556], Carneiro et al. 2019:58 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Ilyophis blachei Saldanha & Merrett 1982. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Northeastern Atlantic, southeastern and southwestern Atlantic; southern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

brachygnathos, Dysomma Ho [H.-C.] & Tighe [K. A.] 2018:59, Figs. 4-5 [Zootaxa 4454 (no. 1); ref. 36037] Dong-gang fishing port, Pingtung, southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea, depth about 200-300 meters. Holotype: USNM 444742. Paratype: NMMBP. •Valid as Dysomma brachygnathos Ho & Tighe 2018 -- (Ho et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36050], Prokofiev 2019:321 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma brachygnathos Ho & Tighe 2018. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

brachysomus, Synaphobranchus Gilbert [C. H.] 1905:583, Fig. 232 [Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission v. 23 (pt 2) [for 1903]; ref. 1631] Vicinity of Kauai Island, Hawaiian Islands, Albatross station 4019, depth 409-550 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 51591. Paratypes: CAS-SU 8555 (1), 8640 (2); USNM 51696 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:51 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:38 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:223 [ref. 13287], Smith 1990:197 [ref. 13616], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:122 [ref. 25968], Mundy 2005:130 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

brevidorsalis, Synaphobranchus Günther [A.] 1887:255, Pl. 63 (fig. C) [Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. M. S. Challenger v. 22 (pt 57); ref. 2013] North of New Guinea, Challenger station 218, depth 1070 fathoms; off Japan, Challenger station 232, depth 345 fathoms. Syntypes: (2) BMNH 1887.12.7.256 (?2). This name appeared in Günther 1877:445 [ref. 2009] under Synaphobranchus affinis as "Allied to S. brevidorsalis, ..." (but perhaps S. bathybius was intended; no distinguishing features so not available from 1877). •Valid as Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis Günther 1887 -- (Ida in Okamura et al. 1982:65, 320 [ref. 8256], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:67, 174, 231, 315 [ref. 8379], Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:106 [ref. 14275], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:85, 317 [ref. 8057], Okamura & Machida 1987:108 [ref. 22279], Paxton et al. 1989:108 [ref. 12442], Golovan et al. 1989:77 [ref. 14113], Robins & Robins 1989:227 [ref. 13287], Quéro & Saldanha 1995:73 [ref. 22017], Shinohara et al. 1996:157 [ref. 26605], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1171 [ref. 22986], Adam et al. 1998:7 [ref. 23610], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:249 [ref. 23897], Fricke 1999:61 [ref. 24106], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:214 [ref. 25086], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:214 [ref. 26001], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Karmovskaya 2003:438 [ref. 27168], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Mundy 2005:130 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:263 [ref. 28995], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Smith 2008:165 [ref. 30621], Shao et al. 2008:238 [ref. 29952], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], Melo et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30460], Almeida et al. 2010:66 [ref. 31350], Costa & Mincarone 2010:300 [ref. 37483], Zhang et al. 2010:315 [ref. 31511], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Ho et al. 2015:180 [ref. 34130], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:46 [ref. 37485], Smith & Stewart 2015:248 [ref. 34234], Fricke et al. 2018:42 [ref. 35805], Ho et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36038], Williams et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36359], Carneiro et al. 2019:59 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis Günther 1887. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas, but not in northeastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

brevidorsalis, Synaphobranchus pinnatus var. Lloyd [R. E.] 1909:152 [Memoirs of the Indian Museum v. 2 (no. 3); ref. 2814] Arabian Sea, 19°51'N, 69°09'E, Investigator station 338, depth 839 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F1141/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:135 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:36 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Lloyd 1909: Pl. 47 (fig. 1) [ref. 20539]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis Günther 1887, also a synonym of same. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis Günther 1887 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:227 [ref. 13287]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis Günther 1887. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

brevirostre, Nettastoma Facciolà [L.] 1887:166, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Naturalista Siciliano [Il Naturalista Siciliano, Giornale di scienze naturali] v. 6; ref. 16780] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Holotype: lost. •Valid as Nettodarus brevirostris (Facciolà 1887) -- (Blache et al. 1973:238 [ref. 7185]). •Valid as Dysomma brevirostre (Facciolà 1887) -- (Saldanha & Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:587 [ref. 13676], Robins & Robins 1989:247 [ref. 13287], Smith 1989:689 [ref. 13285], Stefanescu et al. 1990:140 [ref. 15963], Smith 1990:195 [ref. 13616], Golani 1996:22 [ref. 22271], Marques & Saldanha 1998:285 [ref. 23580], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Golani 2005:17 [ref. 37112], Mundy 2005:128 [ref. 28379], Smith 2016:1650 [ref. 34556], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780], Carneiro et al. 2019:58 [ref. 37250], Prokofiev 2019:321 [ref. 36804], Golani 2021:15 [ref. 38303]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma brevirostre (Facciolà 1887). Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Eastern and western Atlantic; Mediterranean Sea. Habitat: marine.

brevitrunca, Atractodenchelys Vo [Q. V.] & Ho [H.-C.] 2020:589, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa 4742 (no. 3); ref. 37326] Off Nha Trang City, southern Vietnam, western South China Sea, depth around 280 - 350 meters. Holotype: OIM E.55743. Paratypes: NMMB, OIM. •Valid as Atractodenchelys brevitrunca Vo & Ho 2020. Current status: Valid as Atractodenchelys brevitrunca Vo & Ho 2020. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Off southern Vietnam, western South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

brunneus, Ilyophis Gilbert [C. H.] 1891:352 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 14 (no. 856); ref. 1625] Near San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands, 0°36'30"S, 89°19'00"W, Albatross station 2808, depth 634 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 44403. Type catalog: Smith 1994:37-38 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Ilyophis brunneus Gilbert 1891 -- (Blache et al. 1973:253 [ref. 7185], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:83, 316 [ref. 8057], Castle 1986:189 [ref. 5644], Okamura & Machida 1987:109 [ref. 22279], Scott & Scott 1988:88 [ref. 25518], Robins & Robins 1989:235 [ref. 13287], Paulin et al. 1989:71 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:47 [ref. 14674], Boschung 1992:33 [ref. 23239], Shinohara et al. 1996:157 [ref. 26605], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1163 [ref. 22986], Arruda 1997:59 [ref. 24952], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:247 [ref. 23897], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Karmovskaya & Parin 1999:316 [ref. 24869], Nakabo 2000:212 [ref. 25086], Pakhorukov 2001:377 [ref. 25409], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:16 [ref. 25650], Shinohara et al. 2001:292 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:212 [ref. 26001], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Moore et al. 2003:173 [ref. 27076], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], Paxton et al. 2006:262 [ref. 28995], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Melo et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30460], Ho et al. 2015:179 [ref. 34130], Smith 2016:1651 [ref. 34556], Vieira et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34869] as cf. brunneus, Robertson et al. 2017:33 [ref. 35676], Fricke et al. 2018:42 [ref. 35805], Carneiro et al. 2019:58 [ref. 37250], Vo et al. 2021:190 [ref. 38239]). Current status: Valid as Ilyophis brunneus Gilbert 1891. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Circumtropical, discontinuous. Habitat: marine.

bruuni, Histiobranchus Castle [P. H. J.] 1964:34, Fig. 1 (A-C, F) [Galathea Report v. 7; ref. 1484] Tasman Sea, 45°51'S, 164°32'E, Galathea station 601, depth 4400 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUC P32444. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:53 [ref. 9588]. •Valid as Histiobranchus bruuni Castle 1964 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:108 [ref. 12442], Robins & Robins 1989:232 [ref. 13287], Paulin et al. 1989:72 [ref. 24556], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1171 [ref. 22986], Karmovskaya & Merrett 1998:1029 [ref. 23683], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Paxton et al. 2006:262 [ref. 28995], Smith & Stewart 2015:243 [ref. 34234]). Current status: Valid as Histiobranchus bruuni Castle 1964. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

bucephalus, Dysomma Alcock [A. W.] 1889:459 [35] [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 24); ref. 20525] Bay of Bengal, eastern Indian Ocean, 20°17'30"N, 88°51'E, Investigator station 14, depth 193 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ZSI F11675. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:134 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:36 [ref. 22148]. On p. 35 of separate. Figured in Alcock 1892: Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [ref. 20531]. •Valid as Dysomma bucephalus Alcock 1889 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:248 [ref. 13287], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780], Prokofiev 2019:321 [ref. 36804], Psomadakis et al. 2020:271 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma bucephalus Alcock 1889. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Northeastern Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal (India) east to Myanmar. Habitat: marine.

bussarawiti, Dysomma Prokofiev [A. M.] 2019:319, Fig. 2 [Munis Entomology & Zoology v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 36804] Andaman Sea off Phuket Island, depth 520-532 meters. Holotype (unique): PMBC [249 mm TL]. •Valid as Dysomma bussarawiti Prokofiev 2019. Current status: Valid as Dysomma bussarawiti Prokofiev 2019. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

calvus, Synaphobranchus Melo [M. R. S.] 2007:316, Fig. 1 [Copeia 2007 (no. 2); ref. 29141] Brazil, 22°16'S, 39°53'W, depth 1059-1110 meters. Holotype: MNRJ 28279. Paratypes: (many) at AMS, MNHN, MNRJ, MZUSP, USNM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Synaphobranchus calvus Melo 2007 -- (Melo et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30460], Costa & Mincarone 2010:302 [ref. 37483], Costa et al. 2015:1061 [ref. 37495]). Current status: Valid as Synaphobranchus calvus Melo 2007. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil endemic. Habitat: marine.

capensis, Diastobranchus Barnard [K. H.] 1923:441 [Annals of the South African Museum v. 13 (pt 8, no. 14); ref. 191] Off Cape Point, South Africa, depth 470 fathoms [860 meters]. Syntypes: SAM 12766 (1), 12792 (1); BMNH 1924.9.24.1 (1). Moore et al. 2003:172-173 [ref. 27076] questionably refer North Atlantic specimens to this species. •Valid as Synaphobranchus capensis (Barnard 1923) -- (Robins & Robins 1989:229 [ref. 13287], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989]). •Valid as Diastobranchus capensis Barnard 1923 -- (Castle 1986:189 [ref. 5644], Paxton et al. 1989:107 [ref. 12442], Paulin et al. 1989:71 [ref. 24556], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:165, 166 [ref. 36134], Castle in Amaoka et al. 1990:96 [ref. 16024], Gon 1990:102 [ref. 21680], Gomon et al. 1994:195 [ref. 22532], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1167 [ref. 22986], Pakhorukov 2001:377 [ref. 25409], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Brickle & Laptikhovsky 2002:493 [ref. 26485], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Moore et al. 2003:172 [ref. 27076], Karmovskaya 2003:438 [ref. 27168], Duhamel et al. 2005:90 [ref. 32059], Paxton et al. 2006:261 [ref. 28995], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Melo et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30460], Smith 2008:161 [ref. 30621], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Svendsen et al. 2011:255 [ref. 31757], Smith & Stewart 2015:241 [ref. 34234], Smith 2016:1650 [ref. 34556], Williams et al. 2018:99 [ref. 36359], Mecklenburg et al. 2018:57 [ref. 36370]). Current status: Valid as Diastobranchus capensis Barnard 1923. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Circumglobal, mostly in Southern Hemisphere in temperate waters; one Arctic record. Habitat: marine.

danae, Synaphobranchus Bruun [A. F.] 1937:13, Pl. 1 (figs. 1, 3) [Dana Report No. 9; ref. 15270] East of New Zealand, Dana station 3644. •Synonym of Diastobranchus capensis Barnard 1923 -- (Castle 1986:189 [ref. 5644], Robins & Robins 1989:229 [ref. 13287], Gon 1990:102 [ref. 21680], Gomon et al. 1994:196 [ref. 22532]). Current status: Synonym of Diastobranchus capensis Barnard 1923. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

dofleini, Simenchelys Franz [V.] 1910:10, Pl. 3 (figs. 1-2) [Abhandlungen der math.-phys. Klasse der K. Bayer Akademie der Wissenschaften v. 4 (Suppl.) (no. 1); ref. 1481] Sagami Bay and Misaki, Sagami Bay, Japan. Syntypes: ZSM [old collection] (1 + 3) destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:281 [ref. 28925]. •Synonym of Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879 -- (Okamura & Machida 1987:107 [ref. 22279], Robins & Robins 1989:214 [ref. 13287], Castle 1990:196 [ref. 13786]). Current status: Synonym of Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879. Synaphobranchidae: Simenchelyinae. Habitat: marine.

dolichorhynchus, Leptocephalus Lea [E.] 1913:28, Figs. 26-27; Pl. 5 (no. 2) [Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910 v. 3 (pt 1, no. 7); ref. 14158] North Atlantic, 40°17'N, 50°39'W, station 67, depth 100 meters depth; 34°59'N, 33°01'W, station 53, depth 150 meters. Syntypes: (3) ZMUB 2508 (1?), 5100 (1?). Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:146 [ref. 21547]. •Adults not known, valid as Leptocephalus dolichorhynchus in Synaphobranchidae -- (Smith 1989:697 [ref. 13285]). •Valid as Synaphobranchus dolichorhynchus (Lea 1913) -- (Carneiro et al. 2019:59 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Synaphobranchus dolichorhynchus (Lea 1913). Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

dolichosomatum, Dysomma Karrer [C.] 1983:93, Figs. 28A-B [Faune Tropicale v. 23 (for 1982); ref. 5679] Madagascar, 22°25'S, 43°04.5'E, depth 550-555 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1979-0004. Paratypes: MNHN 1978-0717 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:103 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Dysomma dolichosomatum Karrer 1983 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:249 [ref. 13287], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Zhang et al. 2010:307 [ref. 31511], Ho et al. 2015:93 [ref. 34124], Ho et al. 2015:177 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780], Fricke et al. 2018:41 [ref. 35805], Ho & Tighe 2018:53 [ref. 36037], Prokofiev 2019:321 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma dolichosomatum Karrer 1983. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar, Philippines, Taiwan and Solomon Islands. Habitat: marine.

formosa, Dysomma Ho [H.-C.] & Tighe [K. A.] 2018:54, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa 4454 (no. 1); ref. 36037] Dong-gang fishing port, Pingtung, southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea, depth around 200-300 meters. Holotype: NMMBP 23172. Paratypes: FAKU, NMMBP, USNM. •Valid as Dysomma formosa Ho & Tighe 2018 -- (Ho et al. 2018:14 [ref. 36050], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma formosa Ho & Tighe 2018. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

fuscoventralis, Dysomma Karrer [C.] & Klausewitz [W.] 1982:199, Figs. 1-3 [Senckenbergiana Biologica v. 62 (nos 4/6) (1981); ref. 8466] Central Red Sea, 21°26.50'N, 38°38.30'E, depth 799-801 meters. Holotype: SMF 15660. Paratypes: SMF 15661-62 (2), 15663-65 (3). •Valid as Dysomma fuscoventralis Karrer & Klausewitz 1982 -- (Dor 1984:431 [ref. 29757], Klausewitz 1994:464 [ref. 23564], Goren & Dor 1994:9 [ref. 25356], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[23] 261 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:29 [ref. 36273], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma fuscoventralis Karrer & Klausewitz 1982. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

goslinei, Dysomma Robins [C. H.] & Robins [C. R.] 1976:261, Figs. 3, 6, 7c, 8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 127; ref. 3784] Indian Ocean, 14°52'N, 96°39'E. Holotype: ANSP 133805. Paratypes: ANSP 133806 (1), 133807 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:158 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Dysomma goslinei Robins & Robins 1976 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:249 [ref. 13287], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Ho et al. 2015:94 [ref. 34124], Ho et al. 2015:177 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:6 [ref. 35780], Ho & Tighe 2018:64 [ref. 36037], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma goslinei Robins & Robins 1976. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea. Habitat: marine.

grimaldii, Conchognathus Collett [R.] 1889:124 [2] [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 14; ref. 889] Off Graciosa Islands, Fayal, San Jorge, Pico, Florès and Corvo, Azores, northeastern Atlantic, depth 844-2000 meters. Syntypes: MOM (many, not found in 1995). Type catalog: Belloc 1949:3 [ref. 21544]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879 -- (Blache et al. 1973:223 [ref. 7185], Robins & Robins 1989:214 [ref. 13287], Castle 1990:196 [ref. 13786]). Current status: Synonym of Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879. Synaphobranchidae: Simenchelyinae. Habitat: marine.

indicus, Synaphobranchus Bruun [A. F.] 1937:14, Pl. 1 (figs. 2, 7) [Dana Report No. 9; ref. 15270] Indian Ocean, Dana station 3804. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. As a new subspecies on p. 15. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:223 [ref. 13287]). Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

infernalis, Histiobranchus Gill [T. N.] 1883:255 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 6 (no. 380); ref. 1724] Off northeastern U.S.A., 38°53'00"N, 69°23'30", Albatross station 2037, depth 1731 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 33279 (poor condition, in pieces). Type catalog: Smith 1994:37 [ref. 21917]. See Smith 1989:684 [ref. 13285]. •Synonym of Histiobranchus bathybius (Günther 1877) -- (Blache et al. 1973:252 [ref. 7185], Robins & Robins 1989:230 [ref. 13287], Gon 1990:103 [ref. 21680], Karmovskaya & Merrett 1998:1023 [ref. 23683], Mecklenburg et al. 2002:123 [ref. 25968], Parin et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Synonym of Histiobranchus bathybius (Günther 1877). Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

iraconis, Synaphobranchus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:844, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Off Myiako, Rikuchu, Japan, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 6465. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:51 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:221 [ref. 13287] as kaupi). Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

japonicus, Dysomma Matsubara [K.] 1936:961, Fig. [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 48 (no. 11); ref. 13721] Kumano-Nada, southeast of Kii Peninsula, Japan, depth 150 fathoms. Holotype: FAKU 1941. Paratypes: FAKU 1942 (1, not seen in 1997). •Synonym of Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:246 [ref. 13287], Ho et al. 2015:91 [ref. 34124], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780]). Current status: Synonym of Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Habitat: marine.

jenkinsi, Synaphobranchus Jordan [D. S.] & Snyder [J. O.] 1901:845, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1239); ref. 2508] Sagami Bay off Enoshima, Japan, Albatross station 3696, depth 501-749 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 49727. Type catalog: Smith 1994:38 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis Günther 1887 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:227 [ref. 13287]). Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis Günther 1887. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

kaupii, Synaphobranchus Johnson [J. Y.] 1862:169 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1862 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 10 June 1862); ref. 2357] Off Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: BMNH 1862.6.14.9 (2). •Valid as Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862 [often incorrectly as kaupi] -- (Blache et al. 1973:252 [ref. 7185], Ida in Okamura et al. 1982:65, 320 [ref. 8256], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:67, 174, 231, 315 [ref. 8379], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Saldanha & Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:590 [ref. 13676], Castle 1986:190 [ref. 5644], Okamura & Machida 1987:107 [ref. 22279], Paxton et al. 1989:108 [ref. 12442], Golovan et al. 1989:77 [ref. 14113], Robins & Robins 1989:220 [ref. 13287], McAllister 1990:47 [ref. 14674], Smith 1989:683 [ref. 13285], Smith 1990:198 [ref. 13616], Okamura in Okamura et al. 1995:64 [ref. 22531], Shinohara et al. 1996:158 [ref. 26605], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1171 [ref. 22986], Santos et al. 1997:21 [ref. 23531], Pequeño 1997:80 [ref. 23536], Saldanha & Biscoito 1997:195 [ref. 24962], Adam et al. 1998:7 [ref. 23610], Uiblein et al. 1999:61 [ref. 24045], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Pakhorukov 1999:656 [ref. 24883] as kaupi, Nakabo 2000:214 [ref. 25086], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:16 [ref. 25650], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Shinohara et al. 2001:293 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:214 [ref. 26001], Tighe & Smith in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:96 [ref. 26158], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989] as kaupi, Moore et al. 2003:174 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Mundy 2005:130 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:263 [ref. 28995], Smith 2008:165 [ref. 30621], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Almeida et al. 2010:66 [ref. 31350], Møller et al. 2010:21 [ref. 31169], Svendsen et al. 2011:255 [ref. 31757], Page et al. 2013:62 [ref. 32708], Parin et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33547], Springer & Johnson 2015:607 [ref. 33937], Ho et al. 2015:180 [ref. 34130], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:47 [ref. 37485] as cf. kaupii, Afonso et al. 2016:14, 287 [ref. 36199], Bañón et al. 2016:304 [ref. 34397], Smith 2016:1652 [ref. 34556], Vieira et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34869], Fricke et al. 2018:42 [ref. 35805], Ho et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36038], Carneiro et al. 2019:59 [ref. 37250], Fricke et al. 2019:53 [ref. 36673], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:61 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and temperate seas, but not in eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

leptosomus, Gymnosimenchelys Tanaka [S.] 1908:2, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Journal of the College of Science. Imperial University, Tokyo v. 23 (art. 13); ref. 4321] Off Okinose, Misaki, Sagami Sea, Japan, depth 600 meters. Holotype: ZUMT 1855 (lost). Paratypes: ZUMT 1855 (2, lost). •Synonym of Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879 -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:69, 175 [ref. 8379], Okamura & Machida 1987:107 [ref. 22279] as leptostomus, Robins & Robins 1989:214 [ref. 13287], Castle 1990:196 [ref. 13786]). Current status: Synonym of Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879. Synaphobranchidae: Simenchelyinae. Habitat: marine.

longirostrum, Dysomma Chen [Y.-Y.] & Mok [H.-K.] 2001:79, Figs. 1A, 2 A-C [Zoological Studies v. 40 (no. 2); ref. 25465] Northeastern coast of Taiwan, depth 100-150 meters (Nan-fang-ao fish market). Holotype (unique): NSYU 2732. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Dysomma longirostrum Chen & Mok 2001 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2015:95 [ref. 34124], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:178 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:6 [ref. 35780], Ho & Tighe 2018:53 [ref. 36037], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma longirostrum Chen & Mok 2001. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Taiwan and Norfolk Ridge (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

melanurum, Dysomma Chen [J. T. F.] & Weng [H. T. C.] 1967:84, Fig. 63 [Biological Bulletin Tunghai University Ichthyology Series Number 6 No. 6 (art. 32); ref. 7952] Tungkang, Taiwan. Lectotype: NMMBP 5284 [ex THUP 1687]. Paralectotypes: NMMBP 3885 and 5470 [ex THUP 1687] (2). Type catalog: Ho et al. 2010:25 [ref. 31218], Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432]. Lectotype selected by Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Dysomma melanurum Chen & Weng 1967 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:249 [ref. 13287], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Ho et al. 2010:26 [ref. 31218], Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2015:96 [ref. 34124], Ho et al. 2015:7 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:178 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:6 [ref. 35780], Ho & Tighe 2018:53 [ref. 36037], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma melanurum Chen & Weng 1967. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

minor, Meadia Vo [Q. V.] & Ho [H.-C.] in Vo, Ho, Dao & Tran 2021:182, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4952 (no. 1); ref. 38239] Off Quy Nhon, Binh Dinh, central coast of Vietnam, South China Sea, 13°44'N, 109°15'E, depth circa 100 - 120 meters. Holotype: OIM-E. 55801. Paratypes: (9) NMMB, OIM. •Valid as Meadia minor Vo & Ho 2021. Current status: Valid as Meadia minor Vo & Ho 2021. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: central coast of Vietnam, South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

muciparus, Dysommopsis Alcock [A. W.] 1891:137 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 8 (no. 43/44); ref. 87] 52 km southeast of Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India, Bay of Bengal, 15°56'50"N, 81°33'30"E, Investigator station 120, depth 240-276 fathoms. Lectotype: ZSI F13107. Paralectotypes: ZSI F13106 (1). Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:134 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:36 [ref. 22148]. Figured in Alcock 1900: Pl. 34 (figs. 1, 1a) [ref. 20536] as Dysommopsis mucipara. Lectotype selected by Robins & Robins 1976:260 [ref. 3784]. •Valid as Dysomma muciparus (Alcock 1891) -- (Robins & Robins 1989:248 [ref. 13287], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Mundy 2005:128 [ref. 28379], Fricke et al. 2018:6 [ref. 35780], Prokofiev 2019:321 [ref. 36804], Psomadakis et al. 2020:271 [ref. 37272]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma muciparus (Alcock 1891). Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic; Northeastern Indian Ocean: Bay of Bengal (India) and Myanmar. Hawaiian Islands record questionable. Habitat: marine.

multipora, Linkenchelys Smith [D. G.] 1989:78, Figs. 70-73 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (part 9); ref. 13285] Off Cockburn Town, San Salvador, Bahamas, depth 238 meters. Holotype: ANSP 156814. Paratypes: USNM 280144 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:38 [ref. 21917] with comment on family placement. •Valid as Linkenchelys multipora Smith 1989. Current status: Valid as Linkenchelys multipora Smith 1989. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Bahamas. Habitat: marine.

mysticus, Leptocephalus Lea [E.] 1913:34, Pl. 5 (no. 7) [Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910 v. 3 (pt 1, no. 7); ref. 14158] North Atlantic, 34°59'N, 33°01'W, station 53, depth 1300 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUB 5095. Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:147 [ref. 21547]. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

mytilogeiton, Thermobiotes Geistdoerfer [P.] 1991:93, Figs. 1-2 [Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série III (Sciences de la Vie), Paris v. 312 (no. 3); ref. 20226] West Pacific, Ride Valu Fa, 22°13'S, 176°38'W. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1989-1611. •Valid as Thermobiotes mytilogeiton Geistdoerfer 1991 -- (Geistdoerfer 1999:9 [ref. 23832], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Machida & Hashimoto 2002:1 [ref. 25949], Chernova & Geistdorfer 2003:153 [ref. 26887]). Current status: Valid as Thermobiotes mytilogeiton Geistdoerfer 1991. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific. Habitat: marine.

nigeli, Ilyophis Shcherbachev [Yu. N.] & Sulak [K. J.] in Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1172, Figs. 1C, 2B, 4C [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22986] Pacific slope off Japan, 42°27'N, 144°27'E, depth 1160 meters. Holotype: ZIN 45274. Paratypes: USNM 339093 [ex ZIN 42575] (1); ZIN 45767 (1), 48481-83 (1, 2, 1), 49224 (1); ZMMU P-17952 (1). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:16 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Ilyophis nigeli Shcherbachev & Sulak 1997 -- (Parin et al. 2014:48 [ref. 33547]). Current status: Valid as Ilyophis nigeli Shcherbachev & Sulak 1997. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Western North Pacific: Japan and Sea of Okhotsk. Habitat: marine.

obscura, Muraena Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:17 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Suriname. No types known. Based on Gronow 1763:38 [ref. 1910]. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

occidentalis, Synaphobranchus indicus Bruun [A. F.] 1937:15 [Dana Report No. 9; ref. 15270] East Africa, Dana station 3926. Holotype: not researched. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:223 [ref. 13287]). Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

oligolepis, Synaphobranchus Ho [H.-C.], Hong [W.-C.] & Chen [H.-M.] 2018:69, Figs. 1-3, 4A-B [Zootaxa 4454 (no. 1); ref. 36038] Off Dong-gang, Pingtung, southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea, depth about 300 meters. Holotype: NMMBP 26670. Paratypes: NMMBP, TOU-AE. •Valid as Synaphobranchus oligolepis Ho, Hong & Chen 2018 -- (Ho et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36050]). Current status: Valid as Synaphobranchus oligolepis Ho, Hong & Chen 2018. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

opisthoproctus, Dysomma Chen [Y.-Y.] & Mok [H.-K.] 1995:927, Fig. 1 [Copeia 1995 (no. 4); ref. 21892] Off the coast of Nan-fang-ao [Nanfangao], 24°51'24"N, 121°58'30"E, northeastern coast of Taiwan, depth 200 meters. Holotype (unique): NSYSU 2701, whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Dysomma opisthoproctus Chen & Mok 1995 -- (Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Lee & Kim 2000:205 [ref. 25177], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2015:98 [ref. 34124], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:178 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:6 [ref. 35780], Ho & Tighe 2018:53 [ref. 36037], Prokofiev 2019:321 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma opisthoproctus Chen & Mok 1995. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

oregoni, Synaphobranchus Castle [P. H. J.] 1960:388, Fig. 66 [Fieldiana Zoology v. 39 (no. 35); ref. 11902] Gulf of Mexico off Alabama, U.S.A., 29°01'N, 88°24'W, Oregon station 640, depth 355-475 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 185605 (largely deossified). Paratypes: FMNH 47911 (6, orig. 8), NMNZ P.4514 [ex FMNH] (2). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:7 [ref. 18942], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:82 [ref. 12367], Smith 1994:38 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Synaphobranchus oregoni Castle 1960 -- (Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:67, 174, 231, 315 [ref. 8379], Golovan et al. 1989:77 [ref. 14113], Robins & Robins 1989:225 [ref. 13287], Shcherbachev et al. 1989:165, 166 [ref. 36134], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1171 [ref. 22986], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:250 [ref. 23897], Pakhorukov 2001:377 [ref. 25409], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Karmovskaya 2003:438 [ref. 27168], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Smith 2008:166 [ref. 30621], Melo et al. 2009:14 [ref. 30460], Costa & Mincarone 2010:353 [ref. 37483], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Fricke et al. 2014:21 [ref. 33932], Smith 2016:1653 [ref. 34556], Ho et al. 2018:76 [ref. 36038]). Current status: Valid as Synaphobranchus oregoni Castle 1960. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in temperate and tropical seas. Habitat: marine.

orientalis, Dysommina Tighe [K. A.], Ho [H.-C.] & Hatooka [K.] 2018:44, Figs. 1-3A [Zootaxa 4454 (no. 1); ref. 36036] Dong-gang fishing port, Pingtung, Taiwan. Holotype: NMMBP 11131. Paratypes: NMMBP, OMNH, USNM. •Valid as Dysommina orientalis Tighe, Ho & Hatooka 2018 -- (Ho et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36050], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysommina orientalis Tighe, Ho & Hatooka 2018. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: South China Sea off Taiwan and Dongsha Islands, and Suruga Bay, Japan. Habitat: marine.

parasiticus, Simenchelys Gill [T. N.] in Goode & Bean 1879:27 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 11; ref. 5605] Banquereau, Canada [or Newfoundland Banks off Massachussetts, U.S.A.], depth 300 fathoms. Lectotype: USNM 21669. Paralectotypes: USNM 21673 (2), 21675 (1, lost), 21677 (1), 21872 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:38 [ref. 21917]. Author is T. N. Gill. Species should be spelled parasitica when in Simenchelys. Lectotype selected by Robins & Robins 1989:217 [ref. 13287]. •Valid as Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879 [sometimes as parasiticus] -- (Blache et al. 1973:223 [ref. 7185], Ida in Okamura et al. 1982:67, 321 [ref. 8256], Sakamoto in Amaoka et al. 1983:69, 175 [ref. 8379], Asano in Masuda et al. 1984:26 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:79, 314 [ref. 8057], Saldanha & Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:590 [ref. 13676], Castle 1986:190 [ref. 5644], Edwards & Glass 1987:626 [ref. 9166], Okamura & Machida 1987:107 [ref. 22279], Scott & Scott 1988:90 [ref. 25518], Paxton et al. 1989:108 [ref. 12442], Robins & Robins 1989:214 [ref. 13287], Paulin et al. 1989:71 [ref. 24556], McAllister 1990:48 [ref. 14674], Castle 1990:196 [ref. 13786], Shinohara et al. 1996:157 [ref. 26605], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1161 [ref. 22986], Santos et al. 1997:21 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:59 [ref. 24952], Saldanha & Biscoito 1997:195 [ref. 24962], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:212 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847], Shinohara et al. 2001:292 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:212 [ref. 26001], Moore et al. 2003:173 [ref. 27076], Shinohara et al. 2005:400 [ref. 28370], Mundy 2005:129 [ref. 28379], Paxton et al. 2006:263 [ref. 28995], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Smith 2008:163 [ref. 30621], Fricke et al. 2009:18 [ref. 30213], Melo et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30460], Costa & Mincarone 2010:298 [ref. 37483], Springer & Johnson 2015:6011[ref. 33937], Ho et al. 2015:179 [ref. 34130], Smith & Stewart 2015:246 [ref. 34234], Afonso et al. 2016:13, 279 [ref. 36199], Smith 2016:1652 [ref. 34556], Fricke et al. 2018:42 [ref. 35805], Brown et al. 2019:154 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:59 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Simenchelys parasitica Gill 1879. Synaphobranchidae: Simenchelyinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in temperate seas, but not in eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

parviocularis, Haptenchelys Tashiro [F.] & Shinohara [G.] 2014:2, Figs. 2-4 [Ichthyological Research v. 62 (no. 2); ref. 33342] Pacific off Kii Peninsula, Wakayama, Honshu, Japan, 32°0.70'N, 135°57.20'E-32°0.30'N, 136°2.70'E, depth 4093 meters. Holotype: NSMT-P 105643. Paratypes (14 specimens): NSMT-P 45905 (1), 45906 (1), 98075 (1), 104167 (1), 104561 (1), 104562 (1), 105642 (1), 105644 (1), 105645 (1), 114630 (1), 114631 (1), 115288 (1), 115289 (1); USNM 410925 (formerly NSMT-P104572) (1). •Valid as Haptenchelys parviocularis Tashiro & Shinohara 2014. Current status: Valid as Haptenchelys parviocularis Tashiro & Shinohara 2014. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Pacific abyssal zone off southern Japan (to northern part of Philippine plate). Habitat: marine.

parvipinnis, Synaphobranchus pinnatus var. Roule [L.] 1916:4 [Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique (Monaco) No. 320; ref. 3818] Southeast of Portugal, station 1248, depth 1500 meters. Holotype (unique): MOM 0091-0511. Type catalog: Belloc 1949:3 [ref. 21544], Bauchot et al. 1993:128 [ref. 20810]. Correct species spelling is kaupii. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus kaupi Johnson 1862 -- (Blache et al. 1973:252 [ref. 7185], Robins & Robins 1989:221 [ref. 13287], Smith 1990:198 [ref. 13616]). Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

phrix, Atractodenchelys Robins [C. H.] & Robins [C. R.] 1970:297, Fig. 1A [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 122 (no. 6); ref. 3783] Eastern Caribbean, 11°36'N, 62°52'W, depth 385-425 meters. Holotype: ANSP 114437. Paratypes: ANSP 102450 (1), 107100 (1); UMML 20596 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:100 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Atractodenchelys phrix Robins & Robins 1970 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:240 [ref. 13287], Claro et al. 2000:20 [ref. 26458], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Melo et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30460], Vo & Ho 2020:593 [ref. 37326]). Current status: Valid as Atractodenchelys phrix Robins & Robins 1970. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Florida (U.S.A.) to Brazil. Habitat: marine.

phuketensis, Dysomma Prokofiev [A. M.] 2019:319, Fig. 3 [Munis Entomology & Zoology v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 36804] Andaman Sea off Phuket Island, depth 464-467 meters. Holotype (unique): PMBC [225 mm TL]. Combined with a neuter genus, the species epithet should be phuketense. •Valid as Dysomma phuketense Prokofiev 2019. Current status: Valid as Dysomma phuketense Prokofiev 2019. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.

pinnati, Leptocephalus synaphobranchi form Collett [R.] 1905:387, Fig. 147 North Atlantic. Original not seen. Appeared as Leptocephalus synaphobranchi pinnati but insertion of "synaphobranchi" perhaps to show relationships and not technically part of the name. •Questionably a synonym of Synaphobranchus kaupi [kaupii] Johnson 1862 -- (Smith 1989:683 [ref. 13285]). Current status: Uncertain as Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

polycatodon, Dysomma Karrer [C.] 1983:89, Figs. 27 A-B [Faune Tropicale v. 23 (for 1982); ref. 5679] Northwestern Madagascar, 15°21'S, 46°11'E, depth 170-175 meters. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1979-0003. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:103 [ref. 20810]. •Valid as Dysomma polycatodon Karrer 1983 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:250 [ref. 13287], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Ho et al. 2015:99 [ref. 34124], Ho et al. 2015:178 [ref. 34130], Fricke et al. 2018:6 [ref. 35780], Fricke et al. 2018:41 [ref. 35805], Ho & Tighe 2018:53 [ref. 36037], Prokofiev 2019:321 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma polycatodon Karrer 1983. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: Madagascar and Philippines to Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

proboscideus, Leptocephalus Lea [E.] 1913:27, Fig. 25; Pl. 5 (no. 1) [Scientific Results of the Michael Sars North Atlantic Deep-Sea Expedition 1910 v. 3 (pt 1, no. 7); ref. 14158] North Atlantic, 34°59'N, 33°01'W, station 53, depth 150 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMUB 5105. Type catalog: Frøiland 1979:147 [ref. 21547]. Leptocephalus is a catch-all name for larval eels. •Valid, probably in genus Dysommina as Dysommina proboscideus (Lea 1913) -- (Smith 1989:693 [ref. 13285]). •Valid as "Leptocephalus" proboscideus Lea 1913 -- (Moore et al. 2003:173 [ref. 27076]). •Valid as Dysommina proboscideus Lea 1913 -- (Carneiro et al. 2019:58 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Dysommina proboscideus (Lea 1913). Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: North Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

retropinnatus, Nettophichthys Holt [E. W. L.] 1891:123 [Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society (N. S.) v. 7 (pt 2); ref. 2195] Off Ireland. Holotype: NMI 64.1896. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862 [often as kaupi] -- (Blache et al. 1973:252 [ref. 7185], Okamura & Machida 1987:107 [ref. 22279], Robins & Robins 1989:221 [ref. 13287], Smith 1990:198 [ref. 13616]). Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus kaupii Johnson 1862. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

robinsae, Ilyophis Sulak [K. J.] & Shcherbachev [Yu. N.] 1997:1171, Figs. 3C, 4B [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 22986] Western Pacific, 7°39.9'N, 121°32'E, Vitiaz cruise 57, Sta. 7237, depth 4800 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMMU P-14759. Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:16 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Ilyophis robinsae Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997 -- (Karmovskaya & Parin 1999:316 [ref. 24869]). Current status: Valid as Ilyophis robinsae Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Philippines. Habitat: marine.

robinsorum, Atractodenchelys Karmovskaya [E. S.] 2003:441 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 43 (no. 4); ref. 27168] Southwestern Pacific, Bellona Plateau, Chesterfield Islands, 19°43'S, 158°48'E, depth 710 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1995-0386. Paratypes: MNHN 1997-3794 (2). •Valid as Atractodenchelys robinsorum Karmovskaya 2003 -- (Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Vo & Ho 2020:593 [ref. 37326]). Current status: Valid as Atractodenchelys robinsorum Karmovskaya 2003. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Pacific: Chesterfield Islands (New Caledonia). Habitat: marine.

robinsorum, Dysomma Ho [H.-C.] & Tighe [K. A.] 2018:61, Figs. 6-7 [Zootaxa 4454 (no. 1); ref. 36037] Off Dong-gang, Pingtung, southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea. Holotype: NMMBP 26327. Paratypes: NMMBP, USNM. •Valid as Dysomma robinsorum Ho & Tighe 2018 -- (Ho et al. 2018:15 [ref. 36050], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma robinsorum Ho & Tighe 2018. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Southwestern Taiwan, northern South China Sea. Habitat: marine.

roseni, Meadia Mok [H.-K.], Lee [C.-Y.] & Chan [H.-J.] 1991:39, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin of Marine Science v. 48 (no. 1); ref. 19973] Off Tongkang, southwestern Taiwan, 22°21'05"N, 120°12'46"E, depth 1020 meters. Holotype (unique): NSYU 2582. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432] •Valid as Meadia roseni Mok, Lee & Chan 1991 -- (Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:585 [ref. 25122], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Ho & Shao 2011:22 [ref. 31432], Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116], Ho et al. 2015:179 [ref. 34130], Vo et al. 2021:187 [ref. 38239]). Current status: Valid as Meadia roseni Mok, Lee & Chan 1991. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

rostratus, Leptocephalus Schmidt [E. J.] 1909:5, Pl. 1 (figs. 4-5) [Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for havundersøgelser, Serie Fiskeri v. 3 (no. 6); ref. 14421] Atlantic west of Europe, 51°34'N, 41°50'W, depth 1200 meters, and 48°04'N, 12°40'W, depth over 4000 meters. Syntypes: (2) not found at ZIN. •Leptocephalus stage as valid -- (Smith 1989:693 [ref. 13285]). •Questionably a senior synonym of Ilyophis blachei Saldanha & Merrett 1982 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:239 [ref. 13287]). Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rugosa, Dysommina Ginsburg [I.] 1951:450, Fig. 6 [Texas Journal of Science v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 1804] Off Cumberland Island, Georgia, U.S.A., western North Atlantic, 30°53'00"N, 79°42'30"W, Albatross station 2667, depth 273 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 131594. Type catalog: Smith 1994:37 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Dysommina rugosa Ginsburg 1951 -- (Uyeno & Sasaki in Uyeno et al. 1983:107 [ref. 14275], Robins & Robins 1989:242 [ref. 13287], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:245 [ref. 23897], Chen & Mok 1999:60 [ref. 24093], Smith 1999:1661 [ref. 24661], Nakabo 2000:213 [ref. 25086], Chen & Mok 2001:79 [ref. 25465], Nakabo 2002:213 [ref. 26001], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Karmovskaya 2003:443 [ref. 27168], Mundy 2005:128 [ref. 28379], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Tweddle & Anderson 2008:6 [ref. 29604], Melo et al. 2009:13 [ref. 30460], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Ho et al. 2015:100 [ref. 34124], Ho et al. 2015:178 [ref. 34130], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:43 [ref. 37485], Fricke et al. 2018:42 [ref. 35805], Tighe et al. 2018:50 [ref. 36036], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysommina rugosa Ginsburg 1951. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Widely distributed in the Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

saldanhai, Ilyophis Karmovskaya [E. S.] & Parin [N. V.] 1999:316, Figs. 1-6 [Voprosy Ikhtiologii v. 39 (no. 3); ref. 24869] Mid-Atlantic, 29°08'N, 43°13'W, depth 3020 meters. Holotype: ZIN 51847. Paratypes: ZIN 51848-49 (1, 1); ZMMU P-20507-08 (7, 2). Type catalog: Vasil'eva et al. 2001:16 [ref. 25714]. •Valid as Ilyophis saldanhai Karmovskaya & Parin 1999 -- (Chernova & Geistdorfer 2003:153 [ref. 26887]). Current status: Valid as Ilyophis saldanhai Karmovskaya & Parin 1999. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Mid-Atlantic submarine ridge. Habitat: marine.

sului, Synaphobranchus Bruun [A. F.] 1937:13, Pl. 1 (fig. 4) [Dana Report No. 9; ref. 15270] Sulu Sea, Dana station 3735. Holotype: not researched. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

taiwanensis, Dysomma Ho [H.-C.], Smith [D. G.] & Tighe [K. A.] 2015:87, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4060 (no. 1); ref. 34124] Daxi, Yilan, northeast Taiwan, depth ca. 200-400 meters. Holotype: NMMB-P11115. Paratypes: NMMB-P, USNM. Dysomma is neuter, therefore mandatory change to taiwanense. •Valid as Dysomma taiwanense Ho, Smith & Tighe 2015 -- (Ho et al. 2015:8 [ref. 34116] as taiwanensis, Ho et al. 2015:178 [ref. 34130] as taiwanensis, Fricke et al. 2018:6 [ref. 35780] as taiwanensis, Ho & Tighe 2018:64 [ref. 36037], Prokofiev 2019:322 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma taiwanense Ho, Smith & Tighe 2015. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

taketae, Synaphobranchus Tanaka [S.] 1916:257 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 28 (no. 333); ref. 15078] Miyagi Fisheries Experiment Station, Watanoha, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 55055. •Synonym of Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:223 [ref. 13287], Smith 1990:197 [ref. 13616]). Current status: Synonym of Synaphobranchus affinis Günther 1877. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Habitat: marine.

telescopicus, Leptocephalus Schmidt [E. J.] 1913:11, Pl. 1 (fig. 8) [Meddelelser fra Kommissionen for havundersøgelser, Serie Fiskeri v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 14986] Tyrrhenian Sea. Holotype (unique): ZMUC (probably lost). •Synonym of Dysomma brevirostre (Facciolà 1887) -- (Smith 1990:195 [ref. 13616], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780]). Current status: Synonym of Dysomma brevirostre (Facciolà 1887). Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Habitat: marine.

texis, Haptenchelys Robins [C. H.] & Martin [D. M.] in Robins & Robins 1976:267, Figs. 5-6, 7a, 8 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 127; ref. 3784] Bahamas, 25°16.75-18.75'N, 77°45.5-42.8'W, depth 2780-2890 meters. Holotype: ANSP 133811. Paratypes: ANSP 133812 (1), 133813 (1, c&s); TCWC 6326.01 (1); ?TAMU 68-A-10 (1); UF 232881 [ex UMML 32881] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:158 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Haptenchelys texis Robins & Martin 1976 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:232 [ref. 13287], Sulak & Shcherbachev 1997:1167 [ref. 22986], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:246 [ref. 23897], Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Karmovskaya 2003:438 [ref. 27168], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:34 [ref. 27192], Melo 2007:315 [ref. 29141], Fricke et al. 2011:351 [ref. 31242], Tashiro & Shinohara 2014:6 [ref. 33342], Smith 2016:1650 [ref. 34556]). Current status: Valid as Haptenchelys texis Robins & Martin 1976. Synaphobranchidae: Synaphobranchinae. Distribution: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, Atlantic, and southwestern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

tridens, Dysomma Robins [C. H.], Böhlke [E. B.] & Robins [C. R.] in Robins & Robins 1989:250, Figs. 237-240 [Memoirs of the Sears Foundation of Marine Research Mem. 1 (pt 9); ref. 13287] Off Belize, Caribbean Sea, Oregon station 3634, 16°44'N, 87°55'W, depth 190 fathoms. Holotype (unique): USNM 193563. Type catalog: Smith 1994:37 [ref. 21917]. First author is C. H. Robins. •Valid as Dysomma tridens Robins, Böhlke & Robins 1989 -- (Smith 2003:723 [ref. 26989], Fricke et al. 2018:6 [ref. 35780], Prokofiev 2019:321 [ref. 36804]). Current status: Valid as Dysomma tridens Robins, Böhlke & Robins 1989. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Distribution: Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

zanzibarensis, Dysomma Norman [J. R.] 1939:44, Fig. 17 [Scientific Reports, John Murray Expedition v. 7 (no. 1); ref. 6556] Zanzibar area, Tanzania, western Indian Ocean, 5°38'54"S, 39°15'42" to 39°17'36"E, station 106, depth 183-194 meters. Holotype: BMNH 1939.5.24.651. Paratypes: BMNH 1939.5.24.652-653 (2). Should be spelled Dysomma zanzibarense. •Synonym of Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923 -- (Robins & Robins 1989:246 [ref. 13287], Ho et al. 2015:91 [ref. 34124], Fricke et al. 2018:5 [ref. 35780]). Current status: Synonym of Dysomma anguillare Barnard 1923. Synaphobranchidae: Ilyophinae. Habitat: marine.