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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the family or subfamily Xenocyprididae: [ 346 ] records


abbreviata, Toxabramis houdemeri var. Pellegrin [J.] 1934:334 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 59; ref. 16447] Pools around Hanoi, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1934-0216. •Synonym of Toxabramis houdemeri Pellegrin 1932 -- (Kottelat 2001:43 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:169 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Toxabramis houdemeri Pellegrin 1932. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

abramoides, Culter Dybowski [B. N.] 1872:213 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 22; ref. 1170] Ussuri River and Khanka Lake, southeastern Russia. Syntypes: ZMB 7933 (1) Khanka Lake. •Synonym of Erythroculter oxycephalus (Bleeker 1871) -- (Berg 1949:805 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:103 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys dabryi (Bleeker 1871) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:23 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:74 [ref. 23590]). •Synonym of Culter oxycephalus Bleeker 1871 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:192 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Chanodichthys abramoides (Dybowski 1872) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:52 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:316 [ref. 30085]). Current status: Valid as Chanodichthys abramoides (Dybowski 1872). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Amur River basin, Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

acanthogenys, Opsariichthys Boulenger [G. A.] 1901:269, Pl. 24 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1901, v. 1 (pt 2) (art. 3); ref. 5127] Ningpo, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1901.3.6.10-15 (6). •Synonym of Zacco temmincki (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:48 [ref. 13497]). •Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:41 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Zacco acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Zacco acanthogenys (Boulenger 1901) -- (Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521], Zhu et al. 2020:[9] [ref. 37378]). Current status: Valid as Zacco acanthogenys (Boulenger 1901). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Ningpo, China. Habitat: freshwater.

acutipinnis, Barilius (Barilius) Bleeker [P.] (ex Guichenot) 1871:81, Pl. 13 (fig. 1) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5070. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:68 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:49 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:129 [ref. 13511], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:41 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Zacco acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Opsariichthys acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Huynh & Chen 2014:143 [ref. 33158], Wang et al. 2019:[11] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River and Pearl River basins and Hong Kong, southern China. Habitat: freshwater.

acutipinnis, Opsariichthys Guichenot [A.] in Bleeker 1871:82 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Not available, Guichenot museum name adopted by Bleeker but as Barilius (Barilius) acutipinnis. Nomen Nudum. Xenocyprididae.

acutus, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] (ex Broussonet) 1846:297 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Type information: Whitehead 1970:210 [ref. 11606]. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

aenea, Xenocypris Sauvage [H.-E.] & Dabry de Thiersant [P.] 1874:13 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 6) v. 1 (art. 5); ref. 15665] China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8139. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:74 [ref. 19574]. •Status uncertain -- (Bănărescu 1970:398 [ref. 7718]). •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:123 [ref. 13500], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

aeneus, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:361 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] China. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

aethiops, Leuciscus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:233, Pl. 6 (fig. 1) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Near Tien-tsin at and Beijing [Peking], China. Syntypes: ?BMNH 1873.7.30.92-93 (2), ZIN 5900 (1). •Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:537 [ref. 20661], Yang & Hwang 1964:9 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:118 [ref. 13511], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:44 [ref. 22798], Bogutskaya 1998:90 [ref. 23589], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:100 [ref. 23878], Bíró 1999:347 [ref. 24857], Kottelat 2013:125 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

affinis, Chanodichthys Vaillant [L. L.] 1892:127 [3] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (8th Série) v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 14518] Nam-Kia River, tributary of Black River, Upper Tonkin, northern Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1892-0047. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:81 [ref. 19574]. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Megalobrama macrops (Günther 1868), but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1970:134 [ref. 20609], Mai 1978:164 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Sinibrama affinis (Vaillant 1892) -- (Kottelat 2001:41 [ref. 25482], Xie et al. 2003:408 [ref. 27550], Kottelat 2013:163 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Sinibrama affinis (Vaillant 1892). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

agilis, Caraspius Nichols [J. T.] 1925:6 [American Museum Novitates No. 177; ref. 3179] Near Wanhsien, Yen-ching-kao, Szechwan Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 8414. Paratypes: AMNH 10901 (2). •Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868 -- (Berg 1949:1327 [ref. 20662], Yang & Hwang 1964:15 [ref. 13497], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:258 [ref. 25598], Ding 1994:131 [ref. 21531], Bogutskaya 1998:78 [ref. 23589], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:60 [ref. 23878], Ohara et al. 2003:86 [ref. 26777]). Current status: Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

akoensis, Cultriculus Oshima [M.] 1920:132, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 72; ref. 3313] Ping-tung [Ako], Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 49953. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:68 [ref. 13621], Ho & Shao 2011:27 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612], Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Ho & Shao 2011:27 [ref. 31432], Cho et al. 2012:288 [ref. 34186], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989] with qualifications). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

alburnops, Barilius Regan [C. T.] 1914:260 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 13 (no. 74); ref. 18514] Yunnan Fu, China. Lectotype: BMNH 1914.1.28.11. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1914.1.28.12-20 (14). Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1971:13 [ref. 20612]. •Valid as Hemiculterella alburnops (Regan 1914) -- (Bănărescu 1971:13 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Anabarilius alburnops (Regan 1914) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:73 [ref. 13499], Chen & Chu 1980:418 [ref. 20983], Chen 1986:434 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:74 [ref. 13584], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:38 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:114 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:140 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:89 [ref. 26415], Zhang et al. 2016:56 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:167 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius alburnops (Regan 1914). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

alburnus, Culter Basilewsky [S.] 1855:236, Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Rivers draining to the Gulf of Tschili, China. Lectotype: ZIN 5585. Lectotype selected (based on holotype) by Berg 1934:266 (at least in English translation). •Synonym of Erythroculter ilishaeformis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Ding 1994:224 [ref. 21531]). •Valid as Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Berg 1949:807 [ref. 20661], Bănărescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:25 [ref. 22798], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:737 [ref. 24702], Naseka 1998:75 [ref. 23590], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:186 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:56 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:33 [ref. 28933], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:319 [ref. 30085], Ho & Shao 2011: 27 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:74 [ref. 33547], Zhang et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34477], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853], Zhang et al. 2019:183 [ref. 36699], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:64 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: Mongolia, Russia, China, Vietnam and Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

albus, Rasborinus Nguyen [T. T.] 1991:15 [ ref. 25484] Nghia Dan, Nghe Tinh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: VUP H.L,0.5. Type from Kottelat (2013). •Status uncertain, as Metzia alba (Nguyen 1991) -- (Kottelat 2001:29 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Metzia albus (Nguyen 1991) -- (Gan et al. 2009:55, 60 [ref. 30038], Shibukawa et al. 2012:264 [ref. 32338], Luo et al. 2015:226 [ref. 33822]). Current status: Valid as Metzia alba (Nguyen 1991). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

altior, Rasborichthys Regan [C. T.] 1913:394 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 14978] Singapore. Syntypes: BMNH 1912.3.2.1 (1),1913.3.6.9-10 (2). •Synonym of Rasborinus lineatus (Pellegrin 1907), but a valid subspecies (and regarded as introduced) -- (Bănărescu 1971:15 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

amblycephala, Megalobrama Yih [P.-L.] 1955:116, Figs. 1 (2, 4), 2 (6, 8); Pl. 1 [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 1 (no. 2); ref. 20566] Lake Liang-Tze, Hupei, China. Syntypes: KIZ (11) from Lu-Jiang hatchery, L. Xing-Yün. •Valid as Megalobrama amblycephala Yih 1955 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:94 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1970:138 [ref. 20609], Wang 1984:53 [ref. 22951], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:88 [ref. 13584], Luo 1990:164 [ref. 20057], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:100 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:42 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:126 [ref. 26385], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:205 [ref. 23878], Cai et al. 2001:632 [ref. 25721] as amblucephala, Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:106 [ref. 26566] with author as Yin [sic], Vasil'eva & Makeeva 2003:615 [ref. 27334], Takeuchi & Hosoya 2011:15 [ref. 31144], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:192 [ref. 36699], Chen et al. 2020:[4] 4002 [ref. 38581], Dyldin et al. 2020:98 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Megalobrama amblycephala Yih 1955. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China; introduced in Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

amnis, Aphyocypris Liao [T.-Y.], Kullander [S. O.] & Lin [H.-D.] 2011:658, Figs. 1-2 [Zoological Studies v. 50 (no. 5); ref. 31495] Small branch draining into the Shuili River, close to the Sun-Moon Lake, Choshui River drainage, Yuchi, Nantou County, Taiwan, 23°51.04'N, 120°53.47'E. Holotype: ASIZP 0072172. Paratypes: NRM 44953 (4), 44954 (5), 44955 (6), 44956 (5). The name amnis, a stream, is a noun in apposition. •Vaid as Aphyocypris amnis Liao, Kullander & Lin 2011. Current status: Valid as Aphyocypris amnis Liao, Kullander & Lin 2011. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Shuili River, Choshui River drainage, Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

amurensis, Opsariichthys uncirostris Berg [L. S.] 1932:384, Fig. 295 [Les poissons des eaux douces de l'U.R.S.S. Part 1; ref. 278] Amur, Siberia, Russia. No types known. •Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Berg 1949:613 [ref. 20661], Yang & Hwang 1964:42 [ref. 13497], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:30 [ref. 22798], Kim 1997:272 [ref. 24032], Bogutskaya 1998:79 [ref. 23589], Gorlacheva et al. 1999:261 [ref. 24866], Kim & Park 2002:182 [ref. 25913], Choi et al. 2003:157, 514 [ref. 26218], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:333 [ref. 30085], Parin et al. 2014:84 [ref. 33547], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Amur River basin, Russia [this subspecies]. Habitat: freshwater.

andersoni, Barilius Regan [C. T.] 1904:416 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 14 (no. 84) (art. 57); ref. 15201] Lake at Yunnan Fu, China. Lectotype: BMNH 1904.11.29.46. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1904.11.29.47 (1). Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1971:13 [ref. 20612]. •Valid as Hemiculterella andersoni (Regan 1904) -- (Bănărescu 1971:13 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Anabarilius andersoni (Regan 1904) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:72 [ref. 13499], Chen 1986:433-434 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:69 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:96 [ref. 21202], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:42 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:135 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:56 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius andersoni (Regan 1904). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southwestern China. Habitat: freshwater.

andrewsi, Hemiculter Nichols [J. T.] 1918:17 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 31; ref. 3171] Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 7038. Paratypes: (2) AMNH 7037 (1). •Synonym of Hemiculterella alburnops (Regan 1914) -- (Bănărescu 1971:13 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Anabarilius alburnops (Regan 1914). Current status: Synonym of Anabarilius alburnops (Regan 1914). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

angustus, Pseudolaubuca Kimura [Sh.] 1935:109, Fig. [Journal of the Shanghai Science Institute v. 3; ref. 13710] Rivulet near Tsung-Ming City, Tsung-Ming Island, mouth of the Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Parapelecus engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:83 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:157 [ref. 23878]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

annamiticus, Squaliobarbus Tirant [G.] 1883:[28] [Bulletin de la Société des Études Indo-chinoises. Saigon. 1883; ref. 17920] River of Hué, Vietnam. Lectotype: MHNL 4200-0041 [3624]. Paralectotypes: MHNL 4200-0042 (4). Type catalog: Chevey 1937:250 [ref. 31779]. On p. 28 of reprint in Chevey 1929 [ref. 16215]. Lectotype designed by Kottelat 1987:17 [ref. 11434]. •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Kottelat 1987:17 [ref. 11434], Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Cho et al. 2012:287 [ref. 34186], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

anomalura, Oxygaster van Hasselt [J. C.] 1823:133 [Algemeene Konst- en Letter-bode voor het Jaar II Deel (no. 35); ref. 5963] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH (apparently lost). Type information: Roberts 1993:20 [ref. 21799]. Regarded as available, brief description in combination with genus -- (see Alfred 1961:86 [ref. 20553], Kottelat 1987:372 [ref. 5962]). Also in van Hasselt 1824:377 [ref. 5964]. •Not regarded as available; in the synonymy of Oxygaster oxygaster (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Roberts 1989:55 [ref. 6439]). •Valid as Oxygaster anomalura van Hasselt 1823 -- (Bănărescu 1969:192 [ref. 7797], Bănărescu 1971:19 [ref. 20612], Roberts 1993:20 [ref. 21799], Kottelat et al. 1993:41 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:232 [ref. 23210], Rainboth 1996:68 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:9 [ref. 22832], Ng & Tan 1999:354 [ref. 24159], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:152 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:183 [ref. 28285], Tang et al. 2013:33 [ref. 32559], Sulaiman et al. 2018:29 [ref. 35802], Ng et al. 2019:528 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Oxygaster anomalura van Hasselt 1823. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

anomalurus, Oxygaster Kuhl [H.] & van Hasselt [J. C.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:350 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Not available; manuscript name mentioned in passing. In the synonymy of Oxygaster anomalura van Hasselt 1823. Nomen Nudum. Xenocyprididae.

aokii, Culter Oshima [M.] 1919:250, Pl. 52 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 12 (nos 2-4); ref. 3312] Lake Candidius [Jitsugetsutan], Taiwan. Lectotype: FMNH 59110 [ex CM 8248]. Paralectotypes: (2) CAS-SU 23057 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:71 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:29 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:27 [ref. 31432]. The described specimen was designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:116 [ref. 23416]. •Synonym of Erythroculter illishaeformis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Berg 1949:804 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:98 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612] as illishaformis). •Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:186 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Cultrichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Ho & Shao 2011:27 [ref. 31432] with author as Basilewasky, Kottelat 2013:86 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Kottelat 2006:28 [ref. 28831], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

arcus, Yaoshanicus Lin [S.-Y.] 1931:51, Fig. 3 [Carps and carp-like fishes; ref. 4019] Yaoshan, Kwangsi, China. Types not researched. •Valid as Yaoshanicus arcus Lin 1931 -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:42 [ref. 13497], Ye & Song in Pan et al. 1991:77 [ref. 23876], Zheng et al. 1989:70 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:26 [ref. 25213], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:54 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Aphyocypris arcus (Lin 1931) -- (Liao et al. 2011:662 [ref. 31495], Zhang et al. 2016:47 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocypris arcus (Lin 1931). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

argentea, Chela Day [F.] 1867:301 [21] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1867 (pt 2) (art. 5); ref. 14043] Bowany River, India. Lectotype: BMNH 1867.7.24.44. Paralectotypes: AMS B.7881 (1); BMNH 1867.7.24.45-47 (3); FMNH 2348 (2); NMW 52116 (2); RMNH [?2670] 8750 (1); ZIN 8262 (2); ZSI F2545 (1), F2627 (1), A.917 (1), A.918 (1). Type catalog: Whitehead & Talwar 1976:155 [ref. 23762], Ferraris et al. 2000:294 [ref. 25110]. On p. 21 of separate. Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1971:16 [ref. 20612]. •Valid as Chela argentea Day 1867 -- (Ataur Rahman 1989:79 [ref. 24860]). •Synonym of Salmostoma acinaces (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Bănărescu 1971:16 [ref. 20612], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:321 [ref. 20764], Menon 1999:24 [ref. 24904], Ataur Rahman 2003:96 [ref. 31338]). •Valid as Oxygaster argentea (Day 1867) -- (Karmakar 2000:27 [ref. 25662]). Current status: Valid as Oxygaster argentea (Day 1867). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: India. Habitat: freshwater.

argentea, Xenocypris Günther [A.] 1868:205 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.9.19.1147. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Leuciscus argenteus Basilewsky 1855 and Storer 1839 when in Leuciscus. See Leuciscus argenteus Basilewsky 1855. Name can be used if nomenclatural conditions are met. •Valid as Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:122 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:396 [ref. 7718], Mai 1978:169 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:58 [ref. 22951], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:54 [ref. 26639], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154], Che & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:93 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:112 [ref. 21202], Liu et al. in Pan et al. 1991:119 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:153 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:43 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:132 [ref. 26385], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:211 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:108 [ref. 26566], Zhao et al. 2009:44 [ref. 30545], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:195 [ref. 36699]). •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Bogutskaya 1998:78 [ref. 23589]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Berg 1949:633 [ref. 20661], Kottelat 2001:44 [ref. 25482], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:336 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:170 [ref. 32989]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Leuciscus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:232 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Beijing [Pekin], China. No types at ZIN. Apparently objectively invalid; preoccupied by Leuciscus argenteus Fitzinger 1832 and Storer 1839. Replaced by Xenocypris guentheri Sauvage & Dabry de Thiersant 1874. •Wrongly treated as valid as Xenocypris argentea (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:28 [ref. 22798], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:742 [ref. 24702], Bogutskaya 1998:78 [ref. 23589], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Zhao et al. 2009:32 [ref. 30545]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2008:336 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:170 [ref. 32989] with question). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

argenteus, Parapelecus Günther [A.] 1889:227 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 21); ref. 2016] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] at Kiu-Kiang, China. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1889.6.8.107. •Valid as Parapelecus argenteus Günther 1889 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:82 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864 -- (Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612], Mai 1978:142 [ref. 13511], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:48 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:84 [ref. 21202], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:155 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:169 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

argentifer, Toxabramis Abbott [J. F.] 1901:484, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1221); ref. 2] Pai-ho River, Tien-Tsin, China. Holotype: USNM 49545 [ex CAS-SU 6299]. Additional material: CAS-SU 6300 (30). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:39 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Toxabramis argentifer Abbott 1901 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:86 [ref. 13499], Wang et al. 2001:94 [ref. 26566]). •Synonym of Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1887 -- (Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:167 [ref. 23878]). Current status: Valid as Toxabramis argentifer Abbott 1901. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

asperus, Zacco Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:366, Fig. 32 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8376. Paratypes: (17) AMNH 10229 (15). •Valid as Zacco asperus Nichols & Pope 1927 -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:47 [ref. 13497]). •Synonym of Zacco spilurus (Günther 1868) -- (Bănărescu 1968:308 [ref. 20605], Mai 1978:128 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868) -- (Ye & Song in Pan et al. 1991:72 [ref. 23876], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:39 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Parazacco fasciatus (Koller 1927) -- (Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

atripinnis, Myloleuciscus Garman [S.] 1912:116 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 40 (pt 4); ref. 1544] Shasi, Hupeh, China [erroneus: 100 mi below Ichang [Hubei, Yuchang, 30°43'N, 111°17'N]]. Holotype (unique): MCZ 29817. Locality corrected by Kottelat 2013:125 [ref. 32898]. •Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:537 [ref. 20661], Yang & Hwang 1964:9 [ref. 13497], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:101 [ref. 23878], Bíró 1999:347 [ref. 24857], Kottelat 2013:125 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

babeensis, Parazacco Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [T. D.] 2000:224 [ ref. 33149] Bac Can Province, Ban Cam stream, Ba Be district, Nam Mau village, Vietnam. Holotype: Fish Collection of Thai National Univ. 89-02-002. •Synonym of Parazacco fasciatus (Koller 1927) -- (Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989] with question). •Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Current status: Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

balnei, Culter Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:213, Pl. 8 (fig. 4) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 3886] Vicinity of Hanoi, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-0079. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:83 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Kottelat 2001:27 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Cho et al. 2012:287 [ref. 34186], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

bambusa, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] 1845:141, Pl. 63 (fig. 2) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1962.2.8.1 (dry). Type information: Whitehead 1970:210 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Elopichthys bambusa (Richardson 1845) -- (Berg 1949:845 [ref. 20661], Yang & Hwang 1964:39 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:133 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:41 [ref. 22951], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:45 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:82 [ref. 21202], Song in Pan et al. 1991:87 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:150 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:32 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:15 [ref. 22798], Cheng & Zhou 1997:107 [ref. 26385], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:737 [ref. 24702], Chen in Chen 1998:106 [ref. 23556], Bogutskaya 1998:61 [ref. 23589], see Rainboth 1991:236 [ref. 20078], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:111 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:23 [ref. 25482], Pietsch et al. 2001:139 [ref. 25688], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Wang et al. 2001:86 [ref. 26566] dated 1844, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:80 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:330 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:101 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:76 [ref. 33547], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:659 [ref. 34853], Zhang et al. 2019:153 [ref. 36699], Dyldin et al. 2020:105 [ref. 37569], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:64 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Elopichthys bambusa (Richardson 1845). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China and Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

barbatula, Sinibrama Luo [Y.-L.] & Huang [H.-J.] in Luo, Chen & Huang 1985:280 [English p. 283], Fig. [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16253] Qinzhou County, Guangxi, China. Holotype: IHASW 83-IV-0388. Paratypes: IHASW 83-IV-0008 (1), -0085 (1), -0384 to -0387 (4), -0389 (1). •Valid as Sinibrama barbatula Luo & Huang 1985 -- (Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213]). •Valid as Pogobrama barbatula (Luo & Huang 1985) -- (Luo 1995:inside back cover [ref. 22653], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:148 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:87 [ref. 26415], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Pogobrama barbatula (Luo & Huang 1985). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

barbatus, Opsariichthys Regan [C. T.] 1908:359 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 2 (no. 10) (art. 40); ref. 3636] Lake Candidius, Taiwan. Syntypes: BMNH 1909.4.28.30-33 (4); syntypes are individually numbered in ref. 35383. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432]. Candidia is feminine, and the species should be spelled barbata. •Valid as Zacco barbatus (Regan 1908) -- (Bănărescu 1968:309 [ref. 20605]). •Valid as Opsariichthys barbatus Regan 1908 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432]). •Valid as Candidia barbata (Regan 1908) -- (Zhu 1995:25 [ref. 25213] as barbatus, Wang et al. 1997:171 [ref. 25517] as barbatus, Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:36 [ref. 23878] as barbatus, Yue & Chen 1998:61 [ref. 26415] as barbatus, Sado & Kimura 2002:350 [ref. 26498] as barbatus, Wu et al. 2007:65 [ref. 29953], Chen et al. 2008:206 [ref. 29933] as barbatus, Zhang et al. 2016:48 [ref. 34477], Ito & Hosoya 2016:256 [ref. 35383], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Candidia barbata (Regan 1908). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

barroni, Chela Fowler [H. W.] 1934:109, Fig. 61 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Mekong River at Chieng Sen [Chiengsan], Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 57455 (found dry 1974). Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:11 [ref. 25088], Böhlke 1984:69 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Paralaubuca barroni (Fowler 1934) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:76 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:350 [ref. 20621], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:51 [ref. 13584], Zhu 1995:34 [ref. 25213], Rainboth 1996:66 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:10 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:45 [ref. 23436], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:116 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:68 [ref. 25780], Shibukawa et al. 2012:269 [ref. 32338], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:43 [ref. 33971], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Paralaubuca barroni (Fowler 1934). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Mekong basin and Xe Bangfai, Thailand and China. Habitat: freshwater.

basilewskii, Hypophthalmichthys Kner [R.] 1867:350 [Reise der öesterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18426] Beijing, Manchuria and Mongolia. Unneeded new name for Cephalus mantschuricus Basilewsky 1855. •Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

batodes, Araiocypris Conway [K. W.] & Kottelat [M.] 2008:102, Figs. 1-2, 4-5 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 56 (no. 1); ref. 29528] Forest creek near Khay Rau village, 10 kilometers on road from Bac Phong Sinh to Mong Cai, 21°33'44"N, 107°43'55"E, Hai Ninh District, Quang Ninh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ZRC 50942. Paratypes: CMK 14899 (1). Treated as a noun in apposition. •Valid as Araiocypris batodes Conway & Kottelat 2008 -- (Kottelat 2013:74 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Araiocypris batodes Conway & Kottelat 2008. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Quang Ninh Province, northern Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

bea, Opsarichthys Nguyen [T. T.] 1987:32, Fig. 3 [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 17718] Nghe-Tinh Province, Khe Bo, Vietnam. Holotype: Fac. Pédagogie, Vinh, Kb 224. Correct spelling of original genus is Opsariichthys, not Opsarichthys. •Valid as Opsariichthys bea Nguyen 1987 -- (Kottelat 2001:33 [ref. 25482], Chen et al. 2009;175 [ref. 30298]). •Possibly a Parazacco -- (Huynh & Chen 2014:143 [ref. 33158]). Current status: Uncertain as Opsariichthys bea Nguyen 1987. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

bidens, Opsariichthys Günther [A.] 1873:249 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 69) (art. 31); ref. 2004] Shanghai, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1873.7.30.96. •Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Mai 1978:120 [ref. 13511], Bogutskaya 1998:79 [ref. 23589]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846), but a valid subspecies -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:40 [ref. 13497], Nguyen & Nguyen 2000:12 [ref. 26614], Sado & Kimura 2002:353 [ref. 26498]). •Valid as Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:45 [ref. 26639], Kuang in Chu & Chen 1989:31 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:68 [ref. 21202], Ye & Song in Pan et al. 1991:75 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:128 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:26 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:104 [ref. 26385], Doi 1997:8 [ref. 22832], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:33 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:63 [ref. 25780], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:75 [ref. 26566], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:99 [ref. 28183], Chen et al. 2008:217 [ref. 29934], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:333 [ref. 30085], Chen et al. 2009:175 [ref. 30298], Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989], Huynh & Chen 2014:142 [ref. 33158], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521], Zhang et al. 2019:135 [ref. 36699], Dyldin et al. 2020:87 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: Northern and easternn-central China and eastern Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

blanchardi, Rasbora (Rasbora) Sauvage [H.-E.] & Dabry de Thiersant [P.] 1874:12 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 6) v. 1 (art. 5); ref. 15665] South Shen-si and west Tche-Kiang, China. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8152 (11), 0000-8236 (5). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:71 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846), subspecies bidens Günther 1873 -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:41 [ref. 13497]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

bleekeri, Hemiculter Warpachowski [N. A.] 1888:20 [Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 32; ref. 4516] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] ?, China. No types at ZIN. •Valid as Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1887, subspecies bleekeri (Warpachowski 1887) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:117 [ref. 26385]). •Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:58 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085] with question). •Valid as Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1888 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:87 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612], Wang 1984:49 [ref. 22951], Ding 1994:219 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:39 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:167 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:95 [ref. 26566], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1888. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

bounthobi, Metzia Shibukawa [K.], Phousavanh [P.], Phongsa [K.] & Iwata [A.] 2012:265, Figs. 1-3 [Zootaxa No. 3586; ref. 32338] Mekong basin in Sopvan, Nyoi District, Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR (20°36.5’N, 102°39.1’E), northern Laos. Holotype: NIFI 4680. Paratypes: NSMT-P 105977 (2); NULFA-P 715 (1), -P 716 (1); NUOL-P 4074 (1), -P 4902 (2). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Metzia bounthobi Shibukawa, Phousavanh, Phongsa & Iwata 2012 -- (Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989], Luo et al. 2015:226 [ref. 33822]). Current status: Valid as Metzia bounthobi Shibukawa, Phousavanh, Phongsa & Iwata 2012. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Northern Laos. Habitat: freshwater.

bramula, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:357 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] China. No types known. Based on a Chinese painting. •Possibly the same as Megalobrama terminalis (Richardson 1846) or Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:801, 802 [ref. 20661]). •Maybe same as Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:115 [ref. 13499]). •Status uncertain -- (Bănărescu 1970:139 [ref. 20609]). •Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:86 [ref. 13584], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:198 [ref. 23878] with question, Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085] with question, Kottelat 2013:179 [ref. 32989] with question, Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477] with question). Current status: Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

breitensteinii, Parachela Steindachner [F.] 1881:100 [Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 18 (no. 11) (for 5 May 1881); ref. 20484] Teweh, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): NMW 3000. Species described in more detail in Steindachner 1881:404 [p. 12 in separate] [ref. 4232]. •Synonym of Parachela hypoththalmus (Bleeker 1860) -- (Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parachela hypoththalmus (Bleeker 1860). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevianalis, Anabarilius Zhou [W.] & Cui [G.-H.] 1992:51, Fig. 4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 3 (no. 1); ref. 14489] Canyu River, a tributary of Jinshajiang River, near Huidong town, 26°38'N, 102°34'E, Huidong County, Sichuan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 9011092. Paratypes: KIZ 9011055 (1), 9011058 (1), 9011060 (1), 9011065 (1), 9011069-71 (3), 9011074 (1), 9011076-81 (6), 9011083-84 (1, 1), 9011086-90 (5), 9011094-100 (7). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:346 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Anabarilius brevianalis Zhou & Cui 1992 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:56 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:157 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius brevianalis Zhou & Cui 1992. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

brevianalis, Ancherythroculter Bănărescu [P. M.] in Bănărescu & Nalbant 1968:345, Figs. 10-11 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 81; ref. 7861] Suifu, Szechwan, China. Holotype: USNM 87462. Paratypes: USNM 86891 (1), 87458 (1), 91620 (6), 91625 (6), 202690 [ex USNM 87462] (2). •Synonym of Sinibrama taeniatus (Nichols 1941) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:146 [ref. 23878]). Current status: Synonym of Sinibrama taeniatus (Nichols 1941). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevicauda, Culter Günther [A.] 1868:329 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Taiwan. Lectotype: BMNH 1865.10.29.29. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1865.10.29.30-31 (2), 1865.10.29.32 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:27 [ref. 31432]. Lectotype selected by Banarescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612]. •Valid as Culter brevicauda Günther 1868 -- (Kim 1997:277 [ref. 24032], Kim & Park 2002:188 [ref. 25913], Choi et al. 2003:157, 513 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Culter erythropterus Basilewski 1855 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:113 [ref. 13499], Mai 1978:159 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Cultrichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:182 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilwwsky 1855 -- (Bănărescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:25 [ref. 22798], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Ho & Shao 2011:27 [ref. 31432] with author as Basilwsky, Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevirostris, Siniichthys Bănărescu [P. M.] 1970:161, Figs. 1-3 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 42 (no. 1); ref. 214] Upper Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] (between Yibin and Yichang), Sichuan [Sé-tchuan], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1934-0100. •Synonym of Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1887 -- (Ding 1994:220 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:167 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

brevistomatus, Opsariichthys Nguyen [V. H.], Nguyen [T. H. T.], Do [V. T.] & Nguyen [T. D. P.] 2012:18, Fig. 3 [Newsletter Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 1, issue 5; ref. 33000] •Not available; no designation of a holotype. •Questionably in the synonymy of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Unknown. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Dakrong district, Quang Tri province, Vietnam.

carinatus, Megalobrama skolkovii var. Dybowski [B. N.] 1872:213 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 22; ref. 1170] Middle and lower Amur River, Ussuri River, Sungari River, and Lake Khanka, Russia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:802 [ref. 20661], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:27 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:77 [ref. 23590], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:60 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

carinatus, Xenocyprioides Chen [Y.-Y.] & Huang [H.-J.] in Luo, Chen & Huang 1985:281 [English p. 283], Fig. [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 16253] Longzhow County, Guangxi, China. Holotype: IHASW 81-XII-1117. Paratypes: IHASW 81-XII-1114 to 1116 (3), -1118 to -1123 (6). •Valid as Xenocyprioides carinatus Chen & Huang 1985 -- (Zhu 1995:43 [ref. 25213], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:210 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Xenocyprioides carinatus Chen & Huang 1985. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

caudalis, Squaliobarbus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:211, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 3886] Vicinity of Hanoi, Vietnam. Holotype: MNHN. •Synonym of Squaliobarbus curriculus (Richardson 1846) -- (Mai 1978:128 [ref. 13511], Kottelat 2001:43 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:165 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Squaliobarbus curriculus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

changi, Sinibrama Chang [H.-W.] 1944:38 [Sinensia v. 15 (nos 1-6); ref. 5136] Omei, Szechwan, China. Syntypes: ? Chang pers. coll. 1912 (1), 1929 (1), 1969 (1), 1970 (1), 1989 (1), 2423 (1), 2424 (1). •Valid as Megalobrama changi (Chang 1944) -- (Bănărescu 1970:137 [ref. 20609]). •Valid as Sinibrama changi Chang 1944 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:110 [ref. 13499], Ding 1994:199 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:107 [ref. 23556]). •Synonym of Sinibrama taeniatus (Nichols 1941) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:146 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Sinibrama taeniatus (Nichols 1941). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

chekianensis, Opsariichthys Shaw [T.-H.] 1930:113, Fig. 3 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 1 (no. 7); ref. 16145] Small river at Shing-Tsong, Chekiang [Zhejiang Province], China. Holotype (unique): ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 4441. •Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846), subspecies bidens Günther 1873 -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:41 [ref. 13497], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Gübnther 1873 -- (Chen et al. 2008:217 [ref. 29934], Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

chenchiwei, Barilius Chu [Y.-T.] 1931:33, Figs. 17, 17A-B [The China Journal v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 17997] Tien-mu-san, Chekiang, China. Syntypes: (numerous) St. John's Univ. 237,25, B.C. I-X; WLMH uncat. •Synonym of Atrilinea roulei (Wu 1931) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:51 [ref. 13497], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:97 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Atrilinea roulei (Wu 1931). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

chenghaiensis, Anabarilius liui He [J.-C.] in He & Wang 1984:105 (English p. 108), Fig. 3 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 8216] Chenghai Lake, Jinsha River system, northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: YU 730234. Paratypes: YU 730233 (1), 730235 (1), 766004 (1), 766011 (1). •Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944), but a valid subspecies chenghaiensis He 1984 as described -- (Chen 1986:432 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:62 [ref. 13584], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:110 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:127 [ref. 23878], Li & Chen 2003:365 [ref. 26915], Zhang et al. 2019:160 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

chengtui, Zacco Kimura [Sh.] 1934:44, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Shanghai Science Institute v. 1; ref. 16434] Peng-hsien, near Chengtu, Szechwan Province, China. Holotype: 155-mm specimen (whereabouts unknown). Paratypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Zacco chengtui Kimura 1934 -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:46 [ref. 13497], Bănărescu 1968:307 [ref. 20605], Ding 1994:127 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:26 [ref. 25213], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:43 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:66 [ref. 26415], Sado & Kimura 2002:353 [ref. 26498], Zhang et al. 2016:51 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Opsariichthys chengtui (Kimura 1934) -- (Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys chengtui (Kimura 1934). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Sichuan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

chinensis, Aphyocypris Günther [A.] 1868:201 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Chikiang, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1855.3.27.15. •Valid as Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868 -- (Berg 1949:1326 [ref. 20662], Okada 1961:465 [ref. 6363], Yang & Hwang 1964:15 [ref. 13497], Wang 1984:37 [ref. 22951], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:57 [ref. 6441], Kuang in Chu & Chen 1989:35 [ref. 13584], Ding 1994:131 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:27 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:105 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:267 [ref. 24032], Watanabe 1998:262 [ref. 23491], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:735 [ref. 24702], Bogutskaya 1998:78 [ref. 23589], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:59 [ref. 23878], Nakabo 2000:263 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:57 [ref. 26000], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373] as cjinensis, Bogutskaya et al. 2001:44 [ref. 26178], Wang et al. 2001:74 [ref. 26566], Kim & Park 2002:176 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:263 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:156, 515 [ref. 26218], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:98 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:333 [ref. 30085], Liao et al. 2011:661 [ref. 31495], Zhu et al. 2013:235 [ref. 32554], Zhang et al. 2016:47 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:138 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

chosenicus, Rhodeus Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1913:19, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 2490] Suigen, Korea. Holotype: FMNH 55804 [ex CM 4567]. Paratypes: (5) CAS-SU 22391 (2), FMNH 55805 (2, not 1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:73 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:38 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:75 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868 -- (Choi et al. 2003:515 [ref. 26218]) Current status: Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

clupeoides, Hemicultur Nichols [J. T.] 1925:7 [American Museum Novitates No. 182; ref. 15554] Tungting Lake, Hunan Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 8433. Paratypes: MCZ 32643 (2). Genus should have been spelled Hemiculter. •Synonym of Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1887 -- (Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:90 [ref. 13499], Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

clupeoides, Pseudolaubuca Duncker [G.] 1904:183, Pl. 1 (figs. 1, 1a) [Mitteilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen (Zoologischen) Museum in Hamburg v. 21; ref. 5560] Sungai Bungus at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia [introduced]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1905.5.6.1 [ex SSMKL 1184]. Type catalog: Alfred 1963:166 [ref. 20555] as type believed lost [BMNH 1905.5.6.1 might be the holotype]. Appeared as Pseudolaubuca (?) clupeoides. •Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

compressocorpus, Culter Yih [P.-L.] & Chu [C.-R.] 1959:182, Pl. 1 (fig. 1), Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 22548] China. Syntypes: (6) whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Culter compressocorpus Yih & Chu 1959 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:114 [ref. 13499]). •Valid as Cultrichthys compressocorpus (Yih & Chu 1959) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:182 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34477]). •Genus should be Culter. Current status: Valid as Culter compressocorpus Yih & Chu 1959. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

compressus, Xenocypris Nichols [J. T.] 1925:4 [American Museum Novitates No. 182; ref. 15554] Near Yenping, Fukien, China. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8427. Non-types: MCZ 32675 [ex AMNH] (1). •Synonym of Xenocypris tumirostris (Peters 1881), but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1970:400 [ref. 7718], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:221 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Distoechodon tumirostris Peters 1881. •Valid as Distoechodon compressus (Nichols 1925) -- (Yang 1964:131 [ref. 13500], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154], Zhao et al. 2009:31 [ref. 30545], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Distoechodon compressus (Nichols 1925). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Fujian and Jiangxi provinces, China and Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

coreensis, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:355 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] No locality (Korea ?). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

cupreus, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:361 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] China. No types known. Based on an illustration. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

curriculus, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] 1846:299 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1962.2.5.1. Type information: Whitehead 1970:210 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Squaliobarbus curriculus (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:617 [ref. 20661], Yang & Hwang 1964:52 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:130 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:45 [ref. 22951], Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:38 [ref. 26639], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:42 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:79 [ref. 21202], Song in Pan et al. 1991:84 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:145 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:31 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:112 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:274 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:742 [ref. 24702], Chen in Chen 1998:103 [ref. 23556], Bogutskaya 1998:90 [ref. 23589], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:105 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:43 [ref. 25482], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:44 [ref. 26178], Wang et al. 2001:89 [ref. 26566], Kim & Park 2002:184 [ref. 25913], Choi et al. 2003:158, 514 [ref. 26218], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:51 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:336 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:165 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:55 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:147 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Squaliobarbus curriculus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China, Vietnam and Korea. Habitat: freshwater.

cyanea, Parachela Kottelat [M.] 1995:55, Fig. 2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 21728] Sungai Tangit at Radai Tangit, 0°57'26"N, 112°04'39"E, Kapuas basin, Kalimantan Barat, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype: MZB 5911. Paratypes: CMK 10192 (4), 10207 (41), 10227 (2), 10238 (1), 10317 (1), 10475 (1), 10480 (22); MHNG 2566.62 (10); MZB 5912-13 (40, 20); ZMA 121500 (10); ZRC 38457 (10). •Valid as Parachela cyanea Kottelat 1995 -- (Doi 1997:9 [ref. 22832], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:152 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parachela cyanea Kottelat 1995. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Indonesia. Habitat: freshwater.

dabryi, Culter Bleeker [P.] 1871:70, Pl. 12 (fig. 2) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5078. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:80 [ref. 19574]. Also in Bleeker 1871:84 [ref. 17075]. •Questionably the same as Erythroculter oxycephalus (Bleeker 1871) -- (Berg 1949:805 [ref. 20661]). •Valid as Erythroculter dabryi (Bleeker 1871) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:101 [ref. 13499], Wang 1984:54 [ref. 22951], Zheng et al. 1989:106 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:91 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:232 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:122 [ref. 23556], Wang et al. 2001:102 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Culter dabryi Bleeker 1871 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:194 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Chanodichthys dabryi (Bleeker 1871) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:23 [ref. 22798], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:736 [ref. 24702], Naseka 1998:74 [ref. 23590], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:317 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:86 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477], Dyldin et al. 2020:91, 94 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Chanodichthys dabryi (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China. Habitat: freshwater.

dabryi, Hypophthalmichthys Guichenot [A.] in Bleeker 1871:84 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. •Possibly validated by Bleeker 1878. •In the synonymy of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Berg 1949:846 [ref. 20661], Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae.

dabryi, Hypophthalmichthys Bleeker [P.] 1878:210 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 12; ref. 17118] Yang-tse-kiang River, China. Appeared first as name listed in synonymy in Bleeker 1871:84. •Questionably a synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:661 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

daovantieni, Erythroculter hypselonotus Bănărescu [P. M.] 1967:221, Pl. 3 (fig. 9); Fig. 2 [Revue Roumaine de Biologie, Série de Zoologie v. 12 (no. 4); ref. 7865] Boi River, northern Vietnam. Holotype (unique): IBTS 625. •Synonym of Erythroculter hypselonotus (Bleeker 1871), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Mai 1978:151 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Ancherythroculter daovantieni (Bănărescu 1967) -- (Kottelat 2001:18 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:73 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Ancherythroculter daovantieni (Bănărescu 1967). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

dauricus, Nasus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:234, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Mongolia, Manchuria, China. No types at ZIN. Spelled dahuricus on pl. 7; preference given to dauricus. •Synonym of Elopichthys bambusa (Richardson 1845) -- (Berg 1949:845 [ref. 20661] as dauricus, Yang & Hwang 1964:39 [ref. 13497], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:16 [ref. 22798], Bogutskaya 1998:61 [ref. 23589], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:111 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:330 [ref. 30085] as dauricus, Kottelat 2013:101 [ref. 32989] as dauricus, Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477] as duhuricus, Dyldin & Orlov 2016:659 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Elopichthys bambusa (Richardson 1845). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

davidi, Xenocypris Bleeker [P.] 1871:56, Pl. 6 (fig. 4) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Also in Bleeker 1871:66 [ref. 17073]. •Valid as Xenocypris davidi Bleeker 1871 -- (Yang 1964:125 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:397 [ref. 7718], Mai 1978:171 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:60 [ref. 22951], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:53 [ref. 26639], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154], Zheng et al. 1989:113 [ref. 21202], Liu et al. in Pan et al. 1991:120 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:155 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:43 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:133 [ref. 26385], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:214 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:44 [ref. 25482], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:109 [ref. 26566], Zhao et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30545], Kottelat 2013:170 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:196 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Xenocypris davidi Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dienbienensis, Opsariichthys Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [H. D.] 2000:14, Figs. 3-4 [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 26614] Nam Rom River, Dien Bien Phu, Lai Chau Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ARI I: H.01.15.03.01. Paratypes: H.01.15.03.02 (1), H.01.99.03.01 (1); HNNU P.02.01.03.99 (1), P.02.02.03.99 (1), P.02.0.03.99 [?P.02.03.03.99] (1). •Questionably a synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Opsariichthys dienbienensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2000 -- (Chen et al. 2009:175 [ref. 30298], Huynh & Chen 2014:142 [ref. 33158]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys dienbienensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2000. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Northern Vietnam [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

dispar, Hemiculter Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1881:1035, Unnumbered plate fig. 7 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1880; ref. 3456] Hong Kong. Syntypes: ZMB 11321 (2). •Valid as Hemiculter dispar Peters 1881 -- (Berg 1949:808 [ref. 20661], Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Pseudohemiculter dispar (Peters 1881) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:79 [ref. 13499], Mai 1978:146 [ref. 13511], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:74 [ref. 26639] dated 1880, Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:77 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:99 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:95 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:213 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:38 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:176 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2000:86 [ref. 25486], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:36 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:72 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiculter dispar (Peters 1881). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

dorsoarcus, Opsariichthys Nguyen [V. H.], Nguyen [T. H. T.], Do [V. T.] & Nguyen [T. D. P.] 2012:18, Fig. 1 (a & b) [Newsletter Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 1, issue 5; ref. 33000] •Not available; no designation of a holotype. Questionably in the synonymy of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Dakrong district, Quang Tri province, Vietnam.

dorsohorizontalis, Nicholsicypris Nguyen [V. H.] & Doan [L. H.] 1969:10, Fig. 2 in ref. 29795 [Some data on composition, origin, and distribution of cyprinid species in northern Vietnam; ref. 25483] Ha Bac Province, Vietnam. Lectotype: RIAH 1041 (possible H.01.06.02.01). Paralectotypes: (5) 1 remaining in RIAH. See Kottelat 2001:113, 116 [ref. 25482] for availability issues. Spelled several ways originally; Kottelat 2001:116 [ref. 25482] as first reviser selected dorsohorizontalis See Nguyen & Doan 2008 [ref. 29793] for an English translation of ref. 25483. Lectotype selected by Roberts & Catania 2008:89 [ref. 29794], but holotype may be erroneus. •Status uncertain -- (Kottelat 2001:44 [ref. 25482], Roberts & Catania 2008:94 [ref. 29794]). •See Liao et al. 2011:662 [ref. 31495] for possible generic placement. •Questionably valid as Aphyocypris dorsohorizontalis (Nguyen & Doan 1969) -- (Kottelat 2013:76 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Aphyocypris dorsohorizontalis (Nguyen & Doan 1969). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

dubia, Rasborella Fowler [H. W.] & Bean [B. A.] 1923:7 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 63 (no. 2488); ref. 1474] No locality. Holotype: USNM 83278. Paratypes: (2). •Genus and species inquirendae -- (Kottelat 2013:69 [ref. 32989]). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

dubius, Leuciscus Bleeker [P.] 1864:19 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 407] Not available, name only in list of fishes from China. •In the synonymy of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:9 [ref. 13497], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:100 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:125 [ref. 32989]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae.

duchuunguyeni, Opsariichthys Huynh [T. Q.] & Chen [I-S.] 2014:136, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of Marine Science and Technology v. 21, Suppl. [for 2013]; ref. 33158] Ky Cung River, Ky Chun -- Bang Giang river basin, Chi Lang commune, Trang Dinh district, Lang Son Province, Vietnam, 22°17'20.7"N, 106°27'30.0"E. Holotype: NTOUP-2013-10-186. Paratypes: NTOU P-2013-10-185 (3), -187 (1). •Valid as Opsariichthys duchuunguyeni Huynh & Chen 2014 -- (Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys duchuunguyeni Huynh & Chen 2014. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Ky Cung River, Vietnam and Guangxi Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

dumerili, Pseudobrama Bleeker [P.] 1871:60, Pl. 7 (fig. 1) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5071 and 5072 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:74 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Acanthobrama simoni Bleeker 1864 -- (Yang 1964:132 [ref. 13500]). •Synonym of Pseudobrama simoni (Bleeker 1864) -- (Ding 1994:166 [ref. 21531], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:223 [ref. 23878]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobrama simoni (Bleeker 1864). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

duoyiheensis, Anabarilius Li [W.-X.], Mao [W.-N.] & Lu [Z.-M.] 2002:1, Fig. 1 [Journal of Zhanjiang Ocean University v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 28169] Duoyihe, Luoping County, 24°30'N, 104°30'E, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: HRA 20000826006. Paratypes: HRA 20000826001-004 (4), 2000082606-015 (10). •Valid as Anabarilius duoyiheensis Li, Mao & Lu 2002 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:56 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius duoyiheensis Li, Mao & Lu 2002. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Luoping County, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

dybowskii, Hypophthalmichthys Herzenstein [S. M.] in Warpachowski & Herzenstein 1888:38 [Trudy St.-Peterburgskogo Obscestva Estestvoispytatelej = Travaux de la Société des Naturalistes de St. Pétersbourg. v. 19 (no. 8) (for 1887); ref. 2152] Amur River, Russia; Fuchow, China. Syntypes: ZIN 5510 (1), 5576 [not 5575] (1), 7043 [not 7103] (1). •Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Berg 1949:846 [ref. 20661], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:200 [ref. 37756], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:16 [ref. 22798], Bogutskaya 1998:62 [ref. 23589], Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:331 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:661 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

eigenmanni, Parapelecus Jordan [D. S.] & Metz [C. W.] 1913:21, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 2490] Suigen, south of Seoul, southern Korea. Holotype: FMNH 55802 [ex CM 4565]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 22392 (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:72 [ref. 12305], Böhlke 1953:36 [ref. 12291], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:63 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Hemiculter eigenmanni (Jordan & Metz 1913) -- (Berg 1949:810 [ref. 20661], Kim 1997:279 [ref. 24032], Kim & Park 2002:190 [ref. 25913], Choi et al. 2003:157, 513 [ref. 26218]). •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:90 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:178 [ref. 37756], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:25 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:76 [ref. 23590], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:58 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:319 [ref. 30085] with question, Cho et al. 2012:290 [ref. 34186], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989] with question, Esmaeili et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:29 [ref. 36089]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

elegans, Opsariichthys Pellegrin [J.] & Chevey [P.] 1934:342, 468, Fig. 1 (addendum) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 59; ref. 16448] Ngoi-Thia River at Nghia Lô, Tonkin, Vietnam. Holotype: MNHN 1934-0264. Paratypes: (1) IOI 461 (1); MGHNL 42000053 [3607B] (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:68 [ref. 19574], Kottelat 1987:22 [ref. 11434]. •Synonym of Zacco spilurus (Günther 1868) -- (Mai 1978:128 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868) -- (Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:38 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Parazacco fasciatus (Koller 1927) -- (Kottelat 2001:34 [ref. 25482]). Current status: Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

elongata, Megalobrama Huang [H.-J.] & Zhang [W.] 1986:99 [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 10 (no. 1); ref. 16243] Yi-bin, Sechuan, China. Syntypes: IHASW 79IV0359 (1), 79IV0365 (1), 793034 (1). •Valid as Megalobrama elongata Huang & Zhang 1986 -- (Ding 1994:240 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:206 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Megalobrama elongata Huang & Zhang 1986. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Erythroculter mongolicus He [J.-C.] & Liu [J.-H.] 1980:483 [English p. 484], Fig. [Zoological Research v. 1 (no. 4); ref. 23126] Cheng-Hai [Chenghai Lake], Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: YU 730241. Paratypes: YU 730237-39 (3), 730242-43 (2), 730245-46 (2), 766002 (1), 766008 (1), 766010 (1), 766015-16 (2), 766019-20 (2), 766022 (1). •Synonym of Erythroculter mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:91 [ref. 13584], Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:121 [ref. 23556]). •Synonym of Culter mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:191 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2019:186 [ref. 36699]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:317 [ref. 30085] but possibly a distinct species, Kottelat 2013:87 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855), but valid as subspecies elongatus (He & Liu 1980) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477] as elongates). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Hemiculter Nguyen [V. H.] & Ngô [S. V.] 2001:137, Fig. 62 [Freshwater fishes of Viet Nam. Volume I. Family Cyprinidae v. 1; ref. 28301] Sông Ky Cùng, Lang Son, Viêt Nam. Holotype: VNCNTTS I: H.01.33.03.01. Paratypes: VNCNTTS I: H.01.33.03.02 (1). •Valid as Hemiculter elongatus Nguyen & Ngô 2001. Current status: Valid as Hemiculter elongatus Nguyen & Ngô 2001. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Ky Cùng River, Lang Son, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Opsarius Kner [R.] 1867:358 [Reise der öesterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18426] Shanghai, China. NMW. •Valid as Ochetobius elongatus (Kner 1867) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:44 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:135 [ref. 13511], Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:41 [ref. 26639], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:44 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:80 [ref. 21202], Song in Pan et al. 1991:86 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:147 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:32 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:29 [ref. 22798], Bogutskaya 1996:327 [ref. 24645], Cheng & Zhou 1997:109 [ref. 26385], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:739 [ref. 24702], Chen in Chen 1998:105 [ref. 23556], Bogutskaya 1998:78 [ref. 23589], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:107 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:31 [ref. 25482], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:87 [ref. 26566], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:98 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2013:128 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:54 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:149 [ref. 36699], Dyldin et al. 2020:98 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Ochetobius elongatus (Kner 1867). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China; introduced in Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Parapelecus Mori [T.] 1927:32 [3] [Journal of the Chosen Natural History Society No. 5; ref. 16382] Hun River, tributary of Liao River, Manchuria, China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 3 of separate. •Synonym of Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1887 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:167 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

emmelas, Culticula Abbott [J. F.] 1901:485, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1221); ref. 2] Pei-ho River, Tien-Tsin, China. Holotype: ?USNM 49546 [ex CAS-SU 6295]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6296 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:31 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Acanthobrama simoni Bleeker 1865 -- (Yang 1964:132 [ref. 13500]). •Synonym of Pseudobrama simoni (Bleeker 1864) -- (Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:223 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudobrama simoni (Bleeker 1864). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

engraulis, Hemiculterella Nichols [J. T.] 1925:7 [American Museum Novitates No. 182; ref. 15554] Huping, Tungting Lake, Hunan Province, China. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8432. Non-types: FMNH 14679-80 (1, 1); ZMA 100982 (1). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:29 [ref. 19236], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:44 [ref. 12367]; description based on "the type" and "but a single example is to hand," so other specimens are not regarded as paratypes. •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca jouyi (Jordan & Starks 1905) -- (Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Parapelecus engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:83 [ref. 13499]). •Valid as Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Wang 1984:52 [ref. 22951], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:50 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:85 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:117 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:194 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:34 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:123 [ref. 26385], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:157 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:37 [ref. 25482], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:92 [ref. 26566], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:169 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

ensarca, Fusania Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1905:198, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1391); ref. 2530] Pusan, South Korea. Holotype: USNM 45265. Paratypes: MCZ 35929 [ex USNM 45265] (2), CAS-SU 9052 (2), USNM 45265 (?, incl. holotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:31 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868 -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:15 [ref. 13497], Kim 1997:557 [ref. 24032]). Current status: Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

erythropterus, Culter Basilewsky [S.] 1855:236, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Rivers flowing into Gulf of Tschili [Chihli], Beijing [Peking], China. No types at ZIN. For remarks on nomenclature see Kottelat 2006:28-29 [ref. 28831]. •Valid as Erythroculter erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:804 [ref. 20661], Kim & Park 2002:186 [ref. 25913], Choi et al. 2003:157, 513 [ref. 26218]). •Valid as Culter erythropterus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:113 [ref. 13499], Mai 1978:158 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:51 [ref. 22951], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:90 [ref. 26639], Zheng et al. 1989:104 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:111 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:222 [ref. 21531], Cheng & Zhou 1997:121 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:276 [ref. 24032], Chen in Chen 1998:118 [ref. 23556], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:97 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Cultrichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:182 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:21 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2006:28 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:317 [ref. 30085], Ho & Shao 2011: 27 [ref. 31432], Zhang et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:180 [ref. 36699]). •Valid as Chanodichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:24 [ref. 22798], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:736 [ref. 24702], Naseka 1998:74 [ref. 23590], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:53 [ref. 28183], Ocock et al. 2006:32 [ref. 28933], Takeuchi & Hosoya 2011:15 [ref. 31144], Kottelat 2013:86 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:71 [ref. 33547], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:64 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Chanodichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China and Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

evolans, Zacco Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1902:322, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1289); ref. 2447] Taihoku [Taipei], Taiwan. Holotype: CAS-SU 7129. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7271 (1), 7333 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:39 [ref. 12291], Ho & Shao 2011:31 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:49 [ref. 13497], Wang et al. 1997:170 [ref. 25517], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:41 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Opsariichthys evolans (Jordan & Evermann 1902) -- (Chen et al. 2009:168 [ref. 30298], Ho & Shao 2011:31 [ref. 31432], Huynh & Chen 2014:143 [ref. 33158], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477], Wang et al. 2019:[11] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys evolans (Jordan & Evermann 1902). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Northern Taiwan and southeast coastal areas of China. Habitat: freshwater.

exiquus, Culter Basilewsky [S.] 1855:237 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Near Beijing [Peking], China. No types at ZIN. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

fangi, Xenocypris Tchang [T.-L.] 1930:92, Fig. 3 [Sinensia v. 1 (no. 7); ref. 16213] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] system, Sichuan Province, China. Holotype: MNHN uncat. Paratypes: (1) BMAM 1779 (1). •Synonym of Xenocypris yunnanensis Nichols 1925, but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1970:399 [ref. 7718]). •Valid as Xenocypris fangi Tchang 1930 -- (Yang 1964:126 [ref. 13500], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154], Ding 1994:159 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:43 [ref. 25213], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:216 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:197 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Xenocypris fangi Tchang 1930. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

fani, Xenocypris argentea Tchang [T.-L.] & Shaw [T.-H.] 1931:291, Fig. 8 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 2; ref. 16404] Lai-say, Hopei, China. Holotype: ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 4657. •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:123 [ref. 13500], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

fanlingensis, Metzia Lin [S.-Y.] 1939:130, Fig. 2 [Hong Kong Naturalist v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 12405] Fanling, New Territories, Hong Kong. Holotype: CAS-SU 34382. Paratypes: (2) CAS-SU 34383 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:33 [ref. 12291]. •Synonym of Rasborinus formosae Oshima 1920 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:120 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Metzia formosae (Oshima 1920) -- (Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Metzia formosae (Oshima 1920). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

fasciatus, Aspius spilurus Koller [O.] 1927:46, Fig. 6 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 41; ref. 5622] Kangkong River, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: NMW 10407. Paratypes: (13). Preoccupied by Aspius fasciatus Nordmann 1840. •Synonym of Zacco spilurus (Günther 1868) -- (Bănărescu 1968:308 [ref. 20605], Mai 1978:128 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Zacco spilurus (Günther 1868), but wrongly as a valid subspecies -- (Ye & Song in Pan et al. 1991:71 [ref. 23876]). •Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868), but wrongly as a valid subspecies -- (Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:519 [ref. 26639], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:39 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477], Ito & Hosoya 2016:90 [ref. 34788]). •Incorrectly valid as Parazacco fasciatus (Koller 1927) -- (Kottelat 2001:34 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). •The name Zacco asperus is available for this subspecies based on placement by Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:39 [ref. 23878]. 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

fintella, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:356 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] China. Based on an illustration. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

flavipinnis, Culter Tirant [G.] 1883:[29] 98 [Bulletin de la Société des Études Indo-chinoises. Saigon. 1883; ref. 17920] Hué, Vietnam. Lectotype: MHNL 4200-0028 [3644]. Type catalog: Chevey 1937:249 [ref. 31779]. On p. 29 of reprint in Chevey 1929 [ref. 16215]. Also in Tirant 1885:[137] [ref. 17923]. Lectotype selected by Kottelat 1987:13 [ref. 11434]. •Valid as Erythroculter flavipinnis (Tirant 1883) -- (Kottelat 1987:13, 21 [ref. 11434]). •Questionably valid as Culter flavipinnis Tirant 1883 -- (Kottelat 2001:21 [ref. 25482]). •Valid as Chanodichthys flavipinnis (Tirant 1883) -- (Doi 1997:4 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2013:86 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Chanodichthys flavipinnis (Tirant 1883). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: South Asia: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

formosae, Rasborinus Oshima [M.] 1920:131, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 72; ref. 3313] Near Manka, Taihoku, Taiwan. Holotype: ANSP 49952. Paratypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:76 [ref. 13621] with a holotype, Ho & Shao 2011:30 [ref. 31432] with an unneeded lectotype. Invalid lectotype designation by Ho & Shao 211:30. •Synonym of Ischikauia macrolepis Regan 1908 -- (authors). •Valid as Rasborinus formosae Oshima 1920 -- (Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:84 [ref. 26639], Zheng et al. 1989:87 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:108 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:120 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:85 [ref. 26415], Chen & Fang 2000:16 [ref. 24434]). •Valid as "Metzia" formosae (Oshima 1920) -- (Kottelat 2001:29 [ref. 25482]). •Valid as Metzia formosae (Oshima 1920) -- (Gan et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30038], Ho & Shao 2011:30 [ref. 31432], Shibukawa et al. 2012:264 [ref. 32338], Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989], Luo et al. 2015:236 [ref. 33822], Luo et al. 2015:226 [ref. 33822], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Metzia formosae (Oshima 1920). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan, China and northern Vietnam. and Hanin Island, China. Habitat: freshwater.

fukiensis, Parapelecus Nichols [J. T.] 1926:7, Fig. 6 [American Museum Novitates No. 224; ref. 15601] Fukien, China. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8479. •Synonym of Parapelecus argenteus Günther 1889 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:82 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864, but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1971:15 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:156 [ref. 23878] as fukinensis, Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477] with author and date as Tchang 1930). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

fukiensis, Rasborinus Nichols [J. T.] 1925:6 [American Museum Novitates No. 182; ref. 15554] Near Yenping, Fukien, China. Holotype: AMNH 8431. Paratypes: AMNH 10983 (1), ?MCZ 32671 (1). •Synonym of Rasborinus lineatus (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:69 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:15 [ref. 20612], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:118 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Gan et al. 2009:59 [ref. 30038] with comment). Current status: Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

fuscus, Leucisculus Oshima [M.] 1920:129, Pl. 5 (fig. 1) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 72; ref. 3313] Ako [Pingtung], Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 49950 (missing). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:77 [ref. 13621], Ho & Shao 2011:28 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:537 [ref. 20661], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:101 [ref. 23878], Bíró 1999:347 [ref. 24857], Ho & Shao 2011:28 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:125 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

goldenlineus, Anabarilius Li [W.-X.] & Chen [A.-L.] in Li, Wu, Chen & Xi 1995:80 [Engl. 84], Fig. 1 [not seen] [Chinese Journal of Fisheries v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 29512] Heilongtan Lunan, 24°45'N, 103°18'E, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: HRS 8802001. Paratypes: (50) at HRS. •Valid as Anabarilius goldenlineus Li & Chen 1995 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:56 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius goldenlineus Li & Chen 1995. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Heilongtan Lunan Reservoir, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

goldsboroughi, Kendallia Evermann [B. W.] & Shaw [T.] 1927:108 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 1286] Hangchow, China. Holotype (unique): CAS 503. •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:164 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:319 [ref. 30085], Cho et al. 2012:288 [ref. 34186], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

grahami, Barilius Regan [C. T.] 1908:357 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 2 (no. 10); ref. 14350] Chenkiang Lake, 90 miles southeast of Yunnan Fu, China. Lectotype: BMNH 1980.2.27.27. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1908.2.27.28-32 (5). Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1971:13 [ref. 20612]. •Valid as Hemiculterella grahami (Regan 1908) -- (Bănărescu 1971:13 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Anabarilius grahami (Regan 1908) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:74 [ref. 13499], Chen & Chu 1980:418 [ref. 20983], Chen 1986:433 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:67 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:95 [ref. 21202], Yang 1991:194 [ref. 13585], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:36 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:134 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:56 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius grahami (Regan 1908). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

guentheri, Xenocypris Sauvage [H.-E.] & Dabry de Thiersant [P.] 1874:13 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 6) v. 1 (art. 5); ref. 15665] •New name for Leuciscus (Xenocypris) argenteus of Basilewsky (not of Günther). •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:123 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:397 [ref. 7718], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878], Zhao et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30545]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Berg 1949:633 [ref. 20661], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:336 [ref. 30085]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hainanensis, Barilius Boulenger [G. A.] 1900:961, Pl. 69 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1899 (pt 4); ref. 14715] Five-fingers Mountains, Hainan Island, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1899.11.30.22. •Synonym of Pseudohemiculter dispar (Peters 1881) -- (Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:74 [ref. 26639]). •Synonym of Hemiculter dispar Peters 1881 -- (Lu in Pan et al. 1991:95 [ref. 23876]). •Synonym of Hemiculter dispar Peters 1881, but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:177 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

hainanensis, Hemiculter Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:372, Fig. 36 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8379. Paratypes or non-types: MCZ 32645 (2). •Synonym of and a homonym of subspecies Hemiculter dispar hainanensis (Boulenger 1899) -- (Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612]). •Wrongly treated as valid as Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:80 [ref. 13499], Mai 1978:147 [ref. 13511], Jin in Kuang et al. 1986:65 [ref. 26639], Zhu 1995:39 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2001:37 [ref. 25482]). •Secondary junior homonym of Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900) -- (Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hainanensis, Ischikauia Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:374, Fig. 38 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8390. Paratypes or non-types: MCZ 32648 (2). Secondarily in competition in Rasborinus with Rasborinus hainanensis Nichold & Pope 1927 (same publication) if Chen in Chen et al. 1998:118 and 120 [ref. 23878] is both are treated as valid and congereric. •Valid as Anabarilius hainanensis (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:74 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Ischikauia macrolepis (Regan 1908) -- (Bănărescu 1971:12 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Ischikauia macrolepis (Regan 1908), but a valid subspecies -- (Mai 1978:162 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Rasborinus formosae Oshima 1920 -- (Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:84 [ref. 26639], Chen in Chen et al. 1998:120 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Metzia formosae (Oshima 1920) -- (Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989] but spelled Ishikauia). Current status: Synonym of Metzia formosae (Oshima 1920). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hainanensis, Opsariichthys Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:367, Fig. 33 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa [Noda], Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8377. Paratypes or non-types: MCZ 32657 [ex AMNH] (1). •Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:41 [ref. 13497]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:46 [ref. 26639], Ye & Song in Pan et al. 1991:76 [ref. 23876], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Opsariichthys hainanensis Nichols & Pope 1927 -- (Chen et al. 2009;175 [ref. 30298], Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989], Huynh & Chen 2014:142 [ref. 33158], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys hainanensis Nichols & Pope 1927. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: South of the Pearl River basin, Yunnan and Hainan Island, China. Habitat: freshwater.

hainanensis, Rasborinus Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:377, Fig. 40 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8382. Paratypes or non-types: MCZ 32672 (1), ZMA 114610 (3). Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:35 [ref. 19236]. •Synonym of Rasborinus lineatus (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:69 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612], Mai 1978:160 [ref. 13511], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:82 [ref. 26639], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:106 [ref. 23876], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:120 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin1907) -- (Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

halsoueti, Agenigobio Sauvage [H.-E.] 1878:87 [2] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 2; ref. 3878] Lake Po-Yang, Kiangsi, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-9823. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:64 [ref. 19574]. On p. 2 of separate. •Synonym of Ochetobius elongatus (Kner 1867) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:44 [ref. 13497], Kottelat 2013:128 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ochetobius elongatus (Kner 1867). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

harmandi, Gymnognathus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:214, Pl. 8 (fig. 2) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 3886] Hanoi, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-0077. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:68 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Elopichthys bambusa (Richardson 1845) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:39 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:134 [ref. 13511], Kottelat 2000:85 [ref. 25486], Kottelat 2001:23 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:101 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:659 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Elopichthys bambusa (Richardson 1845). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

harmandi, Hypophthalmichthys Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:212, Pl. 7 [not Pl. 8] (fig. 1) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 3886] Hanoi, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-0075. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:76-77 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844), but a valid subspecies -- (Mai 1978:174 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Hypophthalmichthys harmandi Sauvage 1884 -- (Yang 1964:226 [ref. 13500], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:59 [ref. 26639], Liu in Pan et al. 1991:238 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:101 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen et al. 1998:231 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25482], Vu & Nguyen 1997:26 [ref. 26438], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Hypophthalmichthys harmandi Sauvage 1884. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Eastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

harmandi, Paralaubuca Sauvage [H.-E.] 1883:153 [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 7; ref. 14348] Chao Phya River, Thailand. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6427. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:83-84 [ref. 19574], Monkolprasit 1969:11 [ref. 25088]. •Valid as Paralaubuca harmandi Sauvage 1883 -- (Bănărescu 1971:350 [ref. 20621], Kottelat 1984:803 [ref. 11440], Rainboth 1996:66 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:10 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2001:69 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Paralaubuca harmandi Sauvage 1883. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

hautus, Rasborinus Nguyen [T. T.] 1991:14 [ ref. 25484] Thanh Chuong, Nghe Tinh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: VUP D.v.75. Type from Kottelat (2013). •Status uncertain, as Metzia hautus (Nguyen 1991) -- (Kottelat 2001:29 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Metzia hautus (Nguyen 1991) -- (Gan et al. 2009:55, 60 [ref. 30038], Shibukawa et al. 2012:264 [ref. 32338], Luo et al. 2015:226 [ref. 33822]). Current status: Valid as Metzia hautus (Nguyen 1991). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

helfrichii, Leuciscus Bleeker [P.] 1856:15 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 2; ref. 13960] Kahajan River, Borneo. Lectotype: BMNH 1866.5.2.162. Paralectotypes: RMNH 4970 (1). Lectotype selected by Alfred 1963:129 [ref. 20554]. Spelled helfrichi by Chevey 1932:11 [ref. 23060]. •Valid as Rasborichthys helfrichii (Bleeker 1856) -- (Roberts 1989:78 [ref. 6439], Kottelat et al. 1993:48 [ref. 23448], Doi 1997:13 [ref. 22832], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:155 [ref. 28284] Kottelat 2013:156 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Rasborichthys helfrichii (Bleeker 1856). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Sumatra and Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

hemistictus, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] 1846:296 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:210, Pl. 17b [ref. 11606]). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hieni, Opsarichthys Nguyen [T. T.] 1987:32, Fig. 2 [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 9 (no. 2); ref. 17718] Huong Son, Nghe-Tinh [Tin] Province, Vietnam. Holotype: Fac. Pédagogie, Vinh H.S 159. Correct spelling of genus is Opsariichthys. •Valid as Opsariichthys hieni Nguyen 1987 -- (Nguyen & Nguyen 2000:12 [ref. 26614], Chen et al. 2009;175 [ref. 30298] as heini). •Possible a Rasbora -- (Huynh & Chen 2014:143 [ref. 33158]). •Questionably a synonym of Rasbora steineri Nichols & Pope 1927 -- (Kottelat 2013:155 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Opsariichthys hieni Nguyen 1987. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

hoffmanni, Megalobrama Herre [A. W. C. T.] & Myers [G. S.] 1931:241 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 10 (nos 2-3); ref. 2115] Canton, China. Holotype: CAS-SU 24220. Paratypes: (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:33 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Megalobrama hoffmanni Herre & Myers 1931 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:95 [ref. 13499], Mai 1978:166 [ref. 13511], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:77 [ref. 26639], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:98 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:42 [ref. 25213], Chen et al. 2020:[4] 4002 [ref. 38581]). •Synonym of Megalobrama terminalis (Richardson 1846) -- (Bănărescu 1970:137 [ref. 20609], Zheng et al. 1989:110 [ref. 21202], Luo 1990:162 [ref. 20057], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:201 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:122 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Megalobrama terminalis (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hoffmanni, Toxabramis Lin [S.-Y.] 1934:440, Fig. 1 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 16435] Wuchow, Kwangsi, China. Holotype: FESC (now at PRFRI) T15. •Valid as Toxabramis hoffmanni Lin 1934 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:85 [ref. 13499] as hoffmani, Zheng et al. 1989:102 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:39 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:162 [ref. 23878], Endruweit 2014:147 [ref. 33205], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Toxabramis hoffmanni Lin 1934. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China and Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

homospilotus, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] 1846:300 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:210, Pl. 17c [ref. 11606]). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hotaya, Pseudolaubuca Mai [D. Y.] 1978:143, Fig. 63 [Identification of the fresh-water fishes of North Viet Nam v. 1; ref. 13511] Tây Lake, northern Vietnam. Holotype (unique): DVZUT. •Tentatively valid as Pseudolaubuca hotaya Mai 1978 -- (Kottelat 2001:37 [ref. 25482]). •Valid as Pseudolaubuca hotaa Mai 1978 -- (Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolaubuca hotaya Mai 1978. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

hotayensis, Toxabramis Nguyen [V. H.] in Nguyen & Ngô 2001:143, Fig. 66 [Freshwater fishes of Viet Nam. Volume I. Family Cyprinidae v. 1; ref. 28301] Hô Tây, Hà Nôi, Viêt Nam. Holotype: VNCNTTS I: H.01.32.03.01. Paratypes: VNCNTTS I: H.01.32.03.02 (4). •Synonym of Toxabramis houdemeri Pellegrin 1932 -- (Kottelat 2013:169 [ref. 32989] with question, Endruweit 2014:147 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Synonym of Toxabramis houdemeri Pellegrin 1932. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Ho Tay (west Lake) Hanoi, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

houdemeri, Toxabramis Pellegrin [J.] 1932:156 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 57; ref. 16388] Hanoi market, Vietnam. Syntypes: MNHN 1931-0171 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:82 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Toxabramis swinhonis Günther 1873, but a valid subspecies -- (Mai 1978:155 [ref. 13511] as houdmeri). •Valid as Toxabramis houdemeri Pellegrin 1932 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:85 [ref. 13499], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:86 [ref. 26639], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:85 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:101 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:113 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:39 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:161 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:43 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:169 [ref. 32989], Endruweit 2014:147 [ref. 33205], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477], Ng et al. 2019:529 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Toxabramis houdemeri Pellegrin 1932. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeast and East Asia: Vietnam and China; introduced in Malaysia. Habitat: freshwater.

huae, Clupea Tirant [G.] 1883:[29] [Bulletin de la Société des Études Indo-chinoises. Saigon. 1883; ref. 17920] Hué River, Vietnam. Syntypes: ?MGHNL 42000038 [ex 3651] (4). On p. 29 of reprint in Chevey 1929 [ref. 16215]. Original as huae but named for the city of Hué, Vietnam; emended by Chevey 1932:9 [ref. 23060] to hueensis. •Synonym of Escualosa thoracata (Valenciennes 1847) -- (Whitehead 1985:119 [ref. 5141] but dated to 1929, Munroe et al. 1999:1795 [ref. 24728]). •Tentatively valid as Chela huae (Tirant 1883) -- (Kottelat 1987:12, 21 [ref. 11434]). •Synonym of Chela laubuca (Hamilton 1822) -- (Kottelat 2001:42 [ref. 25780]). •In genus Laubuca -- (Fang et al. 2009:7 [ref. 29983]). •Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989] wih question). Current status: Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hueensis, Clupeoides Chevey [P.] 1932:9 [Note, Service Océanographique des Pêches de l'Indochine No. 19; ref. 23060] Hué, Vietnam. Syntypes: ?MGHNL 4200-0038 [3651] (4). Unjustified emendation for Clupea huae Tirant 1883. •Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

hunanensis, Hemiculter Tchang [T.-L.] 1930:134 [Thèses: présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le grade de docteur des sciences naturelles, Sér. A. No. 209 (order no. 233); ref. 16212] Middle Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1934-0135. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:83 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:177 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hupeinensis, Distoechodon Yih [P.-L.] in Yang 1964:129 [The cyprinid fishes of China v. 1; ref. 13500] Hupei, China. Appeared first in a manuscript by Yih in 1959 (see ref. 22550). •Valid as Distoechodon hupeinensis Yih 1964 -- (Yang 1964:129 [ref. 13500], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154] as hupeiensis, Zhu 1995:44 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:136 [ref. 26385], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:220 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Xenocypris hupeinensis (Yih 1964) -- (Bănărescu 1970:400 [ref. 7718], Wang & He 2002:253 [ref. 26245], Zhao et al. 2009:43 [ref. 30545], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Xenocypris hupeinensis (Yih 1964). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

hypophthalmus, Chela Bleeker [P.] 1860:471 [Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Indo-Neêrlandicae v. 7 (art. 2); ref. 380] Palembang, Sumatra, Indonesia. Lectotype: RMNH 4985. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1866.5.2.218 (1). Original lists Cypr. Tab. LII, fig. 3, which was published in 1864 as Cypr. Pl. 42 (fig. 3). Lectotype selected by Alfred 1963:128 [ref. 20554]. •Valid as Oxygaster hypophthalmus (Bleeker 1860) -- (Bănărescu 1969:196 [ref. 7797], Roberts 1989:55 [ref. 6439]). •In Parachela -- (Kottelat 1995:55 [ref. 21728]). •Valid as Parachela hypophthalmus (Bleeker 1860) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:41 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:232 [ref. 23210], Doi 1997:9 [ref. 22832], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:152 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989], Ng et al. 2019:528 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Parachela hypophthalmus (Bleeker 1860). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

hypophthalmus, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] (ex Gray) 1845:139, Pl. 63 (fig. 1) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 2006.10.2.1 (stuffed). •Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Yang 1964:225 [ref. 13500], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:58 [ref. 26639], Zheng et al. 1989:117 [ref. 21202], Liu in Pan et al. 1991:237 [ref. 23876], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:200 [ref. 37756], Chen in Chen et al. 1998:228 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:331 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34477], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:661 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hypselonotus, Culter Bleeker [P.] 1871:72, Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Also appeared in Bleeker 1871:85 [ref. 17075]. •Valid as Erythroculter hypselonotus (Bleeker 1871) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:105 [ref. 13499], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:89 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:105 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:90 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:40 [ref. 25213]). •Questionably a synonym of Culter dabryi Bleeker 1871 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:194 [ref. 23878]). •See Kottelat 2001:18 [ref. 25482]. •Synonym of Chanodichthys dabryi (Bleeker 1871) -- (Kottelat 2013:86 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys dabryi (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

hypselosoma, Pseudobrama Bleeker [P.] 1872:119, Pl. 3 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 6; ref. 17071] China. No types known. Based on a drawing. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

idella, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:362 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] China. No types known. •Valid as Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844) [some as idellus, correct is idella, an indeclinable noun] -- (Berg 1949:597 [ref. 20661], Okada 1961:738 [ref. 6363], Yang & Hwang 1964:13 [ref. 13497], Lee et al. 1980:151 [ref. 22416], Coad 1981:10 [ref. 22348], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:58 [ref. 6441], Wang 1984:36 [ref. 22951], Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:44 [ref. 26639] as idellus, with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Smith 1986:120 [ref. 22186], Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Robison & Buchanan 1988:174 [ref. 23393], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:40 [ref. 13584], Paulin et al. 1989:81 [ref. 24556], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:282 [ref. 25598], Zheng et al. 1989:77 [ref. 21202], McAllister 1990:59 [ref. 14674], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:82 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:63 [ref. 18983], Pethiyagoda 1991:62 [ref. 20075], Song in Pan et al. 1991:83 [ref. 23876], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:175 [ref. 20764], Coad 1991:16 [ref. 15702], Boschung 1992:45 [ref. 23239], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:126 [ref. 37756], Etnier & Starnes 1993:144 [ref. 22809], Kottelat et al. 1993:34 [ref. 23448], Skelton 1993:190 [ref. 24071], Ding 1994:140 [ref. 21531], Jenkins & Burkhead 1994:277 [ref. 21581], Baxter & Stone 1995:62 [ref. 23374], Coad 1995:16 [ref. 23608], Yang & Chen 1995:34 [ref. 23555], Cross & Collins 1995:54 [ref. 23394], Zhu 1995:29 [ref. 25213], Mrakovcic et al. 1995:184 [ref. 23079], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:44 [ref. 22798], Coad 1996:84 [ref. 25304], Mettee et al. 1996:155 [ref. 25836], Cheng & Zhou 1997:114 [ref. 26385] as idellus, with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Kottelat 1997:56 [ref. 22952], Kim 1997:512 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:736 [ref. 24702], Vu & Nguyen 1997:26 [ref. 26438] as idellus, Chen in Chen 1998:102 [ref. 23556], Bogutskaya 1998:89 [ref. 23589], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:102 [ref. 23878], Scott & Crossman 1998:vii [ref. 24570], Bíró 1999:305 [ref. 24857], Fuller et al. 1999:50 [ref. 25838], Dyer 2000:89 [ref. 26678], Lyons et al. 2000:64 [ref. 26594], Nakabo 2000:263 [ref. 25086], Rafique 2000:324 [ref. 25220], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17 [ref. 25650], Matsuura et al. 2000:76 [ref. 26000], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:20 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:43 [ref. 25780], Gabrielyan 2001:27 [ref. 25867], Ross et al. 2001:133 [ref. 25978], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:44 [ref. 26178], Wang et al. 2001:80 [ref. 26566] as idellus and authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Skelton 2001:1906 [ref. 27406], Kim & Park 2002:60 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:263 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:157, 512 [ref. 26218] as idellus, Raju Thomas et al. 2002:49 [ref. 26359] as idellus, Moyle 2002:176 [ref. 26449] with author as Steindachner, Mirza 2003:12 [ref. 27265], López et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27366] as idellus, Wydoski & Whitney 2003:122 [ref. 27816], Nelson et al. 2004:68 [ref. 27807], Hanel 2003:49 [ref. 27894] as idellus, Seegers et al. 2003:33 [ref. 28087], Boschung & Mayden 2004:157 [ref. 27995], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131] as Ctenopharingodon idellus, Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:50 [ref. 28183], Hanel & Lusk 2005:206 [ref. 28804], Scharpf 2005:12 [ref. 28940], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Fricke et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:293 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:334 [ref. 30085], Shrestha 2008:61 [ref. 29923], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:165 [ref. 31251], Minckley & Marsh 2009:176 [ref. 31114], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Coad 2010:163 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:369 [ref. 33391], Page & Burr 2011:153 [ref. 31215], Gurung et al. 2013:4882 [ref. 32969], Khalaf 2013:4 [ref. 37897], Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Page et al. 2013:69 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Parin et al. 2014:74 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:870 [ref. 34062], McDowall & Stewart 2015:313 [ref. 34241], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:68 [ref. 34894], Barbieri et al. 2015:51 [ref. 35029], Esmaeili et al. 2015:120 [ref. 35030], Mirande & Koerber 2015:10 [ref. 35117], Çiçek et al. 2015:145 [ref. 35151], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477], Bertaco et al. 2016:435 [ref. 34561], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853], Semenchenko et al. 2016:186 [ref. 34974], Neumann et al. 2016:304 [ref. 35036], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Esmaeili et al. 2017:43 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36089], Ćaleta et al. 2019:172 [ref. 37026], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Zhang et al. 2019:145 [ref. 36699] as idellus and authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Çiçek et al. 2020:254 [ref. 37644], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:98 [ref. 37983], Reis et al. 2020:456 [ref. 38364] Dyldin & Orlov 2021:64 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China and Russia. Widely introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

ilishaeformis, Culter Bleeker [P.] 1871:67, Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Syntypes: (2) MNHN 0000-5055 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:80 [ref. 19574] with MNHN 5055 as holotype. •Valid as Erythroculter illishaeformis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Berg 1949:804 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:98 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612] as illishaformis, Mai 1978:154 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:56 [ref. 22951], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:92 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:107 [ref. 21202], Ding 1994:224 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:40 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:119 [ref. 23556], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:98 [ref. 26566]). •Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:186 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:24 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:74 [ref. 23590], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:53 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:28 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:317 [ref. 30085] with question, Kottelat 2013:86 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

ingerkongi, Oxygaster oxygastroides Bănărescu [P. M.] 1969:196 [Revue Roumaine de Biologie, Série de Zoologie v. 14 (no. 3); ref. 7797] Tawao on Tawao River, northern Borneo, 4°15'N, 118°00'E, Malaysia. Holotype: USNM 135946 [not 135]. Paratypes: IBTS 905 [ex RMNH 7626] (2); RMNH 7626 (5), 9913 (1); UMMZ 70665 (2); USNM 202860 (13 or 15). •Synonym of Oxygaster oxygastroides (Bleeker 1862), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Bănărescu 1971:18 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Parachela ingerkongi (Bănărescu 1969) -- (Kottelat 1995:55 [ref. 21728], Doi 1997:9 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989], Wilkinson & Tan 2018:599 [ref. 36226]). Current status: Valid as Parachela ingerkongi (Bănărescu 1969). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Northern Borneo. Habitat: freshwater.

insularis, Xenocypris Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:363, Fig. 29 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8374. •Synonym of Xenocypris davidi Bleeker 1871, but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1970:398 [ref. 7718]). •Synonym of Xenocypris davidi Bleeker 1871 -- (Yang 1964:125 [ref. 13500] as imsularis, Mai 1978:171 [ref. 13511], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:53 [ref. 26639], Liu et al. in Pan et al. 1991:120 [ref. 23876], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:214 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris davidi Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

jabouillei, Hemiculter Chevey [P.] 1936:431, Fig. 3 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 60; ref. 13686] Kouang-Tchéou-Wan (Kwang-cho-wan), Kwang-tung Province, southern China. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900) -- (Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

jelskii, Plagiognathus Dybowski [B. N.] 1872:216 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 22; ref. 1170] Lake Khanka [Chanka] and Ussuri River, southeastern Russia and China. Syntypes: ZMB 7937 [from Dybowski] (1). •Synonym of Xenocypris microlepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:218 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Plagiognathops microlepis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Berg 1949:635 [ref. 20661], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:28 [ref. 22798], Bogutskaya 1998:77 [ref. 23589], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:336 [ref. 30085]). Current status: Synonym of Plagiognathops microlepis (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

johorensis, Chela Steindachner [F.] 1870:638 [16] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] Johor River, Malaysia. Syntypes: (10) ?NMW 51458 (12). On p. 16 of separate. •Synonym of Oxygaster oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Bănărescu 1969:192 [ref. 7797]). •Synonym of Parachela oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parachela oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

jordani, Squaliobarbus Evermann [B. W.] & Shaw [T.] 1927:107 [Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences (Series 4) v. 16 (no. 4); ref. 1286] Hangchow, China. Holotype: CAS 502. Paratypes: CAS 523 (missing), 524 (2), 525 (1), 873 (1). •Synonym of Squaliobarbus curriculus (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:617 [ref. 20661], Yang & Hwang 1964:52 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:131 [ref. 13511], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:105 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:165 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:55 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Squaliobarbus curriculus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

jouyi, Parapelecus Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1905:200, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1391); ref. 2530] Chemulpo, Korea. Holotype (unique): USNM 51497. •Synonym of Parapelecus engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:83 [ref. 13499]). •Valid as Pseudolaubuca jouyi (Jordan & Starks 1905) -- (Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolaubuca jouyi (Jordan & Starks 1905). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Korea. Habitat: freshwater.

kaifenensis, Hemiculterella Tchang [T.-L.] 1932:212, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 3 (no. 14); ref. 16403] Kaifeng, Honan, China. Holotype: ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 8562. Paratypes: ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 8563. Type catalog: Ferraris 2007:107 [ref. 29155]. •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:157 [ref. 23878] as faifensis, Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477]). •Species inquirenda in Bagridae -- (Ferraris 2007:107 [ref. 29155]). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

kaopingensis, Opsariichthys Chen [I-S.] & Wu [J.-H.] in Chen, Wu & Huang 2009:172, Figs. 3D-F, 5 [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 86; ref. 30298] Kaoping River, Pingtung County, Taiwan. Holotype: NMMBP 6965. Paratypes: (117) at ASIZP and NMMBP Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Opsariichthys kaopingensis Chen & Wu 2009 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432], Huynh & Chen 2014:144 [ref. 33158], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477] with authorship as Chen & Wu, Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys kaopingensis Chen & Wu 2009. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

kashinensis, Culter Shaw [T.-H.] 1930:116, Fig. 5 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 1 (no. 7); ref. 16145] Ka-Shing, Chekiang, China. Holotype (unique): ZMFMIB 5120. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

katinensis, Xenocypris Tchang [T.-L.] 1930:84 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 16211] Katin, Szechuan, China. Paratypes: MNHN 1934-076 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:74 [ref. 19574]. •Questionably a synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Berg 1949:633 [ref. 20661]). •Status uncertain -- (Bănărescu 1970:398 [ref. 7718]). •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:123 [ref. 13500], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:195 [ref. 36699]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepus Bleeker 1871 -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

kikuchii, Phoxiscus Oshima [M.] 1919:226, Pl. 51 (fig. 3) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 12 (nos 2-4); ref. 3312] Bokusekikaku [Hua-lan], Taiwan. Holotype (unique): FMNH 59099 [ex CM 8237]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:72 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:65 [ref. 12367], Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432]. •See Kottelat 2001:18 [ref. 25482]. •Valid as Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima 1919) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:16 [ref. 13497], Zhu 1995:27 [ref. 25213], Wang et al. 1997:171 [ref. 25517], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:58 [ref. 23878], Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432], Liao et al. 2011:661 [ref. 31495], Zhu et al. 2013:235 [ref. 32554], Zhang et al. 2016:47 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocypris kikuchii (Oshima 1919). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

kinghwaensis, Hemiculter Wang [K.-F.] 1935:48, Fig. 4 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 4582] Kinghwa, China. Holotype: SSCN 15462. Paratypes: SSCN (5). •Valid as Pseudohemiculter kinghwaensis (Wang 1935) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:81 [ref. 13499], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:79 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:100 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:38 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:177 [ref. 23878] as kinghwanensis, Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudohemiculter hainanensis (Boulenger 1900). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

kneri, Culter Bleeker [P.] 1871:14 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Shanghai, China. NMW. Appeared first as name only in Bleeker 1870:252 [ref. 429]. Based on Culter erythropterus of Kner 1867:360, Pl. 14 (fig. 4) (not of Basilewsky). •Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Bănărescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

kneri, Hemiculter Warpachowski [N. A.] 1887:17 [Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 32; ref. 4516] Shanghai, China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:808 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:90 [ref. 13499], Zheng et al. 1989:103 [ref. 21202], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:178 [ref. 37756], Kim 1997:559 [ref. 24032], Naseka 1998:76 [ref. 23590], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:164 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:58 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

kneri, Hemiculter Kreyenberg [M.] & Pappenheim [P.] 1908:362 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1908 (no. 4) (for 14 Apr. 1908); ref. 14326] Shanghai and Hankau, China. Junior primary homonym of Hemiculter kneri Warpachowski 1888. •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:319 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

koreanus, Zacco Kim [I.-S.], Oh [M.-K.] & Hosoya [K.] 2005:2, Figs. 1-2 [Korean Journal of Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 1); ref. 28195] Han River, Haoan-ri, Hongcheon-eup, Hongcheon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea. Holotype: CNUC 36074. Paratypes: CAS 221356 (5); CNUC 36064-68 (5), 36114-18 (5), 36179-83 (5); FKUN 33764-68 (5). •Valid as Nipponocypris koreanus (Kim, Oh & Hosoya 2005). Current status: Valid as Nipponocypris koreanus (Kim, Oh & Hosoya 2005). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Japan and Korea. Habitat: freshwater.

krempfi, Hemiculter Pellegrin [J.] & Chevey [P.] 1938:18 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 63; ref. 17165] Nha Trang, central Vietnam. Lectotype: MNHN 1937-0056. Paralectotypes: MNHN [ex 1937-0056] (4). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:83 [ref. 19574]. Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1968:525 [ref. 20603]. •Valid as Hemiculter krempfi Pellegrin & Chevey 1938 -- (Doi 1997:6 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989] with qualifications). Current status: Valid as Hemiculter krempfi Pellegrin & Chevey 1938. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

kurematsui, Chanodichthys Kimura [Sh.] 1934:88, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Journal of the Shanghai Science Institute v. 1; ref. 16434] Howchwan, Szechwan Province, Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype: 190 mm specimen (whereabouts unknown). Paratypes: (7) whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Ancherythroculter kurematsui (Kimura 1934) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:108 [ref. 13499], Ding 1994:201 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:36 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:150 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Ancherythroculter kurematsui (Kimura 1934). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

kweichowensis, Hemiculter Tang [D.-S.] 1942:161 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 20 (nos 2-4); ref. 4335] Kweiyang market, Kweichow Province, China. Holotype (unique): NKMC P0042. •Valid as Pseudohemiculter kweichowensis (Tang 1942) -- (Zhu 1995:38 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:179 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiculter kweichowensis (Tang 1942). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

kyphus, Yaoshanicus Mai [D. Y.] 1978:138, Fig. 61 [Identification of the fresh-water fishes of North Viet Nam v. 1; ref. 13511] Ky-Phú Creek and Câu River, Cho-Moi, Hòa-Binh, northern Vietnam. Holotype (unique): DVZUT. •Status uncertain -- (Kottelat 2001:44 [ref. 25482]). •See Liao et al. 2011:662 [ref. 31495] for possible generic placement. •Questionably a synonym of Aphyocypris kyphus (Mai 1978) -- (Kottelat 2013:74 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Aphyocypris kyphus (Mai 1978). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam [if valid]. Habitat: freshwater.

lampertii, Xenocypris Popta [C. M. L.] 1907:243, Fig. [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 32 (no. 8); ref. 15170] Kaiserkanal [Imperial canal], near Kiautschou (Chiao-Hsien), 36°19'N, 120°00'E, Shantung Province, northeastern China. Holotype (unique): SMNS 4319. Type catalog: Fricke 1995:11 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:34 [ref. 29864]. •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:123 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:397 [ref. 7718], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:28 [ref. 22798], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878] as lamperti). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Berg 1949:633 [ref. 20661], Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

laosensis, Macrocheirichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1934:112, Fig. 64 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Mekong River at Chieng Sen, northern Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 57510. Paratypes: ANSP 57511 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:80 [ref. 13621]. Original genus should have been Macrochilichthys. •Synonym of Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:92 [ref. 13499], Roberts 1989:45 [ref. 6439], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:115 [ref. 23878] as laoseusis, Kottelat 2001:59 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:122 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

lateralis, Pseudolaubuca Sauvage [H.-E.] 1876:98 [2] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (6th Série) v. 13; ref. 19811] Mekong River, Cochinchine [? southern Vietnam]. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-3932. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1883.7.4.80-83 (4), 1883.7.4.84-87 (4); MNHN B-2538 [ex MNHN 0000-3932] (111), 0000-3933 (36). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:85 [ref. 19574]. On p. 2 of separate. Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1971:348 [ref. 20621]. •Synonym of Paralaubuca typus Bleeker 1864 -- (Bănărescu 1971:348 [ref. 20621], Kottelat 1984:804 [ref. 11440], Kottelat 2001:69 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paralaubuca typus Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Ctenopharyngodon Steindachner [F.] 1866:782, Pl. 18 (figs. 1-5) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 16; ref. 18789] Hong Kong, China. Holotype (unique): NMW 79745. •Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idella [some as idellus] (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Berg 1949:597 [ref. 20661], Yang & Hwang 1964:13 [ref. 13497], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:126 [ref. 37756], Bogutskaya 1998:89 [ref. 23589], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:103 [ref. 23878], Bíró 1999:305 [ref. 24857], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

leucisculus, Culter Basilewsky [S.] 1855:238 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Rivers flowing into Bay of Tschili [Chihli], Beijing [Peking], China. Syntypes: ZIN 5272 (2). For remarks on systematics see Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831]. •Valid as Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:808 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:89 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612], Mai 1978:157 [ref. 13511], Coad 1981:10 [ref. 22348], Wang 1984:48 [ref. 22951], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:87 [ref. 26639], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:80 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:103 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:114 [ref. 23876], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:178 [ref. 37756], Ding 1994:215 [ref. 21531], Coad 1995:17 [ref. 23608], Yang & Chen 1995:43 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:39 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:25 [ref. 22798], Coad 1996:84 [ref. 25304], Cheng & Zhou 1997:116 [ref. 26385], Doi 1997:6 [ref. 22832], Kim 1997:280 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:737 [ref. 24702], Chen in Chen 1998:117 [ref. 23556], Naseka 1998:75 [ref. 23590], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:164 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Kottelat 2001:27 [ref. 25482], Wang et al. 2001:96 [ref. 26566], Kim & Park 2002:192 [ref. 25913], Choi et al. 2003:157, 513 [ref. 26218], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:57 [ref. 28183], Ocock et al. 2006:37 [ref. 28933], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:319 [ref. 30085], Coad 2010:185 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:369 [ref. 33391], Ho & Shao 2011: 27 [ref. 31432], Cho et al. 2012:288 [ref. 34186], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:79 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:872 [ref. 34062], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477], Esmaeili et al. 2017:49 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:29 [ref. 36089], Zhang et al. 2019:175 [ref. 36699], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:99 [ref. 37983], Kuljanishvili et al. 2020:[7] [ref. 37535]). Current status: Valid as Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

liaohonensis, Parabramis Yih [P.-L.] & Wu [C.-K.] 1964:117, Fig. 2-51 [The cyprinid fishes of China v. 1; ref. 13499] Liao-he, Tai-an, Liaoning Province, China. Syntypes: (14). •Valid as Parabramis liaohonensis Yih & Wu 1964 -- (Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:198 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

lineata, Ischikauia Pellegrin [J.] 1907:502 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 13 (no. 7); ref. 14330] Tonkin, Red River drainage, northern Vietnam. Syntypes: MNHN 1907-0300 and 0301 (2). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:82 [ref. 19574]. •Valid as Rasborinus lineatus (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:69 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:15 [ref. 20612], Mai 1978:160 [ref. 13511], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:82 [ref. 26639], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:54 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:80 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:106 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:118 [ref. 23878], Chen & Fang 2000:14 [ref. 24434], Kottelat 2001:79 [ref. 25780]). •Valid as Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Kottelat 2001:29 [ref. 25482], Gan et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30038], Shibukawa et al. 2012:264 [ref. 32338], Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989] dated 1883, Luo et al. 2015:226 [ref. 33822], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477], Ito et al. 2021:149 [ref. 38428]). Current status: Valid as Metzia lineata (Pellegrin 1907). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: China and Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

lini, Ancherythroculter Luo [Y.-L.] 1994:48 [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 18 (no. 1); ref. 21974] Wuchow, Kwangsi, China [Lin specimens]. Syntypes:(2). Based on Erythroculter hypselonotus of Lin 1934:621 [ref. 23133] which is based on 2 specimens and several literature sources. •Tentative synonym of Ancherythroculter daovantieni (Bănărescu 1967) -- (Kottelat 2001:18 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:74 [re. 32989]). •Valid as Ancherythroculter lini Luo 1994 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:153 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Ancherythroculter lini Luo 1994. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

lini, Hemigrammocypris Weitzman [S. H.] & Chan [L. L.] 1966:290 [Copeia 1966 (no. 2); ref. 12406] Replacement name for Aphyocypris pooni Lin 1939, preoccupied by Aphyocypris pooni Herre 1939. •Valid as Hemigrammocypris lini Weitzman & Chan 1966 -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:17 [ref. 13497] by treatment of pooni). •Valid as Aphyocypris lini (Weitzman & Chan 1966) -- (Zhu 1995:27 [ref. 25213], Chen.& Chu in Chen et al. 1998:57 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:71 [ref. 26415], Zhu et al. 2013:235 [ref. 32554], Zhang et al. 2016:48 [ref. 34477]). Replacement Name. Current status: Valid as Aphyocypris lini (Weitzman & Chan 1966). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

liui, Hemiculter Chang [H.-W.] 1944:39 [Sinensia v. 15 (nos 1-6); ref. 5136] Tahochang, Sichang, southern China. Holotype (unique): ? Chang pers. coll. 2047. •Valid as Pseudohemiculter liui (Chang 1944) [often as a valid subspecies] -- (Yih & Wu 1964:80 [ref. 13499]). •Valid as Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944) [sometimes as a valid subspecies] -- (Chen & Chu 1980:418 [ref. 20983], Chen 1986:431 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:59 [ref. 13584], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489] as a valid subspecies, Ding 1994:207 [ref. 21531], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:36 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:109 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:125 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Anabarilius liui, subspecies liui (Chang 1944) -- (Li & Chen 2003:365 [ref. 26915], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longianalis, Opsariichthys Nguyen [V. H.], Nguyen [T. H. T.], Do [V. T.] & Nguyen [T. D. P.] 2012:18, Fig. 2 [Newsletter Research Institute for Aquaculture No. 1, issue 5; ref. 33000] •Not available; no designation of a holotype. •Questionably in the synonymy of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Dakrong district, Quang Tri province, Vietnam.

longianalis, Sinibrama Xie [Z.-G.], Xie [C.-X.] & Zhang [E] 2003:404, Fig. 2 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology v. 51 (NO. 2); ref. 27550] Stream tributary to Wu Jiang of the upper Chang Jiang [Yangtze River] basin, Xiang Jiang in Zunyi, Guizhou Province, China. Holotype: IHASW 6650583. Paratypes: IHASW 6650554 (1), 6650559 (1), 6650561 (1), 6650566-67 (2) , 6650572-75 (4), 6650577-79 (3), 6650587 (1), 6650589-94 (6), 6650596-77 (2), 6650600 (1), 6650602-03 (2) ;IHASW 87VI225 (1), 87VI256 (1); ZRC 6650601(1). •Valid as Sinibrama longianalis Xie, Xie & Zhang 2003 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Sinibrama longianalis Xie, Xie & Zhang 2003. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Xiang Jiang in Zunyi and Qingshui Jiang in Kaiyang, tributary to Wu Jiang, Guizhou Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

longicaudatus, Anabarilius Chen [Y.-R.] 1986:435, Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 17649] Kuaize River, Fuyuan County, Yunnan Province, China, 25°41'N, 104°15'E. Holotype: KIZ 774725. Paratypes: KIZ 774726 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:34 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Anabarilius longicaudatus Chen 1986 -- (Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:59 [ref. 13584], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Zhu 1995:36 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:124 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius longicaudatus Chen 1986. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

longiceps, Luciobrama Pellegrin [J.] 1907:501 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 1) v. 13 (no. 7); ref. 14330] Hanoi, Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1907-0284. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:68 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Luciobrama macrocephalus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Mai 1978:116 [ref. 13511], Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:121 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Luciobrama macrocephalus (Lacepède 1803). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

longinasus, Metzia Gan [X.], Lan [J.-H.] & Zhang [E] 2009:56, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 56 (no. 1); ref. 30038] Hongshui-He River, Pearl River drainage, Du'an County, Guangxi Province, South China. Holotype: IHASW 200410792. Paratypes: IHASW 200410793-9 (7). Name is a noun in apposition. •Valid as Metzia longinasus Gan, Lan & Zhang 2009 -- (Shibukawa et al. 2012:264 [ref. 32338], Luo et al. 2015:226 [ref. 33822], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Metzia longinasus Gan, Lan & Zhang 2009. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Hongshui-He River, Guangxi Province, southern China. Habitat: freshwater.

lucens, Ochetobius Jordan [D. S.] & Starks [E. C.] 1905:195, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 28 (no. 1391); ref. 2530] Chemulpo, Korea. Holotype (unique): USNM 51496. •Synonym of Ochetobius elongatus (Kner 1867) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:30 [ref. 22798], Bogutskaya 1996:328 [ref. 24645], Kottelat 2013:128 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ochetobius elongatus (Kner 1867). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

lucidus, Culter Dybowski [B. N.] 1872:214 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 22; ref. 1170] Lake Khanka, southeastern Russia. Lectotype: ZMB 7935 (largest). Paralectotypes: ZMB 7935 (1, smallest of 2). Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1968:526 [ref. 20603]. •Synonym of Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1887, but a valid subspecies -- (Yih & Wu 1964:88 [ref. 13499], Zhu 1995:40 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855), but a valid subspecies -- (Berg 1949:809 [ref. 20661]). •Valid as Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872) [sometimes as subspecies lucidus] -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:26 [ref. 22798], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:738 [ref. 24702], Naseka 1998:76 [ref. 23590], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:169 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:58 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:319 [ref. 30085], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Russia and China. Habitat: freshwater.

luquanensis, Anabarilius liui Liu [Z.-H.] & He [J.-C.] 1983:102, Fig. 1 [Journal of Yunnan University v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 22556] Zhangjiu River, Luquan County, Jinsha River system, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: YU 783053. Paratypes: YU 778003 (1), 778039 (1), 778023 (1), 778033 (1), 783063 (1), 783075 (1), 783079 (1), 783093 (1). •Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944) -- (Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:59 [ref. 13584], Chen in Chen 1998:109 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:125 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2019:159 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

machaerioides, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] 1846:297 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:210, Pl. 18a [ref. 11606]). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

machaerius, Parapelecus Abbott [J. F.] 1901:488, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1221); ref. 2] Pei-ho River, Tien-Tsin, China. Holotype: CAS-SU 6307. Paratypes: USNM 49549 (1). •Synonym of Parapelecus argenteus Günther 1889 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:82 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864, but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:156 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:169 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrocephalus, Synodus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:320, 321, Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] China. No types known. •Synonym in part of Leucosoma chinensis (Osbeck 1765) -- (Mai 1978:20 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Luciobrama macrocephalus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:21 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:116 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:35 [ref. 22951], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:39 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:76 [ref. 21202], Song in Pan et al. 1991:82 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:138 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:29 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:108 [ref. 26385], Chen in Chen 1998:101 [ref. 23556], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:109 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:64 [ref. 26415], Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25482], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:82 [ref. 26566], Kottelat 2013:121 [ref. 32989] with question, Zhang et al. 2016:53 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:151 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Luciobrama macrocephalus (Lacepède 1803). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

macrochirus, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:348 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 3338. Type information: Roberts 1993:18 [ref. 21799]. •Valid as Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Roberts 1989:44 [ref. 6439], Roberts 1993:18 [ref. 21799] as macrochir, Kottelat et al. 1993:38 [ref. 23448], Kottelat & Lim 1995:230 [ref. 23210], Zhu 1995:34 [ref. 25213], Rainboth 1996:67 [ref. 22772], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:82 [ref. 13584] as macrochirius, Doi 1997:8 [ref. 22832], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:115 [ref. 23878] as macrochirius, Yue & Chen 1998:83 [ref. 26415] as macrochirius, Kottelat 2001:59 [ref. 25780], Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:151 [ref. 28284], Parenti & Lim 2005:182 [ref. 28285], Kottelat 2013:122 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477], Ng et al. 2019:528 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Anabarilius Yih [P.-L.] & Wu [C.-K.] 1964:75, Fig. 2-9 [The cyprinid fishes of China v. 1; ref. 13499] Yi-lung Lake, Yunnan Province, China. Syntypes: (18). Author Wu also seen as Woo. •Valid as Anabarilius macrolepis Yih & Wu 1964 -- (Chen & Chu 1980:418 [ref. 20983], Chen 1986:433 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:65 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:94 [ref. 21202], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:131 [ref. 23878], Li, Mao & Lu 2002:1 [ref. 28169], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477] with second author as Woo). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius macrolepis Yih & Wu 1964. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Atrilinea Song [S.-L.] & Fang [S.-M.] in Chen, Xu, Fang, Song & Wang 1987:59 [English p. 244], Fig. 38 [Fishes in Qinling Mountain area.; ref. 21175] Zhenping Xian, Shaanxi Province, China. Holotype (unique): Inst. Zool., Shaanxi 790039. •Valid as Atrilinea macrolepis Song & Fang 1987 -- (Zhu 1995:32 [ref. 25213], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:99 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Atrilinea macrolepis Song & Fang 1987. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Hemiculterella Chen [Y.-R.] in Chu & Chen et al. 1989:75, Fig. 70 [The fishes of Yunnan, China. Part 1 Cyprinidae.; ref. 13584] Mengla Xian, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 745094. Paratypes: KIZ 745017-18 (2), 745156 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:346 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Hemiculterella macrolepis Chen 1989 -- (Zhu 1995:38 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 1998:36 [ref. 23436], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:174 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:54 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:41 [ref. 33971], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Hemiculterella macrolepis Chen 1989. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Mekong basin and Xe Bangfai and Nam Theun. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Ischikavia Regan [C. T.] 1908:150 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 1 (no. 2) (art. 24); ref. 14338] Kagi, Chiayi County, Taiwan. Lectotype: BMNH 1908.5.27.3. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1908.5.27.4-5 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:28 [ref. 31432]. Original genus should have been Ischikauia. Lectotype selected by Chen & Fang 2000:13 [ref. 24434] [but without "an express statement of the taxonomic purpose of the designation" Art. 74.7.3 of the Code]. •Valid as Ischikavia macrolepis Regan 1908 -- (Bănărescu 1971:12 [ref. 20612], Mai 1978:162 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Rasborinus lineatus (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:118 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Rasborinus macrolepis (Regan 1908) -- (Chen & Fang 2000:14 [ref. 24434]). •Synonym of Metzia mesembrinum (Jordan & Evermann 1902) -- (Chen & Fang 2002:74 [ref. 28835], Gan et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30038], Ho & Shao 2011:28 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Metzia mesembrinum (Jordan & Evermann 1902). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan, introduced in Singapore. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Xenocypris Bleeker [P.] 1871:53, Pl. 5 (fig. 2) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5060. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:74 [ref. 19574]. Berg 1909:131 serves as first reviser selecting macrolepis over tapeinosoma -- see Kottelat 2001:44 [ref. 25482]. Also in Bleeker 1871:63 [ref. 17073]. •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Bănărescu 1970:397 [ref. 7718], Mai 1978:170 [ref. 13511], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:28 [ref. 22798], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Berg 1949:633 [ref. 20661], Kottelat 2001:43 [ref. 25482], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:101 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:336 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:170 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

macrolepis, Zacco Yang [Y.-J.] & Hwang [H.-C.] 1964:46, Fig. 1-33 [The cyprinid fishes of China v. 1; ref. 13497] Fujian, Sichuan, and Hebei Provinces, China. Syntypes: IHB (14). •Valid as Zacco macrolepis Yang & Hwang 1964 -- (Bănărescu 1968:308 [ref. 20605]). •Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Kuang in Chu & Chen 1989:30 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:67 [ref. 21202], Chen in Chen 1998:98 [ref. 23556], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:42 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Zacco acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Opsariichthys macrolepis (Yang & Hwang 1964) -- (Wang et al. 2019:[7] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys macrolepis (Yang & Hwang 1964). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Sichuan, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalmus, Distoechodon Zhao [Y.-H.], Kullander [F.], Kullander [S. O.] & Zhang [C.-G.] 2009:40, Fig. 2D [Environmental Biology of Fishes v. 86; ref. 30545] Chenghai Lake, Chang Jiang basin in Yongsheng County, 26°42'N, 100°44'E, Yunnan Province, China, elevation 1503 meters. Holotype: KIZ 797297. Paratypes: IHASW 0002446 (10); KIZ 797295 (1), 797298 (1), 818413 (1). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:347 [ref. 32939]. Regarded as unavailable from electronic publication in 2003 (thesis, pdf) as macrophthalmos; published in ref. 30545 in 2009 and described as a new species without mention of the 2003 thesis by Zhao [ref. 30948]. Name treated as a noun. •Valid as Distoechodon macrophthalmus Zhao, Kullander, Kullander & Zhang 2009 -- (Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:202 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Distoechodon macrophthalmus Zhao, Kullander, Kullander & Zhang 2009. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalmus, Erythroculter Berg [L. S.] 1934:265, 266 [English] [Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 17312] Taihoku (Taipei), Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ZUMT 18120. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:27 [ref. 31432]. Based on Culter recurviceps of Tanaka 1928:813, fig. 477 [ref. 14925]. •Synonym of Sinibrama macrops (Günther 1868) -- (Ho & Shao 2011:27 [ref. 31432], Kottelat 2013:163 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sinibrama macrops (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalmus, Zacco Kimura [Sh.] 1934:46, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Journal of the Shanghai Science Institute v. 1; ref. 16434] Peng-hsien, Szechwan Province, China. Holotype (unique): BDSSI (Kottelat's terminology). •Valid as Zacco macrophthalmus Kimura 1934 -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:49 [ref. 13497], Bănărescu 1968:307 [ref. 20605]). •Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Kuang in Chu & Chen 1989:30 [ref. 13584], Chen in Chen 1998:98 [ref. 23556], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:42 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Zacco acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871). Current status: Synonym of Opsariichthys acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrops, Barilius Lin [S.-Y.] 1931:144, Fig. 19 [Carps and carp-like fishes; ref. 4019] Yaoshan, Kwangsi, China. Holotype: Chung-Shan Univ. Mus. [now SYSU] 2823. •Synonym of Atrilinea roulei (Wu 1931) -- (Zheng et al. 1989:80 [ref. 21202]). •Valid as Atrilinea macrops (Lin 1931) -- (Luo in Chen et al. 1998:98 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Atrilinea macrops (Lin 1931). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

macrops, Chanodichthys Günther [A.] 1868:326 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Taiwan [Formosa]. Lectotype: BMNH 1865.5.2.15 (largest of original 5). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1865.5.2.16-19 (4). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:26 [ref. 31432]. Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1970:134 [ref. 20609]. •Valid as Megalobrama macrops (Günther 1868) -- (Bănărescu 1970:134 [ref. 20609], Mai 1978:164 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Sinibrama macrops (Günther 1868) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:111 [ref. 13499], Zheng et al. 1989:89 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:144 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Xie et al. 2003:407 [ref. 27550], Ho & Shao 2011:26 [ref. 31432], Takeuchi & Hosoya 2011:15 [ref. 31144], Kottelat 2013:163 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Sinibrama macrops (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China and Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

macropus, Leuciscus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:209, Pl. 101 (figs. 2, 2a-b) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 2770a. Paralectotypes: RMNH 2770b-d (3). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:160 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Okada 1961:498 [ref. 6363], Yang & Hwang 1964:49 [ref. 13497]). Current status: Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

macrothalmus, Erythroculter pseudobrevicauda Nguyen [V. H.] & Doan [L. H.] 1969:15, Fig. 17 in ref. 29795 [missing] [Some data on composition, origin, and distribution of cyprinid species in northern Vietnam; ref. 25483] Bo River, Vietnam [original: Ha Noi, Ha Tay and Nam Ha, Song Hong and Song Da basins, Vietnam]. Syntypes: (10) lost. See Kottelat 2001:113, 121 [ref. 25482] for availability issues. Spelled in more than one way originally, Kottelat 2001:121 [ref. 25482] as first reviser selected macrothalmus. Appeared as name in synonymy and unavailable in Mai 1978 [ref. 13511]. See Nguyen & Doan 2008 [ref. 29793] for an English translation of ref. 25483. Neotype designated by Roberts & Catania 2008:93 [ref. 29794] in invalid (IBST 626) as need was not stated. •Synonym of Ancherythroculter daovantieni (Bănărescu 1967) -- (Kottelat 2001:18 [ref. 25482], Roberts & Catania 2007:93, 96 [ref. 29794], Kottelat 2013:73 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Ancherythroculter daovantieni (Bănărescu 1967). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Anabarilius Chen [Y.-R.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1980:419, Fig. 2 [Zoological Research v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 20983] Niujie of Luoping County, Nanpan River system, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 775875. Paratypes: (23). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:346 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Anabarilius maculatus Chen & Chu 1980 -- (Chen 1986:432 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:64 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:93 [ref. 21202], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:130 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius maculatus Chen & Chu 1980. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

maculicauda, Chela Smith [H. M.] 1934:301 [Journal of the Siam Society, Natural History Supplement v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 4052] Klong Ranoad [Ranode], tributary of Tale Sap Lake, Songkla, Peninsular Thailand. Holotype: USNM 103372. Paratypes: ?USNM 103373 (1). Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:5 [ref. 23217], Monkolprasit 1969:9 [ref. 25088] as KUMF 0158, Vilasri et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36451]. Monkolprasit 1969:9 [ref. 25088] replaced the USNM holotype with KUMF 0158; as the USNM holotype is extant, Monkolprasit's replacement is invalid (see Vilasri et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36451]). •Valid as Oxygaster maculicauda (Smith 1934) -- (Bănărescu 1971:18 [ref. 20612]). •In genus Parachela -- (Kottelat 1995:55 [ref. 21728]). •Valid as Parachela maculicauda (Smith 1934) -- (Rainboth 1996:68 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:9 [ref. 22832], Ng & Tan 1999:354 [ref. 24159], Kottelat 2001:68 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989], Vilasri et al. 2018:44 [ref. 36451], Ng et al. 2019:528 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Parachela maculicauda (Smith 1934). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: Malaya (Malaysia), southern Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

maensis, Toxabramis Nguyen [H. D.] & Duong [Q. N.] in Duong et al. 2006:17 [Engl. 20], Fig. 1 [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 28 (no. 2); ref. 28953] Thanh Hoa Province, Camthuy District, Nam Ma River,Vietnam. Holotype: HNUE (untagged). Paratypes: (6). Original description not yet seen. •Valid as Toxabramis maensis Nguyen & Duong 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:169 [ref. 32989] as species inquirendae, Endruweit 2014:147 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Valid as Toxabramis maensis Nguyen & Duong 2006. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Ma River basin, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

mantschuricus, Abramis Basilewsky [S.] 1855:239 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Brought to Beijing [Peking], from Mongolia and Manchuria, China. No types at ZIN. •Valid as Megalobrama mantschuricus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Vasil'eva & Makeeva 2003:620 [ref. 27334], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085], Dyldin et al. 2020:105 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Megalobrama mantschuricus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China, Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

mantschuricus, Cephalus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:235, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Beijing [Peking], Manchuria and Mongolia, China. No types at ZIN. Spelled mandschuricus in Kner 1867:350 [ref. 18426]. •Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Yang 1964:225 [ref. 13500], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:200 [ref. 37756], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:16 [ref. 22798], Bogutskaya 1998:61 [ref. 23589], Chen in Chen et al. 1998:228 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:331 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34477], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:661 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

medius, Leuciscus Oshima [M.] 1920:190, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 72; ref. 15245] Central Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 63148. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:83 [ref. 13621], Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Leuciscus brandtii (Dybowski 1872) -- (Berg 1949:570 [ref. 20661]). •Valid as Xenocypris medius (Oshima 1920) -- (Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154], Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432] but status uncertain). Current status: Valid as Xenocypris medius (Oshima 1920). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

megalolepis, Chela Günther [A.] 1868:337 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Lectotype: BMNH 1866.5.2.216. Paralectotypes: (8) RMNH 4984 (5), 8062 (1). Unexplained substitute name for Leuciscus oxygastroides Bleeker 1852. •Synonym of Oxygaster oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Bănărescu 1969:192 [ref. 7797], Roberts 1989:57 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Parachela oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat 2013:137 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parachela oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

melanopterus, Pseudobrama Bleeker [P.] 1872:119, Pl. 2 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 6; ref. 17071] China. No types known. Based on a drawing. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

melrosei, Megalobrama Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:369, Fig. 34 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8378. Paratypes or non-types: MCZ 32653 [ex AMNH] (1). •Synonym of Megalobrama macrops (Günther 1868) -- (Bănărescu 1970:134 [ref. 20609], Mai 1978:164 [ref. 13511] as mebrosei). •Valid as Sinibrama melrosei (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:111 [ref. 13499], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:79 [ref. 26639], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:53 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:88 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:101 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:145 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:41 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:81 [ref. 25780], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Sinibrama affinis (Vaillant 1892) -- (Kottelat 2013:163 [ref. 32989] with question). Current status: Valid as Sinibrama melrosei (Nichols & Pope 1927). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

mesembrinum, Acheilognathus Jordan [D. S.] & Evermann [B. W.] 1902:323, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 25 (no. 1289); ref. 2447] Suwata, Suwo Bay, Taiwan [not Kotosho, Taiwan]. Holotype: CAS-SU 7130. Paratypes: CAS-SU 7151 (2). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:29 [ref. 12291], Ho & Shao 2011:25 [ref. 31432]. For locality correction see Myers 1934:43 [ref. 24240]. •See Kottelat 2001:29 [ref. 25482]. •Valid as Metzia mesembrinum (Jordan & Evermann 1902) -- (Chen & Fang 2002:74 [ref. 28835], Gan et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30038], Ho & Shao 2011:25 [ref. 31432], Shibukawa et al. 2012:264 [ref. 32338], Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989], Luo et al. 2015:226 [ref. 33822], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477] [not China]). Current status: Valid as Metzia mesembrinum (Jordan & Evermann 1902). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Abramocephalus Steindachner [F.] 1869:150 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 6 (no. 19) (for 15 July 1869); ref. 20467] China. Holotype (unique): NMW 46326. Species later described in more detail in Steindachner 1870:302 [p. 13 of separate] [ref. 4217]. •Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Yang 1964:225 [ref. 13500], Chen in Chen et al. 1998:229 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:661 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Xenocypris Bleeker [P.] 1871:58, Pl. 9 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5944. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:73 [ref. 19574]. Also in Bleeker 1871:68 [ref. 17073]. •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:122 [ref. 13500]). •Valid as Xenocypris microlepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Zheng et al. 1989:114 [ref. 21202], Ding 1994:161 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:43 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:134 [ref. 26385], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:218 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:44 [ref. 25482], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:110 [ref. 26566], Zhang et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:200 [ref. 36699]). •Valid as Plagiognathops microlepis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Berg 1949:635 [ref. 20661], Yang 1964:127 [ref. 13500], Mai 1978:172 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:57 [ref. 22951], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:28 [ref. 22798], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:740 [ref. 24702], Bogutskaya 1998:77 [ref. 23589], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:100 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:336 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:142 [ref. 32989], Dyldin et al. 2020:105 [ref. 37569]). Current status: Valid as Plagiognathops microlepis (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China and Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Leuciscus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:210, Pl. 101 (figs. 3, 3a-b) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 2860. Paralectotypes: RMNH D1845 (1, stuffed), 36369 (7); ZMB 3391 (1, missing). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:330 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:161 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Okada 1961:498 [ref. 6363], Yang & Hwang 1964:49 [ref. 13497]). Current status: Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

minutus, Opsariichthys Nichols [J. T.] 1926:6, Fig. 5 [American Museum Novitates No. 224; ref. 15601] Fukien Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 8478. •Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:41 [ref. 13497]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Opsariichthys minutus Nichols 1926 -- (Huynh & Chen 2014:142 [ref. 33158], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys minutus Nichols 1926. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Upper Pearl River basin, southern China. Habitat: freshwater.

mitsukurii, Zacco Ishikawa [C.] 1904:4, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Proceedings of the Department of Natural History, Tokyo Imperial Museum v. 1; ref. 9847] Katsuragawa, Yamashiro, Japan. No types known. •Synonym of Zacco temmincki (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Okada 1961:504 [ref. 6363]). •Synonym of Zacco sieboldii (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Hosoya et al. 2003:1 [ref. 26770]). •Synonym of Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Current status: Synonym of Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

molitrix, Leuciscus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:360 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] China. No types known. •Valid as Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Berg 1949:846 [ref. 20661], Okada 1961:740 [ref. 6363] as moritrix, Yang 1964:225 [ref. 13500], Mai 1978:174 [ref. 13511], Coad 1981:10 [ref. 22348], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:58 [ref. 6441], Wang 1984:72 [ref. 22951], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:58 [ref. 26639] with authors as Cuvier & Valenciennes, Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Robison & Buchanan 1988:190 [ref. 23393], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:100 [ref. 13584], Paulin et al. 1989:81 [ref. 24556], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:290 [ref. 25598], Zheng et al. 1989:117 [ref. 21202], Coad 1991:17 [ref. 15702], Pethiyagoda 1991:81 [ref. 20075], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:330 [ref. 20764], Liu in Pan et al. 1991:236 [ref. 23876], Boschung 1992:50 [ref. 23239], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:200 [ref. 37756], Etnier & Starnes 1993:179 [ref. 22809], Kottelat et al. 1993:35 [ref. 23448], Skelton 1993:191 [ref. 24071], Zhuo in Ding 1994:170 [ref. 21531], Yang & Chen 1995:46 [ref. 23555], Coad 1995:18 [ref. 23608], Zhu 1995:101 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:15 [ref. 22798], Coad 1996:84 [ref. 25304], Cheng & Zhou 1997:193 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:510 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:738 [ref. 24702], Chen in Chen 1998:128 [ref. 23556], Bogutskaya 1998:61 [ref. 23589], Chen in Chen et al. 1998:228 [ref. 23878], Garcia Romero et al. 1998:189 [ref. 27761], Fricke 1999:84 [ref. 24106], Rema Devi & Raghunathan 1999:171 [ref. 24760], Fuller et al. 1999:81 [ref. 25838], Nakabo 2000:261 [ref. 25086], Rafique 2000:324 [ref. 25220], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Tang et al. 2001:14 [ref. 25373], Sheiko & Fedorov 2000:17 [ref. 25650], Matsuura et al. 2000:92 [ref. 26000], Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25482], Gabrielyan 2001:27 [ref. 25867], Ross et al. 2001:160 [ref. 25978], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Wang et al. 2001:114 [ref. 26566], Skelton 2001:191 [ref. 27406], Kim & Park 2002:158 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:261 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:157, 512 [ref. 26218], Mirza 2003:12 [ref. 27265], López et al. 2003:9 [ref. 27366], Hanel 2003:54 [ref. 27894], Nelson et al. 2004:72 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:189 [ref. 27995], Menni 2004:71 [ref. 28131], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:82 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:169 [ref. 28369], Hanel & Lusk 2005:276 [ref. 28804], Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Scharpf 2005:21 [ref. 28940] as molitris, Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:194 [ref. 29996], Shrestha 2008:89 [ref. 29923], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:331 [ref. 30085], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:166 [ref. 31251], Minckley & Marsh 2009:181 [ref. 31114], Matamoros et al. 2009:8 [ref. 31241], Coad 2010:188 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:370 [ref. 33391], Page & Burr 2011:153 [ref. 31215], Gurung et al. 2013:4882 [ref. 32969], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989], Page et al. 2013:72 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Parin et al. 2014:80 [ref. 33547], Barbieri et al. 2015:53 [ref. 35029], Çiçek et al. 2015:145 [ref. 35151], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:72 [ref. 34894], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:873 [ref. 34062], McDowall & Stewart 2015:316 [ref. 34241], Mirande & Koerber 2015:10 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:435 [ref. 34561], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:661 [ref. 34853], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Zhang et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34477], Esmaeili et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:29 [ref. 36089], Ćaleta et al. 2019:172 [ref. 37026], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Zhang et al. 2019:207 [ref. 36699], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:99 [ref. 37983], Reis et al. 2020:456 [ref. 38364], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:64 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: Yangtze River basin, China and Russia; widely introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

moltrechti, Pararasbora Regan [C. T.] 1908:360 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 8) v. 2 (no. 10) (art. 40); ref. 3636] Lake Candidius, Taiwan. Syntypes: BMNH 1909.4.28.24-25 (2). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Aphyocypris moltrechti (Regan 1908) -- (Liao et al. 2011:662 [ref. 31495]). •Valid as Pararasbora moltrechti Regan 1908 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocypris moltrechti (Regan 1908). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

mongolicus, Culter Basilewsky [S.] 1855:237 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Mongolia and Manchura, northern China. Lectotype: Pl. 4 (fig. 2). Lectotype and paralectotypes: ZIN 2950-51 (2, 2). Simultaneous secondary homonym of Leptocephalus mongolicus Basilewsky 1955:234 in same work. Bănărescu 1972:387 as first reviser gave precedence to Leptocephalus mongolicus. Lectotype desgnated as Pl. 4 (fig. 2) by Naseka 2004:54. •Valid as Erythroculter mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:806 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:100 [ref. 13499], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:71 [ref. 26639], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:91 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:107 [ref. 21202], He & Liu 1980:483 [ref. 23126], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:92 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:226 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:120 [ref. 23556], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373]). •Valid as Culter mongolicus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:189 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:21 [ref. 25482], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:54 [ref. 28183], Zhang et al. 2019:184 [ref. 36699]). •Valid as Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) [sometimes as subspecies mongolicus] -- (Kottelat 2006:28 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:317 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:87 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: Russia and China. Habitat: freshwater.

mongolicus, Leptocephalus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:234, Pl. 4 (fig. 2) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] "In winter, brought to Beijing frozen from Mongolia." Mongolia and Manchuria, northern China. Lectotype: Pl. 4 (fig. 2). The same as Culter mongolicus Basilewsky 1855:237 in same work. Spelled mongolensis on Pl. 4. Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:54 gave precedence to the spelling mongolicus and designated the figured specimen in Pl. 4 (fig. 2) as lectotype. •Valid as Erythroculter mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855), subspecies mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:130 [ref. 26385]). •Valid as Erythroculter mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Wang et al. 2001:100 [ref. 26566]). •Valid as Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:803 [ref. 20661], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:24 [ref. 22798], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:736 [ref. 24702], Naseka 1998:75 [ref. 23590], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:54 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Ocock et al. 2006:32 [ref. 28933], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:317 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:87 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: Vietnam, Taiwan, China, Russia, Mongolia, Korea and Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

morrisonii, Opsariichthys Günther [A.] 1898:262, Pl. 13 (fig. A) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 1 (no. 4) (art. 42); ref. 14684] Liao-ho river at Newchwang [Yingkow], Liaoning Province, northeastern China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1898.2.28.16. •Synonym of Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:41 [ref. 13497]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:47 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

multispinnis, Xenocypris (Distoechodon) tumirostris Bănărescu [P. M.] 1970:401, Pl. 3 (fig. 13) [Revue Roumaine de Biologie, Série de Zoologie v. 15 (no. 6); ref. 7718] Upper Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], Suifu, Szechwan, China. Holotype: USNM 87461. Paratypes: USNM 86876 (1), 86879 (1), 130111 (1), 205107 (4). •Valid as Distoechodon multispinnis (Bănărescu 1970) -- (Zhao et al. 2009:38 [ref. 30545]). •Synonym of Distoechodon tumirostris Peters 1881 -- (Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:221 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:203 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Distoechodon tumirostris Peters 1881. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

nankinensis, Xenocypris Tchang [T.-L.] 1930:102 [Thèses: présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le grade de docteur des sciences naturelles, Sér. A. No. 209 (order no. 233); ref. 16212] Nanking, China. Syntypes: (2) MNHN 1934-0073 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:74 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:123 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:397 [ref. 7718], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Berg 1949:634 [ref. 20661], Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

neglectus, Barilius Stieler [P.] 1907:169 [Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde v. 18 (no. 17); ref. 15180] Japan. Syntypes: ZMB 17217 (2). •Valid as Hemigrammocypris neglectus (Stieler 1907) -- (Zarske 2013:254 [ref. 33179]). •Valid as Hemigrammocypris neglecta (Stieler 1907) -- (Ito et al. 2021:149 [ref. 38428]). Current status: Valid as Hemigrammocypris neglecta Stieler 1907. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

nhatleensis, Toxabramis Nguyen [H. D.], Tran [D. H.] & Ta [T. T.] in Duong et al. 2006:19 [Engl. 20] [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 28 (no. 2); ref. 28953] Quang Bin Province, Le Thuy, Nhat Le River, Vietnam. Holotype: HNUE. Paratypes: HNUE (7). Original description not yet seen. •Synonym of Toxabramis maensis Nguyen & Duong 2006 -- (Kottelat 2013:169 [ref. 32989] as species inquirenda). •Valid as Toxabramis nhatleensis Nguyen, Tran & Ta 1006 -- (Endruweit 2014:147 [ref. 33205]). Current status: Synonym of Toxabramis maensis Nguyen & Duong 2006. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

nicholsi, Chela Fowler [H. W.] 1923:1 [American Museum Novitates No. 83; ref. 15404] Ning-kwo, Anhwei Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 8480 [por 8254]. Paratypes: ANSP 64208 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:84 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Parapelecus argenteus Günther 1889 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:82 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864 -- (Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:156 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477] with author and date as Tchang 1930). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

nigrocauda, Ancherythroculter Yih [P.-L.] & Wu [C.-K.] 1964:107, Fig. 2-40 [The cyprinid fishes of China v. 1; ref. 13499] Mu-dung, Sechuan, China. Syntypes: (38). •Valid as Ancherythroculter nigrocauda Yih & Wu 1964 -- (Ding 1994:205 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:36 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:152 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477] with second author as Woo). Current status: Valid as Ancherythroculter nigrocauda Yih & Wu 1964. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

nigromarginis, Hemiculter Yih [P.-L.] & Wu [C.-K.] 1964:91, Fig. 2-26 [The cyprinid fishes of China v. 1; ref. 13499] Mu-dung and Wu-dung River, Sechuan, China. Syntypes: (19). •Valid as Hemiculter nigromarginis Yih & Wu 1964 -- (Zhu 1995:39 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Hemiculter tchangi Fang 1942 -- (Ding 1994:217 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:166 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Zhang et al. 2019:177 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter tchangi Fang 1942. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

nitidus, Xenocypris Garman [S.] 1912:117 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 40 (pt 4); ref. 1544] Shasi, Hupeh, China. Syntypes: MCZ 29822-23 (1, 1). See Kottelat 2001:44 [ref. 25482]. •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:123 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:397 [ref. 7718], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

nobilis, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] (ex Gray) 1845:140, Pl. 63 (fig. 3) [Ichthyology.--Part 3. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur.; ref. 20575] Canton, China. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1968.3.11.4. Type information: Whitehead 1970:210 [ref. 11606]. •Valid as Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845) -- (Yang 1964:223 [ref. 13500], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:58 [ref. 6441], Wang 1984:73 [ref. 22951], Chen in Kuang et al. 1986:56 [ref. 26639] dated 1844, Ortega & Vari 1986:6 [ref. 9708], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:98 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:116 [ref. 21202], Liu in Pan et al. 1991:235 [ref. 23876], Pethiyagoda 1991:57 [ref. 20075], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:221 [ref. 37756], Zhuo in Ding 1994:168 [ref. 21531], Yang & Chen 1995:23 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:101 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:15 [ref. 22798], Coad 1996:84 [ref. 25304], Cheng & Zhou 1997:192 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:511 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:735 [ref. 24702], Vu & Nguyen 1997:26 [ref. 26438], Chen in Chen 1998:127 [ref. 23556], Bogutskaya 1998:57 [ref. 23589], Chen in Chen et al. 1998:226 [ref. 23878], Nakabo 2000:261 [ref. 25086], Rafique 2000:324 [ref. 25220], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Matsuura et al. 2000:58 [ref. 26000], Tang et al. 2001:14 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:113 [ref. 26566] dated 1844, Kim & Park 2002:159 [ref. 25913], Choi et al. 2003:156, 512 [ref. 26218], Hanel 2003:54 [ref. 27894], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:81 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:166 [ref. 28369] dated 1846, Hanel & Lusk 2005:273 [ref. 28804], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:166 [ref. 31251], Khalaf 2013:4 [ref. 37897], Zhang et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:205 [ref. 36699]). •Valid as Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845) -- (Okada 1961:740 [ref. 6363], Robison & Buchanan 1988:192 [ref. 23393], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:288 [ref. 25598], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:332 [ref. 20764], Boschung 1992:50 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:180 [ref. 22809], Kottelat et al. 1993:35 [ref. 23448], Cross & Collins 1995:69 [ref. 23394], Coad 1995:18 [ref. 23608], Scott & Crossman 1998:viii [ref. 24570], Fuller et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25838], Gabrielyan 2001:26 [ref. 25867], Kottelat 2001:28 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:54 [ref. 25780], Ross et al. 2001:162 [ref. 25978], Nakabo 2002:261 [ref. 26001], Skelton 2002:172 [ref. 26839], Mirza 2003:12 [ref. 27265], Nelson et al. 2004:72 [ref. 27807], Boschung & Mayden 2004:190 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2005:21 [ref. 28940], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:195 [ref. 29996], Shrestha 2008:90 [ref. 29923], Almirón et al. 2009:1 [ref. 30204], Minckley & Marsh 2009:182 [ref. 31114], Coad 2010:191 [ref. 36620], Esmaeili et al. 2010:370 [ref. 33391], Koerber 2011:1 [ref. 31122], Page & Burr 2011:154 [ref. 31215], Gurung et al. 2013:4882 [ref. 32969], Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989], Page et al. 2013:72 [ref. 32708], Barriga Salazar 2014:104 [ref. 35745], Koerber 2014:1 [ref. 33621], Parin et al. 2014:80 [ref. 33547], Barbieri et al. 2015:53 [ref. 35029], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:74 [ref. 34894], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:873 [ref. 34062], Mirande & Koerber 2015:10 [ref. 35117], Bertaco et al. 2016:435 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:26 [ref. 35565], Semenchenko et al. 2016:186 [ref. 34974], Esmaeili et al. 2017:50 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:30 [ref. 36089], Ćaleta et al. 2019:172 [ref. 37026], Lorenzoni et al. 2019:252 [ref. 37108], Ng et al. 2019:527 [ref. 36606], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:100 [ref. 37983], Reis et al. 2020:456 [ref. 38364]). Current status: Valid as Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: Yangtze River basin (China); widely introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

normalis, Aphyocypris Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:376, Fig. 39, Pl. 26 (fig. 4) [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8381. Paratypes: AMNH 10970 (17, now 16), MCZ 32679 [ex AMNH] (2), MSNM 7 [ex MSNM 4422 and ex AMNH] (2), ZMA 114609 (2). Type catalog: Conci & Michelangeli 1974:223 [ref. 21560], Nijssen et al. 1982:26 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Yaoshanicus normalis (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Mai 1978:136 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Nicholsicypris normalis (Nichols & Pope 1927) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:19 [ref. 13497], Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:49 [ref. 26639], Zheng et al. 1989:72 [ref. 21202], Ye & Song in Pan et al. 1991:78 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:26 [ref. 25213], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:55 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:44 [ref. 25482]). •Valid as Aphyocypris normalis Nichols & Pope 1927 (Liao et al. 2011:662 [ref. 31495], Kottelat 2013:74 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:48 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocypris normalis Nichols & Pope 1927. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

oligolepis, Parapelecus Wu [H.-W.] & Wang [K. F.] 1931:222, Fig. 1 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 7 (no. 6); ref. 16351] Wushan, Szechwan, China. Holotype (unique): not researched. •Synonym of Parapelecus engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:83 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Ding 1994:194 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:157 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

oxycephaloides, Culter Kreyenberg [M.] & Pappenheim [P.] 1908:104 [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1908 (no. 4) (for 14 Apr. 1908); ref. 14326] Tungting Lake, southeast central China. Also appeared as new in Kreyenberg 1910:19 [ref. 14792]. •Valid as Erythroculter oxycephaloides (Kreyenberg & Pappenheim 1908) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:103 [ref. 13499], Ding 1994:234 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373]). •Valid as Culter oxycephaloides Kreyenberg & Pappenheim 1908 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:196 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Culter oxycephaloides Kreyenberg & Pappenheim 1908. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

oxycephalus, Culter Bleeker [P.] 1871:74 [?64], Pl. 5 (fig. 3). [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5050. Non-types: ZMB 16686 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:80 [ref. 19574]. Appeared first as name only in Bleeker 1870:252 [ref. 429]. Also appeared in Bleeker 1871:87 [ref. 17075]. •Valid as Erythroculter oxycephalus (Bleeker 1871) -- (Berg 1949:805 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:103 [ref. 13499], Allen & Swainston 1988:108 [ref. 25477], Ding 1994:230 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:128 [ref. 26385], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:101 [ref. 26566]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys dabryi (Bleeker 1871) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:23 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:74 [ref. 23590]). •Valid as Culter oxycephalus Bleeker 1871 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:192 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Chanodichthys oxycephalus (Bleeker 1871) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:55 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:317 [ref. 30085], Zhang et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Chanodichthys oxycephalus (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

oxygaster, Cyprinus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1844:349 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 17; ref. 1010] Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH (not found). Type information: Roberts 1993:20 [ref. 21799]. •Valid as Oxygaster oxygaster (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Roberts 1989:56 [ref. 6439]). •Synonym of Oxygaster anomalura van Hasselt 1823 -- (Roberts 1993:20 [ref. 21799]). Current status: Synonym of Oxygaster anomalura van Hasselt 1823. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

oxygastroides, Leuciscus Bleeker [P.] 1852:431 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 16827] Kusan River, Prabukarta, southeastern Borneo; Mussi River, Palembang, southeastern Sumatra; Jakarta, Java, Indonesia. Lectotype: BMNH 1866.5.2.216. Paralectotypes: (8) RMNH 4984 (5), 8062 (1). Original as oxygastroïdes. Lectotype selected by Alfred 1963:129 [ref. 20554]. Lectotype locality unknown. Chela megalolepis Günther 1868 is an unneeded substitute name. •Valid as Oxygaster oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Bănărescu 1969:192 [ref. 7797], Bănărescu 1971:17 [ref. 20612], Roberts 1989:57 [ref. 6439]). •Valid as Parachela oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Kottelat et al. 1993:41 [ref. 23448], Kottelat 1995:57 [ref. 21728], Rainboth 1996:69 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:9 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2000:85 [ref. 25486] as cf. oxygastroides, Kottelat 2001:68 [ref. 25780] as cf. oxygastroides, Kottelat & Widjanarti 2005:153 [ref. 28284], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:43 [ref. 33971], Ng et al. 2019:528 [ref. 36606]). Current status: Valid as Parachela oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeast Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

pacboensis, Pseudohemiculter Nguyen [V. H.] in Nguyen & Ngô 2001:148, Fig. 69 [Freshwater fishes of Viet Nam. Volume I. Family Cyprinidae v. 1; ref. 28301] Suôi Lê Nin, Hang Pác Bó, Cao Bang Province, Viêt Nam. Holotype: VNCNTTS I: H.01.35.03.01. Paratypes: VNCNTTS I: H.01.35.01.02 (1). •Valid as Pseudohemiculter pacboensis Nguyen 2001. Current status: Valid as Pseudohemiculter pacboensis Nguyen 2001. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Lê Nin stream, Hang Pác Bó, Cao Bang Province, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

pachycephalus, Opsariichthys Günther [A.] 1868:296 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Taiwan. Syntypes: (at least 6) BMNH 1865.5.2.31-34 (4), 1865.5.2.60 (1). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Zacco temmincki (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). •Valid as Zacco pachycephalus (Günther 1868) -- (Bănărescu 1968:306 [ref. 20605], Zhu 1995:26 [ref. 25213], Wang et al. 1997:170 [ref. 25517], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:45 [ref. 23878], Sado & Kimura 2002:353 [ref. 26498], Ma et al. 2006:343 [ref. 28735], Chen et al. 2009 [ref. 30298]). •Valid as Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther 1868 -- (Chen et al. 2009:170 [ref. 30298], Ho & Shao 2011:29 [ref. 31432], Huynh & Chen 2014:143 [ref. 33158], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477] [not China], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther 1868. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

paiyantieni, Toxabramis Mori [T.] 1941:182, Fig. 1 [Dobutsugaku Zasshi = Zoological Magazine Tokyo v. 53 (no. 3); ref. 12158] Pai-yang-tien, Paoting, northern China. Holotype (unique): not researched. •Synonym of Toxabramis swinhonis Günther 1873 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:159 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477] as paiyangtieni). Current status: Synonym of Toxabramis swinhonis Günther 1873. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

panwingi, Squaliobarbus Lin [S.-Y.] 1932:381 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 2780] White Cloud Mountain, Kwangtung, China. Holotype: FESC (now at PRFRI) 1099. Paratypes: (1). •Synonym of Zacco acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:50 [ref. 13497], Zheng et al. 1989:67 [ref. 21202], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:41 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871). Current status: Synonym of Opsariichthys acutipinnis (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

paralaubuca, Chela Günther [A.] 1868:337 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Unexplained replacement name for Paralaubuca typus Bleeker 1864. •Synonym of Paralaubuca typus Bleeker 1864 -- (Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Paralaubuca typus Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

parva, Metzia Luo [W.], Sullivan [J. P.], Zhao [H.-T.] & Peng [Z.-G.] 2015:228, Figs. 1-3, 4A [Zootaxa 3962 (no. 1); ref. 33822] Chengjiang River, a tributary flowing into Hongshui-He River of the Pearl River basin at Anyang Town, Du’an County, Guangxi Province, south China (23°93'N, 108°10'E). Holotype: SWU 20140620012. Paratypes: CUMV, SWU. •Valid as Metzia parva Luo, Sullivan, Zhao & Peng 2015. Current status: Valid as Metzia parva Luo, Sullivan, Zhao & Peng 2015. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Chengjiang River drainage, Peral River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

parvulus, Xenocyprioides Chen [Y.-Y.] 1982:425, Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 826] Qinzhou County, Guangxi, China. Holotype: IHASW 75VI0852. Paratypes: IHASW 75VI0853-0859 (7). •Valid as Xenocyprioides parvulus Chen 1982 -- (Zhu 1995:43 [ref. 25213], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:209 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:98 [ref. 26415] as Xenocyprinoides, Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Xenocyprioides parvulus Chen 1982. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

paucirastellus, Anabarilius Yue [P.-Q.] & He [J.-C.] 1988:233 [Journal of Yunnan University v. 10 (no. 3); ref. 26906] Yuanjiang [Yuan River], Lufeng County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: IHASW? 86VII002. Paratypes: YU? 86VII001 (1), 86VII003-006 (4). Name was misspelled once as Anabarilus paucirastellius in Chinese abstract (p. 233). •Valid as Anabarilius paucirastellus Yue & He 1988 -- (Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius paucirastellus Yue & He 1988. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.

pekinensis, Abramis Basilewsky [S.] 1855:239, Pl. 6 (fig. 2) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Rivers leading to Tschili [Chihli] Bay, China. Syntypes: ZIN 5637 (3). •Valid as Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:802 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:115 [ref. 13499], Wang 1984:50 [ref. 22951], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:89 [ref. 26639], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:86 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:109 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:109 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:236 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:27 [ref. 22798], Cheng & Zhou 1997:120 [ref. 26385], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:739 [ref. 24702], Naseka 1998:77 [ref. 23590], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:198 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Cai et al. 2001:632 [ref. 25721], Kottelat 2001:29 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2001:34 [ref. 25482], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:103 [ref. 26566], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:60 [ref. 28183], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:85 [ref. 33547], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:189 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

pekinensis, Culter Basilewsky [S.] 1855:237 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Streams draining to the Gulf of Tschili, Beijing [Pekin], China. No types known. •Questionably a synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:87 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

pellegrini, Parosteobrama Tchang [T.-L.] 1930:50, Fig. 4 [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 55 (no. 1); ref. 4366] Szechuan, China. Syntypes: (2) MNHN 1934-0137 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:81 [ref. 19574] with MNHN 1934-137 as holotype. •Synonym of Megalobrama terminalis (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:801 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:94 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1970:137 [ref. 20609]). •Synonym of Megalobrama mantschuricus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Vasil'eva & Makeeva 2003:620 [ref. 27334]). •Valid as Megalobrama pellegrini (Tchang 1930) -- (Luo 1990:164 [ref. 20057], Ding 1994:239 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:204 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Cai et al. 2001:632 [ref. 25721], Vasil'eva & Makeeva 2003:615 [ref. 27334], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477], Chen et al. 2020:[4] 4002 [ref. 38581]). Current status: Valid as Megalobrama pellegrini (Tchang 1930). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China. Habitat: freshwater.

piceus, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] 1846:298 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:210, Pl. 18b [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Ctenopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846) -- (Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:43 [ref. 26639], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:285 [ref. 25598]). •Valid as Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:537 [ref. 20661], Okada 1961:741 [ref. 6363], Yang & Hwang 1964:9 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:117 [ref. 13511], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:58 [ref. 6441], Wang 1984:34 [ref. 22951], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:37 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:75 [ref. 21202], Song in Pan et al. 1991:80 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:137 [ref. 21531], Yang & Chen 1995:33 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:29 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:44 [ref. 22798], Coad 1996:84 [ref. 25304], Cheng & Zhou 1997:113 [ref. 26385], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:739 [ref. 24702], Chen in Chen 1998:1000 [ref. 23556], Bogutskaya 1998:90 [ref. 23589], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:100 [ref. 23878], Bíró 1999:347 [ref. 24857], Fuller et al. 1999:96 [ref. 25838], Nakabo 2000:263 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:96 [ref. 26000], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:31 [ref. 25482], Gabrielyan 2001:27 [ref. 25867], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:44 [ref. 26178], Wang et al. 2001:79 [ref. 26566], Nakabo 2002:263 [ref. 26001], Hanel 2003:54 [ref. 27894], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:51 [ref. 28183], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:170 [ref. 28369], Scharpf 2005:25 [ref. 28940], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:294 [ref. 29996], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:335 [ref. 30085], Minckley & Marsh 2009:180 [ref. 31114], Esmaeili et al. 2010:370 [ref. 33391], Ho & Shao 2011: 28 [ref. 31432], Page & Burr 2011:153 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:73 [ref. 32708], Kottelat 2013:125 [ref. 32989], Parin et al. 2014:84 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:876 [ref. 34062], Zhang et al. 2016:53 [ref. 34477], Esmaeili et al. 2017:53 [ref. 35254], Esmaeili et al. 2018:33 [ref. 36089], Zhang et al. 2019:143 [ref. 36699], Dyldin et al. 2020:105 [ref. 37569], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2020:100 [ref. 37983]). Current status: Valid as Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: China, Russia; introduced widely elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater.

pingtungensis, Candidia Chen [I-S.], Wu [J.-H.] & Hsu [C.-H.] 2008:208, Figs. 3b, 6 [Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Suppl. No. 19; ref. 29933] Fongkang River, Pingtung County, Taiwan. Holotype: NTOU P-2007-07-21-1. Paratypes: NTOU P-2007-07-021-2 (11), P-2007-07-024 (11), P-2007-07-010 (26), P-2007-07-049 (5), P-2007-21-050 (10), P-2007-07-051 (1), P-2007-07-052 (3). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:26 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Candidia pingtungensis Chen, Wu & Hsu 2008 -- (Ho & Shao 2011:26 [ref. 31432], Zhang et al. 2016:48 [ref. 34477], Ito & Hosoya 2016:256 [ref. 35383], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Candidia pingtungensis Chen, Wu & Hsu 2008. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan and China. Habitat: freshwater.

platypus, Leuciscus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:207, Pl. 101 (figs. 1, 1a-b) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 2858a (largest of 6). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1846.2.16.73 [ex RMNH] (1), BMNH 2004.8.20.1 [ex RMNH] (1); RMNH D1852 (1, stuffed), 2858 (5 of 6, not largest); ZMB 3390 (1). Type catalog: Paepke 2001:329 [ref. 25566]. Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:160 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Okada 1961:497 [ref. 6363], Yang & Hwang 1964:49 [ref. 13497], Bănărescu 1968:305 [ref. 20605], Mai 1978:129 [ref. 13511], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:57 [ref. 6441], Wang 1984:44 [ref. 22951], Kuang in Kuang et al. 1986:47 [ref. 26639] dated 1864 [sic], Kuang in Chu & Chen 1989:30 [ref. 13584], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:244 [ref. 25598], Zheng et al. 1989:67 [ref. 21202], Ye & Song in Pan et al. 1991:74 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:125 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:25 [ref. 25213], Sato 1995:49 [ref. 25531], Cheng & Zhou 1997:102 [ref. 26385], Kim 1997:270 [ref. 24032], Takahashi et al. 1997:42 [ref. 24971], Wang et al. 1997:170 [ref. 25517], Watanabe 1998:262 [ref. 23491], Chen in Chen 1998:98 [ref. 23556], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:41 [ref. 23878], Sato et al. 1998:31 [ref. 24972], Mizuno et al. 1999:5 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:262 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:151 [ref. 26000], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Kottelat 2001:45 [ref. 25482], Wang et al. 2001:76 [ref. 26566], Kim & Park 2002:180 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:262 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:158, 514 [ref. 26218], Sado & Kimura 2002:353 [ref. 26498], Hagiwara 2003:36 [ref. 27188], Jang et al. 2003:119 [ref. 27681] dated 1902, Kim et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28195], Ma et al. 2006:343 [ref. 28735], Chen et al. 2009:180 [ref. 30298], Kottelat 2013:171[ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:132 [ref. 36699], Zhu et al. 2020:[9] [ref. 37378]). Current status: Valid as Zacco platypus (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Japan, Korea and north China. Habitat: freshwater.

plenus, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] (ex Broussonet) 1846:299 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton river, China. No types known. Based on a sketch. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

pointoni, Chela Fowler [H. W.] 1934:108, Fig. 60 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Chieng Mai [Chiengmai], Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 57456. Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:9 [ref. 25088], Böhlke 1984:87 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Oxygaster anomalura van Hasselt 1823 -- (Bănărescu 1971:19 [ref. 20612] as anomalurus). •Valid as Parachela pointoni (Fowler 1934) -- (Doi 1997:9 [ref. 22832]). •Valid as Oxygaster pointoni (Fowler 1934) -- (Bănărescu 1969:197 [ref. 7797], Rainboth 1996:68 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 1998:45 [ref. 23436], Kottelat 2001:68 [ref. 25780], Tang et al. 2013:33 [ref. 32559], Kottelat 2013:137 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:43 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Oxygaster pointoni (Fowler 1934). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins and Xe Bangfai. Habitat: freshwater.

polylepis, Barilius Regan [C. T.] 1904:191 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 13 (no. 75) (art. 20); ref. 15197] Sea of Tien [Tien Chih], Yunnan Fu, China, elevation 6000 feet. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1904.1.26.31. •Valid as Hemiculterella polylepis (Regan 1904) -- (Bănărescu 1971:13 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Anabarilius polylepis (Regan 1904) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:73 [ref. 13499], Chen & Chu 1980:418 [ref. 20983], Chen 1986:434 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:73 [ref. 13584], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:38 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:113 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:139 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius polylepis (Regan 1904). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

polylepis, Sinibrama wui Yih [P.-L.] & Wu [C.-K.] 1964:110, Fig. 2-44 [The cyprinid fishes of China v. 1; ref. 13499] Guilin, Guangxi, China. Syntypes: IHB (6) and material of wui Lin. •Synonym of Megalobrama macrops (Günther 1868), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Bănărescu 1970:134 [ref. 20609]). •Synonym of Sinibrama wui (Rendahl 1933), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Sinibrama macrops (Günther 1868) -- (Zheng et al. 1989:89 [ref. 21202], Kottelat 2013:163 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sinibrama macrops (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

pooni, Aphyocypris Lin [S.-Y.] 1939:129, Fig. 1 [Hong Kong Naturalist v. 9 (no. 3); ref. 12405] New Territories, Hong Kong. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: CAS-SU 34385 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:30 [ref. 12291]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Aphyocypris pooni Herre 1939 (Apr.), replaced by Hemigrammocypris lini Weitzman & Chan 1966. •Synonym of Aphyocypris lini (Weitzman & Chan 1966) -- (Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:57 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:48 [ref. 34477]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Aphyocypris lini (Weitzman & Chan 1966). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

pseudobrevicauda, Erythroculter Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:371, Fig. 35 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8400. •Valid as Erythroculter pseudobrevicauda Nichols & Pope 1927 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:104 [ref. 13499], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:72 [ref. 26639], Zheng et al. 1989:108 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:40 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Erythroculter ilishaformis (Bleeker 1871), but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Erythroculter recurvirostris (Richardson 1846) -- (Mai 1978:152 [ref. 13511], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:93 [ref. 23876]). •Synonym of Culter recurviceps (Richardson 1846) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:188 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys recurviceps (Richardson 1846) -- (Kottelat 2013:87 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys recurviceps (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

pulchrilineata, Aphyocypris Zhu [Y.], Zhao [Y.-H.] & Huang [K.] 2013:236, Fig. 1 [Ichthyological Research v. 60 (no. 3); ref. 32554] Chengjiang River at Chengjiang town, 23°55'45"N, 108°06'18"E, Du'an County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Holotype: ASIZB [now NZMC] 183459. Paratypes: ASIZB [now NZMC] 183460-183465 (6). Type catalog: Ye et al. 2015:16 [ref. 33808]. •Valid as Aphyocypris pulchrilineata Zhu, Zhao & Huang 2013 -- (Ye et al. 2015:16 [ref. 33808], Zhang et al. 2016:48 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Aphyocypris pulchrilineata Zhu, Zhao & Huang 2013. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Chengjiang River drainage, Pearl River basin, Guangxi, China. Habitat: freshwater.

qiluensis, Anabarilius andersoni Chen [Y.-R.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1980:420, Fig. 4 [Zoological Research v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 20983] Qilu Lake, Tonghai County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 799070. Paratypes: (29) KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:346 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Anabarilius qiluensis Chen & Chu 1980 -- (Chen 1986:434 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:70 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:96 [ref. 21202], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:42 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:137 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius qiluensis Chen & Chu 1980. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

qionghaiensis, Anabarilius Chen [Y.-R.] 1986:436, Fig. 2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 17649] Qionghai Lake, Sichuan Province, China, 27°44'N, 102°11'E. Holotype: KIZ 82110192. Paratypes: KIZ (10). Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:346 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Anabarilius qionghaiensis Chen 1986 -- (Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Ding 1994:209 [ref. 21531], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:112 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:133 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:163 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius qionghaiensis Chen 1986. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

qionghaiensis, Erythroculter mongolicus Ding [R.-H.] 1990:246, Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 20131] Lake Qionghai, 27°53'N, 102°18'E, Sichuan, China. Original not yet seen. •Synonym of Erythroculter mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Ding 1994:228 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Culter mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:192 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2019:187 [ref. 36699]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:317 [ref. 30085] but possibly a distinct species, Kottelat 2013:87 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855), but valid as subspecies qionghaiensis (Ding 1990) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

qujingensis, Anabarilius He [J.-C.] in He & Wang 1984:105 (English p. 108), Fig. 2 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 8216] Xiaoxiang Reservoir, Nanpan River system, Qujing County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: YU 798049. Paratypes: YU 798002 (1), 798018-19 (2), 798023 (1), 798025 (1), 798040-41 (2), 798043 (1). •Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944), subspecies yiliangensis (He & Liu 1983) -- (Zheng et al. 1989:91 [ref. 21202], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944) -- (Chen 1986:432 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:60 [ref. 13584], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:126 [ref. 23878]). Current status: Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

rasborella, Hemigrammocypris Fowler [H. W.] 1910:484, Fig. 4 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 62; ref. 1380] Lake Biwa at Matsubara, Omi, Japan. Holotype: ANSP 29162. Paratypes: ANSP 29163-72 (10), 29174-253 (80), 29254-57 (7), 28489-573 (85), 28575-78 (4, c&s). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:88 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Aphyocypris rasborella (Fowler 1910) -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:256 [ref. 25598]). •Valid as Hemigrammocypris rasborella Fowler 1910 -- (Okada 1961:515 [ref. 6363], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:57 [ref. 6441], Watanabe 1998:262 [ref. 23491], Nakabo 2000:261 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:91 [ref. 26000], Nakabo 2002:261 [ref. 26001]). •Synonym of Hemigrammocypris neglectus (Stieler 1907) -- (Zarske 2013:253 [ref. 33179]). •Synonym of Hemigrammocypris neglecta (Stieler 1907). Current status: Synonym of Hemigrammocypris neglecta Stieler 1907. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

recurviceps, Leuciscus Richardson [J.] 1846:295 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on an illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:210, Pl. 17a [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Erythroculter recurviceps (Richardson 1846) -- (Lu in Pan et al. 1991:93 [ref. 23876]). •Questionably the same as Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:24 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:75 [ref. 23590]). •Valid as Culter recurviceps (Richardson 1846) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:188 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:59 [ref. 34477]). •Valid as Chanodichthys recurviceps (Richardson 1846) -- (Kottelat 2013:87 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Chanodichthys recurviceps (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

recurvirostris, Culter Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:213, Pl. 8 (fig. 3) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 3886] Near Hanoi, northern Vietnam. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1884-0078. •Valid as Erythroculter recurvirostris (Sauvage 1884) -- (Mai 1978:152 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Culter flavipinnis Tirant 1883 -- (Kottelat 2001:21 [ref. 25482]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys flavipinnis (Tirant 1883) -- (Kottelat 2013:86 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys flavipinnis (Tirant 1883). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

rendahli, Nicholsiculter Wu [H.-W.] 1930:74, Fig. 4 [Sinensia v. 1 (no. 6); ref. 16240] Lo-Shan (formerly Kiating), Szechwan, China. Syntypes: (2). •Synonym of Hemiculterella sauvagei Warpachowski 1888 -- (Ding 1994:212 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:172 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:179 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculterella sauvagei Warpachowski 1888. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

riveroi, Culter Fowler [H. W.] 1935:108, Fig. 34 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 87; ref. 13881] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 60803. Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:11 [ref. 25088], Böhlke 1984:89 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Paralaubuca riveroi (Fowler 1935) -- (Bănărescu 1971:349 [ref. 20621], Rainboth 1996:66 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:10 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2001:69 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:43 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Paralaubuca riveroi (Fowler 1935). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins and Xe Bangfai. Habitat: freshwater.

roulei, Barilius Wu [H.-W.] 1931:433 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 3 (no. 5); ref. 16350] Chekiang, China. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (1). •Valid as Atrilinea roulei (Wu 1931) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:51 [ref. 13497], Zheng et al. 1989:80 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:32 [ref. 25213], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:97 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:79 [ref. 26415], Zhang et al. 2016:52 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Atrilinea roulei (Wu 1931). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

rutilus, Culter Dybowski [B. N.] 1872:214 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 22; ref. 1170] Ussuri River and Khanka [Chanka] Lake, southeastern Russia. Syntypes: ZMB 7934 (1?) Khanka. •Synonym of Erythroculter mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:806 [ref. 20661]). •Synonym of Culter mongolicus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:189 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:24 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:75 [ref. 23590], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:87 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys mongolicus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

sauvagei, Hemiculterella Warpachowski [N. A.] 1888:23 [Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des Sciences de St. Pétersbourg v. 32; ref. 4516] Western Sichuan, China. Holotype (unique): ZIN 4474. •Valid as Hemiculterella sauvagei Warpachowski 1888 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:77 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:12 [ref. 20612], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:105 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:211 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:38 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:116 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:172 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:179 [ref. 36699] dated 1887). Current status: Valid as Hemiculterella sauvagei Warpachowski 1888. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

schisturus, Leuciscus Oshima [M.] 1920:189, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 72; ref. 15245] Central Taiwan. Holotype (unique): ANSP 63183. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:90 [ref. 13621], Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]. •Synonym of Leuciscus brandtii (Dybowski 1872) -- (Berg 1949:570 [ref. 20661]). •Valid as Xenocypris schisturus (Oshima 1920) -- (Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432] but status uncertain ). Current status: Valid as Xenocypris schisturus (Oshima 1920). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.

schrencki, Hemiculter Warpachowski [N. A.] in Warpachowski & Herzenstein 1888:46, Pl. (fig. 4) [Trudy St.-Peterburgskogo Obscestva Estestvoispytatelej = Travaux de la Société des Naturalistes de St. Pétersbourg. v. 19 (no. 8) (for 1887); ref. 2152] Fuchow [Fu-Tschau], China. Types: ZIN 7032-33 (1, 1). •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:808 [ref. 20661] as schrenki, Yih & Wu 1964:90 [ref. 13499], Naseka 1998:75 [ref. 23590], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:164 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:58 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:35 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:319 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

serracanthus, Hemiculter Nichols [J. T.] & Pope [C. H.] 1927:373, Fig. 37 [Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History v. 54 (art. 2); ref. 5747] Nodoa, Hainan Island, China. Holotype: AMNH 8380. •Synonym of Hemiculter serratus (Koller 1927) -- (Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Pseudohemiculter serrata (Koller 1927) -- (Mai 1978:149 [ref. 13511]). •Synonym of Hainania serrata Koller 1927 -- (Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:81 [ref. 26639], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:103 [ref. 23876], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:180 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:109 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Hainania serrata Koller 1927. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

serrata, Hainania Koller [O.] 1927:45, Fig. 5 [Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien v. 41; ref. 5622] Kang-kong River, Hainan Island, China. Lectotype: NMW 10420 (1 of 2). Paralectotypes: NMW 10420 (1 of 2). Lectotype selected by Banarescu 1968:527 [ref. 20603]. •Valid as Hemiculter serratus (Koller 1927) -- (Bănărescu 1971:11 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Pseudohemiculter serrata (Koller 1927) -- (Mai 1978:148 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Hainania serrata Koller 1927 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:78 [ref. 13499], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:80 [ref. 26639], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:103 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:39 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:180 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:92 [ref. 26415], Kottelat 2001:26 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:109 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Hainania serrata Koller 1927. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Hainan Island, China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

setchuanensis, Pseudolaubuca Tchang [T.-L.] 1930:147 [Thèses: présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le grade de docteur des sciences naturelles, Sér. A. No. 209 (order no. 233); ref. 16212] Szechuan, China. Syntypes: (2) MNHN 1934-0164 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:84 [ref. 19574] with MNHN 1934-164 as holotype. •Synonym of Parapelecus engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:83 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Ding 1994:194 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:157 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

setchuanensis, Xenocypris Tchang [T.-L.] 1930:105 [Thèses: présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le grade de docteur des sciences naturelles, Sér. A. No. 209 (order no. 233); ref. 16212] Szechuan, China. Paratypes: MNHN 1934-0077 (1). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:75 [ref. 19574]. •Valid as Xenocypris setchuanensis Tchang 1930 [some as sechuanensis] -- (Yang 1964:125 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:399 [ref. 7718], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154], Ding 1994:156 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:43 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:123 [ref. 23556]). •Synonym of Xenocypris fangi Tchang 1930 -- (Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:216 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:197 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris fangi Tchang 1930. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

shantung, Aphyocypris chinensis Nichols [J. T.] 1930:1, Fig. 1 [American Museum Novitates No. 402; ref. 16111] Tsinan, Shantung Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 9671. Paratypes: AMNH 10998 (9), 10987 (31), ?MCZ 32678 [ex AMNH] (2). •Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868 -- (Berg 1949:1327 [ref. 20662], Yang & Hwang 1964:15 [ref. 13497], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:60 [ref. 23878]). Current status: Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

shawi, Pseudolaubuca Tchang [T.-L.] 1930:147, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Thèses: présentées à la Faculté des Sciences de Paris pour obtenir le grade de docteur des sciences naturelles, Sér. A. No. 209 (order no. 233); ref. 16212] Szechuan, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1934-0163. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:84 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Parapelecus engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:83 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Ding 1994:194 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:157 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:171 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

shibatae, Hemicultur Mori [T.] 1933:166, Fig. 2 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 5 (no. 2); ref. 16507] Tsi-nan, Shantung, China. Holotype: not researched. •Synonym of Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1887 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:87 [ref. 13499] as shibaetae, Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:167 [ref. 23878] as shibaetae). •Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872). Current status: Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

shinkainensis, Erythroculter dabryi Yih [P.-L.] & Chu [C.-R.] 1959:192, Pl. 1 (fig. 3), Pl. 2 (fig. 7) [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 22548] Khanka Lake, China. Syntypes: (6) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Erythroculter dabryi (Bleeker 1871), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Yih & Wu 1964:102 [ref. 13499], Zhu 1995:41 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Culter dabryi Bleeker 1871, but a valid subspecies as described -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:195 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys abramoides (Dybowski 1872) -- (Bogutskaya et al. 2008:316 [ref. 30085]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys dabryi (Bleeker 1871), but valid as subspecies shinkainensis (Yih & Chu 1959) -- (Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys dabryi (Bleeker 1871). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

siahi, Longiculter Fowler [H. W.] 1937:162, Fig. 100 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 89; ref. 1425] Me Poon [Maepoon] River, Chiengmai, [Mae Phun, a stream entering Mam Yom at 17°40'N, 99°42'E], Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 68014. Paratypes: ANSP 68015 (1). Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:9 [ref. 25088], Böhlke 1984:90 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Longiculter siahi Fowler 1937 -- (Bănărescu 1971:17 [ref. 20612], Rainboth 1996:65 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:7 [ref. 22832]). Current status: Valid as Longiculter siahi Fowler 1937. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Mae Poon, Thailand. Habitat: freshwater.

siamensis, Chela Günther [A.] 1868:336 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Pachebon [Petchabun], Thailand. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1861.10.8.17. •Synonym of Oxygaster oxygastroides (Bleeker 1852) -- (Bănărescu 1969:192 [ref. 7797], Bănărescu 1971:17 [ref. 20612]). •In Parachela -- (Kottelat 1995:55 [ref. 21728]). •Valid as Parachela siamensis (Günther 1868) -- (Rainboth 1996:69 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:10 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:45 [ref. 23436], Kottelat 2001:68 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:43 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Parachela siamensis (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins and Xe Bangfai. Habitat: freshwater.

siamensis, Culter Hora [S. L.] 1923:149, Pls. 10 (fig.1), 11 (figs.4-5) [Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam v. 6 (no. 2); ref. 15406] Bangkok, Thailand. Holotype (unique): ZSI F10504/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:107 [ref. 20743], Monkolprasit 1969:4 [ref. 25088]. See Das 2003:355 [ref. 27706]. •Synonym of Paralaubuca harmandi Sauvage 1883 -- (Bănărescu 1971:350 [ref. 20621], Kottelat 1984:803 [ref. 11440], Rainboth 1996:66 [ref. 22772], Kottelat 2001:69 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paralaubuca harmandi Sauvage 1883. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

sieboldii, Culter Dybowski [B. N.] 1872:214 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 22; ref. 1170] Middle Amur River, Ussuri River, Sungari River, and Lake Khanka [Chanka], China. Syntypes: ZMB 7932 (1). •Synonym of Erythroculter erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:804 [ref. 20661]). •Synonym of Erythroculter ilishaeformis (Bleeker 1871) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:98 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:186 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Chanodichthys erythropterus(Basilewsky 1855) -- (Naseka 1998:74 [ref. 23590], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:53 [ref. 28183], Kottelat 2006:28 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:86 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Chanodichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

sieboldii, Leuciscus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:211, Pl. 101 (figs. 5, 5a-b) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 2545a. Paralectotypes: RMNH 2545b-d (3 of 4). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:162 [ref. 12876]. •Synonym of Zacco temmincki (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Okada 1961:504 [ref. 6363]). •Valid as Zacco sieboldii (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Hosoya et al. 2003:1 [ref. 26770], Kim et al. 2005:5 [ref. 28195], Wu et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29953]). •Valid as Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck ^ Schlegel 1846) -- (Chen et al. 2008:210 [ref. 29933]). Current status: Valid as Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Japan and Korea. Habitat: freshwater.

siemionovii, Pristiodon Dybowski [B. N.] 1877:26 [Izvestiya Zapadno Sibirskogo Otdela Imperatorskago Russkago Geograpficheskago Obshchestva, Irkutsk v. 8 (nos. 1-2); ref. 1171] Amur River, Ussuri River, Sungacha River, Lake Khanka [Chanka], and Sungari River, Russia. Syntypes: (many) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Berg 1949:598 [ref. 20661], Mitrofanov et al. 1992:126 [ref. 37756], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:44 [ref. 22798], Bogutskaya 1998:89 [ref. 23589], Bíró 1999:305 [ref. 24857], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:335 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

simoni, Acanthobrama Bleeker [P.] 1864:25 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 407] China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1056 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:73 [ref. 19574]. •Valid as Acanthobrama simoni Bleeker 1864 -- (Yang 1964:132 [ref. 13500], Wang 1984:61 [ref. 22951], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154]). •Valid as Pseudobrama simoni (Bleeker 1864) -- (Ding 1994:166 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:44 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:137 [ref. 26385], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:223 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:111 [ref. 26566], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Pseudobrama simoni (Bleeker 1864). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

simoni, Hypophthalmichthys Guichenot [A.] in Bleeker 1871:86 [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Not available, museum name mentioned in the synonymy of Hypophthalmichthys nobilis. •In the synonymy of Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardon 1845) -- (Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845). Xenocyprididae.

simoni, Hypophthalmichthys Bleeker [P.] 1878:311 [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeeling Natuurkunde (Ser. 2) v. 12; ref. 17118] Yang-tse-kiang River, China. Syntypes: MNHN (2). From Kottelat, 2013:112. •Quentionably a synonym of Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845) -- (Kottelat 2013:112 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Richardson 1845). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

sinensis, Pseudolaubuca Bleeker [P.] 1864:29 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 407] China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2063 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:83 [ref. 19574]. •Valid as Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864 -- (Mai 1978:141 [ref. 13511], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:48 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:84 [ref. 21202], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:116 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:192 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:34 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:122 [ref. 26385] dated 1864, Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:155 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2001:37 [ref. 25482], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:91 [ref. 26566], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:169 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

sinensis, Zacco Zhu [L.], Yu [D.] & Liu [H.-Z.] 2020:[2], Fig. 2 [Sichuan Journal of Zoology v. 39 (no. 2); ref. 37378] Daling River, Xiawazi Village, Liucheng Street, Chaoyang County, Chaoyang City, Liaoning Province, China, 41°48'74"N, 120°37'62"E. Holotype: IHB 180407020. Paratypes: (26) IHB. •Valid as Zacco sinensis Zhu, Yu & Liu 2020. Current status: Valid as Zacco sinensis Zhu, Yu & Liu 2020. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Lower Yangtze River basin, Liaoning and Henan Provinces, China. Habitat: freshwater.

skolkovii, Megalobrama Dybowski [B. N.] 1872:213 [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 22; ref. 1170] Middle and lower Amur River, Ussuri River, Sungari River, and Lake Khanka, Russia. Syntypes: ZMB 7938 [from Dybowski] (1). •Synonym of Megalobrama terminalis (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:801 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:94 [ref. 13499], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:27 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:76 [ref. 23590]). •Synonym of Megalobrama mantschuricus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Vasil'eva & Makeeva 2003:620 [ref. 27334], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085]). •Valid as Megalobrama skolkovii Dybowski 1872 -- (Luo 1990:163 [ref. 20057], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:202 [ref. 23878], Cai et al. 2001:632 [ref. 25721], Vasil'eva & Makeeva 2003:615 [ref. 27334], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:190 [ref. 36699], Chen et al. 2020:[4] 4002 [ref. 38581]). Current status: Valid as Megalobrama skolkovii Dybowski 1872. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: East Asia: Russia and China. Habitat: freshwater.

snyderi, Macrochirichthys Fowler [H. W.] 1905:487, Fig. 7 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 57; ref. 1370] Baram River basin, Sarawak state, Borneo, East Malaysia. Holotype (unique): ANSP 57558 [ex WIAP 13931]. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:91 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:92 [ref. 13499] as snyder, Roberts 1989:45 [ref. 6439], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:115 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:122 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

soldatovi, Hemiculterella Nikolskii [A. M.] 1903:361 [6] [Ezhegodnik. Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Akademii Nauk SSSR. v. 8 (for 1903); ref. 3203] Eastern Mongolia. Syntypes: ZIN 12790 (2). On p. 6 of separate. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

songhongensis, Hemiculter Nguyen [?] & Nguyen [?] in Nguyen & Ngô 2001:135, Fig. 61 [Freshwater fishes of Viet Nam. Volume I. Family Cyprinidae v. 1; ref. 28301] Sông Hông, Hà Nôi, Viêt Nam. Holotype: VNCNTTS I: H.01.33.02.01. Paratypes: VNCNTTS I: H.01.33.02.02 - 03 (15). •Valid as Hemiculter songhongensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2001-- (Kottelat 2013:111 [ref. 32989] as species inquirenda et incertia sedis). Current status: Valid as Hemiculter songhongensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2001. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Hông River, Hà Nôi, and probably other areas of the Hong River system, to be determined. Habitat: freshwater.

songmaensis, Opsariichthys Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [H. D.] 2000:12, Figs. 1-2 [Tap Chí Sinh Hoc (Journal of Biology) v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 26614] Song Ma (Ma River), Song Ma town, Song Ma County, Son La Province, Vietnam. Holotype: ARI I: H.01.15.02.01. Paratypes: H.01.15.02.02-03 (2); HNNU LM P.01.01.12.199 (1), P.01.02.12.99 (1), P.01.03.12.99 (1). •Questionably in the synonymy of Opsariichthys bidens Günther 1873 -- (Kottelat 2013:130 [ref. 32989]). •Valid as Opsariichthys songmaensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2000 -- (Chen et al. 2009:175 [ref. 30298], Huynh & Chen 2014:143 [ref. 33158]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys songmaensis Nguyen & Nguyen 2000. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Ma River, Vietnam. Habitat: freshwater.

songmingensis, Anabarilius Chen [Y.-R.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1980:419, Fig. 3 [Zoological Research v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 20983] Shanyou Reservoir of Songiming County, upper Niulan River, Jinsha River system, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 783013. Paratypes: (50) KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:346 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Anabarilius songmingensis Chen & Chu 1980 -- (Chen 1986:433 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:66 [ref. 13584], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:111 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:132 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:162 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius songmingensis Chen & Chu 1980. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

spilurus, Aspius Günther [A.] 1868:311 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 7; ref. 1990] Inland mountainous region of Hong Kong, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1956.2.25.1-5 (5). •Valid as Aspius spilurus (Günther 1868) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:20 [ref. 13497]). •Valid as Zacco spilurus (Günther 1868) -- (Bănărescu 1968:308 [ref. 20605], Mai 1978:127 [ref. 13511]). •Valid as Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868) -- (Kuang in Chu & Chen 1989:28 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:60 [ref. 21202], Ye & Song in Pan et al. 1991:71 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:25 [ref. 25213], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:38 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:64 [ref. 26415], Kottelat 2001:35 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:140 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:51 [ref. 34477], Ito & Hosoya 2016:90 [ref. 34788], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

steenackeri, Opsariichthys Sauvage [H.-E.] 1883:148 [5] [Bulletin de la Société philomathique de Paris (7th Série) v. 7; ref. 3896] Lake Biwa, Japan. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-6491. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:82 [ref. 19574]. On p. 5 of separate. •Valid as Ischikauia steenackeri (Sauvage 1883) -- (Okada 1961:518 [ref. 6363], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:57 [ref. 6441], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:286 [ref. 25598], Watanabe 1998:262 [ref. 23491] as steenakeri, Nakabo 2000:261 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:94 [ref. 26000], Nakabo 2002:261 [ref. 26001], Takeuchi & Hosoya 2011:10 [ref. 31144]). Current status: Valid as Ischikauia steenackeri (Sauvage 1883). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Japan. Habitat: freshwater.

stenzii, Chanodichthys Popta [C. M. L.] 1907:246, Fig. [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 32 (no. 8); ref. 15170] Kaiserkanal [Imperial canal], near Kiautschou (Chiao-Hsien), 36°19'N, 120°00"E, Shantung Province, northeastern China. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Fricke 1995:11 [ref. 28100] dated 1908, Fricke 2005:32 [ref. 29864] dated 1908.. •Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:116 [ref. 13499] as sterzii, Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

stigmabrachium, Chela Fowler [H. W.] 1934:109, Fig. 62 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Mekong River at Chieng Sen [Chiengsan], northern Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 57458. Paratypes: ANSP 57459-63 (6), 57464 (1, c&s). Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:11 [ref. 25088], Böhlke 1984:91 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Paralaubuca stigmabrachium (Fowler 1934) -- (Bănărescu 1971:349 [ref. 20621], Doi 1997:10 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2001:69 [ref. 25780]). •Synonym of Paralabuca typus Bleeker 1864 -- (Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paralaubuca typus Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeastern Asia (if valid). Habitat: freshwater.

strenosomus, Parabramis pekinensis forma Yu [Z.-T.], Xie [H.-G.] & Yih [P.-L.] 1959:227 [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 22549] Heilongjiang [Amur River], China. Available as a subspecies, "forma" (in main account) used before 1961 [the unavailable term morpha was used in the abstract]. •Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855), but a valid subspecies -- (Yih & Wu 1964:117 [ref. 13499], Zhang et al. 2016:62 [ref. 34477] with authorship as Yiu, She & Yih). •Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:198 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085]). Current status: Synonym of Parabramis pekinensis (Basilewsky 1855). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

strigatus, Gymnodanio Chen [Y.-F.] & He [S.-P.] 1992:238 (English p. 240), Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 17 (no. 2); ref. 21069] Mekong River system, Jinggu County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: IHASW 8810108. Paratypes: IHASW 8810103-107 (5), 88XI0840-0855 (16). •Valid as Gymnodanio strigatus Chen & He 1992 -- (Zhu 1995:27 [ref. 25213], Kottelat 2013:107 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Gymnodanio strigatus Chen & He 1992. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

styani, Scombrocypris Günther [A.] 1889:226 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 4 (no. 21); ref. 2016] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], and tributary near Kiu-Kiang, China. Syntypes: BMNH 1889.6.8.85-86 (2). •Synonym of Elopichthys bambusa (Richardson 1845) -- (Berg 1949:845 [ref. 20661], Yang & Hwang 1964:39 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:134 [ref. 13511], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:111 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:330 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:101 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:659 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Elopichthys bambusa (Richardson 1845). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

suifuensis, Xenocypris Kimura [Sh.] 1934:65 [Journal of the Shanghai Science Institute v. 1; ref. 16434] Suifu, Szechwan Province, China. Holotype: 170 mm specimen (whereabouts unknown). Paratypes: (3) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Xenocypris fangi Tchang 1930 -- (Yang 1964:126 [ref. 13500], Ding 1994:159 [ref. 21531], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:216 [ref. 23878]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris fangi Tchang 1930. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

sungariensis, Xenocypris Berg [L. S.] 1907:418 [1] [Ezhegodnik, Zoologicheskago Muzeya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 270] Songhua [Sungari] River basin near Harbin and Hailin River, China. Syntypes: ZIN 13765 (4) Harbin, 14079 (2) Hailin River. On p. 1 of separate. •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:123 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:397 [ref. 7718], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:28 [ref. 22798], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:65 [ref. 34477]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Berg 1949:633 [ref. 20661], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:336 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:171 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

sungarinensis, Erythroculter ilishaeformis Yih [P.-L.] & Chu [C.-R.] 1959:189, Pl. 1 (fig. 2), Pl. 2 (fig. 7) [Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica v. 3 (no. 2); ref. 22548] China. Syntypes: (16) whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Erythroculter ilishaeformis (Bleeker 1871), but a valid subspecies -- (Yih & Wu 1964:99 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:186 [ref. 23878]). Current status: Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

swinhonis, Toxabramis Günther [A.] 1873:250 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 12 (no. 69) (art. 31); ref. 2004] Shanghai, China. Lectotype: BMNH 1873.7.30.97 (66.2 mm). Paralectotypes: BMNH 1873.7.30.97 (6 of 7). Lectotype selected by Banarescu 1971:12 [ref. 20612]. •Valid as Toxabramis swinhonis Günther 1873 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:84 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:12 [ref. 20612], Mai 1978:155 [ref. 13511], Wang 1984:47 [ref. 22951], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:84 [ref. 13584], Zhu 1995:39 [ref. 25213], Cheng & Zhou 1997:118 [ref. 26385], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:159 [ref. 23878], Wang et al. 2001:93 [ref. 26566], Takeuchi & Hosoya 2011:15 [ref. 31144], Endruweit 2014:147 [ref. 33205], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:173 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Toxabramis swinhonis Günther 1873. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze and Yellow River basins, China. Habitat: freshwater.

taeniatus, Rasborinus Nichols [J. T.] 1941:2 [American Museum Novitates No. 1107; ref. 13110] Loshan (Kiating), Szechwan, China, elevation 1100 feet. Holotype (unique): AMNH 15219. •Valid as Ancherythroculter taeniatus (Nichols 1941) -- (Bănărescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Sinibrama taeniatus (Nichols 1941) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:146 [ref. 23878], Xie et al. 2003:408 [ref. 27550], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Sinibrama taeniatus (Nichols 1941). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

taiwanensis, Zacco Chen [Y.-Y.] 1982:296 [English p. 299], Fig. 2 [Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica v. 13 (no. 3); ref. 824] Lake Candidius, Taiwan. Syntypes: IHASW 750099 (1), 750101-06 (6). Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:31 [ref. 31432]. •Valid as Zacco taiwanensis Chen 1982 -- (Zhu 1995:26 [ref. 25213], Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:44 [ref. 23878], Sado & Kimura 2002:353 [ref. 26498]). •Synonym of Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther 1868 -- (Chen et al. 2009:170 [ref. 30298], Ho & Shao 2011:31 [ref. 31432], Zhang et al. 2016:50 [ref. 34477] [not China]). Current status: Synonym of Opsariichthys pachycephalus Günther 1868. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

takakii, Rasborinus Oshima [M.] 1920:130, Pl. 3 (Fig. 3) [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 72; ref. 3313] Ako, Pingtung County, Taiwan. Holotype: ANSP 49951. Paratypes: (2) whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:93 [ref. 13621] with a holotype, Ho & Shao 2011:30 [ref. 31432] with an unneeded lectotype. •Synonym of Rasborinus lineatus (Pellegrin 1907) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:69 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1971:15 [ref. 20612], Mai 1978:160 [ref. 13511], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:82 [ref. 26639], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:54 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:86 [ref. 21202], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:118 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Rasborinus macrolepis (Regan 1908) -- (Chen & Fang 2000:14 [ref. 24434]). •Synonym of Metzia mesembrinum (Jordan & Evermann 1902) -- (Chen & Fang 2002:74 [ref. 28835], Gan et al. 2009:55 [ref. 30038], Ho & Shao 2011:30 [ref. 31432]). Current status: Synonym of Metzia mesembrinum (Jordan & Evermann 1902). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

tapeinosoma, Xenocypris Bleeker [P.] 1871:55, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5939. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:74 [ref. 19574]. See Kottelat 2001:45 [ref. 25482] for discussion on first reviser action. Also in Bleeker 1871:64 [ref. 17073]. Kottelat (2013) spells guntheri, but for Guenther's replacement name, so that is a capsus; correctly spelled guentheri. •Synonym of Xenocypris argentea Günther 1868 -- (Yang 1964:122 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:397 [ref. 7718], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:213 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871 -- (Kottelat 2001:43 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:170 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Xenocypris macrolepis Bleeker 1871. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

tchangi, Culticula Shaw [T.-H.] 1930:176, Fig. 11 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 1 (no. 10); ref. 16209] Soochow, China. Holotype: ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 4340. Paratypes: ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 4341 (1). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

tchangi, Hemiculter Fang [P.-W.] 1942:110 [Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Série 2) v. 14 (no. 2); ref. 13174] Szechuan, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 1934-0101. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:83 [ref. 19574]. •Valid as Hemiculter tchangi Fang 1942 -- (Ding 1994:217 [ref. 21531], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:166 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:177 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Hemiculter tchangi Fang 1942. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

temminckii, Leuciscus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:210, Pl. 101 (figs. 4, 4a-b) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 2546a. Paralectotypes: RMNH D1847-D1848 (2, stuffed), RMNH [ex 2546b-e] (4). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:162 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Zacco temminckii (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Okada 1961:504 [ref. 6363], Yang & Hwang 1964:48 [ref. 13497], Bănărescu 1968:306 [ref. 20605] as temincki, Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:57 [ref. 6441] as temmincki, Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:239 [ref. 25598] as temmincki, Okazaki et al. 1991 [ref. 20439] as temmincki, Sato 1995:49 [ref. 25531], Kim 1997:268 [ref. 24032] as temmincki, Takahashi et al. 1997:42 [ref. 24971], Wang et al. 1997:170 [ref. 25517], Watanabe 1998:262 [ref. 23491], Sato et al. 1998:31 [ref. 24972], Mizuno et al. 1999:5 [ref. 25311], Nakabo 2000:262 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:158 [ref. 26000], Kim & Park 2002:178 [ref. 25913], Nakabo 2002:262 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:158, 514 [ref. 26218] as temmincki, Sado & Kimura 2002:353 [ref. 26498], Hosoya et al. 2003:4 [ref. 26770], Jang et al. 2003:119 [ref. 27681], Kim et al. 2005:4 [ref. 28195], Wu et al. 2007:62 [ref. 29953]). •Valid as Nipponocypris temminckii (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Chen et al. 2008:210 [ref. 29933]). Current status: Valid as Nipponocypris temminckii (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Japan and Korea. Habitat: freshwater.

teretiusculus, Leuciscus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:232, Pl. 4 (fig. 1) [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Waters near Tianjin and draining to Gukf of Tschili, China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Squaliobarbus curriculus (Richardson 1846) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:52 [ref. 13497], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:105 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2013:165 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:55 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Squaliobarbus curriculus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

teretiusculus, Sarcocheilichthys Kner [R.] 1867:356 [Reise der öesterreichischen Fregatte "Novara" v. 1 (pt 3); ref. 18426] Shanghai, China and drainages in Gulf of Tschili. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idella [sometimes as idellus] (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:13 [ref. 13497], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:103 [ref. 23878], Bíró 1999:305 [ref. 24857], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

terminalis, Abramis Richardson [J.] 1846:294 [Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 15th meeting [1845]; ref. 3742] Canton, China. No types known. Based solely on illustration by Reeves (see Whitehead 1970:209 [ref. 11606]). •Valid as Megalobrama terminalis (Richardson 1846) -- (Berg 1949:801 [ref. 20661], Yih & Wu 1964:93 [ref. 13499], Bănărescu 1970:137 [ref. 20609], Mai 1978:167 [ref. 13511], Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:76 [ref. 26639], Zheng et al. 1989:110 [ref. 21202], Luo 1990:162 [ref. 20057], Lu in Pan et al. 1991:97 [ref. 23876], Zhu 1995:42 [ref. 25213], Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:26 [ref. 22798], Cheng & Zhou 1997:125 [ref. 26385], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:739 [ref. 24702], Naseka 1998:76 [ref. 23590], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:200 [ref. 23878], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:43 [ref. 26178], Cai et al. 2001:632 [ref. 25721], Kottelat 2001:29 [ref. 25482], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Wang et al. 2001:104 [ref. 26566] dated 1845, Vasil'eva & Makeeva 2003:615 [ref. 27334], Kottelat 2013:122 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Megalobrama terminalis (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Eastern Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

tientsinensis, Culter Abbott [J. F.] 1901:489, Fig. [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 23 (no. 1221); ref. 2] Pei-ho River at Tien-Tsin, China. Holotype: USNM 49550 [ex CAS-SU 6297]. Paratypes: CAS-SU 6298 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:31 [ref. 12291]. See Kottelat 2006:28-29 [ref. 28831] for remarks on nomenclature. •Synonym of Culter erythropterus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Yih & Wu 1964:113 [ref. 13499]). •Synonym of Cultrichthys erythropterus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:182 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855 -- (Bănărescu 1971:10 [ref. 20612], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:319 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Culter alburnus Basilewsky 1855. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

tonkinensis, Barbus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1884:211, Pl. 7 (fig. 3) [Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France v. 9; ref. 3886] Surroundings of Hanoi, northern Vietnam. Holotype: MNHN. •Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846) -- (Mai 1978:118 [ref. 13511], Kottelat 2001:31 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:125 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson 1846). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

transmontana, Ischikauia Nichols [J. T.] 1925:7 [American Museum Novitates No. 185; ref. 3180] Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: AMNH 8441. Paratypes: AMNH 10985 (1). •Valid as Rohanus transmontana (Nichols 1925) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:71 [ref. 13499]). •Valid as Hemiculterella transmontana (Nichols 1925) -- (Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Anabarilius transmontana (Nichols 1925) -- (Chen & Chu 1980:418 [ref. 20983], Chen 1986:431 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:57 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:91 [ref. 21202], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:36 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:122 [ref. 23878]). •Valid as Anabarilius transmontanus (Nichols 1925) -- (Kottelat 2001:18 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:73 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius transmontanus (Nichols 1925). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

tschiliensis, Leuciscus Basilewsky [S.] 1855:233 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] Gulf of Tschili [Tchili] and tributary streams, Manchuria, China. No types at ZIN. •Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:13 [ref. 13497], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:103 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Bíró 1999:305 [ref. 24857], Kottelat 2006:29 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:335 [ref. 30085], Kottelat 2013:91 [ref. 32989], Dyldin & Orlov 2016:658 [ref. 34853]). Current status: Synonym of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

tsinanensis, Pseudolaubuca Mori [T.] 1933:165, Fig. 1 [Japanese Journal of Zoology v. 5 (no. 2); ref. 16507] Tsi-nan, Shantung, China. Holotype (unique): apparently lost. •Synonym of Parapelecus engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:83 [ref. 13499], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:157 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca jouyi (Jordan & Starks 1905) -- (Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612]). •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925) -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:123 [ref. 26385]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca engraulis (Nichols 1925). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

tumirostris, Distoechodon Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1881:925 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1880 [v. 45]; ref. 3455] Ningpo [now Ningbo], China. Holotype: ZMB 11254. •Valid as Xenocypris tumirostris (Peters 1881) -- (Bănărescu 1970:399 [ref. 7718]). •Valid as Distoechodon tumirostris Peters 1881 -- (Yang 1964:130 [ref. 13500], Li 1986:482 [ref. 6154], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:96 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:100 [ref. 21202], Liu et al. in Pan et al. 1991:122 [ref. 23876], Ding 1994:163 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:44 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:125 [ref. 23556], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:221 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373] as tumirotris, Shao et al. 2009:34 [ref. 30545], Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:203 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Distoechodon tumirostris Peters 1881. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Zhejiang Province, China and Taiwan. Habitat: freshwater.

tungchowensis, Parapelecus Tchang [T.-L.] 1932:121, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 3 (no. 9); ref. 16402] Tungchow, Hopei, China. Holotype: ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 3110. •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864 -- (Bănărescu 1971:14 [ref. 20612], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:156 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:63 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

typus, Aphyocyprioides Tang [D.-S.] 1942:163, Fig. 3 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 20 (nos 2-4); ref. 4335] Small pool in Kweiyang, Kweichow Province, China. Holotype (unique): NKMC P0101. •Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868 -- (Chen & Chu in Chen et al. 1998:60 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:47 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Aphyocypris chinensis Günther 1868. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

typus, Luciobrama Bleeker [P.] 1871:51, Pl. 1 (fig. 2) [Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam) v. 12 (art. 2); ref. 6421] Chang Jiang [Yangtze River], China. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-5080. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:67-68 [ref. 19574]. •Synonym of Luciobrama macrocephalus (Lacepède 1803) -- (Yang & Hwang 1964:21 [ref. 13497], Mai 1978:116 [ref. 13511], Luo in Chen et al. 1998:109 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:121 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Luciobrama macrocephalus (Lacepède 1803). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater, brackish.

typus, Paralaubuca Bleeker [P.] 1864:16 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 2; ref. 406] Ajuthia [Ayuttaya] and Bangkok, Menam River [Chao Phraya], Thailand. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-1867. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-1865 and 0000-1866 (3). Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:85 [ref. 19574], Monkolprasit 1969:11 [ref. 25088]. Lectotype selected by Bănărescu 1971:348 [ref. 20621]. •Valid as Paralaubuca typus Bleeker 1864 -- (Bănărescu 1971:348 [ref. 20621], Rainboth 1996:67 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:10 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 1998:45 [ref. 23436], Freyhof et al. 2000:95 [ref. 25184], Kottelat 2001:69 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989], Kottelat 2015:43 [ref. 33971]). Current status: Valid as Paralaubuca typus Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Mekong and Chao Phraya basins and Xe Bangfai. Habitat: freshwater.

typus, Sinibrama wui Yih [P.-L.] & Wu [C.-K.] in Wu 1964:109 [The cyprinid fishes of China v. 1; ref. 13499] Replacement name for Chanodichthys wui Rendal 1932 according to Kottelat (2013:163). Appeared as Sinibrama wui typus (Rendahl); perhaps not intended as new but as the typical subspecies (correctly wui wui (Rendahl) to contrast with wui polylepis). •Uncertain as Sinibrama typus Yih & Wu 1964 -- (Kottelat 2013:163 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Uncertain as Sinibrama typus Yih & Wu 1964. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

uncirostris, Leuciscus Temminck [C. J.] & Schlegel [H.] 1846:211, Pl. 102 (figs. 1, 1a-b) [Fauna Japonica Parts 10-14; ref. 4374] Japan. Lectotype: RMNH 2878a (largest). Paralectotypes: RMNH 2878b-c (2 of 3). Lectotype selected by Boeseman 1947:163 [ref. 12876]. •Valid as Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846) -- (Okada 1961:510 [ref. 6363], Bănărescu 1968:310 [ref. 20605], Mai 1978:119 [ref. 13511], Sawada in Masuda et al. 1984:57 [ref. 6441], Okamura & Machida 1987:106 [ref. 22279], Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:250 [ref. 25598], Sato 1995:49 [ref. 25531], Kim 1997:272 [ref. 24032], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:739 [ref. 24702], Watanabe 1998:262 [ref. 23491], Bogutskaya 1998:79 [ref. 23589], Sato et al. 1998:31 [ref. 24972], Nakabo 2000:262 [ref. 25086], Matsuura et al. 2000:97 [ref. 26000], Nguyen & Nguyen 2000:12 [ref. 26614], Kottelat 2001:33 [ref. 25482], Bogutskaya et al. 2001:44 [ref. 26178], Nakabo 2002:262 [ref. 26001], Sado & Kimura 2002:353 [ref. 26498], Chen et al. 2008:215 [ref. 29934], Chen et al. 2009:174 [ref. 30298], Wang et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36521]). Current status: Valid as Opsariichthys uncirostris (Temminck & Schlegel 1846). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Japan, Korea, and northeastern China. Habitat: freshwater.

uranoscopus, Leuciscus Bleeker [P.] 1851:14 [Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 16884] Bandjarmasin, Borneo, Indonesia. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7494. Bleeker non-type specimens: MNHN 0000-3925 (1) Sumatra, 0000-6308 (1) Jakarta. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1948:81-82 [ref. 19574], Alfred 1963:129 [ref. 20554]. •Synonym of Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes 1844) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:92 [ref. 13499], Roberts 1989:45 [ref. 6439], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:115 [ref. 23878], Kottelat 2013:122 [ref. 32989], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes 1844). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

varpachovskii, Hemiculter Nikolskii [A. M.] 1903:359 [4] [Ezhegodnik. Zoologicheskogo Muzeya Akademii Nauk SSSR. v. 8 (for 1903); ref. 3203] Lake Buir-Nor, eastern Mongolia. Syntypes: ZIN 12789 (8). On p. 4 of separate. For notes on systematics see Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831]. •Synonym of Hemiculter bleekeri Warpachowski 1887, but a valid subspecies -- (Yih & Wu 1964:89 [ref. 13499] as warpachowskii, Zhu 1995:40 [ref. 25213] as warpachowskii). •Synonym of Hemiculter leucisculus (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Berg 1949:808 [ref. 20661]). •Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872) -- (Bogutskaya & Naseka 1996:26 [ref. 22798], Naseka 1998:76 [ref. 23590]). •Synonym of Hemiculter lucidus (Dybowski 1872), but a valid subspecies -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:170 [ref. 23878] as warpachowskii). •Valid as Hemiculter varpachovskii Nikolskii 1903 -- (Kottelat 2006:36 [ref. 28831], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:320 [ref. 30085], Zhang et al. 2016:60 [ref. 34477] as warpachovskii and author as Nikolsky). Current status: Valid as Hemiculter varpachovskii Nikolskii 1903. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Upper Amur River basinn, Mongolia, China, and Russia. Habitat: freshwater.

vietnamensis, Pseudolaubuca sinensis Mai [D. Y.] 1978:143 [Identification of the fresh-water fishes of North Viet Nam v. 1; ref. 13511] Vietnam. Syntypes: DVZUT. •Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864 -- (Kottelat 2001:37 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:146 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Pseudolaubuca sinensis Bleeker 1864. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

vinhi, Parazacco Nguyen [V. H.] & Nguyen [T. D.] 2000:226 [ ref. 33149] Bac Can Province, Ba Be district, Ban Cam stream, Nam Mau village, Vietnam, Holotype: Fish Collection of Thai National Univ. 98.03.003. •Synonym of Parazacco fasciatus (Koller 1927) -- (Kottelat 2013:140 [ref. 32989] with question). •Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868) Current status: Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

vittatus, Sinibarbus Sauvage [H.-E.] 1874:335 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 3) v. 2 [1874]; ref. 3873] West Tschikiang, China. Holotype (unique): MNHN. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

vuquangensis, Parazacco Nguyen [T. T.] 1995:77, Figs. 1-2 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 6 (no. 1); ref. 21674] Ngan Truoi stream, 18°25'N, 105°25'E, Vu Quang Mountain, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam. Holotype: Author's coll. Vinh Univ. V.Q.92.025. Paratypes: Author's coll. Vinh Univ. V.Q. 92.021-24 (4), 92.026-29 (4). •Synonym of Parazacco fasciatus (Koller 1927) -- (Kottelat 2001:34 [ref. 25482], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989]). •Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Current status: Synonym of Parazacco spilurus (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

wangi, Erythroculter Tchang [T.-L.] 1932:122, Fig. 2 [Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology, Peiping (Zoological Series) v. 3 (no. 9); ref. 16402] Szechuan, China. Holotype (unique): ZMFMIB (now ASIZB) 7920. •Valid as Ancherythroculter wangi (Tchang 1932) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:107 [ref. 13499], Ding 1994:203 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:36 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:151 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Ancherythroculter wangi (Tchang 1932). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

williaminae, Parachela Fowler [H. W.] 1934:111, Fig. 63 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 86; ref. 1417] Mekong River at Chieng Sen [Chiengsan], northern Thailand. Holotype (unique): ANSP 57457. Type catalog: Monkolprasit 1969:11 [ref. 25088], Böhlke 1984:95 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Oxygaster williaminae (Fowler 1934) -- (Bănărescu 1971:18 [ref. 20612]). •Valid as Parachela williaminae Fowler 1934 -- (Rainboth 1996:69 [ref. 22772], Doi 1997:10 [ref. 22832], Kottelat 2001:68 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:138 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Valid as Parachela williaminae Fowler 1934. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Asia. Habitat: freshwater.

wolfi, Culter Fowler [H. W.] 1937:163, Fig. 101 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 89; ref. 1425] Pitsanulok, Thailand. Holotype: ANSP 68016. Paratypes: ANSP 68017-20 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:95 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Paralaubuca harmandi Sauvage 1883 -- (Bănărescu 1971:350 [ref. 20621], Kottelat 1984:803 [ref. 11440], Kottelat 2001:69 [ref. 25780], Kottelat 2013:139 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Paralaubuca harmandi Sauvage 1883. Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

wui, Chanodichthys Rendahl [H.] 1933:105 [Arkiv för Zoologi v. 24 A (pt 4) (no. 16) (1932); ref. 3703] Kiating and Suifu, China. Syntypes: Metropol. Mus. Nat. Hist. 1702 (1), 2102 (1). Primary homonym of Chanodichthys wui Lin 1932. See also Sinibrama wui typus Yih & Wu 1964: [ref. 13499]. The name Sinibrama wui Rendahl is considered valid (but see Xie et al. 2003). If considered distinct, the name S. wui (Rendahl 1933) should be replaced by Sinibarbus typus Yih & Wu 1964 (but see that account as well). •Synonym of Megalobrama macrops (Günther 1868), but a valid subspecies -- (Bănărescu 1970:134 [ref. 20609]). •Valid as Sinibrama wui (Rendahl 1933) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:109 [ref. 13499], Ding 1994:196 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:142 [ref. 23878], Tang et al. 2001:12 [ref. 25373], Xie et al. 2003:407 [ref. 27550], Kottelat 2013:163 [ref. 32989] but uncertain, Zhang et al. 2016:64 [ref. 34477]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Valid as Sinibrama wui (Rendahl 1933). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Southeast Asia: China. Habitat: freshwater.

wui, Chanodichthys Lin [S.-Y.] 1932:516 [Lingnan Science Journal, Canton v. 11 (no. 4); ref. 2781] Yunkiang, Kweichow, China. Lectotype: CAS-SU 35266. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:30-31 [ref. 12291]. Described from 3 undesignated specimens; SU 35266 sent from Lingnan University, China, as holotype; that specimen designated lectotype by Eschmeyer 1998:1798 [ref. 23416]. See also Chanodichthys wui Rendahl 1933. •Synonym of Sinibrama macrops (Günther 1868) -- (Kottelat 2013:163 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Sinibrama macrops (Günther 1868). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

wui, Nicholsiculter Wang [K.-F.] 1935:46, Fig. 3 [Contributions from the Biological Laboratory of the Science Society of China. (Zoological Series) v. 11 (no. 1); ref. 4582] Kinghwa, China. Holotype (unique): SSCN 15289. •Valid as Anabarilius wui (Wang 1935) -- (Yih & Wu 1964:72 [ref. 13499]). •Valid as Hemiculterella wui (Wang 1935) -- (Zheng et al. 1989:97 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:38 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:173 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:61 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Hemiculterella wui (Wang 1935). Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

xundianensis, Anabarilius He [J.-C.] in He & Wang 1984:106 (English p. 109), Fig. 4 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 9 (no. 1); ref. 8216] Qingshui Lake, Jinsha River system, Xundian County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: YU 806001. Paratypes: YU 806002-03 (2). •Valid as Anabarilius xundianensis He 1984 -- (Chen 1986:434 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:71 [ref. 13584], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:113 [ref. 23556], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:138 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:165 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius xundianensis He 1984. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Yangtze River basin, China. Habitat: freshwater.

yaii, Rasborinus Harada [I.] 1943:37, Pl. 13 (figs. 43-44) [Freshwater fishes of Hainan Island 1943; ref. 22794] Jinghu Lake, southern Hainan Island, China. No types known. •Valid as Rasborinus yaii Harada 1943 -- (Zhu 1995:35 [ref. 25213]). •Synonym of Rasborinus formosae Oshima 1920 -- (Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:120 [ref. 23878]). •Synonym of Metzia formosae (Oshima 1920) -- (Kottelat 2013:123 [ref. 32989]). Current status: Synonym of Metzia formosae (Oshima 1920). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

yalongensis, Anabarilius liui Li [C.] & Chen [Z.-M.] 2003:362 [Engl. p. 365], Fig. 1 [Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica v. 28 (no. 2); ref. 26915] Yalong River basin, Xichang County, flowing into Jinsha River, upper reaches of Yangtse River, China. Holotype: SNC 96432. Paratypes: [?18 not 17] SNC 96256-59 (4), 96261 (1), 96476-77 (2), 96485-88 (4), 96591 (1), 96593-95 (3); KIZ [ex 97033] (1), 97087 (1), 97143 (1). •Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944), but a valid subspecies yalongensis Li & Chen 2003 as described -- (Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

yangzonensis, Anabarilius Chen [Y.-R.] & Chu [X.-L.] 1980:418, Fig. 1 [Zoological Research v. 1 (no. 3); ref. 20983] Yangzon Lake, flowing into Nanpan River, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: KIZ 799220. Paratypes: (30) KIZ. Type catalog: Du et al. 2013:346 [ref. 32939]. •Valid as Anabarilius yangzonensis Chen & Chu 1980 -- (Chen 1986:432 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:63 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:92 [ref. 21202], Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:129 [ref. 23878], Zhang et al. 2016:58 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Valid as Anabarilius yangzonensis Chen & Chu 1980. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: China. Habitat: freshwater.

yiliangensis, Anabarilius liui He [J.-C.] & Liu [Z.-H.] in Liu & He 1983:102, Fig. 2 [Journal of Yunnan University v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 22556] Nanpan River, Yiliang County, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype: YU 783222. Paratypes: YU 814034 (1), 814038 (1), 814040 (1), 814042 (1), 814047-53 (1 ea.), 814055 (1). •Valid as Anabarilius yiliangensis He & Liu 1983 -- (Zhou & Cui 1992:52 [ref. 14489], Yang & Chen 1995:147 [ref. 23555]). •Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944), but a valid subspecies yiliangensis He & Liu 1983 as described -- (Chen 1986:432 [ref. 17649], Chen in Chu & Chen 1989:60 [ref. 13584], Zheng et al. 1989:91 [ref. 21202], Zhu 1995:37 [ref. 25213], Luo & Chen in Chen et al. 1998:126 [ref. 23878], Li & Chen 2003:365 [ref. 26915], Zhang et al. 2016:57 [ref. 34477]). Current status: Synonym of Anabarilius liui (Chang 1944). Xenocyprididae. Habitat: freshwater.

yunnanensis, Xenocypris Nichols [J. T.] 1925:6 [American Museum Novitates No. 185; ref. 3180] Yunnan-fu Lake (Kunming), Tien, Yunnan Province, China. Holotype (unique): AMNH 8440. •Valid as Xenocypris yunnanensis Nichols 1925 -- (Yang 1964:126 [ref. 13500], Bănărescu 1970:399 [ref. 7718], Chen & Li in Chu & Chen 1989:95 [ref. 13584], Ding 1994:158 [ref. 21531], Zhu 1995:43 [ref. 25213], Chen in Chen 1998:124 [ref. 23556], Liu & He in Chen et al. 1998:217 [ref. 23878], Yue & Chen 1998:95 [ref. 26415], Zhang et al. 2016:66 [ref. 34477], Zhang et al. 2019:198 [ref. 36699]). Current status: Valid as Xenocypris yunnanensis Nichols 1925. Xenocyprididae. Distribution: Upper Yangtze River basin, Yunnan Province, China. Habitat: freshwater.