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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Astyanax: [ 161 ] records


abramis, Tetragonopterus Jenyns [L.] 1842:123, Pl. 23 (figs. 1, 1a) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Río Paraná, up to Rosario, Argentina. No types known. •Valid as Astyanax abramis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:27 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Miquelarena et al. 1997:66 [ref. 23469], Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Garutti 1998:120 [ref. 23797], Sverlij et al. 1998:19 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:39 [ref. 24147], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Butí & Cancino 1999:70 [ref. 25277], Garutti & Britski 2000:86 [ref. 24769], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:244 [ref. 26608], Miquelarena et al. 2002:76 [ref. 26517], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Casciotta et al. 2003:808 [ref. 27667], Mirande et al. 2004:221 [ref. 27659], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:14 [ref. 28757], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Mirande 2010:519 [ref. 31006] as cf. abramis and as abramis, Soneira et al. 2010:784 [ref. 31078] , Barriga Salazar 2014:106 [ref. 35745] as cf. abramis, Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Lucena & Soares 2016:116 [ref. 34169], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], Koerber et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35267], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax abramis (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador? and Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

acatlanensis, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1340, Fig. 11 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Río Acatlán, Puebla, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 250288. Paratypes: UMMZ. •Valid as Astyanax acatlanensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax acatlanensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Acatlán and Río Jía, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

aeneus, Tetragonopterus Hensel [R.] 1870:87 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7479. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Tetragonopterus aeneus Günther 1860. Replaced by Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup 2006. •Synonym of Astyanax obscurus (Hensel 1870) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup 2006 -- (de Melo & Buckup 2006:46 [ref. 28622]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

aeneus, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1860:319 [4] [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1860 (pt 2) (art. 6); ref. 18212] Arroyo Las Flores, Oaxaca, Mexico. BMNH 1907.4.10.3. Syntypes: BMNH 1860.6.17.41-42 (2). On p. 4 of separate. Invalid lectotype selection by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1354 [ref. 35414], this specimen BMNH 1907.4.10.3 is not part of the type series of Tetragonopterus aeneus Günther 1860 [ICZN Art. 74.2]. See also at Astyanax belizianus. •Treated as a synonym of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Malabarba 1989:129 [ref. 14217]). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Greenfield & Thomerson 1997:74 [ref. 22947], Schmitter-Soto 1998:350 [ref. 23326], Bussing 1998:79 [ref. 24179], Smith et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:154 [ref. 28615], Protogino et al. 2006:12 [ref. 28780], Scharpf 2006:13 [ref. 30386], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2008:409 [ref. 29633], Bussing 2009:1361 [ref. 30066], Matamoros et al. 2009:9 [ref. 31241], McMahan et al. 2013:444 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Angulo et al. 2013:991 [ref. 33194], Barrientos et al. 2015:4 [ref. 37653], Schmitter-Soto 2016:129 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:[22] 1352 [ref. 35414], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859], González-Murcia et al. 2019:290 [ref. 36544]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific coast of Southern North America and Middle America: Río Papagayo, Guerrero (Mexico) south to Río Choluteca (Honduras). Habitat: freshwater.

albeolus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:97 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Río Machuca, Río Siguires, Costa Rica, elevation 200 meters. Holotype (unique): FMNH 6241. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Bussing 1998:81 [ref. 24179]). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax orstedii (Lütken 1875) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1398 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax orstedii (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

alleni, Tetragonopterus Eigenmann [C. H.] & McAtee [W. L.] in Eigenmann, McAtee & Ward 1907:126, Pl. 40 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 4 (no. 2) (art. 7); ref. 1261] Corumba, río Otuquis, Ascunción, Paraguay. Holotype: CAS 57616 [ex IU 10158]. Paratypes: CAS 57617 [ex IU 10159] (1), 57619 [ex IU 10161] (2), 57618 [ex IU 10160] (1); FMNH 52634 [ex IU] (1); ZMB 17010-11 and 13 (2, 1, 1), 23604 (2). •Valid as Ctenobrycon alleni (Eigenmann & McAtee 1907) -- (Britski et al. 1999:36 [ref. 24147], Benine & Cassati in Reis et al. 2003:126 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:25 [ref. 27366], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Benine et al. 2010:59 [ref. 31067], Sarmiento et al. 2014:184 [ref. 35004], Bertaco et al. 2016:413 [ref. 34561] as cf. alleni). •Valid as Astyanax alleni (Eigenmann & McAtee 1907) -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:258 [ref. 26608], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Koerber et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax alleni (Eigenmann & McAtee 1907). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraguay River basin: Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Habitat: freshwater.

alosa, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1876:399 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 17 (no. 101) (art. 43); ref. 2007] Monterico, Peru. Syntypes: BMNH 1875.10.4.24-25 (2). •Synonym of Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

altior, Astyanax fasciatus Hubbs [C. L.] 1936:176, Pl. 1 (fig. 1) [Carnegie Institution of Washington Publications No. 457 (art. 17); ref. 2247] Roadside pool, 3 kilometers south of Progreso, Yucatán, southeastern Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 102144. Paratypes: UMMZ 102145 (3). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question). •Valid as Astyanax altior Hubbs 1936 -- (Schmitter-Soto 1998:350 [ref. 23326], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:155 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Schmitter-Soto 2016:129 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1356 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax altior Hubbs 1936. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: North-western Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

altiparanae, Astyanax Garutti [V.] & Britski [H. A.] 2000:67, Fig. 1 [Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Sér. Zoologia. v. 13; ref. 24769] Miguelópolis, Rio Grande, represa de Volta Grande, about 20°10'S, 48°03'W, São Paulo, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 18592. Paratypes: MNRJ 19235 (1), MZUSP 48180 (32). Plus extensive non-type material. •Valid as Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski 2000 -- (Casatti et al. 2001:5 [ref. 25929], Prioli et al. 2002:424, 426 [ref. 26816], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2004:332 [ref. 27972], Vera Alcaraz et al. 2009:189 [ref. 30252], Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569 [ref. 30986], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Deprá et al. 2014:6015 [ref. 35445]). •Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:104 [ref. 34169], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

anai, Astyanax Angulo [A.], Santos [A. C.], López [M.], Langeani [F.] & McMahan [C. D.] 2018:[5], Figs. 1,3 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 92 (no. 6); ref. 35879] Stream 1.6 km south-east of Shiroles near Suretka, on Bratsi-Shiroles road, province of Limón, Costa Rica, 9°34'50"N, 82°56'44"W, elevation 60 meters. Holotype: UCR 1298-06.1. Paratypes: DZSJRP, FMNH, UCR. Plus additional non-type material. •Valid as Astyanax anai Angulo, Santos, López, Langeani & McMahan 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax anai Angulo, Santos, López, Langeani & McMahan 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Sixaola River basin, eastern Costa Rica - western Panama, Central America. Habitat: freshwater.

angustifrons, Tetragonopterus Regan [C. T.] 1908:172, Pl. 26 (fig. 5) [Biologia Centrali-Americana; ref. 18482] Mexico [probably southern Gulf of Mexico versant]. Lectotype: BMNH 1857.7.31.9. Paralectotypes: BMNH 2016.9.13.1-2 (2). Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1360 [ref. 35414]? •Valid as Astyanax angustifrons (Regan 1908) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1358 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax angustifrons (Regan 1908). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Campeche and Tabasco, Mexico, to northern Petén, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

antrobius, Anoptichthys Álvarez [J.] 1946:278, Figs. 16-23 [Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México v. 4 (nos 2-3) (1945); ref. 13037] Cavern of El Pachón, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: (70) AMNH 16929 (5), ANSP 96645 (3), UMMZ 147324 (4), USNM 132517 (4). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:4 [ref. 19022], Böhlke 1984:43 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus [complex] (Cuvier 1819) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:23 [ref. 26040]). •Synonym of Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:52 [ref. 28992]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

aramburui, Astyanax Protogino [L. C.], Miquelarena [A. M.] & López [H. L.] 2006:2, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 1297; ref. 28780] Villaguay Creek at Balneario, 31°55'S, 59°03'W, Gualeguay River basin, Entre Ríos Province, Argentina. Holotype: CFA-IC 11712 (ILPLA 1712). Paratypes: CFA-IC [ILPLA] 569 (13), 1709 (4, 2 c&s), 11710 [1710] (7), 11711 [1711] (5, 1 c&s), 11713 [1713] (4); MLP 9672 (1, not 2). Type catalog: Koerber 2007:2 [ref. 29776], Miquelarena et al. 2009:29-30 [ref. 34389], Miquelarena & Nadalin 2014:4 [ref. 33466], Bogan et al. 2019:11 [ref. 37088]. •Probably a synonym of Astyanax rutilus Jenyns 1842 -- (Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813]). •Valid as Astyanax aramburui Protogino, Miquelarena & López 2006 -- (Koerber 2011:3 [ref. 31122], Lucena et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Koerber 2014:4 [ref. 33621], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax aramburui Protogino, Miquelarena & López 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná and Uruguay river basins, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

argentatus, Astyanax Baird [S. F.] & Girard [C. F.] 1854:27 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 7; ref. 168] Upper tributaries of Nueces River, Texas, U.S.A. Lectotype: BMNH 1883.12.14.107. Paralectotypes: MCZ 858 [ex USNM] (3), USNM 869 (28). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:5 [ref. 19022] dated 1855. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1363 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax argentatus Baird & Girard 1854 -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1361 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax argentatus Baird & Girard 1854. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: North America: northeastern Mexico and Texas (U.S.A.). Habitat: freshwater.

argyrimarginatus, Astyanax Garutti [V.] 1999:586, Fig. 1 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 59 (no. 4); ref. 24920] Aragarças, Córrego Jaraguá, Araguaia River basin, Goiás, Brazil, about 15°55'S, 52°15'W. Holotype: MZUSP 48268 [? 18592]. Paratypes: MZUSP 4813 (10), 26518 (4), 48269-71 (4, 2, 2). •Valid as Astyanax argyrimarginatus Garutti 1999 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:372 [ref. 30985], Freitas et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34055]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax argyrimarginatus Garutti 1999. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

armandoi, Astyanax Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Contreras-Balderas [S.] 1990:97, Figs. 2 (top), 3a [Universidad y Ciencia v. 7 (no. 14); ref. 20678] Penjamo, near Palenque, Chiapas [actually Tabasco], Usumacinta basin, Mexico, 17°28'N, 91°36'W. Holotype: UANL 6380. Paratypes: AMNH 47835 (2); BMNH 1990.6.23.1-2 (2); IBUNAM-P 3240 (2); IPN uncat (2); MNHN uncat (2); TNHC 17640 (2); TU 157268 (2); UANL 6202 (29), 6378 (6, c&s), 6346 (orig. 13), 6381 (1, c&s); UMMZ 215480 (2); USNM 308113 (2). Type catalog: Bart & Taylor 1993:31 [ref. 20906], Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:2 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Astyanax armandoi Lozano-Vilano & Contreras-Balderas 1990 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:24 [ref. 22290], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Miller 2006:155 [ref. 28615]). •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Schmitter-Soto et al. 2008:409 [ref. 29633]). •Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1384 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

asuncionensis, Astyanax bimaculatus Géry [J.] 1972:3 [Studies on the Neotropical Fauna v. 7; ref. 21270] Rio Paraguay and upper Rio Tocantins. Syntypes: (179) CAS 38987-96 and 38999 [ex IU 10005-10010, 10239, 10241-43, 10293] (44), 38997 [IU 10244] (1), 38998 [ex IU 10247] (1), 39000 [ex IU 11083] (1); FMNH 54643-49 [ex CM 3280-3286] (8, 9, 5, 2, 10, 1, 2); CM 3274 and 3287 missing. Replacement name for Astyanax (Poecilurichthys) bimaculatus paraguayensis Eigenmann 1921, secondarily preoccupied in Astyanax by Bertoniolus paraguayensis Fowler 1918. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Miquelarena et al. 1997:66 [ref. 23469], Garutti & Britski 1997:225 [ref. 23650], Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:258 [ref. 26608], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720]). •Valid as Astyanax asuncionensis Géry 1972 -- (Casciotta et al. 2003:808 [ref. 27667], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Casciotta et al. 2003:93 [ref. 28130], Mirande et al. 2004:221 [ref. 27659], Miquelarena et al. 2005:19 [ref. 28188], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:14 [ref. 28757], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:375 [ref. 30985], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Mirande 2010:519 [ref. 31006], Soneira et al. 2010:784 [ref. 31078], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117]). •Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:104 [ref. 34169], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

atratoensis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:28, Fig. 5 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Río Truando, Río Atrato basin, Colombia. Holotype: USNM 1659 (missing). Paratypes: CAS 38962 [ex IU 11488] (1); USNM 1659 (1, perhaps the holotype), USNM 306566 [ex USNM 1659] (4). See discussion on types in Vari & Howe 1991:6 [ref. 19022] but they were unaware of the specimen at CAS. •Valid as Astyanax atratoensis Eigenmann 1907 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31365], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1340 [ref. 35414], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax atratoensis Eigenmann 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Atrato River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

bacalarensis, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1364, Figs. 9b, 22-23 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Southern end of Lake Bacalar, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 250289. Paratypes: ECOCH, UMMZ •Valid as Astyanax bacalarensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax bacalarensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Quintana Roo, Caribbean versant of Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, south to the Sittie River, Toledo district, Belize, west to Mopán, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

bagual, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Vigo [A. C.] 2015:266, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 33857] Rio Grande do Sul State, Dois Lageados, rio Carreiro downstream to hydroeletric plant PCH Linha Emília, rio Taquari-Antas basin, rio Jacuí drainage, laguna dos Patos system, Brazil, 28°56'30"S, 51°46'30"W. Holotype: UFRGS 19525. Paratypes: MCN, MCP, UFRGS. •Valid as Astyanax bagual Bertaco & Vigo 2015 -- (Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bagual Bertaco & Vigo 2015. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos system, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bahiensis, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1877:571 [13] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Bahia, Brazil. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57251-52 (2, 1). On p. 13 of separate. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698] with question). •Valid as Astyanax bahiensis (Steindachner 1877) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:120 [ref. 34169]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bahiensis (Steindachner 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Bahia, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

baileyi, Bramocharax Rosen [D. E.] 1972:4, Figs. 1-6 [American Museum Novitates No. 2500; ref. 17822] Río San Simon, 6 kilometers west of Chisec, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 30197. Paratypes: AMNH 29415 (2), 30198-99 (now 1, now 5); UMMZ 190495 [ex AMNH 30198] (1), 190763 [ex AMNH 30199] (3). •Valid as Bramocharax baileyi Rosen 1972 -- (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985:15 [ref. 19552], Bussing 1998:89 [ref. 24179], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax baileyi (Rosen 1972) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:126 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1367 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax baileyi (Rosen 1972). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Usumacinta River basin, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

bartlettii, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1866:30 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 3) v. 18 (no. 103) (art. 7); ref. 18187] Upper Amazon River. Syntypes: BMNH 1866.2.15.17-18 (2). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

belizianus, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Mullins River, Belize. Lectotype: MNHN 2016-320. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1907.4.10.3 [ex MNHN] (1), MNHN 0000-5224 and 5225 (12). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:21 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1371 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax belizianus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1368 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax belizianus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Mullins River, central Belize, south to tributaries of Lake Izabal, Guatemala and northern Honduras. Habitat: freshwater.

bimaculatus, Salmo Linnaeus [C.] 1758:311 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] South America [Suriname drainages]. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.34 (1), ?NRM 7236 (2). Type catalog and putative lectotype: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:215 [ref. 20707]. Type information: Wheeler 1989:210, Fig. 2A [ref. 21873]. •Mention -- (Malabarba 1989:128 [ref. 14217], Prioli et al. 2002:422 [ref. 26816]). •Valid as Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Géry et al. 1991:46 [ref. 21021], Taphorn 1992:110 [ref. 23654], Planquette et al. 1996:248 [ref. 22818], Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Garutti & Britski 1997:225 [ref. 23650], Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Sverlij et al. 1998:20 [ref. 27632], Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Butí & Cancino 1999:70 [ref. 25277], Garutti & Britski 2000:85 [ref. 24769], Marín 2000:67 [ref. 26252], Lasso et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25928], Camargo & Isaac 2001:139 [ref. 27639] as cf. bimaculatus, González-Carcacía & López-Rojas 2002:1 [ref. 28363], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27366], Garutti 2003:6 [ref. 27817], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:371 [ref. 30985], Di Dario et al. 2013:262 [ref. 37503], Lucena et al. 2013:540 [ref. 32914], Barriga Salazar 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Catelani et al. 2014:931 [ref. 37496] as aff. bimaculatus, Ramos et al. 2014:3 [ref. 35321] as aff. bimaculatus, Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:269 [ref. 33857], Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698] not Argentina, Lucena & Soares 2016:121 [ref. 34169], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Melo et al. 2016:132 [ref. 34701], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966] as aff. bimaculatus, Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145] as aff. bimaculatus, Schmitter-Soto 2017:1340 [ref. 35414], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633], Costa et al. 2017:44 [ref. 35684] as aff. bimaculatus, Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35773], Careaga et al. 2020:75 [ref. 37774], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809] as aff. bimaculatus). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Panama to the Amazon basin (Uruguay, Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

biotae, Astyanax Castro [R. M. C.] & Vari [R. P.] 2004:331, Fig. 1 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 117 (no. 3); ref. 27972] Upper rio Paraná system, Rio Paranapanema basin, Município de Diamante do Norte, Fazenda Água Mole, 22°38'31.7"S, 52°48'59.0"W, Paraná State, Brazil. Holotype: LIRP 4009. Paratypes: LIRP 2734 (15), 4021 (2 c&s), 4276 (34); MZUSP 79807 (10); USNM 373492 (15). •Valid as Astyanax biotae Castro & Vari 2004 -- (Protogino et al. 2006:11 [ref. 28780], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax biotae Castro & Vari 2004. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River system, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

boliviensis, Astyanax Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.], Buckup [P. A.] & Ortega [H.] 2018:10, Fig. 5 [European Journal of Taxonomy No. 402; ref. 35787] Madeira-Beni-Madidi-Candelaria River drainages, Candelaria River at La Candelaria, Amazon River basin, Iturralde Province, Bolivia, 13°35'21.88"S, 68°41'31.06"W, elevation 304 meters. Holotype: CBF 13504. Paratypes: CBF, UMSS. •Valid as Astyanax boliviensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax boliviensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Madeira River drainage, Amazon River basin, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

bopiensis, Astyanax Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.], Buckup [P. A.] & Ortega [H.] 2018:16, Fig. 7 [European Journal of Taxonomy No. 402; ref. 35787] Lower Bopi, Colorado River, Bolivia. Lectotype: CAS 38955. Paratypes: CAS 236977. Replacement name for Astyanacinus multidens Pearson 1924, secondarily preoccupied in Astyanax, but no longer needed as both species are again in different genera (ICZN Art. 59.4). Catalog number for lectotype designation was miscited as CAS 39955. •Valid as Astyanax bopiensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. •Synonym of Astyanax multidens (Pearson 1924). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax multidens (Pearson 1924). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

borealis, Astyanax bimaculatus var. Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:96 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Magdalena and Cauca, Colombia. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown, probably lost. Based on Tetragonopterus maculatus specimens identified by Steindachner 1878:42 and 1880:21. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Species inquirenda -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:120 [ref. 34169]). Current status: Uncertain as Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

bourgeti, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:95 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 89557 [ex MCZ 20768b]. •Valid as Astyanax bourgeti Eigenmann 1908 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:27 [ref. 37559] as boulengeri, Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:106 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bourgeti Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Upper Amazon River basin (Brazil and Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

brachypterygium, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2001:228, Figs. 9-10 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25645] Bom Jesus, arroio Agua Branca, 28°36'S, 50°24'W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, elevation 1050 meters. Holotype: MCP 26094. Paratypes: MCP 8627 (1, c&s), 11661 (5), 14367 (24), 14391 (26, 5 c&s), 22296 (10); MZUSP 62713 (20); NMW 94544 (20); UFRGS 4950 (20); USNM 364303 (20). •Valid as Astyanax brachypterygium Bertaco & Malabarba 2001 -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], de Melo & Buckup 2006:50 [ref. 28622], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Lucena et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587] as brachypterygyrium). Current status: Valid as Astyanax brachypterygium Bertaco & Malabarba 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Uruguay and Jacuí River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

bransfordii, Bramocharax Gill [T. N.] in Gill & Bransford 1877:190 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 29; ref. 1714] Lake Nicaragua, Nicaragua. Lectotype: USNM 16885. Paralectotypes: USNM 437594 (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:9 [ref. 19022]. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1373 [ref. 35414]? •Valid as Bramocharax bransfordii Gill 1877 -- (Villa 1982:102 [ref. 36708], Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985:15 [ref. 19552] as bransfordi, Bussing 1987:72 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:88 [ref. 24179], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061], Mirande 2010:497 [ref. 31006], Angulo et al. 2013:991 [ref. 33194]). •Valid as Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:129 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1371 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lake Nicaragua and tributaries, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

brevimanus, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:325 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Río San Gerónimo, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.388. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1864.1.24.177 (3), BMNH 2016.9.13.3-4 (2). Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1376 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax brevimanus (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1373 [ref. 35414], López-Segovia et al. 2020:110 [ref. 38151]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax brevimanus (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Southern North America and central America: Highlands of eastern Oaxaca and Chiapas (Mexico), south and east to Quiché and Baja Verapaz (Guatemala). Habitat: freshwater.

brevirhinus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:96 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Jequitinhonha, along the Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20905. •Valid as Astyanax brevirhinus Eigenmann 1908 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Triques et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27248], Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax brevirhinus Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

brevoortii, Poecilurichthys Gill [T. N.] 1858:417 [57] [Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York v. 6 (nos 10-13, art. 38); ref. 1750] Trinidad Island, West Indies. Syntypes: USNM 1113 (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:34 [ref. 19022]. On p. 57 of separate. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

brucutu, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.], Lima [F. C. T.], Di Dario [F.] & Gerhard [P.] 2017:493, Figs. 1-8 [Zootaxa 4232 (no. 4); ref. 35145] Iraquara, Fazenda Pratinha, rio Pratinha, tributary of rio Santo Antônio, rio Paraguaçu basin, Bahia State, Brazil, 12°21'13"S, 41°32'51"W. Holotype: ZUEC 12765. Paratypes: ANSP, MNRJ, MZUSP, NPM, UFBA, ZUEC. •Valid as Astyanax brucutu Zanata, Lima, Di Dario & Gerhard 2017 -- (Vita et al. 2020:[5] [ref. 37506], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax brucutu Zanata, Lima, Di Dario & Gerhard 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio Paraguaçu basin (Bahia, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

caballeroi, Bramocharax (Catemaco) Contreras-Balderas [S.] & Rivera-Teillery [R.] 1985:10 [Publicaciones Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Autónoma Nueva Leon v. 2 (no. 1); ref. 19552] Northwestern shore of Lake Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 5681. Paratypes: AMNH 55679 [ex UANL 2462] (4); ENCB-P-3966 (3); IBUNAM-P (3); TU (3), UANL 2368 (22), 2459 (1), 2462 (146, now 142), 2864 (3), 2949 (39); UMML 200245 (4); USNM 325997 (2). Plus non-type material. Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:2 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Bramocharax caballeroi Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985 -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:25 [ref. 22290], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Scharpf 2006:14 [ref. 30386], Miller 2006:156 [ref. 28615], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Astyanax caballeroi (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1376 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax caballeroi (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Catemaco Lake basin, Veracruz, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

caucanus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1879:189 [71] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 80 (nos 1-2); ref. 4229] Río Cauca, Colombia. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57372-76 (2, 3, 2, 2, 2); SMNS 2833 (2); ZMUC 993 (1). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:8 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:26 [ref. 29864] dated 1880. •Valid as Astyanax caucanus (Steindachner 1879) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31365], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax caucanus (Steindachner 1879). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ría Cauca, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

chaparae, Astyanax Fowler [H. W.] 1943:3, Fig. 2 [Notulae Naturae (Philadelphia) No. 120; ref. 1442] Todos Santos, Río Chapare, Cochabamba, Bolivia, elevation 1000 feet. Holotype (unique): ANSP 69194. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:44 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Astyanax chaparae Fowler 1943 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax chaparae Fowler 1943. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

clavitaeniatus, Astyanax Garutti [V.] 2003:3, Fig. 2 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 27817] Surumu, rio Surumu, about 3°30'N, 60°25'W, Roraima, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 5146. Paratypes: MBUCV-V-29167 (5); MZUSP 17748 (2), 17757 (4), 48281 (11). •Valid as Astyanax clavitaeniatus Garutti 2003 -- (Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Langeani 2009:372 [ref. 30985], Freitas et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34055]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax clavitaeniatus Garutti 2003. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Bronco River, Roraima State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cobanensis, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Upper Vera Paz, Coban, Guatemala. Syntypes: BMNH 1907.4.10.2 [ex MNHN] (1); MNHN 0000-5219-5220 (19). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:20 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with queston, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax brevimanus (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1373 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax brevimanus (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

cocibolca, Astyanax Bussing [W. A.] 2008:1362, Figs. 1, 3 [Revista de Biología Tropical v. 56 (no. 3); ref. 30066] Isletas de Granada, Lake of Nicaragua, depth 1.5 meters, elevation 31 meters. Holotype: LACM 56648-1. Paratypes: AMNH 30236 (20), LACM 56648-2 (50), UCR 24-16 (924), 61-4 (301), 62-2 (238), 242-7 (4), 538-6 (3), 539-6 (60), 540-5 (3), 547-6 (1), 552-3 (1), 553-2 (1), 1061-4 (2), 1075-8 (3). Type catalog: Angulo et al. 2015:367 [ref. 35212]. •Valid as Astyanax cocibolca Bussing 2008 -- (Angulo et al. 2013:991 [ref. 33194], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1379 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax cocibolca Bussing 2008. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lake Nicaragua and rivers draining into it: Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Habitat: freshwater.

cordovae, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1880:12 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 5) v. 6 (no. 31) (art. 2); ref. 14279] Río de Cordova (Plata), Argentina. Syntypes: BMNH 1872.4.4.4-11 (8). •Valid as Astyanax cordovae (Günther 1880) -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Zarske & Géry 1999:204 [ref. 24913], Azpelicueta, Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:22 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena et al. 2005:19 [ref. 28188], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande & Koerber 2015:23 [ref. 35117], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax cordovae (Günther 1880). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Primero River, western Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

costaricensis, Astyanax aeneus var. Meek [S. E.] 1914:105 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 10); ref. 2961] Costa Rica. Syntypes: FMNH 6349 (1), 7866-73 (5, 39, 15, 2, 6, 61, 49, 25); UMMZ 162475 (5). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Bussing 1998:81 [ref. 24179]). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax nicaraguensis Eigenmann & Ogle 1907 -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1393 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax nicaraguensis Eigenmann & Ogle 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

courensis, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.], Carvalho [F. R.] & Jerep [F. C.] 2010:269, Figs. 5-6 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 8 (no. 2); ref. 30864] Rio dos Couros at Parque Portal da Chapada, tributary of rio Tocantinzinho, upper rio Tocantins basin, Alto Paraíso de Goías, Goías State, Brazil, 14°09'58"S, 47°35'43"W, elevation 1135 meters. Holotype: UFRGS 11499. Paratypes: MCP 44403 (20), 44404 (1); UFRGS 9934 (5), 11290 (107, 5 c&s), 11295 (5), 11588 (38, 2 c&s). •Valid as Astyanax courensis Bertaco, Carvalho & Jerep 2010 -- (Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax courensis Bertaco, Carvalho & Jerep 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio dos Couros drainage, upper rio Tocantins basin, Goías, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cremnobates, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2001:224, Figs. 2-4 [Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters v. 12 (no. 3); ref. 25645] Rio Grande do Sul, São Francisco de Paula, tributary of rio Santa Cruz, 29°23'S, 50°32'W, Brazil, elevation 850 meters. Holotype: MCP 26093. Paratypes: MCP 11142 (25, 5 c&s), 11650 (34, 2 c&s), 21101 (12), 22295 (78), 22297 (9), 25660 (15); MZUSP 62712 (20); NMW 94543 (20); UFRGS 4949 (20); USNM 364302 (20). •Valid as Astyanax cremnobates Bertaco & Malabarba 2001 -- (Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1052 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Casciotta et al. 2003:332 [ref. 27401], Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Mirande et al. 2004:220 [ref. 27659], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], de Melo & Buckup 2006:50 [ref. 28622], Ruiz-C. & Román-Valenca 2006:60 [ref. 28891], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Lucena et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax cremnobates Bertaco & Malabarba 2001. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Jacui and Maquiné River basins, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

cubilhuitz, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1380, Fig. 32 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Spring origin of short stream with underground drainage to Río Dolores, Cubilhuitz, Icbolay, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, elevation 300 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 250290. Paratypes: UMMZ. •Valid as Astyanax cubilhuitz Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax cubilhuitz Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Dolores, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

depressirostris, Astyanax Miranda Ribeiro [A. de] 1908:[3] [Kosmos, Rio de Janeiro [Rev. Art. Sci. Litt.] v. 5 (no. 2) (for 1907); ref. 3715] Rio Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil. Lectotype: MNRJ 18241 [ex 2621A]. Paralectotypes: MNRJ 2621 (5). Type catalog: Miranda Ribeiro 1955:396 [ref. 12732]. Lectotype selected by Miranda Ribeiro 1953:396 [ref. 12732] [specimen subsequently isolated]. •Valid as Astyanax depressirostris Miranda Ribeiro 1908 -- (Lucena & Lucena 2002:119 [ref. 26205], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556]). •Species inquirenda -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax depressirostris Miranda Ribeiro 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dissimilis, Astyanax Garavello [J. C.] & Sampaio [F. A. A.] 2010:859, Fig. 8 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 70 (no. 3); ref. 31053] Rio Canoinhas, tributary to Rio Iguaçu near the bridge on highway BR 280 from Mafra to Itaiópolis, Canoinhas, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 105969. Paratypes: many at LISDEBE, MHNCI, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax dissimilis Garavello & Sampaio 2010 -- (Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632], Koerber et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36736], Mirande & Koerber 2020:2 [ref. 37594]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax dissimilis Garavello & Sampaio 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio Iguaçu basin (Brazil and Argentina). Habitat: freshwater.

dolinae, Astyanax da Graça [W. J.], Oliveira [C. A. M.], Lima [F. C. T.], da Silva [H. P.] & Fernandes [I. M.] 2017:3, Figs. 1-4 [Journal of Fish Biology v. 91 (no. 4); ref. 35556] Dolina Água Milagrosa, Rio Paraguai basin, município de Cáceres, Mato Grosso state, Brazil, 16°02'34"S, 57°31'40"W. Holotype: MCP 49961. Paratypes: ANSP, CPUFMT, MCP, MZUSP, NUP, ZUEC. •Valid as Astyanax dolinae da Graça, Oliveira, Lima, da Silva & Fernandes 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax dolinae da Graça, Oliveira, Lima, da Silva & Fernandes 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Rio Paraguai basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

dorioni, Bramocharax bransfordi Rosen [D. E.] 1970:3, Figs. 1, 2, 4, 6-9 [American Museum Novitates No. 2435; ref. 7781] Río Semococh, 15 kilometers by road south of Sebol, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Holotype: AMNH 29411. Paratypes and other specimens: AMNH 29412 (orig. 53, now 49), 29413 (22, 4 c&s), 29414 (6), AMNH 27816SD (3 skeletons); MCZ 48687 [ex UMMZ 187926] (2); UNAL 5705 [ex AMNH 29412] (4); UMMZ 187926 (23, 3 skel.); UMMZ 187930 (11), 187944 (8). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:2 [ref. 23752]. •Valid as Bramocharax dorioni Rosen 1970 -- (Contreras-Balderas & Rivera-Teillery 1985:15 [ref. 19552], Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax dorioni (Rosen 1970) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1382 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax dorioni (Rosen 1970). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Usumacinta River basin, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

douradilho, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] 2014:493, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 3794 (no. 3); ref. 33320] Rio Grande do Sul State, municipality of Maquiné, Barra do Ouro District, rio Maquiné basin, rio Tramadaí system, arroio Encantado, 29°36’28"S, 50°12’15"W, Brazil. Holotype: MCN 19858. Paratypes: MCN, MCP. •Valid as Astyanax douradilho Bertaco 2014 -- (Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax douradilho Bertaco 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Tramandaí system, coastal drainage of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elachylepis, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Lucinda [P. H. F.] 2005:390, Figs. 2-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 28387] Ribeirão Arara, about 500 meters from mouth of rio Maranhão at Rosariana, Niquelândia, Goiás, Brazil, about 14°02'S, 48°26'W. Holotype: MCP 37568. Paratypes: MCP 15862 (2), 15922 (1), 16054 (15, 2 C&S); MZUSP 30258 (17), 40533 (112), 58093 (16); UNT 740 (1), 1891 (10), 2033 (36), 2036 (1), 2037 (3), 2157 (1), 2158 (2). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Astyanax elachylepis Bertaco & Lucinda 2005 -- (Protogino et al. 2006:12 [ref. 28780], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax elachylepis Bertaco & Lucinda 2005. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tocantins River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

elongatus, Bramocharax Meek [S. E.] 1907:110 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 2959] Lago Managua at Managua, Nicaragua. Holotype: FMNH 5922. Paratypes: FMNH 5919 (18, 3 c&s), 5920-21 (2, 1), 33077-83 (7). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:17 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Bramocharax bransfordii Gill 1877 -- (Menezes in Reis et al. 2003:114 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1371 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bransfordii (Gill 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

embera, Astyanax Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.], Buckup [P. A.] & Ortega [H.] 2018:6, Fig. 2 [European Journal of Taxonomy No. 402; ref. 35787] Patía River Basin (Pacific Coast), Telembí River drainage, in Telembí River at mouth of Yamunde River, 1 km below Barbacoas, Barbacoas Municipality, Nariño Department, Colombia, 01°39'56"N, 78°09'12"W, elevation 61 meters. Holotype: IUQ 3614. Paratypes: IUQ. •Valid as Astyanax embera Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax embera Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Middle portion of the Telembí River drainage, Pacific coast of Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

epiagos, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2008:29, Fig. 1 [Zootaxa No. 1908; ref. 29887] Morro do Chapéu, rio Ferro Doido, above Cachoeira do Ferro Doido, tributary of rio Jacuípe, Paraguaçu drainage, 11°37'34.0"N, 41°00'11.5"W, Bahia, Brazil, elevation 899 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 89568. Paratypes: ANSP 189081 (20); MCUSP 89569 (20); UFBA 02792 (344, 3 c&s), 02794 (6). •Valid as Astyanax epiagos Zanata & Camelier 2008 -- (Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax epiagos Zanata & Camelier 2008. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio Ferro Doido, tributary of rio Jacuípe, Paraguaçu drainage (eastern Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

eremus, Astyanax Ingenito [L. F. S.] & Duboc [L. F.] 2014:282, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 12 (no. 2); ref. 33374] Paraná, Balsa, Nova, rio Canivete, at Fazenda Amola-Faca/Registro, tributary to the rio Iguaçu, 25°35’09"S, 49°44’01"W, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 39677. Paratypes: MCP 46942 (10, 2 c&s), MHNCI 12485 (8 plus 5), MNRJ 39678 (11, 2 c&s), NUP 13501 (8). •Valid as Astyanax eremus Ingenito & Duboc 2014 -- (da Graça et al. 2017:12 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax eremus Ingenito & Duboc 2014. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

fasslii, Tetragonopterus (Aequidens) Steindachner [F.] 1915:48 [34], Pl. 4 (fig. 7) [Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. v. 93; ref. 4244] Western Colombia. Holotype (unique): NMW. On p. 34 of separate; also in Steindachner 1917 [ref. 15259]. •Species not listed in earlier abstract [ref. 18909]. •Valid as Astyanax fasslii (Steindachner 1915) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax fasslii (Steindachner 1915). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

filiferus, Zygogaster Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:23 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Apulo, Colombia. Holotype (unique): CAS 62258 [ex IU 12847]. •Valid as Astyanax filiferus (Eigenmann 1913) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31365], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax filiferus (Eigenmann 1913). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

finitimus, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico. Lectotype: MNHN 2016-321. Paralectotypes: MNHN 0000-5223 (1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:20-21 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1386 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1384 [ref. 35414], López-Segovia et al. 2020:110 [ref. 38151]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Southern North America: Veracruz, Tabasco, and northern Oaxaca and Chiapas (Gulf coast of Mexico). Habitat: freshwater.

fischeri, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1879:151 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 16 (no. 15) (for 19 June 1879); ref. 20478] Río Mamoni, Panama. Syntypes: (several) NMW. Species described in above abstract only, and not listed or described in subsequent main work (Steindachner 1879 [ref. 18782]). •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1400 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

fulgens, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Cuernovaca, Mexico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5194 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:20 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. •Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1389 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

gandhiae, Astyanax Ruiz-C. [R. I.], Román-Valencia [C.], Taphorn [D. C.], Buckup [P. A.] & Ortega [H.] 2018:13, Fig. 6 [European Journal of Taxonomy No. 402; ref. 35787] Upper Cenepa River drainage, Marañon River Basin, Condorcanqui Province, Department of Amazonas, Peru, 3°58'15"S, 78°41'15"W. Holotype: MUSM 46845. Paratypes: MUSM. •Valid as Astyanax gandhiae Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Current status: Valid as Astyanax gandhiae Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

gisleni, Astyanax Dahl [G.] 1943:218 [4], Fig. [Förhanglingar / Klungl. Fysiografiska sällskapet i Lund = Proceedings of the Royal Physiographic Society at Lund. v. 12 (no. 18); ref. 13198] Río Aburrá, tributary via Río Porce to River Nechí, Magdalena system, Medellín, Antióquia, Colombia, elevation about 1500 meters. Syntypes: (13) ZMUL. Orig. as Gisléni. On p. 4 of separate. •Valid as Astyanax gisleni Dahl 1943 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax gisleni Dahl 1943. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

goyacensis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:96 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Vermelho, rio Araguaia tributary, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 89558. •Valid as Astyanax goyacensis Eigenmann 1908 -- (Garutti 1998:120 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:371, 372 [ref. 30985], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:862 [ref. 31053], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Marinho et al. 2015:576 [ref. 33708], Freitas et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34055], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax goyacensis Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Tocantins basin, Goiás, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

goyanensis, Astyanacinus Miranda Ribeiro [P. de] 1944:1, Fig. [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Nova Série. Zoologia No. 29; ref. 9903] Rio do Couro, Veadeiros, Estado do Goias, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 4129. Paratypes: MNRJ 2843 (7). •Valid as Astyanacinus goyanensis Miranda Ribeiro 1944 -- (Lima in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax goyanensis Miranda-Ribeiro 1944 -- (Bertaco et al. 2010:266 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138] with authorship as Bertaco, Carvalho & Jerep 2010, Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax goyanensis (Miranda Ribeiro 1944). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tributaries of the rio dos Couros, affluent of rioTocantinzinho and rio Paraná basin, Upper rio Tocantinzinho basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

gracilior, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:98 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Obidos and Villa Bella, Brazil. Syntypes: MCZ 20716 (1), 20838 (1), 21012 (1). •Valid as Astyanax gracilior Eigenmann 1908 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061], Garutti & Venere 2009:378 [ref. 30493]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax gracilior Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

grandis, Astyanax Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1912:67 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 10 (no. 6); ref. 10934] Río Juan Díaz, Panama. Holotype: FMNH 7571. Paratypes: (196) FMNH 12199-204 (75, 12, 31, 11, 25, 36), 12211-16 (1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1), 13089 (6), 13089 (6), 32015-16 (1, 1). Questionable paratypes: FMNH 12205-10 (12, 13, 15, 13, 15, 9). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1401 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

gronovii, Tetragonopterus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:143 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Suriname. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4402 (1), 4414 (1), A-9810 (1), A-9812 (2). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:18-19 [ref. 19577]. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

guaricana, Astyanax Oliveira [C. A. M.], Abilhoa [V.] & Pavanelli [C. S.] 2013:292, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 2); ref. 32756] Paraná State, municipality of São José dos Pinhais, Arraial, Guaricana Reservoir, affluent of the rio Cubatao, Brazil, 25°42'29"S, 48°58'25"W. Holotype: MZUSP 112224. Paratypes: Many at MHNCI, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax guaricana Oliveira, Abilhoa & Pavanelli 2013 -- (da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]), Current status: Valid as Astyanax guaricana Oliveira, Abilhoa & Pavanelli 2013. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Southeastern Mata Atlantica, Paraná State, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

henseli, Astyanax de Melo [F. A. G.] & Buckup [P. A.] 2006:46 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 28622] Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Holotype (unique): ZMB 7479. Replacement for Tetragonopterus aeneus Hensel 1870, preoccupied in Tetragonopterus by T. aeneus Günther 1860. •Valid as Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup 2006 -- (Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Lucena et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:493 [ref. 33320], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:270 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561] with author as Melo & Buckup, Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax henseli de Melo & Buckup 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

hubbsi, Anoptichthys Álvarez [J.] 1947:215, Fig. 1 [Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural v. 8 (nos 1-4); ref. 12993] Cueva de los Sabinos, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: whereabouts unknown. Paratypes: BMNH 1951.12.3.14-17 (4), UANL 998 (3), UMMZ 164103 (33). Type catalog: Contreras-Balderas et al. 1998:2 [ref. 23752]. Genus misspelled in species heading as Anopitchthys. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus [complex] (Cuvier 1819) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:23 [ref. 26040]). •Synonym of Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:52 [ref. 28992]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

humilis, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:327 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Lake Amatitlan, Guatemala. Syntypes: (at least 4) BMNH 1865.4.29.45-50 (6). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1352 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

incaicus, Astyanax bimaculatus Tortonese [E.] 1942:62 [52], Pl. 3 [Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia e di Anatomia Comparata della R. Università di Torino (Ser. 4) v. 49 (no. 117) (for 1941-1942); ref. 10294] Río Zamora, in Río Maranon basin, Ecuador. Holotype: MZUT 3560. Paratypes: (10) MSNG 35975 (3); MZUT (10). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. On p. 52 of separate. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:27 [ref. 37559], Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax incaicus Tortonese 1942 -- (Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Langeani 2009:372 [ref. 30985], Freitas et al. 2015:183 [ref. 34055]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax incaicus Tortonese 1942. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Río Zamora drainage (Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

integer, Astyanax Myers [G. S.] 1930:67 [Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington v. 43; ref. 12360] Guaicaramo, at junction of Río Guavio and Río Upía, Colombia. Holotype (unique): CAS-SU 23726. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Astyanax integer Myers 1930 -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:27 [ref. 37559], Taphorn 1992:113 [ref. 23654], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:106 [ref. 35745] as cf. integer, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax integer Myers 1930. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Orinoco River basin (Colombia and Ecuador). Habitat: freshwater.

jacobinae, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2008:34, Figs. 4-5 [Zootaxa No. 1908; ref. 29887] Jacobina, Itaitu village, rio da Jaqueira, below Cachoeira Araponga, tributary of rio Itapicuru-mirim, rio Itapicuru basin, 11°22'19.8"N, 40°29'39.7"W, Bahia, Brazil, elevation 535 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 89570. Paratypes: MZUSP 89571 (3); UFBA 02793 (5, 1 c&s). •Valid as Astyanax jacobinae Zanata & Camelier 2008 -- (Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax jacobinae Zanata & Camelier 2008. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio Itapicuru basin (Bahia, Brazil). endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

jacuhiensis, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1894:88, Pl. 6 (fig. 6) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Jacuí, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Lectotype: ANSP 21912. Paralectotypes and non-types: (should be 14) ANSP 21606-11 (6), 21683-701 (19) [21702-03 (2) exchanged with Géry], 21913-16 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621]. Lectotype established by Fowler 1907:435 [ref. 1374]. •Affinitites with Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) and same as Astyanax maculatus (Müller & Troschel 1845) -- (Malabarba 1989:128 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Astyanax jacuhiensis (Cope 1894) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], de Melo & Buckup 2006:49 [ref. 28622], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:19 [ref. 30750], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Lucena et al. 2013:232 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al.2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565] as jacuihiensis). •Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:103 [ref. 34169], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

jenynsii, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1877:580 [22], Pl. 3 (figs. 1-2) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 74 (1. Abth.); ref. 4224] Rio Parahyba, Brazil. Syntypes: (7) NMW 57534-35 (3, 2). On p. 22 of separate. •Valid as Astyanax jenynsii (Steindachner 1877) -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2001:224 [ref. 25645], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax jenynsii (Steindachner 1877). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Paraíba do Sul, eastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

joaovitori, Astyanax Oliveira [C. A. M.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 2017:174, Figs. 1a-c [Zootaxa 4320 (no. 1); ref. 35587] Headwaters of rio Araguaia, near Parque Nacional das Emas, municipality of Alto Taquari, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 17°53'52"S, 53°07'38"W. Holotype: MCP 51897. Paratypes: LIRP, MCP, MZUEL, NUP. •Valid as Astyanax joaovitori Oliveira, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax joaovitori Oliveira, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper rio Araguaia basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jordanensis, Astyanax Vera Alcaraz [H. S.], Pavanelli [C. S.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 2009:186, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 30253] Rio Iguaçu basin, middle rio Jacu, 25°37'S, 52°03'W, município de Candói, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 99137. Paratypes: MCP 41914 (10), 41915 (4); MHNCI 11714 (10); MZUSP 99138 (12); NUP 5242 (1, c&s), 5245 (1 c&s), 5248 (3), 5251 (4), 5252 (1). •Valid as Astyanax jordanensis Vera Alcaraz, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2009 -- (Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569 [ref. 30986], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax jordanensis Vera Alcaraz, Pavanelli & Bertaco 2009. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Iguaçu basin, Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

jordani, Anoptichthys Hubbs [C. L.] & Innes [W. T.] 1936:5, Pl. 1 [Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan No. 342; ref. 2256] Subterranean stream in forested mountain region of southeastern San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 113514. Paratypes: (2) ?UMMZ 114486 (4). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus [complex] (Cuvier 1819) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:23 [ref. 26040]). •Valid as Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936) -- (Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:24 [ref. 22290], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Proudlove 2006:52 [ref. 28992]). •Mention -- (Miller 2006:156 [ref. 28615]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax jordani (Hubbs & Innes 1936). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

kennedyi, Astyanax (Astyanax) Géry [J.] 1964:28, Fig. 3 [Tropical Fish Hobbyist v. 13 (no. 4, Dec.); ref. 2264] Upper Amazon region, surrounding Iquitos, Peru. Holotype: USNM 200425 [ex Géry coll. 399.1]. Paratypes: (2). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax kennedyi Géry 1964 -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax kennedyi Géry 1964. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

keronolepis, Astyanax Silva [P. C.], Malabarba [M. C.] & Malabarba [L. R.] 2019:117, Figs. 8-9 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 278; ref. 36458] Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar, Núcleo Picinguaba, rio Picinguaba (rio da Fazenda), Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil, 23°21'50"S, 4°49'47"W. Holotype: MNRJ 51290. Paratypes: MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, UFRGS. •Valid as Astyanax keronolepis Silva, Malabarba & Malabarba 2019. Current status: Valid as Astyanax keronolepis Silva, Malabarba & Malabarba 2019. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Coastal streams from Ubatuba (São Paulo State) to Guapimirim River basin (Rio de Janeiro State), Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

kompi, Astyanax Hildebrand [S. F.] 1938:260, Fig. 3 [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 22 (no. 4); ref. 12363] Laguna Gulnar or Grande, Volcán, Pacific slope, Panama, elevation 4500 feet. Holotype: USNM 106510. Paratypes: FMNH 36645-50 (6), USNM 109262 (40). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax kompi Hildebrand 1938 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1416 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax kompi Hildebrand 1938. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Chririquí Viejo River basin, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

kullanderi, Astyanax Costa [W. J. E. M.] 1995:258, Fig. 1 [Revue Suisse de Zoologie v. 102 (no. 1); ref. 22032] Stream tributary of River Perdidos, 10 kilometers west of Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso, Brazil, 15°32'S, 54°18'W. Holotype: MNRJ 12427. Paratypes: MHNG 2542.17 (3); MNRJ 12428 (5); MZUSP 45288 (3); NRM 21000 (4); UFRJ 1290 (7), 1291 (4, c&s). Type catalog: Oyakawa 1996:451 [ref. 23140]. •Valid as Astyanax kullanderi Costa 1995 -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax kullanderi Costa 1995. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Das Mortes River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

lacustris, Tetragonopterus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Reinhardt) 1875:131 [5] [Oversigt over det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Forhandlinger og dets Medlemmers Arbeider (Kjøbenhavn) 1874 (no. 3); ref. 2856] Lagoa Santa, 19°38'S, 43°53'W, Brazil. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-9580 [ex ZMUC] (3), NMW 57540 (1), SMNS 2045 (2), ZMB 9200 (2), ZMUC uncat. (25). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:21 [ref. 19577], Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588], Fricke 1995:9 [ref. 28100], Fricke 2005:26 [ref. 29864]. On p. 5 of separate. Also described in Lütken 1875:208 (and p. XIII of summary), Pl. 5 (fig. 15) [ref. 19674]. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Britski 2001:21 [ref. 26046]). •Valid as Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Lucena & Soares 2016:103 [ref. 34169], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Petry et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34966] as aff. lacustris, Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Melo et al. 2016:375 [ref. 35317], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984], Azevedo-Santos et al. 2019:5 [ref. 36506], Dickens 2019:162 [ref. 37135], Koerber et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36736], Koerber et al. 2020:3 [ref. 37480], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809], Vita et al. 2020:[5] [ref. 37506]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio La Plata and rio São Francisco drainages (Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay). Habitat: freshwater.

laticeps, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1894:89, Pl. 6 (fig. 7) [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 33; ref. 965] Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Holotype: ANSP 21852. Paratypes: ANSP 21853-63 (11, missing), 21743-46 (4) Géry coll. [ex ANSP 21747] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:49 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratypes. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:348 [ref. 1373]. •Synonym of Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns 1842), but a valid subspecies laticeps (Cope 1894) -- (Malabarba 1989:130 [ref. 14217], Triques et al. 2003:149 [ref. 27248], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565] as scinabripinnis). •Valid as Astyanax laticeps (Cope 1894) -- (Bertaco & Malabarba 2001:231 [ref. 25645], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1053 [ref. 26511], Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Casciotta et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27401], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], de Melo & Buckup 2006:50 [ref. 28622], Azpelicueta & Loureiro 2009:3 [ref. 30196], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:12 [ref. 30750], Almirón et al. 2010:67 [ref. 30813], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Lucena et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32870], Lucena et al. 2013:542 [ref. 32914], Bertaco 2014:498 [ref. 33320], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:289 [ref. 33374], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:270 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Nión et al. 2016:29 [ref. 35565], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax laticeps (Cope 1894). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

leopoldi, Astyanax Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1988:9, Figs. 1-3, 6 [Revue française d'Aquariologie Herpétologie v. 15 (no. 1); ref. 6408] Alicoto Falls, upstream Camopi River, Moyen Oyapok, French Guiana. Holotype: IRSNB 731. Paratypes: IRSNB 732 (99, now 25), 733-737 (2, 8, 5, 3, 2); MHNG 2383-99 (1), 2393-98 (24); MNHN 1981-0367 to 0389 (3, 7, 2), 1981-0392 (2), 1981-0552 (2), 1981-0560 (1), 1981-0565 (5), 1981-0568 (2), 1981-0569 (5). •Valid as Astyanax leopoldi Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1988 -- (Géry et al. 1991:49 [ref. 21021], Planquette et al. 1996:250 [ref. 22818], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax leopoldi Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1988. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Approuague and Oyapock River basins: Brazil and French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

lineatus, Tetragonopterus Perugia [A.] 1891:644 [44] [Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova (Serie 2) v. 10; ref. 3431] Cáceres (formerly Villa María), Río Paraguay, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Syntypes: ?CAS 39222 [ex IU 11520] (1), MSNG 9233 (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. On p. 44 of separate. •Valid as Astyanax lineatus (Perugia 1891) -- (Miquelarena et al. 1997:67 [ref. 23469], Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Azpelicueta et al. 2002:1053 [ref. 26511] as linneatus, Almirón et al. 2002:8 [ref. 26720], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], López et al. 2003:23 [ref. 27366], Casciotta et al. 2003:333 [ref. 27401] as linneatus, Azpelicueta et al. 2003:11 [ref. 27696], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Mirande et al. 2006:58 [ref. 28784], Mirande 2010:519 [ref. 31006], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Mirande & Koerber 2015:24 [ref. 35117], Koerber 2016:142 [ref. 35012], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:179 [ref. 35587], Careaga et al. 2020:75 [ref. 37774]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax lineatus (Perugia 1891). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: La Plata River basin (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay). Habitat: freshwater.

linnaei, Tetragonopterus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:142 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Cayenne, French Guiana. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-9809. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:18 [ref. 19577]. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

longior, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1878:691 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 17 (no. 101); ref. 945] Moyabamba on Río Huallaga, Peru. Lectotype: ANSP 21222. Paralectotypes: ANSP 21223 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:50 [ref. 13621] as holotype and paratype. Lectotype established by Fowler 1906:341, Fig. 29 [not 30] [ref. 1373]. •Valid as Astyanax longior (Cope 1878) -- (Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax longior (Cope 1878). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

lorien, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.], Burger [R.] & Camelier [P.] 2018:473, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4438 (no. 3); ref. 35984] Stream tributary of Rio Mucugezinho, itself a tributary of Rio Santo Antônio, Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina, Lençóis, Bahia State, Brazil, 12°28'02"S, 41°24'56"W, elevation 734 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 123398. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP, NUP, UFBA. •Valid as Astyanax lorien Zanata, Burger & Camelier 2018 -- (Burger et al. 2019:377 [ref. 36718], Zanata et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37072], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax lorien Zanata, Burger & Camelier 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: upper Rio Paraguaçu basin (Bahia, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

macal, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1387, Figs. 10a, 35 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Between San Luis and Millonarios, Cayo District, Macal River, Maya Mountains, highlands of Belize. Holotype: UMMZ 250291. Paratypes: UMMZ •Valid as Astyanax macal Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax macal Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Macal River, Maya Mountains, Belize. Habitat: freshwater.

macrophthalmus, Tetragonopterus Regan [C. T.] 1908:171, Pl. 26 (fig. 4) [Biologia Centrali-Americana; ref. 18482] Motzorongo, Veracruz, southern Mexico. Syntypes: (several) BMNH 1857.7.31.10 (1), 1905.12.6.19-22 (4), 1906.6.1.268 (1), 1906.6.1.269-278 (10?). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698] with question). •Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1384 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculatus, Tetragonopterus Müller [J.] & Troschel [F. H.] 1845:14, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Horae Ichthyologicae Nos 1 & 2; ref. 3071] Brazil; Guiana; Suriname. Syntypes: MSNG 9226 [ex ZMB] (2). Type catalog: Tortonese 1961:183 [ref. 10343]. •Affinities with Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Malabarba 1989:128 [ref. 14217]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Taphorn 1992:110 [ref. 23654], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

maculisquamis, Astyanax Garutti [V.] & Britski [H. A.] 1997:220, Fig. 1 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 40 (no. 14); ref. 23650] Pontes e Lacerda (ca. 15°12'S, 59°22'W), small creek tributary of Rio Guaporé, tributary of Rio Madeira, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 37680. Paratypes: MZUSP 48181 (72). •Valid as Astyanax maculisquamis Garutti & Britski 1997 -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:110 [ref. 27061], Lucena & Soares 2016:120 [ref. 34169]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax maculisquamis Garutti & Britski 1997. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Guaporé River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

magdalenae, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] & Henn [A. W.] 1916:89 [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 10 (nos 1/2) (art. 7); ref. 12361] Girardot, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 57006 [ex CM 5822]. Paratypes: CAS 39223 [ex IU 13611] (1). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax magdalenae Eigenmann & Henn 1916 -- (Galvis et al. 1997:41 [ref. 23651], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31365], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax magdalenae Eigenmann & Henn 1916. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombian rivers and the Catatumbo River basin, Lake Maracaibo basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

maximus, Tetragonopterus Steindachner [F.] 1876:593 [43], Pl. 7 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 72 (1. Abth.); ref. 18772] Tullumayo and Monterico, Peru. Syntypes: (several) NMW 57662-63 (1, 2). On p. 43 of separate. •Valid as Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Ovchynnyk 1967:27 [ref. 37559], Ortega & Vari 1986:7 [ref. 9708], Zarske & Géry 1999:205 [ref. 24913], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:106 [ref. 35745] as cf. maximus, DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: upper Amazon and Orinoco River basins (Peru, Ecuador?, Colombia and Venezuela). Habitat: freshwater.

megaspilura, Astyanax Fowler [H. W.] 1944:228, Figs. 1-2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 96; ref. 1452] A clear brook of Río Jurubidá, Nuquí, Colombia, elevation 3000 feet. Holotype: ANSP 71418. Paratypes: ANSP 71419-24 (6). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:51 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Astyanax megaspilura Fowler 1944 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax megaspilura Fowler 1944. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

metae, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann, Henn & Wilson 1914:11 [Indiana University Studies No. 19; ref. 1259] Río Negro at Villavicencio, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56640 [ex CM 5457]. Paratypes: CAS 39229 [ex IU 13153] (4), FMNH 56641 (2). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax metae Eigenmann 1914 -- (Taphorn 1992:116 [ref. 23654], Marín 2000:66 [ref. 26252]). •Synonym of Astyanax maximus (Steindachner 1876) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061] with question). •Valid as Astyanax metae Eigenmann 1914 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax metae Eigenmann 1914. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Colombia and Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

mexicanus, Tetragonopterus De Filippi [F.] 1853:166 [3] [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 5; ref. 17378] A lake near Mexico [probably Lake Tequesquitengo, Pacific drainage, Mexico]. Lectotype: ZMUC 941. Paralectotypes: MZUT 159 (3), ZMUC 942 (1). Type catalog: Tortonese 1940:138 [ref. 21559], Nielsen 1974:46 [ref. 9588]. On p. 3 of separate. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1391 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus [complex] (Cuvier 1819) -- (Romero & Paulson 2001:22 [ref. 26040]). •Valid as Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Lee et al. 1980:139 [ref. 22416], Tomelleri & Eberle 1990:75 [ref. 24089], Page & Burr 1991:62 [ref. 18983], Espinosa Pérez et al. 1993:25 [ref. 22290], Bussing 1998:80 [ref. 24179], Fuller et al. 1999:180 [ref. 25838], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Nelson et al. 2004:80 [ref. 27807], Panaram & Borowsky 2005:409 [ref. 28248], Miller 2006:156 [ref. 28615], Scharpf 2006:13 [ref. 30386], Mirande et al. 2007:38 [ref. 29333], Bussing 2009:1361 [ref. 30066], Minckley & Marsh 2009:103 [ref. 31114], Mirande 2010:515 [ref. 31006], Page & Burr 2011:340 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:81 [ref. 32708], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Terán et al. 2017:7 [ref. 35358], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1389 [ref. 35414], Raz-Guzmán et al. 2018:344 [ref. 36407]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Balsas River basin, Armería River and other adjacent smaller drainages in Colima, Jalisco, Morelos and Guerrero, Pacific Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

microlepis, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:24 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Piedra Moler, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56209 [ex CM 5001]. Paratypes: (numerous, CM and IU) CAS 39341-45 [ex IU 12769-73] (2, 33, 12, 10, 40); FMNH 56210-14 (2, 36, 10, 9, 44), 69559-61 (77, 101, 100), 71291 (137), 95006 (87); USNM 79167 (4). Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax microlepis Eigenmann 1913 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633], Terán et al. 2020:9 [ref. 37440]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax microlepis Eigenmann 1913. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Cauca River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

microphthalmus, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:324 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Rio Rímac, Peru; Lago de Amatitlán, Guatemala; Pacific coast of Guatemala. Syntypes: (9) BMNH 1863.2.3.8-12 (5) Rio Rimac, ?1864.1.26.349-350 (2) Panama or Guatemala, ?1865.4.29.43-44 (2) Lake Amatilán. Loality as Panama or Guatemala ('Pacific coast of Guatemala' according to Günther 1864:324 [ref. 1974], but 'Pacific coast of Panama' according to jar label and register entry). The Peru syntypes were reidentified as Bryconamericus peruanus (Müller & Troschel 1845) (J. Maclaine, personal communication, Aug. 2009). Lectotype designation is desirable. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698] with question). •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1352 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

microschemos, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Lucena [C. A. S. de] 2006:54, Figs. 2-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 28628] Córrego Palmital, rio Itapemirim drainage, Iúna, Espírito Santo, Brazil, about 20°21'S, 41°31'W. Holotype: MCP 37569. Paratypes: MCP 34366 (31, 3 c&s) •Valid as Astyanax microschemos Bertaco & Lucena 2006 -- (Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax microschemos Bertaco & Lucena 2006. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Córrego Palmital, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

minor, Astyanax Garavello [J. C.] & Sampaio [F. A. A.] 2010:854, Fig. 5 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 70 (no. 3); ref. 31053] Rio Mato Grande, Águas Claras, Piraquara, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MHNCI 3028. Paratypes: many at FMNH, LISDEBE, MHNCI, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax minor Garavello & Sampaio 2010 -- (da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax minor Garavello & Sampaio 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Iguaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

moorii, Tetragonopterus Boulenger [G. A.] 1892:11, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 6) v. 10 (no. 55) (art. 2); ref. 533] Upper Paraguay Chapala Plateau, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Lectotype: BMNH 1892.4.20.51. Paralectotype: BMNH 1892.4.20.50. Lectotype from Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:30 [ref. 35787]. •Valid as Astyanacinus moorii (Boulenger 1892) -- (Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2010:266 [ref. 30864], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). •Valid as Astyanax moorii (Boulenger 1892) -- ( Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:30 [ref. 35787]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax moorii (Boulenger 1892). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil and Bolivia. Habitat: freshwater.

multidens, Astyanacinus Pearson [N. E.] 1924:41, Pl. 9 (fig. 4) [Indiana University Studies v. 11 (no. 64); ref. 3396] Río Colorado, Lower Bopi, Bolivia. Syntypes: CAS 38955 [ex IU 17323] (16); ?MCZ 20826 (1), 21064 (1), and 89559 (27); ?UMMZ 66510 (6). Additional original material: CAS 60728 [ex IU 17324] (2), 60729 [ex IU 17325] (1), 60730 [ex IU 17326] (1). Replaced by Astyanax bopiensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018, but the two species are no longer secondary homonyms, so the original name has to be restored (ICZN Art. 59.4). •Valid as Astyanacinus multidens Pearson 1924 -- (Chang & Ortega 1995:2 [ref. 24302], Lima in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Bertaco et al. 2010:266 [ref. 30864], Barriga Salazar 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). •Synonym of Astyanax bopiensis Ruiz-C., Román-Valencia, Taphorn, Buckup & Ortega 2018 -- (Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:16 [ref. 35787]). •Valid as Astyanax multidens (Pearson 1924). Current status: Valid as Astyanax multidens (Pearson 1924). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Madeira River drainages, upper Amazon River basin, Bolivia and Peru. Habitat: freshwater.

myersi, Poecilurichthys Fernández-Yépez [A.] 1950:15, Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Novedades Cientificas, Contribuciones Ocasionales del Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Serie Zoológica No. 2; ref. 1323] Río Autana, Hoya del Orinoco, Estado Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype (unique): MHNLS 1127 [ex AFY 48172]. Type catalog: Lasso et al. 1998:42 [ref. 23639]. •Valid as Astyanax myersi (Fernández-Yépez 1950) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax myersi (Fernández-Yépez 1950). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

nasutus, Astyanax Meek [S. E.] 1907:108 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 2959] Lago Managua at Managua, Nicaragua. Holotype: FMNH 5909. Paratypes: CAS 39349 [ex IU 11600] (2); FMNH 5908 (14, 2 c&s), 5910 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. Spelled nasatus by Eigenmann, 1917:47 [ref. 1236], •Incertae sedis in Characidae as Deuterodon nasutus (Meek 1907) -- (Lucena & Lucena 2002:119 [ref. 26205]). •Valid as Astyanax nasutus Meek 1907 -- (Villa 1982:102 [ref. 36708], Bussing 1987:70 [ref. 22927], Bussing 1998:81 [ref. 24179], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Bussing 2009:1368 [ref. 30066], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1392 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax nasutus Meek 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Nicaragua: Lake Managua. Habitat: freshwater.

nicaraguensis, Astyanax rutilus Eigenmann [C. H.] & Ogle [F.] 1907:23 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Nicaragua [probably the Atlantic versant] . Holotype: USNM 55653. Paratypes: CAS 39491 [ex USNM 55657 and IU 11486] (4), USNM 55657 (32). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Bussing 1998:83 [ref. 24179]). •Valid as Astyanax nicaraguensis Eigenmann & Ogle 1907 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1393 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax nicaraguensis Eigenmann & Ogle 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: From Matagalpa, Atlantic Nicaragua, through Costa Rica to the Sixaola River. Habitat: freshwater.

nitidus, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Cuernavaca, Mexico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5191 (3). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:20 [ref. 19577]. Description very brief. •Questionably a synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1389 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Uncertain as Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

novae, Astyanax bimaculatus var. Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:175, Pl. 7 (fig. 2) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Rio Sapon at Prazeres, Bahia, Brazil. Holotype: CAS 73706 [FMNH 54641] [ex CM 3278, figured type]. Paratypes: (25, CM) FMNH 54641-42 (10, 10). Type catalog: Henn 1928:60 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. •Mention -- (Géry et al. 1996:8 [ref. 22155]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Garutti 1998:120 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax novae Eigenmann 1911 -- (Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Garutti & Langeani 2009:375 [ref. 30985], Freitas et al. 2015:184 [ref. 34055]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax novae Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

oaxacanensis, Tetragonopterus Bocourt [F.] 1868:62 [Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie et Paléontologie) (Sér. 5) v. 9; ref. 16971] Oaxaca, Mexico. Description very brief. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

obscurus, Tetragonopterus Hensel [R.] 1870:86 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 36 (pt. 1); ref. 18277] Rio Cadea [Cadeia] above large waterfall [Santa Maria do Herval], Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Syntypes: ZMB 7478 (3). •Treated as a synonym of Astyanax aff. fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) and a synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Hensel 1870) -- (Malabarba 1989:129 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Astyanax obscurus (Hensel 1870) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], de Melo & Buckup 2006:46 [ref. 28622], Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:8 [ref. 30750], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Lucena et al. 2013:231 [ref. 32870], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax obscurus (Hensel 1870). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Jacuí drainage, Laguna dos Patos drainage, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

ocotal, Astyanax Valdez-Moreno [M. E.], Rodiles-Hernández [R.] & Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] in Schmitter-Soto 2017:1396, Figs. 39-40 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Laguna Ocotal, Lacandon region, circa 75 airline km ESE of Ocosingo, northern Chiapas, Mexico, elevation 840 meters. Holotype: UMMZ 250292. Paratypes: ECOSC, UMMZ •Valid as Astyanax ocotal Valdez-Moreno, Rodiles-Hernández & Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax ocotal Valdez-Moreno, Rodiles-Hernández & Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lakes Ocotal and Metzabok, and Río Tulijá, northern Chiapas, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

orbignyanus, Tetragonopterus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:147 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Buenos Aires, Argentina. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4530 (1, poor condition), A-9816 to 9818 (2, 1, 1). Type catalog: Bertin 1948:19 [ref. 19577]. •Valid as Astyanax orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1850) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:24 [ref. 35117]). •Species inquirenda -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:118 [ref. 34169]). Current status: Uncertain as Astyanax orbignyanus (Valenciennes 1850). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower La Plata River basin, Argentina. Habitat: freshwater.

orientalis, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1870:559 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pará, Brazil. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:52 [ref. 13621] as no types at ANSP. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

orstedii, Tetragonopterus Lütken [C. F.] (ex Krøyer) 1875:229 [40] [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske Forening i Kjøbenhavn, Aaret 1874 (nos 12-16); ref. 17563] Río San Juan, Nicaragua. Lectotype: ZMUC 948. Paralectotypes: ZMUC 947 (1), 955-956 (2); ZMB 9197 (2). Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:47 [ref. 9588]. On p. 40 of separate. Specific name spelled Örstedii originally; not German so orstedii is correct. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1400 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax aeneus (Günther 1860) -- (Bussing 1998:83 [ref. 24179]). •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] as orstedii with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax orstedii (Lütken 1875) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1398 [ref. 35414] with authorship of Krøyer, Angulo et al. 2018:[18] [ref. 35879] with authorship of Krøyer, Angulo et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37425]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax orstedii (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Central America: Río San Juan, Nicaragua, through both versants of Costa Rica, to Río Chiriquí basin, Panama. Habitat: freshwater.

orthodus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] in Eigenmann & Ogle 1907:27 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 33 (no. 1556); ref. 1266] Truando, Colombia. Holotype (unique): USNM 55655. Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax orthodus Eigenmann 1907 -- (Bussing 1987:71 [ref. 22927], Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Bussing 1998:86 [ref. 24179], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31365], Torres-Mejia et al. 2012:505 [ref. 32312], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Angulo et al. 2013:991 [ref. 33194], Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1339 [ref. 35414], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633], Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:19 [ref. 35787], Angulo et al. 2018:[5] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax orthodus Eigenmann 1907. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lower Atrato River basin, Truando, north-western Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

ovatus, Salmo Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:388 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. No types known. Appeared as Salmo argenteus vel ovatus [with argenteus an existing species and ovatus an alternate name] in but Devincenzi 1925:322, 313 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Astyanax rutilus (Jen.) [= Tetragonopterus rutilus Jenyns]. •Species inquirenda in Characidae -- (Reis et al. 2003:159 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax rutilus (Jenyns 1842) -- (Mirande & Koerber 2015:24 [ref. 35117] with question, Koerber et al. 2017:38 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Uncertain as Astyanax rutilus (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Habitat: freshwater.

panamensis, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:324 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Panama and Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.415. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1402 [ref. 35414]? •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question and wrongly with a holotype, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2016:130 [ref. 34424], Schmitter-Soto 2017:1400 [ref. 35414], Angulo et al. 2018:[17] [ref. 35879]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Panama, both versants, to Istmina in adjacent Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

paraguayensis, Astyanax (Poecilurichthys) bimaculatus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1921:256, Pls. 62 (fig. 5), 92 (fig. 1) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 43 (pt 3); ref. 12359] Rio Paraguay and upper Rio Tocantins. Syntypes: (179) CAS 38987-96 and 38999 [ex IU 10005-10010, 10239, 10241-43, 10293] (44), 38997 [IU 10244] (1), 38998 [ex IU 10247] (1), 39000 [ex IU 11083] (1); FMNH 54643-49 [ex CM 3280-3286] (8, 9, 5, 2, 10, 1, 2); CM 3274 and 3287 missing. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:12 [ref. 12367]. Subjectively invalid secondarily preoccupied by Bertoniolus paraguayensis Fowler 1918 in Astyanax; replaced by Astyanax bimaculatus asuncionensis Géry 1972. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758), but a valid subspecies as described -- (Gómez & Chebez 1996:49 [ref. 23791], Britski et al. 1999:37 [ref. 24147], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920]). •In the synonymy of Astyanax asuncionensis Géry 1972 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:107 [ref. 27061], Litz & Koerber 2014:14 [ref. 33622]). •Valid as Astyanax paraguayensis Eigenmann 1921 -- (Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004]). •Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:104 [ref. 34169], Koerber & Litz 2016:3 [ref. 35098], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35083], Koerber et al. 2017:37 [ref. 35267], Koerber et al. 2017:4 [ref. 35632]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax lacustris (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

paraguayensis, Bertoniolus Fowler [H. W.] 1918:141, Fig. [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 70; ref. 1395] Puerto Bertoni, Paraguay. Holotype (unique): ANSP 47686. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:52 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Astyanax paraguayensis (Fowler 1918) -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax abramis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Lucena & Soares 2016:116 [ref. 34169], Koerber et al. 2017:36 [ref. 35267]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax abramis (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

paranahybae, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1911:177, Pl. 8 (fig. 1) [Annals of the Carnegie Museum v. 8 (no. 1) (art. 3); ref. 1226] Rio Paranahyba, Brazil. Holotype (unique): FMNH 54714 [ex CM 3356]. Type catalog: Henn 1928:61 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Valid as Astyanax paranahybae Eigenmann 1911 -- (Garutti & Britski 2000:84 [ref. 24769], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2004:332 [ref. 27972], Langeani et al. 2005:390 [ref. 28234], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Mirande & Koerber 2015:3 [ref. 33698]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax paranahybae Eigenmann 1911. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

petenensis, Tetragonopterus Günther [A.] 1864:326 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 5; ref. 1974] Lake Petén, Guatemala. Lectotype: BMNH 1864.1.26.374. Lectotype selected by Schmitter-Soto 2017:1404 [ref. 35414]? •Questionably a synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). •Valid as Astyanax petenensis (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1403 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax petenensis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Lake Petén basin, Guatemala. Habitat: freshwater.

pirabitira, Astyanax Lucena [C. A. S. de], Bertaco [V. A.] & Berbigier [G.] 2013:227, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 3700 (no. 2); ref. 32870] Rio Grande do Sul, border between Cambará do Dul and Bom Jesus, rio das Antas, rio Jacuí drainage, laguna dos Patos system, 28°50'S, 50°06'W, Brazil. Holotype: MCP 47707. Paratypes: MCP, MCN, UFRGS. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Astyanax pirabitira Lucena, Bertaco & Berbigier 2013 -- (Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax pirabitira Lucena, Bertaco & Berbigier 2013. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Laguna dos Patos system, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

pirapuan, Astyanax Tagliacollo [V. A.], Britzke [R.], Silva [G. S. C.] & Benine [R. C.] 2011:41, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 2749; ref. 31138] Rio Aricá-Mirim, Rio Cuiabá basin, 15°46'04"S, 55°30'44'W, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 37621. Paratypes: LBP 5662 (10, 2 c&s); MNRJ 29315 (25), 29357 (4), 37622 (9). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Astyanax pirapuan Tagliacollo, Britzke, Silva & Benine 2011 -- (Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax pirapuan Tagliacollo, Britzke, Silva & Benine 2011. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rio Cuiabá basin, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

poetzschkei, Astyanax (Poecilurichthys) Ahl [E.] 1932:124, Fig. [Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1932 (nos 1-3); ref. 16353] Amazon River. Holotype (unique): ZMB 20826. Types mentioned: Paepke 1995:92 [ref. 21847], Zarske & Géry 1995:107, Fig. 4 [ref. 22674]. Also appeared in Das Aquarium, Sept. 1932:164, 1 fig. •Valid as Astyanax poetzschkei Ahl 1932 -- (Zarske & Géry 1995:118 [ref. 22674], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax poetzschkei Ahl 1932. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Amazon River basin, South America. Habitat: freshwater.

procerus, Astyanax Lucena [C. A. S. de], Castro [J. B.] & Bertaco [V. A.] 2013:541, Figs. 4-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 11 (no. 3); ref. 32914] Rio Grande do Sul State, Nicolau Vergueiro, arroio Quebra Dentes, 28°36’09°S, 52°27’03°W. Holotype: MCP 47002. Paratypes: many at MCN, MCP, UFRGS. •Valid as Astyanax procerus Lucena, Castro & Bertaco 2013 -- (Bertaco & Vigo 2015:267 [ref. 33857], Bertaco et al. 2016:412 [ref. 34561], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax procerus Lucena, Castro & Bertaco 2013. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper and middle rio Taquari-Antas and rio Jacuí, laguna dos Patos system, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

regani, Astyanax Meek [S. E.] 1909:207 [Field Columbian Museum, Zoölogical Series v. 7 (no. 7); ref. 14388] Las Cañas, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): FMNH 6257. Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:13 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Astyanax fasciatus (Cuvier 1819) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:109 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Synonym of Astyanax orstedii (Lütken 1875) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1398 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax orstedii (Lütken 1875). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

rioverde, Astyanax Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] in Schmitter-Soto 2017:1405, Figs. 5a, 6b, 8b, 44 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Ditch 4.8 miles [7.7 km] south of Rioverde, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 250293. Paratypes: UANL, UMMZ •Valid as Astyanax rioverde Lozano-Vilano & Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax rioverde Lozano-Vilano & Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Pánuco drainage, Atlantic versant, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

ruberrimus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1913:25 [Indiana University Studies No. 18; ref. 1229] Istmina, Colombia. Holotype: FMNH 56122 [ex CM 4912]. Paratypes: (numerous, CM and IU) CAS 61062-64 [ex IU 12751-53] (24, 3, 24), CAS 61065 [ex IU 12851] (32); FMNH 56123-25 (16, 4, 31), 56292 (26), 69557 (38), 69562 (8), 69745 (83), 71292 (109); IU 12751-53, 12851; USNM 79168 [ex CM] (3), 76940 (24, missing). Type catalog: Henn 1928:62 [ref. 12305], Ibarra & Stewart 1987:14 [ref. 12367], Vari & Howe 1991:7 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax ruberrimus Eigenmann 1913 -- (Bussing 1998:81 [ref. 24179], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061], Barriga Salazar 2014:106 [ref. 35745], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:127 [ref. 34894], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). •Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1401 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax panamensis (Günther 1864). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

rupestris, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.], Burger [R.] & Camelier [P.] 2018:479, Figs. 5-6 [Zootaxa 4438 (no. 3); ref. 35984] Rio Coisa Boa, tributary of Rio Piabas, Rio Paraguaçu basin, Igatu, Andaraí, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil, 12°53'55"S, 41°19'01"W, elevation 710 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 89567. Paratypes: MCP, MNRJ, MZUSP, NUP, UFBA. •Valid as Astyanax rupestris Zanata, Burger & Camelier 2018 -- (Burger et al. 2019:377 [ref. 36718], Zanata et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37072], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax rupestris Zanata, Burger & Camelier 2018. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: upper Rio Paraguaçu basin (Bahia, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

rupununi, Astyanax Fowler [H. W.] 1914:242, Fig. 6 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 66; ref. 1390] Rupununi River, Guyana, 2°-3°N, 50°20'W. Holotype: ANSP 39328. Paratypes: ANSP 39329 (1, in jar with holotype). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:53 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698]). •Valid as Astyanax rupununi Fowler 1914 -- (Garutti 2003:2 [ref. 27817], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Langeani 2009:375 [ref. 30985], Lucena & Soares 2016:104 [ref. 34169]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax rupununi Fowler 1914. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Rupununi River drainage, Guyana. Habitat: freshwater.

saltor, Astyanax Travassos [H.] 1960:17, Figs. 1-2 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 20 (no. 1); ref. 11957] Rio Cachimbo, Estado do Pará, Brazil. Holotype: MNRJ 9199. Paratypes: MNRJ 9212 (1), 9232 (2). •Valid as Astyanax saltor Travassos 1960 -- (Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Langeani 2009:376 [ref. 30985]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax saltor Travassos 1960. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

salvatoris, Astyanax Valdez-Moreno [M. E.], Lozano-Vilano [M. de L.] & Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] in Schmitter-Soto 2017:1407, Figs. 1, 45 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Ojo de agua (spring) of Tamazulapan, uppermost eastern Balsas drainage, Oaxaca, Mexico. Holotype: UANL 22296. Paratypes: TNHC, TU, UANL, UMMZ, USNM. •Valid as Astyanax salvatoris Valdez-Moreno, Lozano-Vilano & Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax salvatoris Valdez-Moreno, Lozano-Vilano & Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Springs at Tamazulapan, Río Balsas drainage, Pacific versant, Oaxaca, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

scabripinnis, Tetragonopterus Jenyns [L.] 1842:125, Pl. 23 (figs. 3, 3a) [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1917.7.14.15. •Mention in conjunction with Astyanax scabripinnis laticeps (Malabarba 1989:129 [ref. 14217]). •Valid as Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns 1842) -- (Castro & Casatti 1997:342 [ref. 23333], Miquelarena et al. 1997:67 [ref. 23469], Gómez & Chebez 1996:50 [ref. 23791], Garutti & Britski 2000:85 [ref. 24769], Bertaco & Malabarba 2001:231 [ref. 25645], López et al. 2003:24 [ref. 27366], Castro & Vari 2004:332 [ref. 27972], Menni 2004:77 [ref. 28131], Miquelarena & Menni 2005:669 [ref. 28391], Bertaco & Lucena 2006:57 [ref. 28628], Abilhoa & Duboc 2007:45 [ref. 29285], Garutti & Venere 2009:378 [ref. 30493], Bertaco & Lucena 2010:18 [ref. 30750], Bertaco et al. 2010:266 [ref. 30864], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Lucena et al. 2013:540 [ref. 32914], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Mirande & Koerber 2015:2 [ref. 33698] not Argentina, Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax scabripinnis (Jenyns 1842). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Brazil [possible restricted to Rio de Janeiro State and possible extinct]. Habitat: freshwater.

scintillans, Astyanax Myers [G. S.] 1928:88 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 10) v. 2 (no. 7); ref. 3100] Playa Matepalma, Río Orinoco, Venezuela. Syntypes: CAS 39493 [ex IU uncat.] (2). •Valid as Astyanax scintillans Myers 1928 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061], Garutti & Venere 2009:378 [ref. 30493], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax scintillans Myers 1928. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

serratus, Astyanax Garavello [J. C.] & Sampaio [F. A. A.] 2010:858, Fig. 7 [Brazilian Journal of Biology v. 70 (no. 3); ref. 31053] Rio da Várzea, Agudos do Sul, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MHNCI 12346. Paratypes: many at LISDEBE, MHNCI, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax serratus Garavello & Sampaio 2010 -- (Ingenito & Duboc 2014:289 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax serratus Garavello & Sampaio 2010. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

siapae, Astyanax Garutti [V.] 2003:4, Fig. 3 [Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo v. 43 (no. 1); ref. 27817] Rio Siapa, tributary of rio Casiquiare, campamento Siapa II, about 1°40 - 1°41'N, 64°22' - 64°28'W, Amazonas, Venezuela. Holotype: MBUCV-V-29133. Paratypes: AMNH 93173 (14), MBUCV-V-19790 (23), MZUSP 55189 (5). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Astyanax siapae Garutti 2003 -- (Ruiz-C. & Cipriani 2007:63 [ref. 29072], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Langeani 2009:376 [ref. 30985], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax siapae Garutti 2003. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

sincora, Astyanax Burger [R.], Carvalho [F. R.] & Zanata [A. M.] 2019:370, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa 4604 (no. 2); ref. 36718] Córrego Tremedal, tributary of rio Paraguaçu, Fazenda Tremedal, Mucugê, Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil, 13°10'22"S, 41°20'53"W, elevation 1083 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 120747. Paratypes: MNRJ, MZUSP, UFBA, ZUFMS. •Valid as Astyanax sincora Burger, Carvalho & Zanata 2019 -- (Zanata et al. 2019:8 [ref. 37072], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax sincora Burger, Carvalho & Zanata 2019. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: upper Rio Paraguaçu basin (Bahia, Brazil) endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

stilbe, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1870:559 [Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society v. 11; ref. 914] Pará, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ANSP 8085. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:54 [ref. 13621]. •Valid as Astyanax stilbe (Cope 1870) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax stilbe (Cope 1870). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Caribbean slope rivers: Brazil and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

streetsii, Tetragonopterus Cope [E. D.] 1872:217 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 23; ref. 18946] Headwaters of the Río Coatzacoalcos, Mexico. Syntypes: ANSP 15598-608 (11), 32371-74 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:54 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Astyanax mexicanus (De Filippi 1853) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:111 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868) -- (Schmitter-Soto 2017:1384 [ref. 35414]). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax finitimus (Bocourt 1868). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

superbus, Astyanax Myers [G. S.] 1942:92, Fig. 2 [Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin v. 2 (no. 4); ref. 3121] Small brook tributary to Río Tamanaco at Camoruco, 20 kilometers northeast of San Carlos, Cojedes state, Venezuela. Holotype: CAS-SU 36489. Paratypes: CAS-SU 36490 (3, now 2), USNM 130640 [ex CAS-SU 36490] (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:22 [ref. 12291], Vari & Howe 1991:8 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax superbus Myers 1942 -- (Taphorn 1992:122 [ref. 23654], Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061], Ruiz-C. et al. 2011:51 [ref. 31365], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:22 [ref. 35787]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax superbus Myers 1942. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upland tributaries of the Apure River, Orinoco River basin, Venezuela. Habitat: freshwater.

symmetricus, Astyanax Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:95 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Rio Solimões at Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20768. •Valid as Astyanax symmetricus Eigenmann 1908 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:112 [ref. 27061], Garutti & Venere 2009:378 [ref. 30493], Barriga Salazar 2014:106 [ref. 35745]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax symmetricus Eigenmann 1908. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Amazon River basin, Brazil and Ecuador. Habitat: freshwater.

tamiahua, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1409, Fig. 46 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Río Cucharas near Tamiahua, northern Veracruz, Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 250294. Paratypes: UMMZ. •Valid as Astyanax tamiahua Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax tamiahua Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Tamiahua to Nautla, northern Veracruz, Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

taurorum, Astyanax Lucena [C. A. S. de], Zaluski [A. B.] & Lucena [Z. M. S. de] 2017:2, Figs. 1, 3, 4 [Zoologia (Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia) v. 34 e201174; ref. 35607] Tributary of dos Touros River, ca. 4 km northeastern of the road BR-285, Pelotas River drainage, Bom Jesus, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 28°41'06"S, 50°12'51"W, elevation 1056 meters. Holotype: MCP 49468. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP. •Valid as Astyanax taurorum Lucena, Zaluski & Lucena 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax taurorum Lucena, Zaluski & Lucena 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Dos Touros River drainage, Uruguay River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

tehuacanensis, Astyanax Schmitter-Soto [J. J.] 2017:1411, Figs. 2b, 10b, 47 [Journal of Natural History v. 51 (no. 23/24); ref. 35414] Río Salado (or Zapotitlán), 22 miles (35.4 km) south of Tehuacán, Papaloapan basin, Puebla, central Mexico. Holotype: UMMZ 250295. Paratypes: UMMZ •Valid as Astyanax tehuacanensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Current status: Valid as Astyanax tehuacanensis Schmitter-Soto 2017. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Río Salado, Gulf of Mexico versant, Puebla, central Mexico. Habitat: freshwater.

totae, Astyanax Ferreira Haluch [C.] & Abilhoa [V.] 2005:384, Figs. 2-5 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 3 (no. 3); ref. 28386] Balsa Nova, District do Bugre, rio Cascaa, tributary of rio Tortuoso, an affluent of rio Iguaçu, 25°29'S, 49°39'W, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MHNCI 10305. Paratypes: MCP 37560 (4), 37561 (15), 37562 (8), MHNCI 10306 (21, 2 c&s), 10338 (54); MNRJ 28652 (11); NUP 4099 (16). •Valid as Astyanax totae Ferreira Haluch & Abilhoa 2005 -- (Bertaco & Lucena 2006:58 [ref. 28628], Vari & Castro 2007:157 [ref. 29039], Vera Alcaraz et al. 2009:189 [ref. 30252], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Marinho & Birindelli 2013:46 [ref. 32569], Marinho & Ohara 2013:476 [ref. 32713], Oliveira et al. 2013:292 [ref. 32756], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:289 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax totae Ferreira Haluch & Abilhoa 2005. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Iguaçu River basin, Paraná, southern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

trierythropterus, Astyanax (Astynax) Godoy [M. P. de] 1970:276, Figs. 1-4 [Revista Brasileira de Biologia v. 30 (no. 2); ref. 7733] Cachoeira de Emas, Rio Mogi Guassu, Upper Rio Paraná basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Holotype: EEBP 706 (probably lost). Paratypes: (7). •Valid as Astyanax trierythropterus Godoy 1970 -- (Garutti & Britski 2000:84 [ref. 24769], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], Castro & Vari 2004:332 [ref. 27972]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax trierythropterus Godoy 1970. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Paraná River basin, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

turmalinensis, Astyanax Triques [M. L.], Vono [V.] & Caiafa [E. V.] 2003:146, Fig. 1 [aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology v. 7 (no. 4); ref. 27248] Córrego Divisão, tributary of right side of the Rio Jequitinhonha, vila de Peixe-Crú, Município de Turmalina, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 17°07'S, 42°57'W. Holotype: DZUFMG 005. Paratypes: DZUFMG 006 (1), 007 (17), 008 (42), 009 (25). •Valid as Astyanax turmalinensis Triques, Vono & Caiafa 2003 -- (Zanata & Camelier 2009:175 [ref. 30252], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:282 [ref. 33374], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax turmalinensis Triques, Vono & Caiafa 2003. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Jequitinhonha River basin, southeastern Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

unitaeniatus, Astyanax Garutti [V.] 1998:116, Fig. 1 [Iheringia, Série Zoologia (Porto Alegre) No. 85; ref. 23797] Ribeirão Macambira, about 14°08'S, 46°37'W, Paranã River, tributary of Tocantins River, Iaciara, Goiás, Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 40542. Paratypes: MZUSP 48285 (33), 40425 (30). •Valid as Astyanax unitaeniatus Garutti 1998 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], Vari & Castro 2007:158 [ref. 29039], Bertaco & Garutti 2007:28 [ref. 29172], Garutti & Venere 2009:377 [ref. 30493], Freitas et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34055]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax unitaeniatus Garutti 1998. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Paraná River basin in upper Tocantins River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

utiariti, Astyanax Bertaco [V. A.] & Garutti [V.] 2007:26, Figs. 1-2 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 5 (no. 1); ref. 29172] Rio Papagaio at Pubi beach, tributary of rio Juruena, upper Tapajós drainage, Sapezal, Mato Grosso,, Brazil. 13°33'35"S, 58°24'31"W. Holotype: MCP 40040. Paratypes: ANSP 185226 (15); MCP 40041 (64, 3 c&s); MNRJ 29859 (15); MZUSP 5177 (6). Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Astyanax utiariti Bertaco & Garutti 2007 -- (Garutti & Langeani 2009:376 [ref. 30985], Freitas et al. 2015:190 [ref. 34055], Lucena et al. 2017:6 [ref. 35607]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax utiariti Bertaco & Garutti 2007. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Tapajós River drainage, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

validus, Astyanax Géry [J.], Planquette [P.] & Le Bail [P.-Y.] 1991:46, Pl. 15 (fig. 1) [Cybium v. 15 (no. 1, suppl.); ref. 21021] Blanche creek, Comté River, French Guiana. Holotype: MHNG 2435.77. Paratypes: (4) MTD F 27526 [ex Géry coll.] (1). Type catalog: Weber 1998:7 [ref. 23532], Zarske 2003:15 [ref. 27474]. •Valid as Astyanax validus Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991 -- (Planquette et al. 1996:252 [ref. 22818], Garutti 1998:121 [ref. 23797], Garutti 1999:587 [ref. 24920], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], see DoNascimiento et al. 2017:[12] [ref. 35679]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax validus Géry, Planquette & Le Bail 1991. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: French Guiana. Habitat: freshwater.

varii, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.], Burger [R.], Vita [G.] & Camelier [P.] 2019:2, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 17 (no. 3): e190061; ref. 37072] Rio Coricó in Fazenda Progresso, near the road BR-330, lower Rio de Contas basin, Ubaitaba, Bahia, Brazil, 14°14'50"S, 39°22'39"W, elevation 65 meter. Holotype: MZUSP 121062. Paratypes: MCP, MZUSP, NUP, UFBA. •Valid as Astyanax varii Zanata, Burger, Vita & Camelier 2019 -- (Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax varii Zanata, Burger, Vita & Camelier 2019. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: lower Rio de Contas basin (Bahia, Brazil) endemic. Habitat: freshwater.

varzeae, Astyanax Abilhoa [V.] & Duboc [L. F.] 2007:45, Figs. 2-4 [Zootaxa No. 1587; ref. 29285] Tijucas do Sul, rio São João, rio da Várzea headwaters, an affluent of rio Negro, upper rio Iguaçu basin, about 25°55'S, 49°10'W, Paraná, Brazil. Holotype: MHNCI 11688. Paratypes: MCP 40535 (14); MHNCI 9146 (1 c&s), 9147 (15, 2 c&s). •Valid as Astyanax varzeae Abilhoa & Duboc 2007 -- (Vera Alcaraz et al. 2009:189 [ref. 30252], Pavanelli & Oliveira 2009:569 [ref. 30986], Bertaco et al. 2010:267 [ref. 30864], Garavello & Sampaio 2010:861 [ref. 31053], Tagliacollo et al. 2011:41 [ref. 31138], Ingenito & Duboc 2014:289 [ref. 33374], da Graça et al. 2017:13 [ref. 35556], Oliveira et al. 2017:180 [ref. 35587]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax varzeae Abilhoa & Duboc 2007. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Upper Iguaçu River basin, Paraná, Brazil. Habitat: freshwater.

venezuelae, Astyanax Schultz [L. P.] 1944:359, Fig. 54 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 95 (no. 3181); ref. 3960] Río Torbes, 1 kilometer above Táriba, Orinoco system, Venezuela. Holotype: USNM 121449. Paratypes: MCZ 37262 [ex USNM 121450] (1), UMMZ 145035 [ex USNM 121450] (1), USNM 121450 (orig. 5, now 3). Type catalog: Vari & Howe 1991:8 [ref. 19022]. •Valid as Astyanax venezuelae Schultz 1944 -- (Taphorn 1992:125 [ref. 23654], Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], DoNascimiento 2016:528 [ref. 34727], DoNascimiento et al. 2017:61 [ref. 35633], Urbano-Bonilla et al. 2018:90 [ref. 35773]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax venezuelae Schultz 1944. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Orinoco River basin: Venezuela and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

vermilion, Astyanax Zanata [A. M.] & Camelier [P.] 2009:176, Figs. 1-3 [Neotropical Ichthyology v. 7 (no. 2); ref. 30252] Rio Salgado under bridge on road BA 130, rio Cachoeira drainage, 14°51'18.0"S, 39°39'41"W, Floresta Azul, Bahia State, Brazil, elevation 189 meters. Holotype: MZUSP 101243. Paratypes: ANSP 189328 (10); UFBA 4342 (31, 3 c&s), 4343 (56), 4344 (76), 4813 (24), 4905 (32); MZUSP 101244 (10). •Valid as Astyanax vermilion Zanata & Camelier 2009 -- (Marinho et al. 2015:576 [ref. 33708], Zanata et al. 2017:508 [ref. 35145], Zanata et al. 2018:486 [ref. 35984], Silva et al. 2020:5 [ref. 37809]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax vermilion Zanata & Camelier 2009. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: South America: Rio Salgado and rio Almada, coastal drainages (Bahia, Brazil). Habitat: freshwater.

villwocki, Astyanax Zarske [A.] & Géry [J.] 1999:200, Figs. 1-2 [Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut v. 96; ref. 24913] Rio Pacal, Rio Pachitea basin, Departamento Ucayali, Peru. Holotype: MTD F 22400. Paratypes: GÉRY Coll. 1022.1-3 (1, 1, 1); MHNG 2603.17-18 (1, 6); MNHN 1999-0318 to 0323 (6); MTD F 17614-15 (2), 17737-41 (5), 22114-15 (2), 22116 (1); ZFMK 20781 (1); ZMH 9175 (2). Type catalog: Herder et al. 2010:115 [ref. 31087]. •Valid as Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry 1999 -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:113 [ref. 27061], Sarmiento et al. 2014:183 [ref. 35004], Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:24 [ref. 35787]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry 1999. Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Ucayali and Mamoré River drainages, Amazon River basin: Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.

wappi, Tetragonopterus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1850:153 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 22; ref. 1014] Essequibo River, Guyana. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-2636. Type catalog: Bertin 1948:19 [ref. 19577]. •Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Buckup in Reis et al. 2003:108 [ref. 27061] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:1 [ref. 33698] with question). Current status: Synonym of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus 1758). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Habitat: freshwater.

yariguies, Astyanacinus Torres-Mejia [M.], Hernández [E.] & Senechal [V.] 2012:502, Fig. 1-2 [Copeia 2012 (no. 3); ref. 32312] Sucio River, under bridge on the road from El Carmen to Vereda, Rio Cascajales drainage, Magdalena River system, Santander, Colombia. Holotype: UIST 1752. Paratypes: ICNMNH 17642 (10); UIST 1753 (8), 1755 (6). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Astyanacinus yariguies Torres-Mejia, Hernández & Senechal 2012 -- (DoNascimiento et al. 2017:60 [ref. 35633]). •Valid as Astyanax yariguies (Torres-Mejia, Hernández & Senechal 2012) -- (Ruiz-C. et al. 2018:27 [ref. 35787]). Current status: Valid as Astyanax yariguies (Torres-Mejia, Hernández & Senechal 2012). Characidae: Stethaprioninae. Distribution: Magdalena River basin, Colombia. Habitat: freshwater.