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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Dipturus: [ 56 ] records


acrobelus, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:10, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] East of Patricks Head, Tasmania, 42°33'S, 148°42'E, depth 905-990 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 226-01. Paratypes: 24 at AMS, CSIRO, NMV. Plus non-type material. •Valid as Dipturus acrobelus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Last & White 2008:109 [ref. 30618], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:241 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus acrobelus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Southern Australia: New South Wales to Western Australia, including Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

acus, Raja Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1803:662, 665 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 5; ref. 4930] Coast of France or England, northeastern Atlantic. No types at MNHN. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:30 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

amphispinus, Dipturus Last [P. R.] & Alava [M.] 2013:215, Figs. 1-10 [Zootaxa 3752 (no. 1); ref. 33041] Dipolog City public market, Dipolog City, Zanboanga del Norte, Philippines. Holotype: PNM 15178. Paratypes: CSIRO H 7416 (01); SUML MMLM 014, 018 (1), 018 (1) SUMM MMLM 012 (1), SUMM BRU 147 (1), Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Dipturus amphispinus Last & Alava 2013 -- (Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:242 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus amphispinus Last & Alava 2013. Rajidae. Distribution: Philippines Archipelago. Habitat: marine.

apricus, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:19, Figs. 8-13 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] South of Saumarez Reef, Queensland, Australia, 22°35'S, 153°40E, depth 314-319 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 601-01. Paratypes: 23 at AMS, CSIRO, NMV, QM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus apricus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:243 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus apricus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Off Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

argentinensis, Dipturus Díaz de Astarloa [J. M.], Mabragaña [E.], Hanner [R.] & Figueroa [D. E.] 2008:37, Figs. 1-2 [Zootaxa No. 1921; ref. 29969] Off central Patagonia, continental shelf, 45°38'S, 64°08'W, depth 98 meters. Holotype: INIDEP 793. Paratypes: INIDEP 794-800, 802-803 (total 7). •Valid as Zearaja argentinensis (Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña, Hanner & Figueroa 2008) -- (Weigmann 2016:123 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Last et al. 2016:23 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:360 [ref. 35000]). •Valid as Dipturus argentinensis Díaz de Astarloa, Mabragaña, Hanner & Figueroa 2008 -- (Mabragaña et al. 2011:7 and table S2 [ref. 31800], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Concha et al. 2019:507 [ref. 36686], Kim et al. 2021:46 [ref. 39117]). •Synonym of Dipturus trachyderma (Krefft & Stehmann 1975) -- (Figueroa et al. 2024:18 [ref. 40977]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus trachyderma (Krefft & Stehmann 1975). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

batis, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European seas [original: "in Oceano Europæo"]; localities include England, northeastern Atlantic; Lesbos Island, Greece, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Originally based on multiple species and at least 22 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:73 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:102 [ref. 30349] as Raja varia, dorso medio glabro; Rondelet 1554:346 [ref. 30354] and Gesner 1558:932 [ref. 30350] as Raia vndulata siue cinerea, Jonston 1649:Pl. 9 (fig. 1) [ref. 30579] as Raia, Charleton 1668:130 [ref. 30580] as Raia undulata. Spelled batys in Risso 1810:3 [ref. 3755]. See Iglésias et al. 2010 [ref. 30586]. •Valid as Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Herrera 1896:14 [ref. 39336] with genus as Raia, Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:175 [ref. 13675], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Stehmann 1990:31 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:105 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:22 [ref. 24952]). •See Iglésias et al. 2010:333 [ref. 30586] for possible splitting of the species. •Valid as Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:21 [ref. 26753], Fricke 2007:25 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:18 [ref. 29533], Fricke 2008:11 [ref. 30182], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649], Naylor et al. 2012:94 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Parin et al. 2014:35 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:69 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211] see remarks, Bañón et al. 2016:301 [ref. 34397], McEachran & Séret 2016:1396 [ref. 34551], Gordon et al. 2016:260 [ref. 34661], Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941] used herein as D. cf. flossada, Last et al. 2016:244 [ref. 35000], Biscoito et al. 2018:486 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:139 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:43 [ref. 37250], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519], Serena et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37963], Bache-Jeffreys et al. 2021:[5] [ref. 38523], Kovačić et al. 2021:15 [ref. 39014], Bañón & Mano 2022:13 [ref. 40121], Barone et al. 2022:48 [ref. 39527] as cf. batis, Balàka et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40410] as cf. batis, Garbett et al. 2023:[6] [ref. 40442], Shakman et al. 2023:463 [ref. 40810]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Norway south to Senegal, including Madeira and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

bullisi, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1962:168, Fig. 1 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 128 (no. 4); ref. 5793] About 30 miles southwest of Dry Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A., 24°18'N, 83°18'W, Silver Bay station 1199, depth 200 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 196442. Paratypes: MCZ 40673 (1), plus 16 other specimens. •Valid as Raja bullisi Bigelow & Schroeder 1962 -- (Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:74 [ref. 14275], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Cervigón 1992:205 [ref. 23827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:36 [ref. 22793], Cervigón & Alcalá 1999:167 [ref. 24490]). •Valid as Dipturus bullisi (Bigelow & Schroeder 1961) -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:154 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:551 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:245 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861], Jones et al. 2020:286 [ref. 37610], Carvalho-Filho 2023:317 [ref. 40480], Page et al. 2023:44 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus bullisi (Bigelow & Schroeder 1962). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico south to northern Brazil, including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

campbelli, Raja Wallace [J. H.] 1967:24, Fig. 12 [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 17; ref. 7929] 24 miles east of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, southwestern Indian Ocean, depth 175 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 992 [ex ORI B804]. Paratypes: ?SAIAB [formerly RUSI] [ex ORI B859] (1). Additional material: ORI uncat. (5). •Synonym of Raja pullopuntata Smith 1964 -- (Hulley 1986:123 [ref. 5672]). •Valid as Raja campbelli Wallace 1967 -- (Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:vii [ref. 21953]). •Valid as Dipturus campbelli (Wallace 1967) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:81 [ref. 28072], Compagno & Ebert 2007:137 [ref. 30471], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:246 [ref. 35000], Ebert et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38234], Aschliman & Ebert 2022:577 [ref. 39668]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus campbelli (Wallace 1967). Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and southern Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

canutus, Dipturus Last [P. R.] 2008:54, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29648] East of Maria Island, Tasmania, Australia, 42°40'S, 148°25'E, depth 448-460 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 153-01. Paratypes: 21 specimens at CSIRO, NMV, SAMA. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus canutus Last 2008 -- (Last & White 2008:109 [ref. 30618], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:247 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus canutus Last 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Southern Australia: New South Wales to Western Australia, including Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

chinensis, Raia Basilewsky [S.] 1855:251 [Nouveaux mémoires de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou v. 10; ref. 200] "Oriental Sea", northern China. No types at ZIN. •Valid as Raja chinensis Basilewsky 1855 -- (Cheng & Zhou 1997:47 [ref. 26385], Weigmann 2016:118 [ref. 34211]). •Valid as Dipturus chinensis (Basilewsky 1855) -- (Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:248 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus chinensis (Basilewsky 1855). Rajidae. Distribution: China to Japan including Taiwan. Habitat: marine.

crosnieri, Raja (Dipturus) Séret [B.] 1989:116, Figs. 1-9 [Cybium v. 13 (no. 2); ref. 12827] Southwestern coast of Madagascar, 22°05'S, 22°30'E, depth 300-850 meters. Holotype: MNHN 1988-1089. Paratypes: BMNH 1988.7.25.1 (1); MNHN 1988-1090 to 1108 (19); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 28021 (1); USNM 297040 (1). •Valid as Dipturus crosnieri (Séret 1989) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:249 [ref. 35000], Fricke et al. 2018:24 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus crosnieri (Séret 1989). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean off Madagascar. Habitat: marine.

diehli, Dipturus Soto [J. M. R.] & Mincarone [M. M.] 2001:3, Figs. 1-3 [Mare Magnum v. 1 (no. 1); ref. 26630] Off Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil, 29°39'31"S, 47°50'32"W, depth 480 meters. Holotype (unique): MOVI 08494. Type catalog: Soto & Mincarone 2004:94 [ref. 37067]. •Valid as Dipturus diehli Soto & Mincarone 2001 -- (Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:28 [ref. 27192], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982]). •Synonym of Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó 2001 -- (Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó 2001. Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

doutrei, Raja Cadenat [J.] 1960:294, Figs. 1-11, 13, 15 [Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (Sér A) Sciences Naturelles v. 22 (no. 1); ref. 11900] Senegal, depth 450-500 meters. Lectotype: MNHN 1959-0041 [ex IFAN]. Paralectotypes: (30) IFAN 1954-679, 59-804, and R744-751 (8, jaws only), uncat. (6, jaws); MNHN 1959-0042 [ex IFAN] (1, jaws only), 1959-0043 [ex IFAN] (1, jaws only); 13 other syntypes lost. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:14-15 [ref. 9312]. Lectotype selected by Séret & McEachran 1987:14 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Raja doutrei Cadenat 1960 -- (Hulley 1986:122 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Stehmann 1990:32 [ref. 19316], Compagno et al. 1991:95 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:93 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:36 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Dipturus doutrei (Cadenat 1960) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:137 [ref. 30471], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1389 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:250 [ref. 35000], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:140 [ref. 37302], Reiner 2019:43 [ref. 38139], Ebert et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38234], Aschliman & Ebert 2022:578 [ref. 39668], Fermon et al. 2022:104 [ref. 39448], Leeney 2024:70 [ref. 40985]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus doutrei (Cadenat 1960). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Senegal south to Cape of Good Hope area (South Africa), including São Tomé and Principe Habitat: marine.

ecuadoriensis, Raja Beebe [W.] & Tee-Van [J.] 1941:255, Fig. 14 [Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society v. 26 (pt 3, no. 26); ref. 16103] San Helena Bay, Ecuador. Based on Raja steindachneri of Tortonese 1939:3-5, Pl. 1 [ref. 4414]. •Valid as Dipturus ecuadoriensis (Beebe & Tee-Van 1941) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:251 [ref. 35000], Calle-Morán et al. 2020:246 [ref. 37881]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus ecuadoriensis (Beebe & Tee-Van 1941). Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: mainland Ecuador endemic. Habitat: marine.

floridana, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1962:173, Figs. 2-3 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 128 (no. 4); ref. 5793] Off Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A., 29°43'N, 80°10'W, depth 195 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 196441. Paratypes: MCZ 40723-25 (1, 1, 1), plus 27 other specimens. •Valid as Raja floridana Bigelow & Schroeder 1962 -- (Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827]). •Synonym of Raja teevani Bigelow & Schroeder 1951 -- (Jacob & McEachran 1994:444 [ref. 22422]). •Synonym of Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951) -- (authors). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

flossada, Raia Risso [A.] 1827:145 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:31 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Iglésias et al. 2010:327 [ref. 30586] as temporary species cf. flossada, Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524] with question, Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211] as cf. flossada, Last et al. 2016:20 [ref. 34941] as cf. flossada). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

gaimardi, Raia Gaimard [J. P.] (ex Valenciennes) 1851:Pls. 2-3 [Voyage de la commission scientifique du Nord; ref. 1523] Coast of Iceland, North Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1794 (poor condition). Type catalog: Bertin 1939:84 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:15 [ref. 9312]. Original not seen; date may be incorrect. •Synonym of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

garricki, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1958:213, Figs. 5-7 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 119 (no. 2); ref. 12049] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 28°32'N, 86°20'W, Oregon station 1277, depth 260 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 156711. Paratypes: MCZ 39616 (1). •Valid as Raja garricki Bigelow & Schroeder 1958 -- (Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:38 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus garricki (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:155 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:552 [ref. 26985], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:252 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861], Jones et al. 2020:288 [ref. 37610], Page et al. 2023:44 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus garricki (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

gigas, Raja (Tengujei) Ishiyama [R.] 1958:386 [194], Figs. 84 W, 86 [Journal of the Shimonoseki College of Fisheries v. 7 (nos 2-3); ref. 2308] Off Aichi Prefecture, Kumano-nada, Japan. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (20 specimens, 2 egg capsules) CAS 23173 (1), MCZ 40292 (1). •Valid as Raja gigas Ishiyama 1958 -- (Nakaya in Okamura et al. 1982:55, 314 [ref. 8256], Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:67, 308 [ref. 8057], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639], Nakabo 2000:172 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995]). •Valid as Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama 1958) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2002:172 [ref. 26001], Shinohara et al. 2005:397 [ref. 28370], Compagno et al. 2005:66 [ref. 29145], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:183 [ref. 29612], Séret & Last 2008:107 [ref. 29649], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Hsu et al. 2013:253 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:352 [ref. 33045], Motomura et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34709], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:253 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus gigas (Ishiyama 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Japan to Philippines. Habitat: marine.

grahami, Dipturus Last [P. R.] 2008:84, Figs. 27-32 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29648] East of Terrigal, New South Wales, Australia, 33°30'S, 152°04'E, depth 446-515 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 950-01. Paratypes: 17 specimens as AMS, CSIRO and QM. Plus non-type specimens. Originally appeared as grahami, but named for two ichthyologists, Alastair Graham and Ken Graham, the correct species epithet would be grahamorum according to ICZN Art. 31.1, but correction not allowed. •Valid as Dipturus grahami Last 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:254 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus grahami Last 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia: Queensland to New South Wales. Habitat: marine.

granulata, Raia Gill [T. N.] in Goode & Bean 1879:28 [Bulletin of the Essex Institute v. 11; ref. 5605] Le Have Bank, off Nova Scotia, Canada. Holotype: USNM 21578 (not found in 1980). •Synonym of Raja laevis Mitchill 1818 -- (Scott & Scott 1988:47 [ref. 25518]). •Synonym of Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818) -- (current authors). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

gudgeri, Zearaja Whitley [G. P.] 1940:188, Fig. 217 [The fishes of Australia. Part I; ref. 4700] Great Australian Bight, Australia. Holotype: AMS E.4284. Paratypes: AMS IB.768 (1), IB.769 (?1). •Valid as Raja gudgeri (Whitley 1940) -- (Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Paxton et al. 1989:56 [ref. 12442], Gomon et al. 1994:166 [ref. 22532], Last & Stevens 1994:349 [ref. 23873], Hutchins 2001:15 [ref. 25847]). •Valid as Dipturus gudgeri (Whitley 1940) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568], Hoese et al. 2006:182 [ref. 29001], Séret & Last 2008:107 [ref. 29649], Last & White 2008:116 [ref. 30618], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:255 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus gudgeri (Whitley 1940). Rajidae. Distribution: Australia: New South Wales to southern Australia and to Western Australia. Habitat: marine.

hispanica, Raja Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:369 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Based on "Raja, Hispanorum Machuelo" of Osbeck 1770:99 [ref. 18497]. •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

hyposticta, Propterygia Otto [A. W.] 1821:6 [Conspectus animalium quorundam maritimorum; ref. 4987] Newhaven, Edinburgh. Also described as new in Otto 1821:112 [ref. 3321], earliest not researched, and again in Otto 1824:94 [ref. 26341]. Based on an abnormal specimen of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758. •Synonym of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (authors). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

innominata, Raja Garrick [J. A. F.] & Paul [L. J.] 1974:357, Figs. 6-7 [Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand v. 4 (no. 3); ref. 7421] Cape Campbell, New Zealand. Holotype: NMNZ P.1441. Paratypes: NMNZ P.1040 (1), P.1817 (1), P.3094 (2), P.4680 (1), P.5483-87 (1, 4, 1, 2, 2), P.5534 (1), 5546 (1). Type catalog: Hardy 1990:6 [ref. 18942]. •Valid as Raja innominata Garrick & Paul 1974 -- (Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Paulin et al. 1989:28 [ref. 24556], Ishihara in Amaoka et al. 1990:86 [ref. 16024]). •Valid as Dipturus innominatus (Garrick & Paul 1974) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Last & Yearsley 2002:1640 [ref. 26568] as innominata, Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Last & Stewart 2015:178 [ref. 34224], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:256 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus innominatus (Garrick & Paul 1974). Rajidae. Distribution: New Zealand. Habitat: marine.

intermedia, Raia Parnell [R.] 1837:167, Pl. 2 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh v. 1; ref. 18522] Firth of Forth, Scotland, North Sea. Syntypes: (all dry) BMNH 1848.1.12.512 (1), 1848.1.12.568 (1), 1848.1.12.570 (1). Original genus spelled Raia on Pl. 2 but not spelled out in text. •Synonym of Raja batis Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:62 [ref. 7168]). •Valid as Dipturus cf. intermedia (Parnell 1837) -- (Gordon et al. 2016:261 [ref. 34661]). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Iglésias et al. 2010:329 [ref. 30586] as temporary species cf. intermedia, Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524] with question, Weigmann 2016:107 [ref. 34211] as cf. intermedia). •Valid as Dipturus intermedius (Parnell 1837) -- (Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:257 [ref. 35000], Biscoito et al. 2018:476 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:139 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:43 [ref. 37250], Bache-Jeffreys et al. 2021:[5] [ref. 38523], Kovačić et al. 2021:15 [ref. 39014], Garbett et al. 2023:[6] [ref. 40442]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus intermedius (Parnell 1837). Rajidae. Distribution: Northern North Sea, northeastern Atlantic: southern Norway and British Isles south to Portugal, including Azores. Habitat: marine.

johannisdavisi, Raja Alcock [A. W.] 1899:21 [A descriptive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea fishes in the Indian Museum; ref. 5114] Laccadive Sea, off Travancore coast, 11°14'30"N, 74°57'15"E, Investigator station 246, depth 410-520 meters. Holotype (unique): ZSI F477/1. Type catalog: Menon & Yazdani 1968:96 [ref. 20743], Menon & Rama-Rao 1975:32 [ref. 22148]. Originally as johannis-davisi. Figured in Alcock 1900: Pl. 27 (figs. 2, 2a) [ref. 20536]. •Valid as Raja johannisdavisi Alcock 1899 -- (Stehmann 1976:154 [ref. 7085], Séret 1986:258 [ref. 6753], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827]). •Valid as Dipturus johannisdavisi (Alcock 1899) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377] Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:258 [ref. 35000], Psomadakis et al. 2020:201 [ref. 37272], Aschliman & Ebert 2022:578 [ref. 39668]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus johannisdavisi (Alcock 1899). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Indian Ocean: ?Tanzania, Gulf of Aden (Yemen) east to Lakshadweep (India) and Travancore coast (India). Habitat: marine.

kwangtungensis, Raja Chu [Y.-T.] 1960:148, Figs. 137-139 [Cartilaginous fishes of China; ref. 21272] Jia-Bo, China. Holotype: SFI 57-0676. Paratypes: SFI 57-0674 (1), 57-0675 (1). •Valid as Raja kwangtungensis Chu 1960 -- (Ishihara 1987:242 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:172 [ref. 25086], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:172 [ref. 26001]). •Valid as Dipturus kwangtungensis (Chu 1960) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:202 [ref. 25171], Choi et al. 2003:66, 482 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:397 [ref. 28370], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:183 [ref. 29612], Last & Lim 2010:107 [ref. 30853], Last el al. 2010:170 [ref. 32461], Yamashita et al. 2012:129 [ref. 32408], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Hsu et al. 2013:253 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:352 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:235 [ref. 33330], Hara et al. 2016:5 [ref. 36169] as cf. kwanftungensis, Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:259 [ref. 35000], Weigmann 2016:108 [ref. 34211], Kim et al. 2020:45 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:12 [ref. 37637]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus kwangtungensis (Chu 1960). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Pacific: Borneo and China north to Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

laevis, Raja Mitchill [S. L.] 1818:327 [American Monthly Magazine and Critical Review v. 2 (no. 5, art. 1); ref. 30214] New York City by East River, New York, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Valid as Raja laevis Mitchill 1818 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:449 [ref. 8444], Smith 1986:391 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:39 [ref. 23100], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], McAllister 1990:37 [ref. 14674], Murdy et al. 1997:38 [ref. 23144]). •Valid as Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Musick et al. 2000:9 [ref. 24959], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:65 [ref. 26158], Moore et al. 2003:171 [ref. 27076], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:260 [ref. 35000], Page et al. 2023:44 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

lanceorostrata, Raja Wallace [J. H.] 1967:15, Fig. 8 [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 17; ref. 7929] Off Limpopo River mouth, South Africa, depth 235-240 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 986 [ex ORI B869]. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 987 [ex ORI B868] (1). Additional material: ORI uncat. (1). •Valid as Raja lanceorostrata Wallace 1967 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:449 [ref. 8444], Hulley 1986:122 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827]). •Valid as Dipturus lanceorostratus (Wallace 1967) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Shao et al. 2008:237 [ref. 29952], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:261 [ref. 35000], Ebert et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38234]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus lanceorostratus (Wallace 1967). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, Indo-West Pacific: Agulhas Bank (Western Cape, South Africa); KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) to Mozambique; ?Taiwan. Habitat: brackish, marine.

leptocauda, Raja (Dipturus) Krefft [G.] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1975:79, Figs. 1-2 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 7435] Off southern Brazil, 24°21'S, 43°54'W, depth 500 meters. Holotype: ZMH 25254 [ex ISH 1913-1968]. Type catalog: Krefft 1978:6 [ref. 9884]. The specific epithet is an indeclinable noun. •Valid as Raja leptocauda Krefft & Stehmann 1975 -- (Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827]). •Valid as Dipturus leptocauda (Krefft & Stehmann 1975) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Menni & Stehmann 2000:80 [ref. 24909], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], Soto & Mincarone 2001:6 [ref. 26630], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211] as leptocaudus, Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941] as leptocaudus, Last et al. 2016:262 [ref. 35000] as leptocaudus, Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565], Figueroa et al. 2024:18 [ref. 40977] as leptocaudus). Current status: Valid as Dipturus leptocauda (Krefft & Stehmann 1975). Rajidae. Distribution: Northern Southwest Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

macrocauda, Raja Ishiyama [R.] 1955:43, Figs. 1-2 [Journal of the Shimonoseki College of Fisheries v. 4 (no. 1); ref. 12276] Miya fish market, Japan. Holotype: not researched. Paratypes: (23) CAS 23169 (1), 23172 (1). •Valid as Raja macrocauda Ishiyama 1955 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Nakaya in Okamura & Kitajima 1984:65, 307 [ref. 8057], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995]). •Valid as Dipturus macrocauda (Ishiyama 1955) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:202 [ref. 25171], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Nakabo 2000:173 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:173 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:66, 482 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:398 [ref. 28370], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041] as macrocaudus, Hsu et al. 2013:253 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:353 [ref. 33045], Shinohara et al. 2014:235 [ref. 33330], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211] as macrocaudus, Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941] as macrocaudus, Last et al. 2016:263 [ref. 35000] as macrocaudus, Misawa et al. 2022:26 [ref. 39157]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus macrocauda (Ishiyama 1955). Rajidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Japan, Taiwan and China. Habitat: marine.

macrorynchus, Raja Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:15 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Appeared first in Rafinesque 1810:47 [ref. 3595] with citation to Rafinesque 1810 [ref. 3594] [3594 technically published later]. •Valid as Raja macrorynchus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Stehmann 1990:33 [ref. 19316], Biscoito et al. 2018:488 [ref. 37562]). •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649] as macrorhynchus, Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

melanospilus, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:34, Figs. 20-25 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] South of Saumarez Reef, Saumarez Plateau, Queensland, Australia, 22°49'S, 154°10'E, depth 445-450 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 715-05. Paratypes: 21 specimens at AMS, CSIRO, QM. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus melanospilus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:264 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus melanospilus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia: Queensland to New South Wales. Habitat: marine.

mennii, Dipturus Gomes [U. L.] & Paragó [C.] 2001:2, Figs. 1-3 [Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro No. 448; ref. 25669] Santa Catarina, 26°44'15"S, 47°09'57", western Brazil. Holotype: MZUSP 51600. Paratypes: UERJ 1893 (1). Type catalog: Lima et al. 2023:329 [ref. 40221] as menni. •Valid as Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó 2001 -- (Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192] as menni, Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Moreira et al. 2011:99 [ref. 40695], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:265 [ref. 35000], Carvalho-Filho 2023:317 [ref. 40480]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus mennii Gomes & Paragó 2001. Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Bahia south to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) endemic. Habitat: marine.

nidarosiensis, Raja Storm [V.] (ex Collett) 1881:80 [Det Kongelige Norske videnskabers selskabs skrifter, Trondheim 1880; ref. 19334] Munkholmen, Trondheim Fjord, Norway, eastern North Atlantic. Syntypes: ZMUO J6339 (1, stuffed male in poor condition), ZMUO (2, lost). Type catalog: Pethon 1969:3 [ref. 19268]. Also appeared as new in Collett 1882:1, Pl. (figs. 1-5) [ref. 18020] [date from Pethon] as Raja nidrosiensis. •Valid as Raja nidarosiensis Storm 1881 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:176 [ref. 13675], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Stehmann 1990:32 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:105 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm 1881) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Iglésias et al. 2010:329 [ref. 30586], Cannas et al. 2010:341 [ref. 30787], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211] see remarks, McEachran & Séret 2016:1396 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:266 [ref. 35000], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:137 [ref. 37302], Carbonara et al. 2019:4 [ref. 36762], Carneiro et al. 2019:43 [ref. 37250], Geraci et al. 2019:204 [ref. 36776], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519], Serena et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37963], Ebert et al. 2021:80 [ref. 38234], Kovačić et al. 2021:15 [ref. 39014], Barone et al. 2022:48 [ref. 39527], Balàka et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40410], Leeney 2024:71 [ref. 40985]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus nidarosiensis (Storm 1881). Rajidae. Distribution: Western and central Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Iceland south to South Africa. Habitat: marine.

obscura, Raia Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] 1817:12 [Lista de los peces del mar de Andalucía; ref. 17319] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Genus should have been Raja. Name only, not available. Possibly an unpublished work. See also Raia obscura Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler in Graells 1887:186 [ref. 30438]. •In the synonymy of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae.

obscura, Raia Cabrera y Corro [A.], Pérez [L.] & Hänseler [F.] in Graells 1887:186 [Revista de los Progresos de las Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales, Madrid v. 22 (no. 3); ref. 30438] Western Andalusia, near Cádiz, Spain, eastern Atlantic. Genus should have been Raja. Name only; not available. Name from Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:12 [ref. 17319], possibly an unpublished work. •In the synonymy of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae.

olseni, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1951:386, Fig. 2 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 41 (no. 12); ref. 12883] Gulf of Mexico, 27°25'N, 96°13'W, Oregon station 157, depth 76 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 153556. Paratypes: MCZ 37176 (1). •Valid as Raja olseni Bigelow & Schroeder 1951 -- (McEachran & Fechhelm 1982:447 [ref. 8444], Robins & Ray 1986:39 [ref. 23100], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Boschung 1992:26 [ref. 23239], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:39 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus olseni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:156 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:490 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:552 [ref. 26985], Nelson et al. 2004:55 [ref. 27807], Page et al. 2013:55 [ref. 32708], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:113 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:267 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Jones et al. 2020:288 [ref. 37610], Blanco-Parra & Niño-Torres 2022:Correction, p. 5 [ref. 38986], Page et al. 2023:44 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus olseni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico and ?Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

oregoni, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1958:201, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 119 (no. 2); ref. 12049] Northern Gulf of Mexico, 29°10'N, 88°13'W, Oregon station 1247, depth 205 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 156710. Paratypes: MCZ 39617 (1). Plus non-type material. •Valid as Raja oregoni Bigelow & Schroeder 1958 -- (Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:39 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus oregoni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:157 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:553 [ref. 26985], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:115 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:21 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:268 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Jones et al. 2020:289 [ref. 37610], Page et al. 2023:44 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus oregoni (Bigelow & Schroeder 1958). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: eastern Florida (U.S.A.) and Gulf of Mexico. Habitat: marine.

oxyrinchus, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea [original: "in M. Mediterraneo & O. Europæo"]; localities include Marseille, France; Liguria and Rome, Italy; Syria; Lesbos Island, Greece. No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed. Originally based on multiple species and at least 25 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:72 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:101 [ref. 30349] as Raja varia, tuberculi decem aculeatis in medio dorsi; Rondelet 1554:348 [ref. 30354] as alia Raja, Gesner 1558:938 [ref. 30350] as Raia oxyrhynchos maior, Salviani 1558:149, Pl. 51 [ref. 30229] as Raia, Jonston 1649:Pl. 9 (fig. 8) [ref. 30579] as Raia oxyrhynchos maior, Ray 1713:26 [ref. 30231] as Raia oxyrhynchos major. Spelled oxyrinchos in Brünnich 1768:2 [ref. 17290], and oxirincus in Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:12 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:186 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Raja oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:177 [ref. 13675], Capapé 1987:22 [ref. 39326], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Stehmann 1990:33 [ref. 19316], Stehmann 1995:105 [ref. 22055], Santos et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:22 [ref. 24952], Uiblein et al. 1999:60 [ref. 24045], Golani 2005:14 [ref. 37112]). •Valid as Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589] as oxyrhynchus, Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:21 [ref. 26753], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Iglésias et al. 2010:329 [ref. 30586], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:13 [ref. 36649], Naylor et al. 2012:95 [ref. 32267] see remarks, Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524], Weigmann 2016:109 [ref. 34211], McEachran & Séret 2016:1397 [ref. 34551], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941] with remarks, Last et al. 2016:269 [ref. 35000], Biscoito et al. 2018:477 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:138 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:43 [ref. 37250], Bariche & Fricke 2020:26 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519], Serena et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37963], Giovos et al. 2021:6 [ref. 38895], Golani 2021:10 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:15 [ref. 39014], Bañón & Mano 2022:13 [ref. 40121], Barone et al. 2022:48 [ref. 39527], Balàka et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40410], Shakman et al. 2023:463 [ref. 40810]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Distribution: North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Senegal, including Madeira (rare) and Canary Islands. Habitat: marine.

oxyrynchus, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:22 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:64 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

pullopunctata, Raia Smith [J. L. B.] 1964:285, Pl. 25 (fig. A) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn v. 126; ref. 3444] Algoa Bay, 31°7'E, 29°59'S, off coast of South Africa, western Indian Ocean, depth 100 fathoms. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 37. Paratypes: (1) not researched. •Valid as Raja pullopunctata Smith 1964 -- (Hulley 1986:123 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Compagno et al. 1991:95 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:94 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:106 [ref. 22055], Walmsley-Hart et al. 1999:165 [ref. 24222]). •Valid as Dipturus pullopunctatus (Smith 1964) (often as pullopunctata) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:81 [ref. 28072], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:270 [ref. 35000], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:138 [ref. 37302], Ebert et al. 2021:80 [ref. 38234], Aschliman & Ebert 2022:579 [ref. 39668], Leeney 2024:72 [ref. 40985]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus pullopunctatus (Smith 1964). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, southwestern Indian Ocean: Lüderitz (Namibia) south to Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), then north to Eastern Cape (South Africa), Agulhas Bank and ?Bazaruto (Mozambique). Habitat: marine.

queenslandicus, Dipturus Last [P. R.], White [W. T.] & Pogonoski [J. J.] 2008:42, Figs. 26-31 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29647] South of Saumarez Reef, Saumarez Plateau, Queensland, Australia, 22°49'S, 154°10'E, depth 445-450 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 715-07. Paratypes: 11specimens at CSIRO and QM. Plus one non-type specimen. •Valid as Dipturus queenslandicus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:271 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus queenslandicus Last, White & Pogonoski 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Queensland, Australia. Habitat: marine.

salviani, Raja Müller [J.] & Henle [F. G. J.] 1841:143, 195 [Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen; ref. 3069] Mediterranean Sea; Atlantic. Syntypes or possible syntypes: MNHN 0000-1570 (1) Nice, 0000-1791 (1) Nice, 0000-3479 (1, stuffed) Nice; RMNH 4240 (1) or D2511 (1, dry), D2509 (1); ZMB 4599 (1) Sicily. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:84 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:15 [ref. 9312], Paepke & Schmidt 1988:174 [ref. 21041]. Based on Laeviraja of Salviani 1558:149, Pl. 52 [ref. 30229] and other sources. •Synonym of Raja oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

springeri, Raja Wallace [J. H.] 1967:18, Figs. 9-10 [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 17; ref. 7929] 48 kilometers east-southeast of Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, western Indian Ocean, depth 549 meters. Holotype: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 989 [ex ORI B909]. Paratypes: SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 990 [ex ORI B185] (1). Additional material: ORI uncat. (7). •Valid as Raja springeri Wallace 1967 -- (Hulley 1986:125 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Compagno et al. 1991:96 [ref. 21083], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:95 [ref. 25472], Stehmann 1995:105 [ref. 22055]). •Valid as Dipturus springeri (Wallace 1967) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno et al. 2005:66 [ref. 29145], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:272 [ref. 35000], Fricke et al. 2018:24 [ref. 35805], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:140 [ref. 37302], Ebert et al. 2021:80 [ref. 38234], Aschliman & Ebert 2022:580 [ref. 39668]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus springeri (Wallace 1967). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, western Indian Ocean: Lüderitz (Namibia) south to Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), then north to Kenya and southern Oman, east to Madagascar and western India. Habitat: marine.

stabuliforis, Raia Garman [S.] 1913:341, Pls. 22 (fig. 2), 44 (4-6) [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 36; ref. 1545] New England, U.S.A. Syntypes: MCZ 1138-S (1), 1294-S (1). Type catalog: Hartel & Dingerkus 1997:xlvi [ref. 23119]. •Synonym of Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818) -- (Scott & Scott 1988:47 [ref. 25518] as stabuliformis). •Synonym of Raja chilensis Guichenot 1848 -- (Lloris & Rucabado 1991:44 [ref. 22530]). •In genus Dipturus and not Zearaja and possibly synonym of D. laevis (Mitchill) -- (Last & Gledhill 2007:50 [ref. 29177]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus laevis (Mitchill 1818). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

stenorhynchus, Raja Wallace [J. H.] 1967:23, Fig. 11 [Investigational Report. Oceanographic Research Institute, Durban No. 17; ref. 7929] East of False Bay, 22°25'S, 35°54'E, South Africa, western Indian Ocean, Anton Bruun station 398B, depth 405 fathoms. Holotype (unique): ORI B186. •Valid as Raja stenorhynchus Wallace 1967 -- (Hulley 1986:126 [ref. 5672], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827]). •Valid as Dipturus stenorhynchus (Wallace 1967) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno & Ebert 2007:139 [ref. 30471], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:273 [ref. 35000], Ebert et al. 2021:81 [ref. 38234], Aschliman & Ebert 2022:580 [ref. 39668]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus stenorhynchus (Wallace 1967). Rajidae. Distribution: Southwestern Indian Ocean: False Bay to KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) north to central Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

teevani, Raja Bigelow [H. B.] & Schroeder [W. C.] 1951:388, Fig. 3 [Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences v. 41 (no. 12); ref. 12883] Off Pensacola, Florida, U.S.A., 29°11'N, 86°52'30"W, Oregon station 279, depth 305 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 153557. Paratypes: MCZ 37189 (1). •Valid as Raja teevani Bigelow & Schroeder 1951 -- (Uyeno & Miyake in Uyeno et al. 1983:77 [ref. 14275], Séret 1989:126 [ref. 12827], Cervigón 1992:206 [ref. 23827], Jacob & McEachran 1994:444 [ref. 22422], Castro-Aguirre & Espinosa Pérez 1996:40 [ref. 22793]). •Valid as Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:158 [ref. 23897], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], Gomes & Gadig in Menezes et al. 2003:29 [ref. 27192], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:553 [ref. 26985], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Díaz de Astarloa et al. 2008:35 [ref. 29969], Vargas-Caro 2015:323 [ref. 33982], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:115 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:274 [ref. 35000], Ehemann et al. 2018:25 [ref. 36194], Ehemann et al. 2019:[6] [ref. 36861], Jones et al. 2020:290 [ref. 37610], Blanco-Parra & Niño-Torres 2022:Correction, p. 5 [ref. 38986], Carvalho-Filho 2023:317 [ref. 40480], Castillo Domínguez et al. 2023:8 [ref. 40663], Page et al. 2023:44 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder 1951). Rajidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Bahia (Brazil), including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

tengu, Raja Jordan [D. S.] & Fowler [H. W.] 1903:654, Fig. 8 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 26 (no. 1324); ref. 2460] Matsushima Bay, Sendai, Japan. Holotype: CAS-SU 12912 (specimen dissected) [not 7138]. Paratypes: USNM. Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:10 [ref. 12291]. •Valid as Raja tengu Jordan & Fowler 1903 -- (Nakaya in Masuda et al. 1984:13 [ref. 6441], Ishihara 1987:278 [ref. 6264], Séret 1989:128 [ref. 12827], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:7 [ref. 24670], Compagno et al. 1999:1407 [ref. 24636], Last & Compagno 1999:1454 [ref. 24639], Dolganov 1999:429 [ref. 24873], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Compagno in Randall & Lim 2000:582 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:291 [ref. 25995], Compagno et al. 2005:66 [ref. 29145]). •Valid as Dipturus tengu (Jordan & Fowler 1903) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Jeong 1999:202 [ref. 25171], Nakabo 2000:173 [ref. 25086], Nakabo 2002:173 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:66, 482 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:398 [ref. 28370], Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Yamashita et al. 2012:130 [ref. 32408], Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Hsu et al. 2013:253 [ref. 33043], Ebert et al. 2013:353 [ref. 33045], Parin et al. 2014:36 [ref. 33547], Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524], Motomura et al. 2015:12 [ref. 34709], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:275 [ref. 35000], Dyldin & Orlov 2018:166 [ref. 35920], Sonoyama et al. 2020:12 [ref. 37637], Dyldin & Orlov 2021:57 [ref. 38158]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus tengu (Jordan & Fowler 1903). Rajidae. Distribution: Northwestern Pacific: Philippines and Taiwan north to Japan and Sakhalin (Russia). Habitat: marine.

trachyderma, Raja (Dipturus) Krefft [G.] & Stehmann [M. F. W.] 1975:86, Figs. 7-8 [Archiv für Fischereiwissenschaft v. 26 (no. 3); ref. 7435] Off southern Argentina, southwestern Atlantic, 49°00'S, 60°52'W, depth 200-195 meters. Holotype (unique): ZMH 25402 [ex ISH 130-1971]. Type catalog: Krefft 1978:7 [ref. 9884], Thiel et al. 2009:26 [ref. 30918]. Specific name is an undeclinable noun. •Valid as Raja trachyderma Krefft & Stehmann 1975 -- (Pequeño 1989:17 [ref. 14125], Séret 1989:127 [ref. 12827], Lloris & Rucabado 1991:47 [ref. 22530], López et al. 1996:13 [ref. 23681]). •Valid as Dipturus trachyderma (Krefft & Stehmann 1975) -- (McEachran & Dunn 1998:285 [ref. 23312], Compagno 1999:491 [ref. 25589], Cousseau et al. 2000:13 [ref. 40447], Menni & Stehmann 2000:80 [ref. 24909], Gomes & Paragó 2001:1 [ref. 25669], Soto & Mincarone 2001:6 [ref. 26630], López et al. 2002:62 [ref. 26808] as trachydermus, Jeong & Nakabo 2008:189 [ref. 29612], Mabragaña et al. 2011:7 [ref. 31800], Moreira et al. 2011:108 [ref. 40695], Vargas-Caro et al. 2015:328 [ref. 33982], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211] as trachydermus, Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941] as trachydermus, Last et al. 2016:276 [ref. 35000] as trachydermus, Nión et al. 2016:22 [ref. 35565], Figueroa et al. 2024:6 [ref. 40977]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus trachyderma (Krefft & Stehmann 1975). Rajidae. Distribution: Southeastern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic: Uruguay to Chile, possibly southern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

vomer, Raja Fries [B. F.] 1838:161 [36] [Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar, Stockholm Series 3, v. 26; ref. 18097] Sweden, Skagerrak, North Sea. Holotype (?): NRM 209e (stuffed). On p. 36 of separate. •Synonym of Raja oxyrinchus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Stehmann 1973:63 [ref. 7168]). •Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus oxyrinchus (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Batis Couch [J.] 1862:87, Pl. 18 [The history of the fishes of the British islands v. 1; ref. 989] British Isles. No types known. Apparently an unneeded substitute for Raja batis. •Apparently a synonym of Raja batis of earlier authors. •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:23 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:65 [ref. 30995], Dyldin 2015:70 [ref. 34524]). Current status: Synonym of Dipturus batis (Linnaeus 1758). Rajidae. Habitat: marine.

wengi, Dipturus Séret [B.] & Last [P. R.] 2008:99, Figs. 1-6 [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Paper No. 021; ref. 29649] East of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, 33°43'S, 151°54'E, depth 486-509 meters. Holotype: CSIRO H 891-01. Paratypes: (15 specimens) at AMS and CSIRO. Plus non-type specimens. •Valid as Dipturus wengi Séret & Last 2008 -- (Last & White 2008:109 [ref. 30618], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:277 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus wengi Séret & Last 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: Eastern Australia: Queensland, New South Wales, and Tasmania. Habitat: marine.

wuhanlingi, Dipturus Jeong [C.-H.] & Nakabo [T.] 2008:184, Figs. 1-7 [Ichthyological Research v. 55 (no. 2); ref. 29612] Open waters of the South China Sea. Holotype: SFC D 01113. Paratypes: SFC S 07672 (1). •Valid as Dipturus wuhanlingi Jeong & Nakabo 2008 -- (Last & Alava 2013:214 [ref. 33041], Ebert et al. 2013:354 [ref. 33045], Weigmann 2016:110 [ref. 34211], Last et al. 2016:22 [ref. 34941], Last et al. 2016:278 [ref. 35000]). Current status: Valid as Dipturus wuhanlingi Jeong & Nakabo 2008. Rajidae. Distribution: South China Sea, East China Sea. Habitat: marine.


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