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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Muraena: [ 38 ] records


albigutta, Muraena Hildebrand [S. F.] 1946:132, Fig. 30 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 189; ref. 2161] Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru, 6°56'S, 80°43'W. Holotype: USNM 127840. Paratypes: USNM 127841 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380] •Synonym of Gymnothorax argus Steindachner 1870 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:91 [ref. 26380] but in Muraena on p. 94). •Synonym of Muraena argus (Steindachner 1870) -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:426 [ref. 9341], Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena argus (Steindachner 1870). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

albomarginata, Muraena (Muraena) Pfaff [J. R.] 1933:305, Pl. 6 (figs. 1-3) [Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening, Kjøbenhavn v. 94; ref. 16517] Dakar, western Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMUC. Type catalog: Nielsen 1974:53 [ref. 9588]. •Synonym of Muraena melanotis (Kaup 1859) -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena melanotis (Kaup 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

appendiculata, Murenophis Guichenot [A.] 1848:341 [Fauna Chilena.... in Gay.; ref. 1939] Valparaíso, Chile. No types known. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380]. Based on an incomplete description and unfinished drawing (not found). Original should have been Muraenophis. •Valid as Muraena appendiculata (Guichenot 1848) -- (Pequeño 1989:25 [ref. 14125]). •Status uncertain -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380]). Current status: Uncertain as Muraena appendiculata (Guichenot 1848). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Chile. Habitat: marine.

aquaedulcis, Muraena Cope [E. D.] 1872:474 [U. S. Geological Survey Territitories Annual Report v. 5 (pt 4); ref. 923] Río Grande, near San José, Costa Rica. Holotype (unique): ANSP 14925. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:129 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380]. Originally as aquae-dulcis, correction mandatory. Locality questioned, San Jose is too far inland -- see Smith 2012:6 and 31 [ref. 32155]. •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:475 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Smith 2002:93 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

argus, Gymnothorax (Limamuraena) Steindachner [F.] 1870:639 [17], Pl. 4 [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 61 (1. Abth.); ref. 4218] Altata, Sinaloa, west coast of Mexico, eastern Pacific. Holotype (unique): NMW 75551. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Muraena argus (Steindachner 1870) -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:47 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1312 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:157 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:130 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:41 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:94 [ref. 26380], McCosker & Smith 2004:248 [ref. 27620], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:18 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Sánchez-Jiménez et al. 2018:6 [ref. 36248], Dale et al. 2021:316 [ref. 38298], Love et al. 2021:34 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:52 [ref. 40505], Siccha-Ramirez et al. 2023:99 [ref. 40816]). Current status: Valid as Muraena argus (Steindachner 1870). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galápagos Islands (Ecuador); straying to southern California (U.S.A.). Habitat: marine.

atlantica, Thyrsoidea Johnson [J. Y.] 1862:168 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1862 (pt 2) (art. 2) (for 10 June 1862); ref. 2357] Sea near Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1862.2.5.2. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1857) -- (Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

augusti, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1857:88 [Catalogue of the apodal fish in the collection of the British Museum; ref. 2573] Madeira. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:127 [ref. 20810]. Not a synonym of Muraena helena -- Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379]). •Valid as Muraena augusti (Kaup 1857) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:195 [ref. 13286], Santos et al. 1997:20 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952] with Günther 1870 as author, Jiménez et al. 2007:101 [ref. 29038], Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1633 [ref. 34557], Carneiro et al. 2019:62 [ref. 37250]). Current status: Valid as Muraena augusti (Kaup 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Madeira and Azores. Habitat: marine.

australiae, Muraena helena Richardson [J.] 1848:80, Pl. 49 (figs. 1-6) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Eastern Atlantic [Australia is erroneous]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.5.10.16. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380] with remarks on type locality. Use of the term australiae in figure caption of Pl. 49 may have been intended as an indication of locality and not a new name, as that term does not appear in the text (p. 80) or list of species. It has been treated, however, as an available name by recent authors. •Valid as Muraena australiae Richardson 1848 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442], Hutchins 2001:17 [ref. 25847]). •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:96 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

bettencourti, Muraena Osório [B.] 1911:76, Pl. 2 (fig. 2) [Memorias do Museu Bocage, Lisboa v. 2; ref. 13025] Ilha de Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): MB (destroyed in 1978 fire). •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379]). •Synonym of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1857) -- (Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155], Smith & Brito 2016:1633 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

clepsydra, Muraena Gilbert [C. H.] in Jordan & Evermann 1898:2805 [Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 47; ref. 2445] (Pacific) Panama. Holotype: CAS-SU 6807. Paratypes: BMNH 1903.5.15.443 (1), CAS-SU 12899-900 (1, 1), USNM 50423 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:47 [ref. 12291], Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380] Author is C. H. Gilbert. Holotype figured in Gilbert & Starks 1904, Pl. 7 (fig. 13) [ref. 1639]. •Valid as Muraena clepsydra Gilbert 1898 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:47 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1312 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:158 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:127 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:41 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:103 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:18 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Love et al. 2021:34 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:52 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Muraena clepsydra Gilbert 1898. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to northern Peru, including southern Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galápagos Islands (Ecuador). Habitat: marine.

dumerili, Thyrsoidea Kaup [J. J.] 1856:62 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] A nomen oblitum -- Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]. •Questionable in the synonymy of Muraena augusti (Kaup 1857) -- (Smith 2012:30 [ref. 32155]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Uncertain as Muraena augusti (Kaup 1857). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

fulva, Muraenophis Risso [A.] 1810:367 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

galetae, Gymnothorax Rubinoff [I.] 1966:1, Fig. 1 [Breviora No. 240; ref. 9063] Galeta Island, 9°24'20"N, 79°52'18"W, Panama Canal Zone, Atlantic, 6 in. Holotype (unique): MCZ 44035. •Synonym of Muraena robusta Osório 1911 -- (Böhlke & Ross 1981:123 [ref. 14570], Böhlke et al. 1989:203 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena robusta Osório 1911. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Limmamuraena Duméril [A. M. C.] 1856:200 [Mémoires de l'Académie des Sciences : tirés des registres de cette Académie. v. 27 (no. 1); ref. 1154] Not available, name only. •Nomen nudum, not available -- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155])., Nomen Nudum. Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

guttata, Limomuraena Kaup [J. J.] 1856:65 [Archiv für Naturgeschichte v. 22 (pt. 1); ref. 2572] Apparently a new combination for Muraena guttata of Solander & Richardson 1848, based on Banks and Solander MSS -- David G. Smith, pers. comm. Nov. 2011. •An unavailable new combination. Current status: Synonym of Muraena. Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

guttata, Muraena Risso [A.] 1827:191 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Muraena guttata Forsskål 1775. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

guttata, Muraena Solander [D. C.] & Richardson [J.] 1848:90 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Madeira and Brazil. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. Based in part (verbatim) from Solander manuscript, plus Richardson description as well. Preoccupied by Muraena guttata Forsskål 1775. Not in database until Nov. 2011 on David G. Smith pers. comm. 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Muraena. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

helena, Muraena Linnaeus [C.] 1758:244 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, western North Atlantic [original: "in Europæ, Americæ Oceano"]; localities include Spain; France; Rome and Sicily, Italy; Lesbos Island, Greece; Syria; Bahamas. Syntypes: ZMUU Linn. Coll. 57 (1, only surviving specimen). Type catalog: Lönnberg 1896:24 [ref. 23530], Wheeler 1991:160-161, Fig. 5 [ref. 20102]. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 36 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:25 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:41 [ref. 30349] as Muraena pinnis pectoralibus carens; Rondelet 1554:402 [ref. 30354] as Muræna, Salviani 1558:60, Pl. (p. 59) [ref. 30229] as Muræna, Charleton 1668:126 [ref. 30580] as Muræna, Willughby 1686:103 [ref. 30164] and Ray 1713:34 [ref. 30231] as Muræna, Catesby 1743:20, 21, Pl. 20-21 [ref. 774] as Muræna maculata nigra & viridis and Muræna maculata nigra. The surviving syntype is not this species, and a neotype would be desirable (see Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). •Valid as Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Bauchot in Whitehead et al. 1986:543 [ref. 13676], Böhlke et al. 1989:195 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Randall & Golani 1995:869 [ref. 21744], Santos et al. 1997:20 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:55 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:31 [ref. 26753], Falcón et al. 2003:144 [ref. 39343], Golani 2005:16 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:23 [ref. 29533], Jiménez et al. 2007:101 [ref. 29038], Smith et al. 2008:67 [ref. 29432], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:18 [ref. 36649], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Stern & Goren 2013:197 [ref. 32673], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1634 [ref. 34557], Vieira et al. 2016:[4] [ref. 34869], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[22] 260 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:23 [ref. 36273], Martins & Carneiro 2018:21 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:553 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:62 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:92 [ref. 36864], Iglésias et al. 2019:278 [ref. 37098], Smith et al. 2019:60 [ref. 37159], Bariche & Fricke 2020:34 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:11 [ref. 37519], Bañón & Maño 2021:50 [ref. 38883], Golani 2021:15 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:20 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:115 [ref. 39448] with question, Smith & Böhlke 2022:67 [ref. 39681]). Current status: Valid as Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to Cape Verde Islands [but now excluding augusti]; Red Sea (Mediterranean Sea immigrant). Habitat: marine.

insularum, Muraena Jordan [D. S.] & Davis [B. M.] 1891:609 [United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries, Report of the Commissioner v. 16 (for 1888) (art. 9); ref. 2437] San Cristóbal Island [Chatham Island], Galápagos Islands. Holotype: USNM 38300. Type catalog: Smith 1994:21 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:115-116 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Muraena insularum Jordan & Davis 1891 -- (Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:130 [ref. 24555]). •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:116 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

lentiginosa, Muraena Jenyns [L.] 1842:143 [The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Beagle; ref. 2344] Santa María Island [Charles Island], Galápagos Islands. Lectotype: BMNH 1917.7.14.13. Paralectotypes: ?BMNH uncat. (1) not found. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. Lectotype selected by Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380]. •Valid as Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (Allen & Robertson 1994:48 [ref. 22193], McCosker & Rosenblatt in Fischer et al. 1995:1312 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:156 [ref. 24023], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:127 [ref. 24555], Thomson et al. 2000:41 [ref. 25640], Böhlke & Smith 2002:120 [ref. 26380], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Love et al. 2005:18 [ref. 37547], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:188 [ref. 30957], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Galván-Villa et al. 2016:144 [ref. 34871], Fourriére et al. 2016:441 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:606 [ref. 34923], Love et al. 2021:34 [ref. 39279], Page et al. 2023:52 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific: Pacific coast of Baja California Sur (Mexico) south to Peru, including Gulf of California (Mexico) and Galápagos Islands (Mexico). Habitat: marine.

maculatus, Muraena serpens Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Melitta [La Valetta, Malta, Mediterranean Sea]. Not available, name only. •In the synonymy of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Fricke 2008:15 [ref. 30182]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae.

marmoreus, Murenophis Valenciennes [A.] 1846:no p., Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate "la Vénus"; ref. 6165] Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8533. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:101 [ref. 20810], Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380] Dates to publication in plate; corresponding text published as Valenciennes 1855:347 [ref. 4504]. •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:425 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Smith 2002:124 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

melanotis, Limamuraena Kaup [J. J.] 1859:27, Pl. 4 (fig. 3) [Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften herausgegeben von dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Hamburg v. 4 (no. 2); ref. 2586] West Africa. Holotype (unique): ?ZMH H390. Type catalog: Ladiges et al. 1958:160 [ref. 19181], Wilkens & Dohse 1993:404 [ref. 21161]. The size and dentition of the "holotype" do not agree with the description (E. Böhlke, pers. comm., Aug. 1997). •Valid as Muraena melanotis (Kaup 1859) -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:195 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:146 [ref. 19379], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Jiménez et al. 2007:103 [ref. 29038], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1635 [ref. 34557], Brown et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:63 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:62 [ref. 38139], Fermon et al. 2022:115 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Muraena melanotis (Kaup 1859). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Saint Paul's Rocks; southern central Atlantic: Saint Helena; eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Angola, including ?Madeira, Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

muraena, Gymnothorax Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:525 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] No types known. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

nevezi, Gymnothorax Roux [C.] in Collignon, Rossignol & Roux 1957:164, Fig. 17 [Office de la recherche scientifique et technique Outre-Mer, Paris; ref. 12111] Points-Noire, southwestern Congo. Syntypes: ORSTOM Pointe Noire or MNHN (1, described specimen). Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:125 [ref. 20810] with a holotype. Based on literature and one specimen. •Synonym of Muraena robusta Osório 1911 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:200 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena robusta Osório 1911. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pavonina, Muraena Richardson [J.] 1845:no page, Pl. 53 (figs. 1-6) [Ichthyology.--Part 2. The zoology of the voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur; ref. 20574] No locality [probably Ascension Island]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1985.2.19.4. Available from plate. For locality see Böhlke & McCosker 2001:95 [ref. 25226]. Text in Richardson 1845:110 [ref. 20275]. •Valid as Muraena pavonina Richardson 1845 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:197 [ref. 13286], Feitoza et al. 2003:68 [ref. 26943], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Wirtz et al. 2014:3 [ref. 33516], Smith & Brito 2016:1641 [ref. 34557]). Current status: Valid as Muraena pavonina Richardson 1845. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic and eastern Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

pinta, Muraena Jordan [D. S.] & Gilbert [C. H.] 1882:345 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 4 (no. 237); ref. 2470] Mazatlán Harbor, Sinaloa, western Mexico. Lectotype: USNM 28177. Paralectotypes: USNM 28197 (1), 28238 (1, lost), 28388 (1, lost), 29359 (1, lost), 29608 (1). Type catalog: Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917], Böhlke & Smith 2002:138-139 [ref. 26380]. The basic description was based on one specimen (USNM 28238, now lost) but other specimens were listed by catalog number; all are regarded as syntypes. Lectotype selected by Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917]. •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:139 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

pratberon, Muraena Richardson [J.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) 1848:84 [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Erub [= Darnley] Island, Australia; Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. Syntypes: BMNH (74-in specimen, skin), ? BMNH (57-in specimen); MNHN B-3142 (1). Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:140-141 [ref. 26380]. Based on Quoy & Gaimard 1824, Pl. 52 and other material; see Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380] for status of types. •Nomen oblitum -- (Böhlke & Smith 2002:140 [ref. 26380]). •Nomen oblitum in the synonymy of Muraena javanica Bleeker 1859 --- (Smith 2012:55 [ref. 32155]). Nomen Oblitum. Current status: Uncertain as Muraena javanicum Bleeker 1859. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

puhipape, Muraena Curtiss [A.] 1938:34 [A short zoology of Tahiti in the Society islands; ref. 18057] Vaitapiha River, Tautira township, Tahiti, Society Islands. No types known. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Muraena Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:68, Pl. 15 (fig. 2) [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Spelled punctatus on plate. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:44 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Murenophis Castelnau [F. L.] 1855:82, Pl. 42 (fig. 3) [Animaux nouveaux or rares v. 2; ref. 766] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Holotype: MNHN B-2411. Type catalog: Bauchot et al. 1993:101 [ref. 20810]. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Muraena punctata Rafinesque 1810 in Muraena. •Synonym of Muraena retifera Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Böhlke et al. 1989:200 [ref. 13286], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Muraena retifera Goode & Bean 1882. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

retifera, Muraena Goode [G. B.] & Bean [T. H.] 1882:435 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 5 (no. 297); ref. 1840] Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 31393. Type catalog: Smith 1994:22 [ref. 21917]. •Valid as Muraena retifera Goode & Bean 1882 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:54 [ref. 23100], Böhlke et al. 1989:200 [ref. 13286], Boschung 1992:33 [ref. 23239], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:241 [ref. 23897], Böhlke & Smith 2003:714 [ref. 26990], Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:33 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], De Wysiecki et al. 2018:255 [ref. 36455], Ceríaco et al. 2023:25 [ref. 40710], Page et al. 2023:52 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Muraena retifera Goode & Bean 1882. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: South Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Uruguay. Habitat: marine.

robusta, Muraena Osório [B.] 1911:75, Pl. 2 (fig. 1) [Memorias do Museu Bocage, Lisboa v. 2; ref. 13025] Ilha de Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands. Holotype (unique): MB (destroyed in 1978 fire). •Valid as Muraena robusta Osório 1911 -- (Böhlke & Ross 1981:123 [ref. 14570], Böhlke et al. 1989:203 [ref. 13286], Smith & Böhlke 1990:147 [ref. 19379], Garzón-Ferreira & Acero P. 1990:140 [ref. 19560], Cervigón 1992:369 [ref. 23827], Afonso et al. 1999:69 [ref. 25466], Böhlke & Smith 2003:718 [ref. 26990], Nelson et al. 2004:61 [ref. 27807], Jiménez et al. 2007:103 [ref. 29038], Wirtz et al. 2007:25 [ref. 30263], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155], Page et al. 2013:61 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32972], Smith & Brito 2016:1636 [ref. 34557], Reiner 2019:62 [ref. 38139], Fermon et al. 2022:115 [ref. 39448], Page et al. 2023:52 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Muraena robusta Osório 1911. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Distribution: Western Atlantic; eastern Atlantic: Mauritania south to Namibia, including Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

romana, Muraena Shaw [G.] 1803:26 [General zoology or systematic natural history v. 4; ref. 4014] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

truncatum, Leptocephalus Shen [S.-C.] 1963:266, Figs. 13-14 [Quarterly Journal of the Taiwan Museum (Taipei) v. 16 (nos 3-4); ref. 5280] Estuary of the Tam-sui River, northern Taiwan. Holotype (unique): NTUM uncat. Type catalog: Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]. •Larva; may belong to a species of Muraena -- (Ho & Shao 2011:64 [ref. 31432]). Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Muraena Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:67 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:44 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Blache et al. 1973:224 [ref. 7185], Smith & Böhlke 1990:145 [ref. 19379], Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155], Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

vorax, Muraena Ogilby [J. D.] 1907:11 [Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland v. 20; ref. 3282] Eastern Atlantic based on type, not Western Australia. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1847.5.10.16. Type catalog: Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380] "New name proposed for the Australian form hitherto identified with Muraena helena." Regarded as a replacement name, taking Richardson's holotype according to Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380] and Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Muraena australiae Richardson 1848 -- (Paxton et al. 1989:132 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758 -- (Böhlke & McCosker 2001:96 [ref. 25226], Böhlke & Smith 2002:95 [ref. 26380], Böhlke & Smith 2002:154 [ref. 26380] based on p. 95, Smith 2012:31 [ref. 32155]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Muraena helena Linnaeus 1758. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.

xanthospilus, Lycodontis Fowler [H. W.] 1944:317, Figs. 69-71 [Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia No. 6; ref. 1448] James Bay, James Island, Galápagos Islands. Holotype (unique): ANSP 70026. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:131 [ref. 13621], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380]. •Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842 -- (McCosker & Rosenblatt 1975:424 [ref. 9341], Böhlke & Smith 2002:155 [ref. 26380], Smith 2012:32 [ref. 32155]). Current status: Synonym of Muraena lentiginosa Jenyns 1842. Muraenidae: Muraeninae. Habitat: marine.


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