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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Sparisoma: [ 57 ] records


abbotti, Sparisoma Fowler [H. W.] 1915:258, Fig. 2 [Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia v. 67; ref. 15099] Kingston, St. Vincent Island, West Indies. Holotype: ANSP 39868. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621]. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

abildgaardi, Sparus Bloch [M. E.] 1791:22, Pl. 259 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 5; ref. 4867] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): ZMB 8584 (right skin). Type catalog: Paepke 1999:127 [ref. 24282]. On p. 19 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 8 [ref. 21381]. Spelled abildgardi in Bloch & Schneider 1801 p. 286 and Shaw & Nodder 1812 [ref. 4013]. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

amplus, Scarus Ranzani [C.] 1841:63 [Nuovi annali delle scienze naturali e rendiconto dei lavori dell'Accademia della Scienze dell'Instituto di Bologna con appendice agraria. Bologna Anno III, Tomo V; ref. 24074] Brazilian seas. Holotype (unique): MZUB 980. Also appeared in more detail in Ranzani 1842:324, Pl. 25 [ref. 18607]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani 1841) -- (Moura et al. 2001:513 [ref. 25371], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma amplum (Ranzani 1841). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Brazil, oceanic islands off Brazil and St. Paul's Rocks (Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago). Habitat: marine.

atomarius, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:423 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Valid as Sparisoma atomarium (Poey 1861) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:210 [ref. 23100], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:43 [ref. 24488], Villamizar 1996:40 [ref. 23496], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Moura et al. 2001:519 [ref. 25371], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634] as aff. atomarium, Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1726 [ref. 27105], Nelson et al. 2004:156 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:539 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Robertson et al. 2020:157 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma atomarium (Poey 1861). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

aureoruber, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:56, 163 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Martinique Island, West Indies. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:86 [ref. 20898]. Spelled aureo-ruber on p. 163. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

aurofrenatus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:191 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Santa Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1770 (2), ?0000-1769 (4) Haiti. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:291 [ref. 20736]. •Valid as Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:210 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:395 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:45 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221] as aorofrenatum, Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1735 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:45 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:540 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:64 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Robertson et al. 2020:157 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic [not including Brazil]. Habitat: marine.

axillaris, Scarus (Scarus) Steindachner [F.] 1878:384 [6], Pl. 3 (fig. 1) [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 77 (1. Abth.); ref. 18774] "Probably coast of North Australia" [Brazil]. Syntypes: (several) NMW 77759 (1). On p. 6 of separate. Type locality is Brazil, see Moura et al. 2001:505 [ref. 25371]. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner 1878) -- (Moura et al. 2001:515 [ref. 25371], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155] as Sparissoma a., Wirtz et al. 2007:15 [ref. 30263], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Rocha et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31733], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner 1878). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Brazil, offshore islands off Brazil and St. Paul's Rocks (Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago). Habitat: marine.

bleekeri, Callyodontichthys Steindachner [F.] 1863:1111, Pl. 24 (figs. 2-2b) [Verhandlungen der K.-K. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien v. 13; ref. 4206] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): ?NMW 57127. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

brachialis, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:345 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14555 (1). Poey specimens: MCZ 31447 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:212 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 14555 as holotype. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

brachyvarius, Scarus Longley [W. H.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1941:212 [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 34 (publ. 535); ref. 18452] Not available, manuscript name of Poey (from Havana, Cuba). •In the synonymy of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae.

canariensis, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] 1838:[68], Pl. 17 (fig. 2) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN A-8221 to 8223 (1, 1, 1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:292 [ref. 20736]. Dates to Pl. 17 in Oct. 1838, p. 68 published in 1843. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:884 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Rocha et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31733]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

catesby, Scarus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:4, 16 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Carolina, U.S.A. Spelled catesbaei by Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:183 [ref. 4882]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

catesby, Sparus Lacepède [B. G. E.] 1802:42, 136 [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 4; ref. 4929] Carolinas, U.S.A. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:87 [ref. 20898]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013] as catesbyi). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

chloris, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:289 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Vieja (No. 3)' of Parra 1787:59, Pl. 28 (fig. 4) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

choati, Sparisoma Rocha [L. A.], Brito [A.] & Robertson [D. R.] 2012:62, Figs. 1-2A, B [Zootaxa No. 3152; ref. 31733] Northeastern coast of São Tomé Island, dock near airport, 0°22'27"N, 6°43'03"E, Gulf of Guinea, depth 1 meter. Holotype: CAS 224080. Paratypes: CAS 214635 (1), 230969 (1); UF 179646 (4). •Valid as Sparisoma choati Rocha, Brito & Robertson 2012 -- (Wirtz et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32972], Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2739 [ref. 34618], Parenti & Randall 2018:24 [ref. 35964], Reiner 2019:240 [ref. 38139]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma choati Rocha, Brito & Robertson 2012. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

chrysopterus, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] 1801:286, Pl. 57 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Tropical western Atlantic. Holotype (unique): ? ZMB 7049. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:127-128 [ref. 24282]. •Valid as Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:400 [ref. 14275], Robins & Ray 1986:210 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:395 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1736 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:541 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:65 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Carneiro et al. 2019:288 [ref. 37250], Robertson et al. 2020:157 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

circumnotatus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:423 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 14512. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:212 [ref. 22926]. •Possible synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Uncertain as Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

coccineus, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:289 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. Based on the 'Vieja (No. 2)' of Parra 1787:58, Pl. 28 (fig. 2) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

cretensis, Labrus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:282 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Crete, Greece, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Quignard & Pras in Whitehead et al. 1986:943 [ref. 13676], Randall 1990:884 [ref. 19149], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116] as cretensis, Otero & Galeote 1996:405 [ref. 22783], Santos et al. 1997:97 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:97 [ref. 24952], Vacchi et al. 1999:325 [ref. 24369], Afonso et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25466] with question, Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Guidetti & Boero 2001:717 [ref. 25600], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:116 [ref. 26753], Goren & Aronov 2002:239 [ref. 26560], Golani 2005:51 [ref. 37112], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Fricke et al. 2007:95 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:56 [ref. 36649], Rocha et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31733], Wirtz et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32972], Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2738 [ref. 34618], Artüz & Fricke 2019:558 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:287 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:99 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:80 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:39 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to Senegal, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands and Cape Verde Islands. Habitat: marine.

creticus, Labrus scarus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Malta No types known. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:51 [ref. 30182]. Originally as scarus cretic.. Not available, name only -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943], Fricke 2008:51 [ref. 30182]). •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 2008:51 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae. Habitat: marine.

cyanolene, Sparisoma Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:98 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 414); ref. 14397] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 35173 (1 of 4 if identifiable). Paralectotypes: (many) BMNH 1884.7.7.87-88 [from Jordan] (2), MNHN 1887-0475 and 0476 (2); USNM 35173 (3 of 4). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:300 [ref. 20736]. Lectotype established (as figured specimen) in caption to Pl. 244, p. 3283 for Sparisoma hoplomystax in Jordan & Evermann 1900 [ref. 2446] if figured specimen is identifiable. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

distinctus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:423 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14513 (1), 14540 (1), 14544 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:211 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

elongatum, Sparisoma Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:757, Pl. 74 (fig. 2) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Market at Panama City, Panama. Holotype (unique): USNM 81504. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

emarginatus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1868:340 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Possible synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Uncertain as Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

erythrinoides, Scarus Guichenot [A.] 1865:10 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 11 (= Ser. 2, v. 1); ref. 13946] Santo Domingo. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1772 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

flavescens, Scarus Bloch [M. E.] & Schneider [J. G.] (ex Parra) 1801:290 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Locality not stated [Havana, Cuba]. No types known. Based on the 'Vieja (No. 4)' of Parra 1787:59, Pl. 28 (fig. 4) [ref. 6840]. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

frondosus, Scarus Agassiz [L.] in Spix & Agassiz 1831:98, Pl. 54 [Selecta genera et species piscium quos in itinere per Brasiliam; ref. 13] Bahia, Brazil. Lectotype: MNHN 0000-581. Paralectotypes or non-types: MNHN 0000-1764 (1), 0000-1765 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:294 [ref. 20736], Kottelat 1984:150 [ref. 21784]. Type information: Kottelat 1988:84 [ref. 13380]. Also appeared in Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1839:204 [ref. 4882]. Lectotype selected by Moura et al. 2001:510 [ref. 25371] [as MHNN 581]. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Valid as Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz 1831) -- (Moura et al. 2001:510 [ref. 25371], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Vaske et al. 2005:78 [ref. 36155] as Sparissoma f., Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Wirtz et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32972], Lins Oliveira et al. 2015:169 [ref. 37485], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma frondosum (Agassiz 1831). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Brazil and oceanic islands off Brazil and St. Paul's Rocks; eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde Islands). Habitat: marine.

griseorubra, Sparisoma Cervigón [F.] 1982:5, Figs. 1-2 [Los peces marinos de Venezuela; ref. 23220] South coast of Isla de Cubagua, Venezuela. Holotype: UDONECI 1123. Paratypes: UDONECI 1124 (3). •Valid as Sparisoma griseorubra Cervigón 1982 -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844]). •Valid as Sparisoma griseorubrum Cervigón 1982 -- (Cervigón 1994:49 [ref. 24488]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma griseorubrum Cervigón 1982. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Venezuela. Habitat: marine.

hoplomystax, Scarus Cope [E. D.] 1871:462 [Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (New Series) v. 14 (pt 3) (art. 5); ref. 920] St. Martin Island, West Indies. Syntypes: ANSP 9305 (1), 9306-07 (2), 9283-85 (3). Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:150 [ref. 13621] as holotype (9305) and paratypes. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

lacrimosus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:422 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Havana, Cuba. Holotype: MCZ 14538. Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:210-211 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

lateralis, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:219 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14520-21 (1, 1), 14524 (3), 14546 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:211 [ref. 22926] with MCZ 14520 as holotype. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

lorito, Sparisoma Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:95 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 414); ref. 14397] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): ?USNM 35082. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

maschalespilos, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1862:127 [5] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 389] Suriname. Syntypes: (2). On p. 5 of separate. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

melanotis, Scarus Bleeker [P.] 1862:126 [4] [Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afdeling Natuurkunde. v. 14; ref. 389] St. Croix Island, Virgin Islands, West Indies. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. On p. 4 of separate. •Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

miniofrenatus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1861:379, 393 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Poey specimens: MCZ 14545 (1), 14547 (1), 14550 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:211 [ref. 22926]. New name for Scarus aurofrenatus Valenciennes. •Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

mutabilis, Scarus Lowe [R. T.] 1838:187 [Transactions of the Zoological Society of London v. 2 (pt 3, art. 14); ref. 2831] Off Madeira. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

niphobles, Sparisoma Jordan [D. S.] & Bollman [C. H.] 1889:551 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 11 (no. 752); ref. 2432] Green Turtle Cay, Bahamas. Holotype (unique): USNM 41734. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

octodon, Scaridea Fowler [H. W.] 1928:368, Fig. 59 [Memoirs of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum. No. 10; ref. 5596] Hawaiian Islands [in error, Western Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): ANSP 436. Type catalog: Böhlke 1984:151 [ref. 13621]. Schultz 1958:113 [ref. 3970] discusses locality. •Questionably a synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Mundy 2005:454 [ref. 28379]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

oxybrachius, Scarus Poey [F.] 1868:342 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

pachycephalum, Sparisoma Longley [W. H.] in Longley & Hildebrand 1941:215, Pl. 28 (fig. 2) [Papers Tortugas Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington v. 34 (publ. 535); ref. 18452] Tortugas, Florida, U.S.A. Type: USNM 117097 (1). Proposed as a new name for Sparisoma flavescens (non Bl. & Schn.) of Jordan & Swain, 1884. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

radians, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:206 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Brazil. Syntypes: ?MNHN 0000-1759 (1) Brazil, 0000-1762 (1, poor condition). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:297 [ref. 20736]. •Questionably valid as Scarus radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Afonso et al. 1999:86 [ref. 25466]). •Valid as Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:210 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:396 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:51 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Moura et al. 2001:519 [ref. 25371], Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909], Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1737 [ref. 27105], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:93 [ref. 27192], Smith et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:542 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:65 [ref. 33341], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Costa et al. 2017:45 [ref. 35684], Spier et al. 2018:17 [ref. 36103], Robertson et al. 2020:157 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

rhomaleum, Sparisoma Meek [S. E.] & Hildebrand [S. F.] 1928:754, Pl. 74 (fig. 1) [Field Museum of Natural History, Publications, Zoölogical Series v. 15 (publ. 249); ref. 2964] Colón market, (Atlantic) Panama. Holotype: USNM 81777. Paratypes: FMNH 8433 (1), USNM 80877 (1). Type catalog: Ibarra & Stewart 1987:80 [ref. 12367]. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

rocha, Sparisoma Pinheiro [H. T.], Gasparini [J. L.] & Sazima [I.] 2010:60, Figs. 1-4 [Zootaxa No. 2493; ref. 30844] Ponta da Calheta, Ilha da Trindade, 20°31'S, 29°19'W. Holotype: CIUFES 0848. Paratypes: CIUFES 1529 (1); ZUEC 6349 (1), 6350 (1). •Valid as Sparisoma rocha Pinheiro, Gasparini & Sazima 2010 -- (Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma rocha Pinheiro, Gasparini & Sazima 2010. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Trindade Island, southwestern Atlantic off southeastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

rubiginoides, Scarus Guichenot [A.] 1865:8 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 11 (= Ser. 2, v. 1); ref. 13946] Canary Islands. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1774 (3), A-8223 (1). Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:297 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

rubiginosus, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:171 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Canary Islands; Madeira; Tenerife. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1774 (3) Canaries. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

rubripinnis, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:199 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] San Domingo, West Indies. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Sparisoma choati Rocha, Brito & Robertson 2012 -- (Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2739 [ref. 34618] from eastern Atlantic). •Valid as Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Robins & Ray 1986:211 [ref. 23100], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:396 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:54 [ref. 24488], Aguilera 1998:52 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:78 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634] as aff. rubripinne, Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909] as aff. rubripinne, Westneat 2003:1738 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:543 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Wirtz et al. 2007:15 [ref. 30263] but eastern Atlantic specimens are a new species, subsequently choati, García-Hernández et al. 2009:93 [ref. 37265], Rocha et al. 2012:61 [ref. 31733], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:180 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:65 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Robertson et al. 2020:157 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

siculus, Scarus Cocco [A.] 1846:748 [Atti della Settima Adunanza degli Scienziati Italiani Sesta Riunione, Milano Settima Riunione, Napoli, 1845; ref. 19962] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Also appeared on p. 708 in same volume as name only. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Monod 1973:444 [ref. 7193], Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

spinidens, Scarus Guichenot [A.] 1865:15 [Mémoires de la Société Impériale des Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg v. 11 (= Ser. 2, v. 1); ref. 13946] Bahia, Brazil. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-1763. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:299 [ref. 20736]. Objectively invalid; preoccupied by Scarus spinidens Quoy & Gaimard 1824. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:885 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). •Synonym of Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner 1878) -- (Moura et al. 2001:515 [ref. 25371], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma axillare (Steindachner 1878). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

squalidus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1860:218 [Memorias sobre la historia natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3499] Cuba. Syntypes: MCZ 14519 (1), 14522 (1). Type catalog: Howell Rivero 1938:211-212 [ref. 22926]. •Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:301 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Rocha et al. 2012:62 [ref. 31733]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

strigatus, Scarus Günther [A.] 1862:212 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 4; ref. 1969] No locality given [St. Helena Island, eastern Atlantic]. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1953.8.10.23. •Valid as Sparisoma strigatum (Günther 1862) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:656 [ref. 9166], Randall 1990:887 [ref. 19149], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Westneat in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2735 [ref. 34618], Brown et al. 2019:175 [ref. 36444]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma strigatum (Günther 1862). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Southern central Atlantic: Ascension and Saint Helena islands endemic. Habitat: marine.

truncatus, Scarus Poey [F.] 1868:339 [Repertorio Fisico-Natural de la Isla de Cuba v. 2; ref. 3505] Havana, Cuba. No types known. •Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Randall 1990:886 [ref. 19149], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma rubripinne (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

tuiupiranga, Sparisoma Gasparini [J. L.], Joyeux [J.-C.] & Floeter [S. R.] 2003:2, Figs. 1-5 [Zootaxa No. 384; ref. 27436] Rasa de For a Island, 20°41'S, 40°22'W, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Holotype: UFES 1821. Paratypes: MBML 936 (1), 937 (1); MNRJ 25869 (1); UFES 1822 (1); UFPB 5657 (1); ZUEC 6217 (1). Plus non-type specimens at MZUSP and UFES. •Valid as Sparisoma tuiupiranga Gasparini, Joyeux & Floeter 2003 -- (Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Pinheiro et al. 2010:64 [ref. 30844], Parenti & Randall 2011:38 [ref. 31299], Pinheiro et al. 2015:26 [ref. 34324]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma tuiupiranga Gasparini, Joyeux & Floeter 2003. Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Southwestern Atlantic: Brazil and coastal islands off southeastern Brazil. Habitat: marine.

varius, Labrus scarus Forsskål [P. S.] 1775:xix [Descriptiones animalium (Forsskål); ref. 1351] Malta No types known. Authorship according to Fricke 2008:51 [ref. 30182]. Originally as scarus varius. Not available, name only -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:65 [ref. 24943], Fricke 2008:51 [ref. 30182]). •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Fricke 2008:51 [ref. 30182]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Labridae. Habitat: marine.

virens, Scarus Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1840:203 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 14; ref. 4882] Martinique Island, West Indies; Puerto Rico. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-1768 (2) Martinique, A-8228 (1) Puerto Rico. Type catalog: Bauchot & Guibé 1960:299 [ref. 20736]. •Questionably a synonym of Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Uncertain as Sparisoma chrysopterum (Bloch & Schneider 1801). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

viridis, Scarus Bonnaterre [J. P.] (ex Catesby) 1788:96, Pl. 50 (fig. 193) [Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature... Ichthyologie; ref. 4940] Bahamas, Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic), and Cuba. No types known. Based on 'Psittacus piscis viridis, bahamensis' of Catesby 1771:29, Pl. 29 (vol. 2) [ref. 774]. •Valid as Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788) -- (see Randall & Nelson 1979:207 [ref. 19975], Robins & Ray 1986:211 [ref. 23100], Boschung 1992:157 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:397 [ref. 23827], Bellwood 1994:65 [ref. 19116], Cervigón 1994:56 [ref. 24488], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:164 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1646 [ref. 25634] as aff. viride, Rocha & Rosa 2001:991 [ref. 25909] as aff. viride, Collette et al. 2003:116 [ref. 26784], Westneat 2003:1739 [ref. 27105], Smith et al. 2003:46 [ref. 27621], Nelson et al. 2004:157 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:544 [ref. 28815], Robertson et al. 2006:796 [ref. 31512], Page et al. 2013:161 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:180 [ref. 32953], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:65 [ref. 33341], Robertson et al. 2016:147 [ref. 34961], Robertson et al. 2020:157 [ref. 38098]). Current status: Valid as Sparisoma viride (Bonnaterre 1788). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic. Habitat: marine.

xantherythrus, Labrus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:40 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:23 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti & Randall 2000:60 [ref. 24943], •Questionably a synonym of Symphodus rostratus (Bloch 1791) -- ). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma cretense (Linnaeus 1758). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.

xystrodon, Sparisoma Jordan [D. S.] & Swain [J.] 1884:99 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 414); ref. 14397] Key West, Florida, U.S.A. Syntypes: BMNH 1884.7.7.89-90 (2) from Jordan, CAS 79644 [ex IU 2354] (1), MNHN 1887-0477 (1), CAS-SU 4183 (16), USNM 35174 (4). Type catalog: Böhlke 1953:89 [ref. 12291], Bauchot & Guibé 1960:300 [ref. 20736]. •Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:302 [ref. 25013], Parenti & Randall 2000:61 [ref. 24943]). Current status: Synonym of Sparisoma radians (Valenciennes 1840). Scaridae: Sparisomatinae. Habitat: marine.