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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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Species in the genus Torpedo: [ 32 ] records


adenensis, Torpedo Carvalho [M. R. de], Stehmann [M. F. W.] & Manilo [L. G.] 2002:5, Figs. 1-7 [American Museum Novitates No. 3369; ref. 26091] Gulf of Aden, close to shore of Yemen, northwestern Indian Ocean, 15°15'03"N, 52°00'04"E, depth 125-140 meters. Holotype: NMNHU 5121. Paratypes: AMNH 231441 (1); ZMH 123432 [ex ISH 4-1993] (1); NMNHU 5121 (1), 5418 (1). Type catalog: Thiel et al. 2009:15 [ref. 30918], Manilo 2021:28 [ref. 39358]. •Valid as Torpedo adenensis Carvalho, Stehmann & Manilo 2002 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:194 [ref. 34999], Carvalho 2022:545 [ref. 39669], Moazzam & Osmany 2022:9 [ref. 40684]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo adenensis Carvalho, Stehmann & Manilo 2002. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden east to Pakistan. Habitat: marine.

alexandrinsis, Torpedo Mazhar [F. M. M.] 1987:113, Figs. 7-8 [Bulletin of the Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries v. 8 (no. 2) 1982; ref. 16257] Alexandria, Egypt, eastern Mediterranean Sea (probably erroneous, from northern Red Sea). Syntypes: (5) whereabouts unknown (possibly University College for Women, Ain Shams University, Egypt). •Valid as Torpedo alexandrinsis Mazhar 1987 -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Psomadakis et al. 2012:14 [ref. 33457], DiBattista et al. 2015:19 [ref. 35706], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo alexandrinsis Mazhar 1987. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Northern Red Sea endemic? Habitat: marine.

andersoni, Torpedo Bullis [H. R., Jr.] 1962:61, Figs. 1-2 [Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean v. 12 (no. 1); ref. 5832] Along the western edge of the Great Bahama Bank, Florida Straits, 23°40'N, 79°06'W, Silver Bay station 2467, depth 25 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 196128. Paratypes: USNM 196129 (1). •Valid as Torpedo andersoni Bullis 1962 -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], McEachran & Carvalho 2003:517 [ref. 26985], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:100 [ref. 34398], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:195 [ref. 34999], Ehemann et al. 2018:26 [ref. 36194], Blanco-Parra & Niño-Torres 2022:Correction, p. 4 [ref. 38986], Page et al. 2023:43 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo andersoni Bullis 1962. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: including Caribbean Sea. Habitat: marine.

bauchotae, Torpedo (Torpedo) Cadenat [J.], Capapé [C.] & Desoutter [M.] 1978:30, Fig. 1 [Cybium 3e série. Bulletin de la Société Française d'Ichtyologie No. 4; ref. 8952] Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. Holotype: MNHN 1967-0739. Paratypes: MNHN 1969-288 (1). Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:27 [ref. 9312]. •Valid as Torpedo bauchotae Cadenat, Capapé & Desoutter 1978 -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:57 [ref. 19317], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], Tweddle & Anderson 2008:4 [ref. 29604], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1375 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:196 [ref. 34999], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:130 [ref. 37302], Fermon et al. 2022:102 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo bauchotae Cadenat, Capapé & Desoutter 1978. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola. Habitat: marine.

diversicolor, Torpedo Davy [J.] 1834:542 [Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London v. 124 (pt 1) (art. 24); ref. 19708] Unneeded new name for Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:56 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

fuscomaculata, Torpedo Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1855:466 [Bericht über die zur Bekanntmachung geeigneten Verhandlungen der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1855; ref. 3449] Angoxe [Angoche], Ibo, Mozambique, western Indian Ocean. Lectotype: ZMB 4573 (223 mm TL). Paralectotypes: ZMB 4573 (1). Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:172 [ref. 21041]. Also described as new in Peters 1855:278 [ref. 13448]. Lectotype selected by Carvalho el al. 2002:22 [ref. 26091]. •Valid as Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855 -- (Capapé & Farrugio 1986:55 [ref. 38748] in subgenus Torpedo, Compagno 1986:112 [ref. 5648], Fricke 1999:29 [ref. 24106], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26091], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:77 [ref. 28072], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213], Caratini & Soriano 2011:112 [ref. 39915], Psomadakis et al. 2012:15 [ref. 33457], Ebert et al. 2015:237 [ref. 33710], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:197 [ref. 34999], Fricke et al. 2018:21 [ref. 35805], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:131 [ref. 37302], Roy et al. 2019:482 [ref. 37256], Durville et al. 2021:310 [ref. 38802] as fuscomacula, Ebert et al. 2021:72 [ref. 38234], Carvalho 2022:545 [ref. 39669]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Southeastern Atlantic, Indian Ocean: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) and East Africa to Seychelles, Madagascar and western Mascarenes; Odisha (India). Habitat: brackish, marine.

galvani, Torpedo Risso [A.] 1810:21, Pl. 3 (fig. 5) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:35 [ref. 9312]. Name spelled Torpedo galvanii by Berthelot 1840:115 [ref. 30346]. •Valid as Torpedo galvanii Risso 1810 -- (Herrera 1896:12 [ref. 39336]). •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:56 [ref. 19317], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

immaculata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48, 60 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

mackayana, Torpedo Metzelaar [J.] 1919:197, Fig. 57 [Report on the fishes; ref. 2982] Coast of Senegal. Holotype (unique): ZMA 100443. Type catalog: Nijssen et al. 1982:7 [ref. 19236]. •Valid as Torpedo mackayana Metzelaar 1919 -- (Capapé & Desoutter 1990:58 [ref. 19317], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Capapé et al. 2001:95 [ref. 25352], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1376 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:198 [ref. 34999], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:131 [ref. 37302], Reiner 2019:42 [ref. 38139], Fermon et al. 2022:102 [ref. 39448], Ratao et al. 2022:173 [ref. 40319]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo mackayana Metzelaar 1919. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic: Senegal south to Angola, including Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

maculata, Raja torpedo var. Chiereghini [A. P.] in Ninni 1872:21 [Rivista critica delle specie dei pesci adriatici descritti nell'opera manoscritta dell'Ab. Stefano Chiereghini di Chioggia.; ref. 17995] Not available, description from Chiereghini quoted, but maculata not treated as valid by Ninni. Torpedinidae.

maculata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:65 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Raja maculata Shaw 1804. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1884:140 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

marmorata, Torpedo Risso [A.] 1810:20, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:35 [ref. 9312]. Lectotype selected by Fricke 1999:17 [ref. 24101] as the illustration of Risso 1810, Pl. 3 (fig. 4) [specimen not in existence]. •Valid as Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Herrera 1896:12 [ref. 39336], Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Stehmann & Bürkel in Whitehead et al. 1984:161 [ref. 13675], Capapé 1987:22 [ref. 39326], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:56 [ref. 19317], Morón et al. 1999:154 [ref. 24253], Capapé et al. 1999:47 [ref. 25276], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Fricke 1999:17 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], Falcón et al. 2003:144 [ref. 39343], Golani 2005:12 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:17 [ref. 29533], George 2009:56 [ref. 30539], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Goren & Galil 2015:520 [ref. 33910], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1377 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:199 [ref. 34999], Biscoito et al. 2018:475 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:130 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:41 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:42 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:28 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519], Serena et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37963], Arroyo Martínez 2021:60 [ref. 38962], Giovos et al. 2021:6 [ref. 38895], Golani 2021:10 [ref. 38303], Moreno Mendoza et al. 2021:[4] [ref. 38868], Kovačić et al. 2021:14 [ref. 39014], Bañón & Mano 2022:11 [ref. 40121], Barone et al. 2022:42 [ref. 39527], Fermon et al. 2022:102 [ref. 39448], Balàka et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40410], Shakman et al. 2023:464 [ref. 40810]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: British Isles south to South Africa, including Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

narke, Torpedo Risso [A.] 1810:18 [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Spelled narce by early authors. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317], Golani 2005:13 [ref. 37112]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

narke, Torpedo Delaroche [F. E.] (ex Duméril) 1809:314 [28] [Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris v. 13; ref. 17380] [Iviça] Ibiza, Balearic Islands, Spain, western Mediterranean Sea. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:35 [ref. 9312]. On p. 28 of separate. Name only, not available. See Torpedo narke Risso 1810. •In the synonymy of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753]). Nomen Nudum. Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

ocellata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48, 60 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:29 [ref. 9312] treated as a separate description with types at MNHN. Apparently a new name for Raja torpedo Linnaeus 1758 and taking the same type. •Objective synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Golani 2005:13 [ref. 37112], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Torpedo Davy [J.] 1834:542 [Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London v. 124 (pt 1) (art. 24); ref. 19708] Malta, Mediterranean Sea. Unneeded new name for Torpedo ocellata Rafinesque 1810. Primary homonym of Torpedo oculata Duméril 1852. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317]). 1°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

oculata, Torpedo Duméril [A. H. A.] (ex Belon) 1852:234 [Revue et Magasin de Zoologie (Sér. 2) v. 4; ref. 1148] Algeria and Mediterranean Sea. Based on literature sources, including pre-Linnaean author Belon. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Torpedo oculata Davy 1834. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

panthera, Torpedo Olfers [J. F. M. von] 1831:15, 16 [Die Gattung Torpedo; ref. 18462] Red Sea. Lectotype: ZMB 4560. Type catalog: Paepke & Schmidt 1988:172 [ref. 21041]. Types given by Klausewitz 1960:289 [ref. 21330] are not types of Torpedo panthera. Lectotype selected by Carvalho et al. 2002:16 [ref. 26091]. •Valid as Torpedo panthera Olfers 1831 -- (Dor 1984:16 [ref. 29757], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:40 [ref. 22896], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:15, 16 [ref. 26091], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:44 [ref. 27735], Khalaf & Zajonz 2007:423 [ref. 31739], Psomadakis et al. 2015:96 [ref. 34104] as cf. panthera, Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:200 [ref. 34999] with author as von Olfers, Ali et al. 2018:303 [ref. 36183], Golani & Fricke 2018:14 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:16 [ref. 37020], Srinivasan et al. 2021:2 [ref. 38695], Carvalho 2022:546 [ref. 39669]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo panthera Olfers 1831. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Red Sea; northern Indian Ocean: Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Persian Gulf east to Bay of Bengal (India). Habitat: marine.

pardalis, Torpedo Olfers [J. F. M. von] 1831:15, 16 [Die Gattung Torpedo; ref. 18462] Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Listed as a variety of Torpedo marmorata but named Torpedo pardalis. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 by inference. Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

picta, Torpedo Lowe [R. T.] 1843:93 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1843 (pt 11); ref. 2832] Madeira, eastern Atlantic. Syntypes: whereabouts unknown. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

polleni, Narcacion Bleeker [P.] 1865:171 [Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde v. 3; ref. 420] Réunion, western Mascarenes, southwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): RMNH 7247. •Synonym of Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855 -- (Fricke 1999:29 [ref. 24106], Fricke et al. 2009:12 [ref. 30213]). •Questionably valid as Torpedo polleni (Bleeker 1865) -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589]). •Tentatively a synonym of Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831 -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:29 [ref. 26091]). •Questionably valid as Torpedo polleni (Bleeker 1865) -- (Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211] see remarks). •Valid as Torpedo polleni (Bleeker 1865) -- (Ravali et al. 2019:1338 [ref. 39435]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo polleni (Bleeker 1865). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Indian Ocean: Réunion (western Mascarenes); India. Habitat: marine.

punctata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:48, 61 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] [Sicilia] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

sinuspersici, Torpedo Olfers [J. F. M. von] 1831:15, 17 [Die Gattung Torpedo; ref. 18462] Persian Gulf. No types known. •Valid as Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831 -- (Dor 1984:16 [ref. 29757], Compagno 1986:113 [ref. 5648], Baranes & Golani 1993:302 [ref. 22372], Goren & Dor 1994:5 [ref. 25356], Compagno 1995:114 [ref. 21955], Randall 1995:41 [ref. 22896], Vossoughi & Vosoughi 1999:302 [ref. 25467], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Carvalho et al. 2002:21 [ref. 26091], Sujatha 2002:157 [ref. 26899], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Bonfil & Abdallah 2004:44 [ref. 27735], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:76 [ref. 28072], Psomadakis et al. 2012:15 [ref. 33457], Ebert et al. 2015:237 [ref. 33710], Psomadakis et al. 2015:97 [ref. 34104], Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:201 [ref. 34999] with author as von Olfers, Fricke et al. 2018:22 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:14 [ref. 36273], Eagderi et al. 2019:17 [ref. 37020], Roy et al. 2019:481 [ref. 37256], Serena et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37963], Ebert et al. 2021:72 [ref. 38234], Barone et al. 2022:42 [ref. 39527], Carvalho 2022:546 [ref. 39669], Hsu et al. 2022:3 [ref. 39567]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Red Sea; Indian Ocean: Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), East Africa, Persian Gulf and Madagascar east to western India; Sri Lanka; Odisha (India). Habitat: marine.

smithii, Torpedo Günther [A.] 1870:451 [Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum v. 8; ref. 1995] Probably South Africa. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1852.8.12.46. •Synonym of Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855 -- (Compagno 1986:112 [ref. 5648], Carvalho et al. 2002:22 [ref. 26091], Weigmann 2016:79 [ref. 34211], Ebert et al. 2021:72 [ref. 38234]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo fuscomaculata Peters 1855. Torpedinidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

suessii, Torpedo Steindachner [F.] 1898:199 [Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 35 (no. 19) (for 14July 1898); ref. 20495] Perim Harbour, Perim Island, Yemen, Bab el Mandeb, Red Sea; Mocha, Yemen, Red Sea. Lectotype: NMW 88240. Paralectotypes: (2) NMW 78016 (1). Later illustrated and described in more detail in Steindachner 1898:784, pl. 2 [ref. 14693]. Lectotype selected by Carvalho et al. 2002:24 [ref. 36091]. •Synonym of Torpedo sinuspersici Olfers 1831 -- (Dor 1984:16 [ref. 29757]). •Questionably valid as Torpedo suissi [sic] Steindachner 1989 -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589]). •Valid as Torpedo suessii Steindachner 1898 -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:24 [ref. 26091] as suessi, Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho et al. 2016:202 [ref. 34999], Bogorodsky & Randall 2018:[4] 242 [ref. 36492], Golani & Fricke 2018:14 [ref. 36273], Carvalho 2022:547 [ref. 39669], Palandačić et al. 2023:[3] [ref. 40494]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo suessii Steindachner 1898. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Southern Red Sea endemic. Habitat: marine.

torpedo, Raia Stephan [C. F.] 1779:20 [De rajis, schediasma primum; ref. 18818] •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Kottelat 2010:65 [ref. 30995]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

torpedo, Raja Linnaeus [C.] 1758:231 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf [original: "in Sinu Persico, M. Mediterraneo"]; localities include Lesbos Island, Greece; Genoa, Rome and Venice, Italy; Marseille, France; Nile River, Egypt; Iran, Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf). No types known. Lectotype or neotype fixation needed: the type locality should be restricted to Mediterranean Sea according to current usage. Originally based on multiple species and at least 52 pre-Linnaean sources including Artedi 1738:73 [ref. 30578] and Artedi 1738:102 [ref. 30349] as Raja tota lævis; Rondelet 1554:358 [ref. 30354] as Torpedo, Salviani 1558:143, Pl. 48 [ref. 30229] as Torpedo, Jonston 1649:30, Pl. 9 (fig. 4) [ref. 30579] as Torpedo maculosa and Torpedo, Charleton 1668:129 [ref. 30580] as Torpedo, Kempfer 1712:509, Pl. (p. 510) [ref. 30581] as Torpedo Sinûs Persici. •Valid as Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167], Capapé 1987:22 [ref. 39326], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:55 [ref. 19317], Santos et al. 1997:119 [ref. 23531], Capapé et al. 1999:52 [ref. 25276], Afonso et al. 1999:82 [ref. 25466], Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:20 [ref. 26753], Carvalho et al. 2002:30 [ref. 26091], Falcón et al. 2003:144 [ref. 39343], Golani 2005:13 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:17 [ref. 29533], Wirtz et al. 2007:24 [ref. 30263], Fricke 2008:10 [ref. 30182], Welter-Schultes & Feuerstein 2008:141 [ref. 30327], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:12 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:116 [ref. 32972], Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211], Carvalho & Séret 2016:1378 [ref. 34550], Carvalho et al. 2016:203 [ref. 34999], Biscoito et al. 2018:475 [ref. 37562], Almeida & Biscoito 2019:129 [ref. 37302], Carneiro et al. 2019:41 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:43 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:29 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:7 [ref. 37519], Serena et al. 2020:502 [ref. 37963], Arroyo Martínez 2021:62 [ref. 38962], Giovos et al. 2021:6 [ref. 38895], Golani 2021:10 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:14 [ref. 39014], Bañón & Mano 2022:11 [ref. 40121], Barone et al. 2022:42 [ref. 39527], Fermon et al. 2022:102 [ref. 39448], Balàka et al. 2023:6 [ref. 40410], Shakman et al. 2023:464 [ref. 40810]). Current status: Valid as Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola, including São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

trepidans, Torpedo Valenciennes [A.] 1843:[101], Pl. 23 (fig. 2) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] Canary Islands, eastern Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-8686. Type catalog: Bertin 1939:82 [ref. 20739], Séret & McEachran 1987:27 [ref. 9312]. Pl. 23 (fig. 2) is under the name Torpedo hebetans by error. Dates to Pl. 23 in 1843, p. 101 published in 1844. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167], Capapé & Desoutter 1990:56 [ref. 19317]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

unimaculata, Torpedo Risso [A.] 1810:19, Pl. 3 (fig. 3) [Ichthyologie de Nice; ref. 3755] Nice, France, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Holotype (unique): whereabouts unknown. Type catalog: Séret & McEachran 1987:35 [ref. 9312]. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:55 [ref. 7167]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

variegata, Torpedo Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:65 [Indice d'ittiologia siciliana; ref. 3595] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. •Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Döderlein 1884:140 [ref. 17416], Parenti 2019:104 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo torpedo (Linnaeus 1758). Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Torpedo Fleming [J.] 1828:169 [A history of British animals; ref. 1339] English and Irish coasts, northeastern Atlantic. •Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810 -- (Krefft & Stehmann 1973:56 [ref. 7167]). Current status: Synonym of Torpedo marmorata Risso 1810. Torpedinidae. Habitat: marine.

zugmayeri, Torpedo Engelhardt [R.] 1912:647 [Zoologischer Anzeiger v. 39 (nos 21/22); ref. 17459] Gwadar, Baluchistan Province, southwestern Pakistan. Holotype (unique): ZSM [old collection] destroyed in WWII. Type catalog: Neumann 2006:282 [ref. 28925]. •Questionably valid as Torpedo zugmayeri Engelhardt 1912 -- (Compagno 1999:488 [ref. 25589]). •Mention -- (Carvalho et al. 2002:29 [ref. 26091]). •Valid as Torpedo zugmayeri Engelhardt 1912 -- (Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S93 [ref. 27377], Weigmann 2016:80 [ref. 34211] see remarks). Current status: Valid as Torpedo zugmayeri Engelhardt 1912. Torpedinidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean. Habitat: marine.


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