Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 6 November 2023

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Catalog of Fishes

Species that contain: Boops and boops [ 41 ] records

asper, Boops Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:58 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Indian Ocean. No types known. •Synonym of Priacanthus hamrur (Forsskål 1775) -- (Starnes 1988:166 [ref. 6978]). •Synonym of Priacanthus hamrur (Fabricius 1775) -- (Heemstra 2022:157 [ref. 39747]). Current status: Synonym of Priacanthus hamrur (Fabricius 1775). Priacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

bonariensis, Priacanthus Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1829:105 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 3; ref. 4879] Buenos Aires, Argentina. No types known. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:105 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Cookeolus boops (Forster 1801) -- (Hureau 1990:713 [ref. 17267]). •Synonym of Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Starnes 1988:150 [ref. 6978] with question, Fernandez-Silva & Ho 2017:348 [ref. 35348]). Current status: Synonym of Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède 1801). Priacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

boops, Anthias Forster [J. R.] in Bloch & Schneider 1801:308 [M. E. Blochii, Systema Ichthyologiae; ref. 471] Atlantic near St. Helena. No types known. Based on description and drawing (No. 219 in BMNH) of Perca boops in manuscript by Forster (Johann Reinhold Forster, 1729-1798, German explorer and naturalist of Cook's second voyage). •Valid as Priacanthus boops (Forster 1801) -- (Kyushin et al. 1977:242 [ref. 19756], Kyushin et al. 1982:186 [ref. 19754], Mochizuki in Okamura et al. 1982:225, 376 [ref. 8256], Dor 1984:109 [ref. 29757]). •Valid as Cookeolus boops (Forster 1801) -- (Fritzsche 1978 [ref. 21285], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:316 [ref. 14275], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:143 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura et al. 1985:477, 672 [ref. 8056], Heemstra 1986:545 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:149 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:637 [ref. 9166], Allen & Swainston 1988:64 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:365 [ref. 25518], Paxton et al. 1989:542 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], McAllister 1990:139 [ref. 14674], Hureau 1990:713 [ref. 17267], Cervigón 1991:384 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:386 [ref. 23827], Goren & Dor 1994:29 [ref. 25356], Allen 1997:100 [ref. 23977], Parin 2003:S4 [ref. 28536]). •Synonym of Priacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:x [ref. 21953]). •Synonym of Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Starnes 1988:150 [ref. 6978], Randall 1995:147 [ref. 22896], Harish Nayak et al. 2002:316 [ref. 27555], Paxton et al. 2006:1117 [ref. 28995], Parin et al. 2014:357 [ref. 33547], Starnes in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2421 [ref. 34618], Fernandez-Silva & Ho 2017:348 [ref. 35348], Heemstra 2022:156 [ref. 39747]). •Possibly a senior synonym of Heteropriacanthus fulgens (Lowe 1838). Current status: Synonym of Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède 1801). Priacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

boops, Bryconamericus Eigenmann [C. H.] 1908:105 [Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 52 (no. 6); ref. 1221] Maldonado on Río de la Plata, Uruguay. Holotype (unique): MCZ 20700 (deformed specimen). •Synonym of Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger 1887) -- (Malabarba & Kindel 1995:684 [ref. 21922], Braga 1998:26 [ref. 24111], Silva in Reis et al. 2003:117 [ref. 27061], da Silva 2004:55 [ref. 27870], Litz & Koerber 2014:13 [ref. 33622], Mirande & Koerber 2015:21 [ref. 35117]). Current status: Synonym of Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger 1887). Characidae: Stevardiinae. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Caranx Cuvier [G.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1833:46 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 9; ref. 1002] Ambon Island, Molucca Islands, Indonesia; Vanikoro Island, Santa Cruz Islands, southwestern Pacific. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-5815 (1) Vanikoro, Ambon specimen not found. Also in Griffith & Smith 1834:Pl. 26 (fig. 2) (opp. p. 194) [ref. 1908]. •Valid as Selar boops (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz in Whitehead et al. 1986:834 [ref. 13676], Allen & Swainston 1988:74 [ref. 25477] with author as Valenciennes, Paxton et al. 1989:583 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644], Randall et al. 1990:165 [ref. 15987], Gunn 1990:47 [ref. 20141], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:445 [ref. 27969] with Valenciennes as author, Allen 1997:116 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:158 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:165 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:141 [ref. 23965], Smith-Vaniz 1999:2735 [ref. 24833], Smith-Vaniz in Randall & Lim 2000:616 [ref. 25122], Laboute & Grandperrin 2000:236 [ref. 25191], Hutchins 2001:33 [ref. 25847], Allen & Adrim 2003:38 [ref. 26830] with author as Valenciennes, Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:81 [ref. 27510], Adrim et al. 2004:120 [ref. 27715], Randall 2005:235 [ref. 28239], Hoese & Gates 2006:1165 [ref. 28997], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:31 [ref. 31826], Kimura 2009:125 [ref. 30425], Allen & Erdmann 2012:438 [ref. 31980], Larson et al. 2013:124 [ref. 32988], Yoshida et al. 2013:121 [ref. 34464], Fricke et al. 2014:83 [ref. 33932], Motomura et al. 2017:118 [ref. 35490], Kimura in Kimura et al. 2018:136 [ref. 36460], Suresh et al. 2018:212 [ref. 36495], Carneiro et al. 2019:254 [ref. 37250], Fricke et al. 2019:148 [ref. 36673], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 16 [ref. 38321], Psomadakis et al. 2020:431 [ref. 37272], Gloerfelt-Tarp & Kailola 2022:173 [ref. 41223]). Current status: Valid as Selar boops (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae: Caranginae. Distribution: ?Eastern Atlantic: Portugal (?); Indo-West Pacific: Pakistan east to Caroline Islands and Solomon Islands, north to northern Vietnam, south to northern Australia and New Caledonia. Habitat: marine.

boops, Coracinus Pallas [P. S.] 1814:259 [Zoographia Rosso-Asiatica v. 3; ref. 3351] Ponti Euxini, Tauriae, Black Sea [off Feodosia, Crinea]. No types known. •Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Trewavas 1973:399 [ref. 7201], Chao & Trewavas 1990:824 [ref. 18934], Parin 2003:S13 [ref. 28536], Parin et al. 2014:373 [ref. 33547], Parenti 2020:55 [ref. 37439]). Current status: Synonym of Umbrina cirrosa (Linnaeus 1758). Sciaenidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boops, Cyttosoma Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1904:6, Pl. 23 [Marine Investigations in South Africa v. 3; ref. 1646] Off Cape Point Lighthouse, bearing N40°E. distant 13.5 miles, South Africa, depth 120 fathoms. Holotype (unique): SAM 11971. Gilchrist specimens: BMNH 1904.10.8.2 (1). •Synonym of Oreosoma atlanticum Cuvier 1829 -- (Trunov 1982:50 [ref. 8412], Karrer 1986:439 [ref. 5680], Gomon et al. 1994:426 [ref. 22532], Heemstra 2016:2213 [ref. 34607]). Current status: Synonym of Oreosoma atlanticum Cuvier 1829. Oreosomatidae: Oreosomatinae. Habitat: marine.

boops, Haplochromis Greenwood [P. H.] 1967:47, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology v. 15 (no. 2); ref. 7965] Off the southern tip of Buvuma Island, Lake Victoria [Victoria Nyanza], Uganda. Holotype: BMNH 1966.2.21.7. Paratypes: BMNH 1966.3.9.181-182 (1, 1). •Valid as Haplochromis boops Greenwood 1967 -- (van Oijen et al. 1991:110 [ref. 20956]). Current status: Valid as Haplochromis boops Greenwood 1967. Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae. Distribution: Eastern Africa: Lake Victoria. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Labrus Houttuyn [M.] 1782:326 [Verhandelingen der Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen, Haarlem v. 20 (pt 2); ref. 2220] Japan. No types known. Species originally spelled boöps. See Boeseman 1995:6 [ref. 21811]. •Valid as Scombrops boops (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Mochizuki in Okamura et al. 1982:229, 377 [ref. 8256], Mochizuki in Masuda et al. 1984:152 [ref. 6441], Machida in Okamura et al. 1985:485, 676 [ref. 8056], Heemstra 1986:563 [ref. 5660], Shinohara et al. 1996:179 [ref. 26605], Heemstra 1999:2651 [ref. 24791], Nakabo 2000:786 [ref. 25086], Heemstra in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Shinohara et al. 2001:324 [ref. 25995], Nakabo 2002:786 [ref. 26001], Choi et al. 2003:324, 601 [ref. 26218], Shinohara et al. 2005:432 [ref. 28370], Shinohara et al. 2011:49 [ref. 31715], Shinohara et al. 2014:261 [ref. 33330], Kim et al. 2020:121 [ref. 39118], Sonoyama et al. 2020:61 [ref. 37637], Koeda et al. 2021:6 [ref. 38857], Heemstra 2022:165 [ref. 39747]). Current status: Valid as Scombrops boops (Houttuyn 1782). Scombropidae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific: KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) north to southern Mozambique; South China Sea, East China Sea, Korea and Japan. Habitat: marine.

boops, Macrurus Garman [S.] 1899:202 [Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology v. 24; ref. 1540] Gulf of Panama, 7°21'N, 79°35'W, Albatross station 3394, depth 511 fathoms. Lectotype: MCZ 28588. Paralectotypes: MCZ 18587 (1), 61903 [ex 28588] (2). Original genus should have been Macrourus. Originally as boöps. Lectotype selected by Iwamoto & Sazonov 1988:53 [ref. 6228]. •Valid as Coryphaenoides boops (Garman 1899) -- (Iwamoto & Sazonov 1988:53 [ref. 6228], Iwamoto in Cohen et al. 1990:201 [ref. 18936], Iwamoto & Schneider in Fischer et al. 1995:1261 [ref. 22830], Iwamoto & McCosker 2001:27 [ref. 25777], Castellanos-Galindo et al. 2006:196 [ref. 28944], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:189 [ref. 30957]). Current status: Valid as Coryphaenoides boops (Garman 1899). Macrouridae. Distribution: Eastern Pacific. Habitat: marine.

boops, Myctophum Richardson [J.] 1845:39, Pl. 27 (figs. 6-12) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] Between Australia and New Zealand [probably in in error for eastern South Atlantic]. Syntypes: BMNH 1948.1.12.1. See Paxton et al. 1989:269 [ref. 12442] for remarks on types. •Questionably valid as Symbolophorus boops (Richardson 1845) -- (Paxton 1979:17 [ref. 6440]). •Valid as Symbolophorus boops (Richardson 1845) -- (Hulley 1986:319 [ref. 5672], Paxton et al. 1989:269 [ref. 12442], Pequeño 1989:38 [ref. 14125], Hulley 1990:463 [ref. 15273], Hulley 1990:177 [ref. 21685], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:140 [ref. 25472], Chen 2002:150 [ref. 26587], Gago & Ricord 2005:144 [ref. 28096], Paxton et al. 2006:530 [ref. 28994], Paxton & Bray 2008:294 [ref. 30633], Robertson & Clements 2015:678 [ref. 34257], Hulley 2016:1925 [ref. 34576], Nión et al. 2016:38 [ref. 35565], Balushkin & Prirodina 2020:73 [ref. 37828], Sutton et al. 2020:217 [ref. 37832], Koerber 2024:48 [ref. 41215]). Current status: Valid as Symbolophorus boops (Richardson 1845). Myctophidae: Myctophinae. Distribution: Circumglobal in Southern Hemisphere. Habitat: marine.

boops, Notropis Gilbert [C. H.] 1884:201 [Proceedings of the United States National Museum v. 7 (no. 423); ref. 1622] Salt Creek, Brown County, Indiana, U.S.A. Lectotype: USNM 34982. Paralectotypes: (10 + 30, minus 1) CAS-SU 3794 (20), MCZ 35961 [ex USNM 34982] (1), USNM 232410 (2). Type catalog: Gilbert 1978:30 [ref. 7042], Gilbert 1998:50 [ref. 23395]. Lectotype selected by Burr & Dimmick 1983:52 [ref. 22235]. •Valid as Notropis boops Gilbert 1884 -- (Gilbert 1978:30 [ref. 7042], Lee et al. 1980:240 [ref. 22416], Burr & Dimmick 1983 [ref. 22235], Robison & Buchanan 1988:203 [ref. 23393], Page & Burr 1991:146 [ref. 18983], Boschung 1992:54 [ref. 23239], Etnier & Starnes 1993:213 [ref. 22809], Stauffer et al. 1995:124 [ref. 23376], Cross & Collins 1995:87 [ref. 23394], Mettee et al. 1996:241 [ref. 25836], Gilbert 1998:50 [ref. 23395], Fuller et al. 1999:105 [ref. 25838], Ross et al. 2001:196 [ref. 25978], Nelson et al. 2004:74 [ref. 27807], Miller & Robison 2004:142 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:232 [ref. 27995], Scharpf 2005:28 [ref. 28940], Page & Burr 2011:276 [ref. 31215], Page et al. 2013:74 [ref. 32708]). •Valid as Miniellus boops Gilbert 1884 -- (Stout et al. 2022:9 [ref. 39738], Bagley et al. 2023:314 [ref. 41241], Page et al. 2023:73 [ref. 40505]). Current status: Valid as Miniellus boops Gilbert 1884. Leuciscidae: Pogonichthyinae. Distribution: North America: U.S.A. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Ostracion Richardson [J.] 1845:52, Pl. 30 (figs. 18-21) [Ichthyology of the voyage of H. M. S. Erebus & Terror v. 2 (2); ref. 3740] South Atlantic. Holotype (unique): type lost before publication. •Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776) -- (Fraser-Brunner 1951:95 [ref. 19546], Parenti 2003:4 [ref. 27311]). Current status: Synonym of Ranzania laevis (Pennant 1776). Molidae. Habitat: marine.

boops, Placidochromis Hanssens [M.] 2004:126, Fig. 9 [The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa; ref. 28056] Southwest Arm, Malawi, Lake Malawi, depth 104 meters. Holotype: MRAC 99-41-P-3859. Paratypes: MRAC 99-41-P-3860 (1), 99-41-P-3861 (1); SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 46188 [ex RUSI 74-174] (1), SAIAB [formerly RUSI] 64189 [ex RUSI 74-162] (1). •Valid as Placidochromis boops Hanssens 2004 -- (Konings 2016:406 [ref. 34521]). Current status: Valid as Placidochromis boops Hanssens 2004. Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae. Distribution: Eastern Africa: Lake Malawi. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Pseudorhombus Hector [J.] 1875:81 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 4) v. 15 (no. 85) (art. 11); ref. 18268] 200 miles off Cape Farewell, New Zealand, depth 400 fathoms (732 meters). Holotype (unique): BMNH 1885.10.15.4. Apparently appeared first as above, then in Hector 1875:249, Pl. 11 (fig. 82b) [ref. 18269]. •Synonym of Arnoglossus scapha (Forster 1801) -- (Munroe 2015:1676 [ref. 34321], Fricke et al. 2017:3 [ref. 35674]). Current status: Synonym of Arnoglossus scapha (Forster 1801). Bothidae. Habitat: marine.

boops, Salmo Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:377 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Corresponds to Salmo 11-radiatus on p. 387. Appeared as Salmo boops vel 11-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:312, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Leporinus obtusidens Valenciennes 1847. •Species inquirenda in Leporinus -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117] with question). •Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Scorpis Peters [W. (C. H.)] 1866:519 [Monatsberichte der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1866; ref. 3439] New South Wales, Australia. Holotype: ZMB 6209. Monodactylidae.

boops, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:280 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. Neotype designated by Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24101], but withdrawn in Fricke 2000:639 [ref. 24537]. •Valid as Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:884 [ref. 13676], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:790 [ref. 18793], Santos et al. 1997:90 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:88 [ref. 24952], Afonso et al. 1999:75 [ref. 25466], Fricke 1999:40 [ref. 24101], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:89 [ref. 26753], Roe et al. 2002:903 [ref. 26504], Parin 2003:S10 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:41 [ref. 37112], Fricke 2007:26 [ref. 30577], Fricke et al. 2007:86 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:97 [ref. 30517], Wirtz et al. 2007:34 [ref. 30263], Fricke 2008:40 [ref. 30182], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:46 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:125 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:367 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2581 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:148 [ref. 36550], Almeida & Alves 2019:272 [ref. 37509], Artüz & Fricke 2019:556 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:263 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:97 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:49 [ref. 36892], Reiner 2019:214 [ref. 38139], Bariche & Fricke 2020:89 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:41 [ref. 37519], Abliazov et al. 2021:9 [ref. 38576], Bañón & Maño 2021:86 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:53 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:78 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:279 [ref. 39448]). Current status: Valid as Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Western Baltic Sea; North Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Norway south to Angola, including Madeira (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain), and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boops, Stigmatophora Castelnau [F. L.] 1872:203 [Proceedings of the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, Melbourne v. 1; ref. 757] Melbourne markets, Victoria, Australia. Syntypes: ?MNHN A-1435 (10) Yarra R. Type catalog: Bertin & Estève 1950:50 [ref. 19576]. Regarded as name only and in the synonymy of Stigmatopora nigra Kaup 1856 by Dawson 1980:288 [ref. 21122] and Dawson 1985:178 [ref. 6541], but the specimens were compared to the species on the previous page, as "...several similar to the others, but with enormous globular eyes...." and perhaps should be regarded as available. Original genus should have been Stigmatopora. •Synonym of Stigmatopora nigra Kaup 1856 -- (Gomon et al. 1994:469 [ref. 22532] as Stigmatophora, Paxton et al. 2006:842 [ref. 29073]). Current status: Synonym of Stigmatopora nigra Kaup 1856. Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

boops, Tilapia Boulenger [G. A.] 1901:5 [Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Series 7) v. 7 (no. 37) (art. 1); ref. 5758] Msambu, Lake Tanganyika. Syntypes: BMNH 1906.9.6.152-153 (2). •Valid as Ophthalmotilapia boops (Boulenger 1901) -- (Maréchal & Poll 1991:303 [ref. 20946], Konings 2015:112 [ref. 34660], Konings 2019:118 [ref. 36983]). Current status: Valid as Ophthalmotilapia boops (Boulenger 1901). Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae. Distribution: Eastern Africa: eastern Lake Tanganyika. Habitat: freshwater.

boops, Trachurus Girard [C. F.] 1858:108 [General report upon zoology of the several Pacific railroad routes, 1857; ref. 4911] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 689. Subjectively invalid; secondarily preoccupied by Caranx boops Cuvier 1833 when both are in Caranx, replaced by Caranx girardi Steindachner 1870. •Synonym of Caranx caballus Günther 1868. 2°Homonym. Current status: Synonym of Caranx caballus Günther 1868. Carangidae: Caranginae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

canariensis, Boops Valenciennes [A.] 1839:[36], Pl. 10 (fig. 1) [Ichthyologie des îles Canaries v. 2 (pt 2); ref. 4502] St. Croix de Tenerife, Canary Islands. Holotype (unique): MNHN 0000-8724. Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:35 [ref. 20898]. Dates to Pl. 10 in 1839, p. 36 published in 1843. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Bauchot & Hureau 1990:790 [ref. 18793], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

cruentatus, Labrus Lacepède [B. G. E.] (ex Plumier) 1801:452, 522, Pl. 2 (fig. 3) [Histoire naturelle des poissons (Lacepède) v. 3; ref. 2710] General area south of Scotts Head, Dominica, Lesser Antilles [Western Atlantic]. Neotype: USNM 285473. Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:97 [ref. 19171], Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:105 [ref. 12478]. Based on a Plumier drawing. Neotype designated by Starnes 1988:152 [ref. 6978]. •Valid as Priacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Hureau 1973:364 [ref. 7197], Yoshino in Masuda et al. 1984:143 [ref. 6441], Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:801 [ref. 13676], Heemstra 1986:545 [ref. 5660], Robins & Ray 1986:149 [ref. 23100], Edwards & Glass 1987:638 [ref. 9166], Allen & Swainston 1988:64 [ref. 25477], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:28 [ref. 13251], Hureau 1990:712 [ref. 17267], Cervigón 1991:386 [ref. 24472], Cervigón 1992:387 [ref. 23827], Francis 1993:160 [ref. 25479], Arruda 1997:82 [ref. 24952], Aguilera 1998:49 [ref. 24221]). •Synonym of Cookeolus boops (Forster 1801) -- (Parin 2003:S4 [ref. 28536]). •Valid as Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède 1801) -- (Starnes 1988:150 [ref. 6978], Paxton et al. 1989:542 [ref. 12442], Randall et al. 1990:135 [ref. 15987], Boschung 1992:125 [ref. 23239], see Kuiter 1993:151 [ref. 23929], Allen & Robertson 1994:120 [ref. 22193], Starnes in Fischer et al. 1995:1407 [ref. 22830], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:342 [ref. 24023], Allen 1997:100 [ref. 23977], Kuiter 1997:136 [ref. 25488], Randall et al. 1997:135 [ref. 25919], Myers 1999:124 [ref. 23965], Fricke 1999:221 [ref. 24106], Starnes 1999:2595 [ref. 24834], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:221 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:73 [ref. 25466], Randall 1999:13 [ref. 25829], Allen 2000:87 [ref. 37268], Nakabo 2000:748 [ref. 25086], Starnes in Randall & Lim 2000:612 [ref. 25122], Thomson et al. 2000:108 [ref. 25640], Randall & Earle 2000:12 [ref. 25806], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:158 [ref. 27754], Gasparini & Floeter 2001:1644 [ref. 25634], Lopes et al. 2001:3 [ref. 25809], Hutchins 2001:31 [ref. 25847], Nakabo 2002:748 [ref. 26001], Coad & Gilhen 2002:632 [ref. 26862], Collette et al. 2003:108 [ref. 26784], Starnes 2003:1383 [ref. 27084], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S105 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:78 [ref. 27192], Myers & Donaldson 2003:623 [ref. 27495], Harish Nayak et al. 2002:316 [ref. 27555], Kimura et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:59 [ref. 27510], Lobel & Lobel 2004:70 [ref. 27576], Smith et al. 2003:27 [ref. 27621], Randall et al. 2004:13 [ref. 27624], Nelson et al. 2004:138 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:182 [ref. 28072], Love et al. 2005:113 [ref. 37547], Randall 2005:184 [ref. 28239], Mundy 2005:353 [ref. 28379], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:213 [ref. 28815], Paxton et al. 2006:1117 [ref. 28995], Wirtz et al. 2007:31 [ref. 30263], Randall 2007:209 [ref. 30952], Gomon 2008:557 [ref. 30616], Fricke et al. 2009:50 [ref. 30213], Iwatsuki 2009:100 [ref. 30433], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:191 [ref. 30957], Motomura et al. 2010:104 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:363 [ref. 31980], Page et al. 2013:142 [ref. 32708], Fricke et al. 2013:257 [ref. 32706], Wirtz et al. 2013:123 [ref. 32972], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:44 [ref. 33341], Wirtz et al. 2014:6 [ref. 33516], Parin et al. 2014:357 [ref. 33547], Delrieu-Trottin et al. 2015:5 [ref. 33988], Pinheiro et al. 2015:16 [ref. 34324], Gaither et al. 2015:720 [ref. 35422], Starnes in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2421 [ref. 34618], Fourriére et al. 2016:445 [ref. 34668], Del Moral-Flores et al. 2016:608 [ref. 34923], Koeda et al. 2016:31 [ref. 35333], Koeda et al. 2016:4 [ref. 35354], Fernandez-Silva & Ho 2017:348 [ref. 35348], Motomura et al. 2017:94 [ref. 35490], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Badreddine & Bitar 2019:178 [ref. 37003], Brown et al. 2019:177 [ref. 36444], Carneiro et al. 2019:247 [ref. 37250], Reiner 2019:179 [ref. 38139], Ribeiro et al. 2019:7 [ref. 36717], Bariche & Fricke 2020:135 [ref. 37515], Habib & Islam 2020:Supplementary table p. 24 [ref. 38321] misidentified, Robertson et al. 2020:161 [ref. 38098], Escobar-Sierra et al. 2021:79 [ref. 38844], Kovačić et al. 2021:90 [ref. 39014], Marceniuk et al. in Marceniuk et al. 2021:542 [ref. 38945], Bennema & van Moorsel 2022:72 [ref. 39585], Fermon et al. 2022:276 [ref. 39448] with question, Heemstra 2022:156 [ref. 39747] misidentified, Carvalho-Filho 2023:129 [ref. 40480], Hoff et al. 2023:7 [ref. 40463], Page et al. 2023:204 [ref. 40505], Vela-Espinosa et al. 2023:10 [ref. 40981]). Current status: Valid as Heteropriacanthus cruentatus (Lacepède 1801). Priacanthidae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Rhode Island south to Argentina, including Caribbean Sea; eastern Atlantic: ?Gabon, and São Tomé and Principe. Habitat: marine.

dubius, Scombrops Gilchrist [J. D. F.] 1922:66, Pl. 11 (fig. 1) [Report Fisheries and Marine Biological Survey, Union of South Africa Rep. 2 (art. 3); ref. 1648] Off South Africa, Pickle stations 152 and 118, depth 160-207 fathoms. Syntypes: (3). •Synonym of Scombrops boops (Houttuyn 1782) -- (Heemstra 1986:563 [ref. 5660]). Current status: Synonym of Scombrops boops (Houttuyn 1782). Scombropidae. Habitat: marine.

fasciatus, Baiodon Agassiz [L.] 1859:408 [Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History v. 6 (1856-1859); ref. 74] No types known. The entire description of the genus and species is, "A third [genus] resembling Boöps, he named Baiodon fasciatus. Typically this would be regarded as not available, no distinguishing features provided; from Lake Nicaragua. However, Kullander & Hartel 1997:199 [ref. 22732] treated as available but unidentifiable. •Species inquirenda in Cichlidae -- (Kullander in Reis et al. 2003:647 [ref. 27061]). Cichlidae: Cichlinae.

freeri, Caranx Evermann [B. W.] & Seale [A.] 1907:63, Fig. 4 [Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries v. 26 (Doc. 607) (for 1906); ref. 1285] San Fabian, Pangasinan, Luzon Island, Philippines. Holotype (unique): USNM 55913. •Synonym of Selar boops (Cuvier 1833) -- (Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644]). Current status: Synonym of Selar boops (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae: Caranginae. Habitat: marine.

gervaisi, Carang Castelnau [F. L.] 1875:18 [Official Record, containing Introduction, Catalogues, Official Awards of the Commissioners, Report and Recommendations of the Experts, and Essays and Statistics on the Social and Economic Resources of the Colony of Victoria.; ref. 768] Cape York, Queensland, Australia. Holotype (unique): not found at MNHN. Type catalog: Smith-Vaniz et al. 1979:37 [ref. 12247]. The original genus is correctly Caranx. •Synonym of Selar boops (Cuvier 1833) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:583 [ref. 12442], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1990:744 [ref. 18644], Gunn 1990:47 [ref. 20141], Hoese & Gates 2006:1165 [ref. 28997]). Current status: Synonym of Selar boops (Cuvier 1833). Carangidae: Caranginae. Habitat: marine.

girardi, Caranx Steindachner [F.] 1870:314 [25] [Sitzungsberichte der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe v. 60 (1. Abth.); ref. 4217] San Diego, California, U.S.A. Holotype (unique): USNM 689. On p. 25 of separate. Replacement name for Trachurus boops Girard 1858, secondarily preoccupied in Caranx by Caranx boops Cuvier 1833. •Synonym of Caranx caballus Günther 1868 -- (Smith-Vaniz in Fischer et al. 1995:953 [ref. 22829], Randall & Carlson 1999:358 [ref. 25808]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Caranx caballus Günther 1868. Carangidae: Caranginae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

gracilis, Cynaedus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:57 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.22 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

insignis, Exocallus De la Pylaie [A. J. M.] 1835:532 [Congrès Scientifique de France v. 2 (Sept. 1834) (art. 5); ref. 1086] Based on Boops vulgaris of Cuvier. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

lineatus, Box Boulenger [G. A.] 1892:134 [Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1892 (pt 1); ref. 14506] Muscat, Oman, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Sea, northwestern Indian Ocean. Holotype (unique): BMNH 1891.2.9.14. •Valid as Boops lineatus (Boulenger 1892) -- (Randall 1995:224 [ref. 22896], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S109 [ref. 27377], Parenti 2019:50 [ref. 36892], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2022:293 [ref. 39785]). Current status: Valid as Boops lineatus (Boulenger 1892). Sparidae. Distribution: Northwestern Indian Ocean: southern Yemen east to Gulf of Oman. Habitat: marine.

macropterus, Priacanthus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:471 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] No locality [St. Helena Island]. Holotype: MNHN 0000-0985. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:85 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Cookeolus boops (Forster 1801) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:638 [ref. 9166], Hureau 1990:713 [ref. 17267]). •Synonym of Cookeolus japonicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Starnes 1988:145 [ref. 6978]). Current status: Synonym of Cookeolus japonicus (Cuvier 1829). Priacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

macropus, Priacanthus Valenciennes [A.] (ex Quoy & Gaimard) in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1831:469 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 7; ref. 4881] St. Helena Island, South Atlantic. Holotype (unique): MNHN A-3562. Type catalog: Bauchot & Desoutter 1987:85 [ref. 12478]. •Synonym of Cookeolus boops (Forster 1801) -- (Edwards & Glass 1987:637 [ref. 9166], Hureau 1990:713 [ref. 17267]). •Synonym of Cookeolus japonicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Starnes 1988:145 [ref. 6978]). Current status: Synonym of Cookeolus japonicus (Cuvier 1829). Priacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

minutus, Sparus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:49 [Caratteri di alcuni nuovi generi e nuove specie di animali e piante della Sicilia; ref. 3594] Sicily, Italy, Mediterranean Sea. Also appeared in Rafinesque 1810:26 [ref. 3595]. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:103 [ref. 37117]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

onias, Cynaedus Gronow [L. T.] in Gray 1854:55 [Catalogue of fish collected and described by Laurence Theodore Gronow; ref. 1911] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: BMNH 1853.11.12.83 [Gronovius coll.] (1, skin). Type catalog: Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434] but as holotype. •Synonym of Boops salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Wheeler 1958:223 [ref. 13434]). •Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: marine.

salpa, Sparus Linnaeus [C.] 1758:280 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. No types known. •Valid as Boops salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:170 [ref. 31251]). •Valid as Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:413 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau in Whitehead et al. 1986:905 [ref. 13676], Smith & Smith 1986:593 [ref. 5710], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:809 [ref. 18793], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:163 [ref. 25472], Santos et al. 1997:92 [ref. 23531], Arruda 1997:91 [ref. 24952], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:97 [ref. 26753], Falcón et al. 2003:145 [ref. 39343], Parin 2003:S12 [ref. 28536], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:239 [ref. 28072], Golani 2005:45 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:89 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:102 [ref. 30517], Fricke 2008:42 [ref. 30182], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:49 [ref. 36649], Wirtz et al. 2013:126 [ref. 32972], Parin et al. 2014:370 [ref. 33547], Carpenter & Iwatsuki in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2613 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:150 [ref. 36550], Artüz & Fricke 2019:557 [ref. 36612], Carneiro et al. 2019:273 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:98 [ref. 36864], Parenti 2019:53 [ref. 36892], Bariche & Fricke 2020:93 [ref. 37515], Iglésias et al. 2020:296 [ref. 37987], Kovačić et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37519], Abliazov et al. 2021:9 [ref. 38576], Bañón & Maño 2021:87 [ref. 38887], Golani 2021:57 [ref. 38303], Kovačić et al. 2021:81 [ref. 39014], Fermon et al. 2022:282 [ref. 39448] possible, Gus'kov et al. 2022:72 [ref. 39564], Iwatsuki & Heemstra 2022:313 [ref. 39785]). Current status: Valid as Sarpa salpa (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), including Azores (Portugal), Madeira (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain) and Cape Verde Islands; southwestern Indian Ocean: Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) north to southern Mozambique. Habitat: marine.

tricuspidatus, Boops Quoy [J. R. C.] & Gaimard [J. P.] 1824:296 [Voyage autour du monde; ref. 3574] Shark Bay, Western Australia. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-4916 (1) [Bauchot's holotype], 0000-8736 (2). Type catalog: Bauchot 1963:178 [ref. 20718] and Bauchot & Daget 1972:81 [ref. 20898] as holotype and paratypes. •Valid as Girella tricuspidata (Quoy & Gaimard 1824) -- (Paulin & Roberts 1992:110 [ref. 24625], Kuiter 1993:213 [ref. 23929], Gomon et al. 1994:616 [ref. 22532], Kuiter 1997:202 [ref. 25488], Johnson 1999:738 [ref. 25471], Carpenter 2001:3298 [ref. 26122], Hoese & Bray 2006:1320 [ref. 29000], Gomon 2008:601 [ref. 30616], Knudsen & Clements 2013:77 [ref. 33031], Knudsen & Clements 2015:1323 [ref. 34204], Knudsen & Clements 2016:259 [ref. 34458]). Current status: Valid as Girella tricuspidata (Quoy & Gaimard 1824). Girellidae. Distribution: New Zealand and southeastern Australia. Habitat: marine.

undecimradiatus, Salmo Larrañaga [D. A.] 1923:387 [Escritos de Don Dámaso Antonio Larrañaga v. 2; ref. 22561] Uruguay. Also appeared as Salmo boops vel 11-radiatus in Devincenzi 1925:312, 322 [ref. 20322]; Devincenzi treated as a synonym of Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1836). •Species inquirenda in Leporinus -- (Garavello & Britski in Reis et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27061]). •Synonym of Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Litz & Koerber 2014:8 [ref. 33622] with question, Mirande & Koerber 2015:13 [ref. 35117] with question). •Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837) -- (Koerber et al. 2017:18 [ref. 35267] with question). Current status: Synonym of Megaleporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes 1837). Anostomidae. Habitat: freshwater.

velabundus, Priacanthus McCulloch [A. R.] 1915:114, Pl. 19 [Biological Results Endeavour v. 3 (pt 3); ref. 2941] Off Burrewarra Point, near Bateman's Bay, 35°50'S, New South Wales, Australia, depth 60 fathoms. Holotype: AMS E.5245. Paratypes: AMS I.12490 (1). •Synonym of Cookeolus boops (Forster 1801) -- (Paxton et al. 1989:542 [ref. 12442]). •Synonym of Cookeolus japonicus (Cuvier 1829) -- (Starnes 1988:145 [ref. 6978], Paxton et al. 2006:1117 [ref. 28995]). Current status: Synonym of Cookeolus japonicus (Cuvier 1829). Priacanthidae. Habitat: marine.

vulgaris, Boops Risso [A.] 1827:350 [Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale v. 3; ref. 3757] Based on Sparus boops Linnaeus 1758, vulgaris apparently to avoid Strickland tautonymy. •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Parenti 2019:49 [ref. 36892]). Replacement Name. Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.

vulgaris, Box Valenciennes [A.] in Cuvier & Valenciennes 1830:348, Pl. 161 [Histoire naturelle des poissons v. 6; ref. 996] Toulon, Nice, Naples, Genes, Sicily; Corsica and France, western Mediterranean Sea; [Ivica] Ibiza, Balearic Islands, Mediterranean Sea; Biserte Lake, Midi, Tenerife, Madeira. Syntypes: MNHN 0000-8674 to 0000-8679 (1, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1), 0000-8723 (1), 0000-8725 to 0000-8726 (1, 2). Type catalog: Bauchot & Daget 1972:36-38 [ref. 20898]. Based on literature and specimens. Name appeared on plate as Boops vulgaris. •Valid as Boops vulgaris (Valenciennes 1830) -- (Herrera 1896:54 [ref. 39336]). •Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:407 [ref. 7192], Bauchot & Hureau 1990:790 [ref. 18793], Golani 2005:41 [ref. 37112], Parenti 2019:49 [ref. 36892]). Current status: Synonym of Boops boops (Linnaeus 1758). Sparidae. Habitat: brackish, marine.


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