Abel, E. 1963. Anthozoa. In: Riedl. R. Fauna und Flora der Adria. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg und Berlin: pp. 152-168.

Acuña, F.H. and M.O. Zamponi. 1992. Pennatulacaea (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) de la región subantarctica: nuevos taxa y registros. Iheringia (Série Zoologia) (73): 47-53. [distributional data: Pennatula rubra, Anthoptilum grandiflorum; original descriptions: Pennatula argentina, Halipteris heptazooidea]

Agassiz, L. 1850. On the principles of classification in the animal kindgom on the structure of the halcyonoid polypi; on the morphology of the Medusae. Press of Walker and James, Charleston, South Carolina. 19 pp. [sea pansy bioluminescence]

Agassiz, L. 1860. Contributions to the natural history of the United States of America, Vol. 3. Little, Brown and Company, Boston. 301 pp. [pp. 1-35: a detailed discourse on the history of scientific investigation regarding the coelenterates, including the major contributions of Rondelet, Gesner, Boccone, and others; quoted passages in Historical Account ---Pre-Linnean Period, above]

Alcock, A. 1902. A naturalist in Indian seas, or, four years with the Royal Indian marine survey ship "Investigator". John Murray, London. 328 pp. [cited in Hickson, 1916: 256]

Alder, J. 1861. Occurrence of a sea pen, new to Britain. Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club 5: 60-61. [Halipteris christii, referred to by Alder as Virgularia christii]

Alder, J. 1862. Supplement to a catalogue of the zoophytes of Northumberland and Durham. Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club 5: 225-247.

Alder, J. 1863. Report on the zoophytes. In: Mennell, H.T. (ed.), Report of the dredging expedition to Dogger Bank and the coasts of Northumberland. Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club 5: 288-290.

Alder, J. 1867. Notice of some Invertebrata, in connexion with the report of Mr Gwyn Jeffreys on dredging among the Hebrides. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, part 1: 206-208. [original description of Pennatula mollis, considered a junior synonym of Pennatula phosphorea by Cornelius & Garfath, 1908: 274; see also Norman, 1867: 196, 206]

Aldrovandi, U. 1642. De reliquis animalibus exanguibus libri quatuor, post mortem ejus editi: nempe de mollibus, crustaceis, testaceis, et zoophytis ... Bononiae, Typis Jo. Baptistae Ferronii, sumptibus Marci Antonii Berniae. 593 pp. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Aldrovandi, U. 1648. Musaeum metallicum in libros IIII distributum. Bartholomaeus Ambrosinus...composuit...Marcus Antonius lucem edidit...Typis Jo. Baptistae Ferronii, Bononiae. 979 pp. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Allen, G. R. and R. Steene. 1994. Indo-Pacific Coral Reef Field Guide. Singapore: Tropical Reef Research, 378 pp. [includes color photographs of Pteroeides spp. and Virgularia spp.]

Allen, R. K. 1969. Common Intertidal Invertebrates of southern California. Peek publications, Palo Alto. (Anthozoa, pp. 30-32). [Renilla kollikeri]

Alonso, C. 1979. Estudio morfologico y biometrico de las espiculas de Renilla mulleri Kölliker, 1872 (Anthozoa, Pennatulacea). Revista brasileira de Biologia. 39(4): 827-834. [skeleton; sclerite morphology]

Altuna, A., F. Aguirrezabalaga, and J. Martinez. 2006. An exceptional occurrence of Cavernularia pusilla (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) off the Basque coast (south-east Bay of Biscay, north-eastern Atlantic). Journal of the Marine Biological Association 2, Biodiversity Records (published online).

Altuna-Prados, A. 1994. Obervaciones biogeograficas sobre los cnidarios bentonicos de la costa Vasca. Kobie Ciencias Naturales 22: 41-57.

Anctil, M. 1987. Bioactivity of FMRFamide and related peptides on a contractile system of the coelenterate Renilla kollikeri. Journal of Comparative Physiology. Part B. Biochemical, Systemic and Environmental Physiology 157(1): 31-38.

Anctil, M. 1989a. Modulation of a rhythmic activity by serotonin via cyclic AMP in the coelenterate Renilla kollikeri. Journal of Comparative Physiology. Part B. Biochemical, Systemic and Environmental Physiology 159(4): 491-500. [Renilla kollikeri, muscles, rachidial rhythmic contractions, modulatory mechanisms]

Anctil, M. 1989b. The antiquity of monoaminergic neurotransmitters: evidence from Cnidaria. NATO ASI (Advanced Science Institutes) Series A Life Sciences 188: 141-155.

Anctil, M., D. Boulay, and L. Lariviere. 1982. Monoaminergic mechanisms associated with control of luminescence and contractile activities in the coelenterate, Renilla kollikeri. Journal of Experimental Zoology 223(1): 11-24. [nervous transmitter substances; monoaminergic drugs, effects on luminescence & rachidial contraction]

Anctil, M., G. Germain, and L. LaRiviere. 1984. Catecholamines in the coelenterate Renilla koellikeri. Uptake and radioautographic localization. Cell and Tissue Research 238(1): 69-80. [nervous transmitter substances]

Anctil, M., A.K. Pani, and M.A. Ali. 1991. Modulation of rhythmic contractions by meltonin via cyclic GMP in the coelenterate Renilla koellikeri. Journal of Comparative Physiology. Part B. Biochemical, Systemic and Environmental Physiology 161(6): 569-575.

Anderson, J.M., H. Charbonneau, and M.J. Cormier. 1974. Mechanisms of calcium induction of Renilla bioluminescence. Involvemnent of a calcium-triggered luciferin binding protein. Biochemistry (American Chemical Society) 13(6): 1195-1200.

Anderson, J.M. and M.J. Cormier. 1978. Sodium gradient dependent calcium transport in Renilla lumisomes. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 81(1): 114-121. [Renilla reniformis; luminous organs]

Anderson, J.M., K. Hori, and M.J. Cormier. 1978. A bioluminescence assay for PAP (3',5'-diphosphoadenosine) and PAPS (3'-phosphoadenyl sulfate). Methods in Enzymology. 57: 244-257. [Renilla reniformis; luminescence assay]

Anderson, P.A.V. 1976. An electrophysiological analysis of behavioural integration in colonial anthozoans, pp. 609-618, in: Mackie, G.O., ed., Coelenterate Ecological Behavior. New York, Plenum. 744 pp. [Renilla spp., Renilla köllikeri]

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Angelis, G. de. 1895? I Corallari dei terreniterziari dell' Italia settentrionale. Collezione Michelotti. Museo Geologico della R. Università di Roma. Memorie Reale Academia dei Lincei, Roma 5(1): 164-280. [extinct sea pen Pavonaria portisi from the Tertiary of Italy, Pavonaria as used here is a synonym of Halipteris, see Williams, 1995a: 122]

Anonymous. 1898. A preliminary catalogue of the collections of natural history and ethnology in the Provincial Museum, Victoria, British Columbia. The Government of the Province of British Columbia, Victoria, British Columbia: 107-109. [listed by family; Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Verrillia blakei]

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Arthur, W. 1997. The origin of animal body plans - a study in evolutionary developmental biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 338 pp. [pp.66-69, Arthur mentions the resemblance of the Vendian fossil taxon Charniodiscus to modern sea pens]

Asbjørnsen, P.C. 1856. Beskrivelse over Kophobelemnon mülleri, en ny Sofjaerslaegt. In: Sars, M., Koren, J. & Danielssen, D.C. eds. Fauna Littoralis Norvegiae 2: 81-85.

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Awad, E.W. and M. Anctil. 1993b. Positive coupling of (beta)-like adrenergic receptors with adenylate cyclase in the cnidarian Renilla koellikeri. Journal of Experimental Biology 182: 131-146.


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Balss, H. 1910. Japanische Pennatuliden. In: Doflein, F. ed. Beiträge zur Naturgeschichte Ostasiens. Abhandlungen der Mathematisch-Physischen Classe der Königlich Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 1 (10, suppl.): 1-106. [taxonomic descriptions: Balticina willemoesi, Calibelemnon indicum, Calibelemnon hertwigi, Cavernularia elegans, Cavernularia habereri, Cavernularia marquesarum, Cavernularia obesa, Echinoptilum macintoshi, Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Lituaria habereri, Lituaria phalloides, Pennatula fimbriata, Pennatula murrayi, Pennatula naresi, Pennatula phosphorea, Pteroeides chinense, Pteroeides dofleini, Pteroeides lacazii, Pteroeides sagamiense, Sclerobelemnon burgeri, Sclerobelemnon schmeltzii, Scytalium splendens, Stachyptilum superbum, Virgularia abies, Virgularia gustaviana, Virgularia reinwardtii]

Balss, H. 1911. Notiz über einige Pennatuliden des zoologischen Museums der Kaiserlichen Annuaire du Musée zoologique de l'Akadémie impériale des sciences de St. Pétersbourg 16: 158-159. [Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia gustaviana var. magnifolia]

Baluk, W. and A. Pisera. 1984. A new species of sea pen, Graphularia transaedina sp. n. from the Korytnica Clays (Middle Miocene; Holy Cross Mountains, central Poland). Acta Geologica Polonica 34 (3-4): 203-211.

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Barnes, R. D. 1987. Invertebrate Zoology (Fifth Edition). Saunders College Publishing. 893 pp. [octocorals, pp. 134-139; Renilla, Umbellula]

Barnes, R.S.K., P. Calow, and P.J.W. Olive. 1988. The invertebrates: a new synthesis. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 582 pp. [Classification of anthozoans, p. 59]

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Bauhin, C. 1620. Prodromos theatri botanici, Caspari Bauhini Basileens; in quo plantae supra sexcentae ab ipso primùm descriptae cum plurimis figuris proponuntur. Francofurti ad Monum : Typis Pauli Iacobi, impensis Ioannis Treudelii. 160 pp. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Bauhin, C. 1671. Pinax theatri botanici; sive, Index in Theophrasti Dioscoridis et botanicorum qui à seculo scripserunt opera, plantarum circiter sex millium ab ipsis exhibitarum nomina cum earundem synoymiis & differentiis methodice secundum genera & species proponens. Opus XL. annorum summopere expetitum ad autoris autographum recensitum. Basileae, Impensis Johannis Regis. 518 pp. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Bauhin, J. 1650-51. Historia plantarum universalis, nova, et absoutissima, cum consensu et dissensu circa eas, auctoribus Ioh. Ioh. Henr. Cherlero...quam recensuit et auxit Dominicus Charaeus...Juris verò publici fecti Franciscus Lud. Graffenried...Ebroduni, 3 vols. [pennatulacaean bioluminescence]

Bayer, F.M. 1955a. Remarkably preserved fossil sea-pens and their Recent counterparts. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 45(9): 294-300. [Virgularia presbytes, Pteroeides argenteum]

Bayer, F.M. 1955b. Contributions to the nomenclature, systematics, and morphology of the Octocorallia. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 105 (3357): 207-220. [affinity between the extinct genus Graphularia and the recent genus Stylatula]

Bayer, F.M. 1956. Octocorallia. In: Moore, R.C. ed. Treatise on invertebrate paleontology. Part F. Coelenterata: 166-231. Lawrence: Geologial Society of America and the University of Kansas Press.

Bayer, F.M. 1957. Additional records of Western Atlantic octocorals. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 47(11): 379-390. [Protoptilum thomsonii, Virgularia presbytes,Stylatula antillarum, Stylatula elegans, Acanthoptilum agassizii, Acanthoptilum oligacis]

Bayer, F.M. 1959. Octocorals from Surinam and the adjacent coasts of South America. Natuurwetenschappelijke Studiekring voor Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen, No. 20: 1-43. [Renilla reniformis forma americana, Renilla mulleri, Sclerobelemnon theseus, Stylatula cf. brasiliensis, Stylatula diadema, Virgularia presbytes, Virgularia kophameli]

Bayer, F.M. 1961. The shallow-water Octocorallia of the West Indian region. A manual for marine biologists. Studies on the fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 12: 1-373. [Renilla reniformis, Renilla mülleri, Sclerobelemnon theseus, Virgularia presbytes, Stylatula diadema]

Bayer, F.M. 1973. Colonial organization in octocorals, pp. 69-93. In: Boardman, Cheetham, and Oliver, eds. Animal colonies - development and function through time, 603 pp. Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass.

Bayer, F.M. 1981a. Status of knowledge of octocorals of world seas. Seminarios de Biologia Marinha, Academia Brasileira de Cienceias Rio de Janeiro 1981: 3-102.

Bayer, F.M. 1981b. Key to the genera of Octocorallia exclusive of Pennatulacea (Coelenterata: Anthozoa), with diagnoses of new taxa. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 94(3): 902-947.

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Bayer, F.M. and M. Grasshoff. 1997. Umbellula Cuvier, [1797] (Cnidaria, Anthozoa): proposed conservation as the correct original spelling, and corrections to the entries relating to Umbellularia Lamarck, 1801 on the Official Lists and Indexes of Names in Zoology. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 54(1): 14-18. [use of Umbellula supercedes that of Ombellula]

Bayer, F.M., M. Grasshoff, and J. Verseveldt. 1983. Illustrated trilingual glossary of morphological and anatomical terms applied to Octocorallia. E.J. Brill/Dr. Backhuys, Leiden: 1-75.

Bayer, F.M. and H.B. Owre. 1968. The Free-Living Lower Invertebrates. The Macmillan Company, London. [pennatulaceans, pp. 81-83, 93; Pennatula]

Beklemishev, W. N. 1969a. Principles of comparative anatomy of invertebrates, Volume 1 Promorphology. The University of Chicago Press. 490 pp. [pennatulaceans, pp. 35-36, 100-102, 486-490; Funiculina quadrangularis, Pennatula phosphorea, Pteroeides griseus]

Beklemishev, W. N. 1969b. Principles of comparative anatomy of invertebrates, Volume 2 Organology. The University of Chicago Press, 529 pp. [pennatulaceans, pp. 42, 197, 253, 264; Funiculina, Veretillum]

Belcik, F.P. 1977. A distribution study of the Octocorallia of Oregon. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 24(1/3): 49-52. [Kophobelemnon hispidum, Kophobelemnon sp., Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Anthoptilum sp., Funiculina armata, Helicoptilum rigidum, Scleroptilum sp., Umbellula spp., Virgularia sp., Stylatula elongata, Balticina pacifica, Pennatula sp., Pennatula phosphorea, Ptilosarcus gurneyi]

Belém, M.J. da Costa and L.C. de Figueiredo Alvarenga. 1973. Contribucao conhecimento da fauna de Cnidarios dos Estados de Gunabara e do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. I. Virgularia presbytes Bayer, 1955 (Anthozoa, Pennatulacea, Virgulariidae). Actas da Sociedade de Biologia do Rio de Janeiro 17(1): 41-45. [Brazilian Virgulariidae]

Belém, M. J. da Costa and L.C. de Figueiredo Alvarenga. 1973. Contribuiçao ao conhecimento da fauna de Cnidarios dos Estados da Guanabara e do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. I. - Virgularia presbytes Bayer, 1955 (Anthozoa, Pennatulacea, Virgulariidae). Atas da Sociedade de Biologia do Rio de Janeiro 17(1): 41-51. [Virgularia presbytes; redescription; sw Atl. Oc.; Brazil, Guanabara Bay, first record]

Bellini, R. 1905. Le varie Facies del Miocene medio nelle Colline de Torino. Bolletino della Società geologica italiana 24: 607-653. [Pavonaria portisi from the Middle Miocene of Italy]

Bellomy, M. 1974. The curious sea pansy. Marine Aquarist 5(3): 14-20.

Belyaev, G. M. 1972. Hadal bottom fauna of the world ocean. Akademiya Nauk SSSR Institut Okeanologii. Published for the Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem. [Translated into English from the Russian; pp. 48-49, Umbellula sp. juv., Umbellula sp., bathymetric records, 6010-6730 m, Peru-Chile Trench and Kermadec Trench]

Benham, W.B. 1906. On a new species of Sarcophyllum from New Zealand. Zoologisher Anzeiger 31(2/3): 66-67. [Sarcophyllum bollonsi]

Benham, W.B. 1907. On a new species of pennatulid (Sarcophyllum bollonsi). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 39: 193-195. [Sarcophyllum bollonsi]

Berenguier, A. 1954. Contribution à l'étude des octocoralliaires de Méditerranée Occidentale. Recueil des travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume 12: 53-96. [Pennatula rubra, Pennatula phosphorea, Pteroeides griseum]

Berg, S.E. 1941. Die Entwicklung und Koloniebildung bei Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas). Zoologiska bidrag fran Uppsala 20: 1-100. [Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pennatula phosphorea, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia cladiscus]

Berger, J. 1915. Zur Kenntnis des feineren Baues von Stylatula. Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Hohen Philosophischen Fakultät der Schlesischen Friedrich-Wilhems-Universität zu Breslau. Druck von Wilh. Gottl. Korn, Breslau, pp. 1-72.

Bergström, J. 1989. The origin of animal phyla and the new phylum Procoelomata. Lethaia 22(3): 259-269.

Bergström, J. 1991. Metazoan evolution around the Precambrian-Cambrian transition (pp. 25-34). In: Simonetta, A.M. & Conway Morris, S. (eds). The early evolution of Metazoa and the significance of problematic taxa. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the University of Camerino 27-31 March 1989. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 296 pp. [Charniodiscus, supposed pennatulaceans of the Precambrian Vendian Period).

Bernheimer, A.W. and L.S. Avigad. 1981. New cytolysins in sea anemones from the west coast of the United States. Toxicon 19(4): 529-534. [Renilla koellikeri; toxins & venoms; cytolysin, first recorded analysis; California]

Bertsch, H. 1968. Effect of feeding by Armina californica on the bioluminescence of Renilla koellikeri. Veliger 10: 440-441. [predator/prey interaction: nudibranch mollusk and sea pansy]

Bertsch, H. 1982. Estudios de ecosistemas bentonicos a lo largo de la costa noroccidental de Baja California, Mexico: distribution y presa de varios invertebrados marinos. Ciencias marinas 8(2): 91-123. [in Spanish with English summary; Stylatula elongata; northern Pacific; Baja California; distribution & range extensions]

Best, B.A. 1988. Passive suspension feeding in a sea pen: effects of ambient flow on volume flow rate and filtering efficiency. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole, Mass. Marine Biological Laboratory) 75(3): 332-342. [Ptilosarcus gurneyi, filter feeding, filtering speed & efficiency, effect of water flow rate & size, north Pacific]

Bilhaut, A. 1975a. Étude de la bioluminescence chez l'octocoralliaire Veretillum cynomorium Pall. l. - Les réponses lumineuses des autozoides isolés de la colonie. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale. 116(1): 27-42.

Bilhaut, A. 1975b. Étude de la bioluminescence chez l'octocoralliaire Veretillum cynomorium Pall. 2. Les réponses lumineuses de la colonie. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale 116(3): 321-341.

Bilhaut, A. and M. Pavans de Ceccatty. 1971a. Les récepteurs sensoriels de l'octocoralliaire Veretillum cynomorium Pall. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Academie des sciences, Paris 272D: 3150-3153.

Bilhaut, A. and M. Pavans de Ceccatty. 1971b. Les différenciations cellulairs de type choanocytaire chez l'octocoralliaire Veretillum cynomorium Pall. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Academie des sciences, Paris 272D: 3053-3056.

Birkeland, C. 1974. Interactions between a sea pen and seven of its predators. Ecological Monographs 44(2): 211-232. [predators on the sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi, including four asteroid species - Hippasteria spinosa, Mediaster aequalis, Crossaster papposus, and Dermasterias imbricata; and three nudibranch gastropods - Hermissenda crassicornis, Armina californica, and Tritonia festiva; also includes an underwater photographs of a dense bed of Ptilosarcus gurneyi on p. 213]

Birkeland, C.E. 1969. Consequences of differing reproductive and feeding strategies for the dynamics and structure of an association based on the single prey species, Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Gray). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Washington, Seattle. 99 pp.

Birkeland, C.E. 1971. Consequences of differing reproductive and feeding strategies for the dynamics and structure of an association based on the single prey species, Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Gray). Dissertation Abstracts International 31B: 5925-5926.

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Blake, J. 1873. On the structure of Verrillia blakei. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 5: 149-150.

Bleeker, P. 1859. Over eenige nieuwe soorten van Zeeveders of Pennatulina (polypi natantes) van den Indische Archipel. Natuurkundig tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch -Indie 20: 399-404. [Summary in Latin under the title "Sur des espèces nouvelles de Pennatulina (polypi natantes) de l'Archipe indien", in: Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée. (2)14(1): 38-42; 1862; original descriptions of several species of Pteroeides]

Blumenbach, J.F. 1779. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. H. Dieterich, Göttingen. 743 pp. [Umbellula as Encrinus]

Boccone, P. 1670. Recherches et observations d'histoire naturelle touchant le Corail. Paris.

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Boccone, P. 1674b. Recherches et observations naturelles de Monsieur Boccone Bentilhomme Sicilien; touchant le Corail, la Pierre Etoilée, les Pierres de figure de Coquilles, la Corne d'Ammon, l'Astroite Undulatus, les Dents de Poissons petrifiees, les Herissons alterez, l'Embrasement du Mont Etna, la Sangsue du Xiphias. l'Alcyonium stupposum, le Bezoar mineral, & les Plantes qu'on trouve dans la Sicili, avec quelques Reflexions sur la Vegetation des Plantes. Examinées a diverses fois dans l'Assemblée de Messieurs de Society Royale de Londres, & Conferences dans les de Monsieur l'Abbe Bourdelot a paris, 328 pp. Amsterdam: Jean Jansson a Waesberge.

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Broch, H. 1956. Oktokorallen russischer Expeditionen em Polarmeer während der Jahre 1929-1935. Avhandlingar utgitt av det Norske videnskaps-akademi i Oslo...I. Matematisk-natur videnskapelig klasse 1956(4): 1-18. [Umbellula encrinus, Virgularia glacialis, Virgularia tuberculata]

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