Dakin, W.J. and others. 1953. Australian seashores. A guide for the beach lover, the naturalist, the shore fisherman, and the student. London, Angus & Robertson: 1-372. [Coelenterata pp. 120-139; Cavernularia obesa]

Dalyell, J.G. 1839. On the reproduction of the Virgularia or Pennatula mirabilis. Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal 27: 379-381. [also published in 1840 in Froriep's Notizen 14: 65-68]

Dalyell, J.G. 1848. Rare and remarkable animals of Scotland...with...observations on their nature 1 & 2. London, J. Van Voorst.

Dana, J.D. 1846. Zoophytes. United States Exploring Expedition during the years 1838-1842, under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N., Vol. 7. C. Sherman, Philadelphia. 740 pp. [on p. 586, Dana corrects the familial name of Ehrenberg (1834) from Pennatulina to Pennatulidae]

Danielssen, D.C. 1860. Beskrivelse over en ny Art Virgularia. Forhandlinger i Videnskabs-selskabet i Christiania 1859: 251.

Danielssen, D.C. 1864. Fra den Norske Nordhavs-expedition, Kristiania: 1884: 1-46. [Umbellula encrinus: 2306 mm in length]

Danielssen, D.C. and J. Koren. 1884. Pennatulida. Den Norske Nordhavs-Expedition, 1876-1878, Zoologi 12: 1-84. Christiania. [Umbellula]

Darwin, C.R. 1860. The voyage of the Beagle, annotated and with an introduction by Leonard Engel; 1962 republication, New York: Anchor, Doubleday & Company, 524 pp. [behavior and description of a sea pen ("Virgularia patagonica") at Bahia Blanca, Argentina, pp. 100-101 & 202 in the 1889 edition of "The Voyage" as cited by Hickson 1916: 28]

Datta, P.K., A.K. Ray, A.K. Barua, S.K. Chowdhuri and A. Patra. 1990. Isolation of a bioactive sterol from a sea pen Pteroeides esperi. Journal of Natural Products (Lloydia) 53(5): 1347-1348.

Davenport, D. and J.A.C. Nicol. 1956. Observations on luminescence in sea pens (Pennatulacea). Proceedings of the Royal Society (B) 144: 480-496.

Davis, A.G. 1936. The London clay of Sheppey and the location of its fossils. Proceedings of the Geological Association of London 47(4): 340-345. [Graphularia wetherelli]

Davis, N. 1978. Studies of the southern California nearshore sand bottom community. Dissertation Abstracts International (B) 39(3): 1080. [Stylatula elongata; northern Pacific Ocean of California; artificial reef, effects on population]

Davis, N., G.R. van Blaricom, and P.K. Dayton. 1982. Man-made structures on marine sediments: effects on adjacent benthic communities. Marine Biology 70(3): 295-303. [Stylaltula elongata; population changes, California]

Dawson, C.E. 1966. Additions to the known marine fauna of Grand Isle, Louisiana. The Proceeding of the Louisiana Academy of Sciences 29: 175-180. [Virgularia mirabilis, new record to Louisiana]

Dawson, J.W. 1872. The pennatulid from Washington Territory. Nature 6: 516. [axis of Halipteris willemoesi]

Dawydoff, C. 1930. Coeloplana duboscqui nov. sp., Coeloplanide Provenant du Golfe de Siam, Commensale des Pennatules. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale 70: 87-90.

Dawydoff, C. 1938. Les Coeloplanides Indochinoises. Archives de Zoologie Expérimentale et Générale. Paris 80: 149-161. [Pteroeides sp.]

Day, J.H. 1974a. The ecology of Morrumbene Estuary, Mozambique. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 41(1): 3-97.

Day, J.H. 1974b. A guide to marine life on South African shores. 2nd ed. Cape Town: A.A. Balkema. [octocorals, pp. 33-35; Pennatula spp., Virgularia schultzei, Virgularia gustaviana]

Day, J.H., J.G. Field, and M.J. Penrith. 1970. The benthic fauna and fishes of False Bay, South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 39(1): 1-108.

Deichmann, E. 1936a. Notes on Pennatulacea and Holothuroidea collected by the first and second Bingham Oceanographic Expeditions 1925-1926. Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection, New Haven 5(3): 1-11. [Stylatula antillarum, Stylatula elongata, Stylatula brasiliensis, Stylatula gracilis, Stylatula darwini, Umbellula guntheri]

Deichmann, E. 1936b. The Alcyonaria of the western part of the Atlantic Ocean. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 53: 1-317. [Acanthoptilum pourtalesii, Acanthoptilum agassizii, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Anthoptilum murrayi, Anthoptilum sertum, Balticina finmarchica, Balticina christii, Distichoptilum gracile, Funiculina quadrangularis, Gyrophyllum hirondellei, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Ptilosarcus (Leioptilus), Pennatula grandis, Pennatula aculeata var. laxa, Pennatula bellissima, Pennatula americana, Pennatula phosphorea, Pennatula rubra, Pennatula prolifera, Protoptilum carpenterii, Protoptilum aberrans, Protoptilum thomsonii, Protoptilum denticulatum, Protoptilum smitti, Pteroeides griseum, Pteroeides lusitanicum, Ptilosarcus undulatus, Ptilosarcus guerneyi, Ptilosarcus brevicaulis, Ptilosarcus sinuosus, Ptilosarcus grayi, Renilla mülleri, R. reniformis forma typica, Renilla reniformis forma americana, Renilla köllikeri, Scleroptilum grandiflorum, Scleroptilum gracile, Stylatula elegans, Stylatula brasiliensis, Stylatula darwini, Stylatula antillarum, Umbellula güntheri, Umbellula lindahlii, Umbellula gracilis, Umbellula crassiflora, Umbellula thomsoni, Umbellula encrinus var. ambigua, Veretillum binghami sp. nov. from California, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia kophameli, Virgularia sp., Virgularia tuberculata]

Deichmann, E. 1941. Coelenterates collected on the Presidential cruise of 1938. Smithsonian miscellaneous collections 99(10): 1-17. [Leioptilus undulatus, Renilla köllikeri var. tigrina]

Dekay, J.E. 1822. Observations on the Pennatule flèche (P. sagitta of LaMarck), in the cabinet of Dr. Mitchell. American Journal of Science and Arts 4: 87-89.

Delage, Y. and E. Hérouard. 1901. Traité de zoologie concrète, Les Coelentérés 2(2). Librairie C. Reinwald, Paris. 848 pp. [pp. 429-458 dedicated to morphology and anatomy in Pennatulacea, with detailed illustrations of development in Renilla; other taxa illustrated include Veretillum, Umbellula, Kophobelemnon, Funiculina, Pennatula, Pteroeides, Virgularia, and Stylatula; plate 54 - morphology of Kophobelemon]

DeLuca, M., M.E. Dempsey, K. Hori, and M.J. Cormier. 1976. Source of oxygen in the CO-2 produced during chemiluminescence of firefly luciferyl-adenylate and Renilla luciferin. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 69(1): 262-267.

Demir, M. 1952. The invertebrate benthos of the Bosporus and of the litoral of the Sea of Marmara closer to the Bosporus. Istanbul Üniversitesi fen Fakültesi Hidrobiologie Arastirma Enstitüsü yayiinlariidan. 3: 1-615. [In Turkish]

Dendy, A. 1897. On Virgularia gracillima in Lyttelton Harbour. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 29 (new series 12): 256-257. [Abstract in Zoologisches Centralblatt 5: 251; Virgularia gracillima]

de Waele, J.-P. et al (see: Waele, J.-P. de, et al)

D'Hondt, M.-J., or d'Hondt, M.-J. (see: Hondt, M.-J. d')

Dickinson, P. 1978. Conduction systems controlling expansion - contraction behavior in the sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi. Marine Behaviour and Physiology 5(2): 163-183. [nervous electrophysiology; nerve net control of expansion contraction behaviour]

Dinamani, P. 1965. On a collection of Umbellula from the Arabian Sea. Nytt Magasin for Zoologi 12 (1964/65): 30-34.

Ding, Q. and Y. Chen. 1981. Discovery of soft metazoan from the Sinian system along eastern Yangtze Gorge, Hubei. Earth Science, Journal of Wuhan College of Geology 1981 (2)15: 53-57. [Charnia dengyingensis sp. n.; China; Proterozoic; Precambrian fossil resembling a sea pen]

Dittrich, R. 1888. Über das Leuchten der Tiere. Wissenschaftliche Beilage zum Program d. Realgymm. am Zwinger zu Breslau: 1-70. [bioluminescence]

Dollfus, R. 1938 (or 1939). Sur un octocoralliaire du genre Cavernularia, commun sur les fonds côtiers de l'Atlantique Marocain. Travaux de la Station zoologique de Wimereux 13: 243-265. [Cavernularia pusilla]

Döderlein, L. 1902. Ueber die Beziehungen nahe verwandter Tierformen zu einander. Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie Bd. 4: 394.

Donovan, P. 1995. Sea pens. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 43(7): 52, 54-57, 60, 62.

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Dunkelberger, D. and N. Watabe. 1972. Electron microscope study of the coenenchyme in the pennatulid colony Renilla reniformis, with special emphasis on spicule formation. American Zoologist 12: 716-717.

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Dunn, D.F. 1982. Cnidaria. In: Parker, S.A., ed., Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, l: 669-706. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

Dyer, M.F., W.G. Fry, and P.D. Fry. 1981. Results from North Sea benthos surveys. Porcupine Newsletter 2(1): 12-14. [Pennatula phosphorea; distribution & population density in the North Sea]

Dzik, J. 1991. Is fossil evidence consistent with traditional views of the early metazoan phylogeny? (pp.47-56). In: Simonetta, A.M. & Conway Morris, S. (eds). Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the University of Camerino 27-31 March 1989. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 296 pp. [discusses the enigma of the paucity of Cambrian/Precambrian coelenterates]


Eckelbarger, K.J., P.A. Tyler, and R W. Langton. 1998. Gonadal morphology and gametogenesis in the sea pen Pennatula aculeata (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the Gulf of Maine. Marine Biology 132 (4): 677-690.

Ehrenberg, C.G. 1834a. Beitrage zur physiologishcen Kenntniss der Corallenthiere im allgemeinen, und besonders des rothen Meeres, nebst einem Versuche zur physiologischen Systematik derselben. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Aus dem Jahre 1832. Erster Theil: 225-380. [Introduction of the family name Pennatulina on p. 287; later corrected to Pennatulidae by
Dana, 1846: 586]

Ehrenberg, C.G. 1834b. Über die Natur und Bildung der Corallenbanke des rothen Meeres.Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Aus dem Jahre 1832. Erster Theil: 381-432.

Ehrenberg, C.G. 1834c. Das Leuchten des Meeres. Abhandlungen der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Aus dem Jahre 1834: 411-572. [bioluminescence]

Eisen, G. 1876. Bidrag till Kännedomen om Pennatulid-slägtet Renilla. Bihang till Kongl. Svenska vetenskaps-akademiens handlingar (n.f.)13(1): 1-15. [Renilla from California]

Ellis, J. 1753. A letter from Mr. John Ellis to Mr. Peter Collinson F.R.S., concerning a Cluster-Polype found in the sea near the coast of Greenland. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 48(1): 305-308. [see also the abridged 1809 account of the Transactions 10: 409; this is a description of the original find of Umbellula; see also Mylius 1753 and 1754]

Ellis, J. 1755. An account of clustered polype, found in the North Seas, near the Pole, pp. 96-99 in: An essay towards a natural history of the corallines, and other marine productions of the like kind, commonly found on the coasts of Great Britain and Ireland...to which is added the description of a large Polype taken near the North Pole by the Whalefishers. London, for the author, 103 pp.

Ellis, J. 1764. An account of the sea pen, or Pennatula phosphorea of Linnaeus; likewise a description of a new species of sea pen, found on the coast of South-Carolina, with observations on sea-pens in general. In a letter to the honourable Coote Molesworth, Esq; M.D. and F.R.S. from John Ellis, esq; F.R.S. and member of the Royal Academy of Upsal. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 53: 419-435. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Ellis, J. and D. Solander. 1786. The natural history of many curious and uncommon zoophytes, collected from various parts of the globe by the late John Ellis ...systematically arranged and described by the lated Daniel Solander...London, printed for Benjamin White and Son, at Horace's Head, Fleet-Street; and Peter Elmsly, in the Strand. Pp. 1-206. [Pennatula phosphorea, Pennatula rubra, Pennatula spinosa, Pennatula mirabilis, Pennatula antennina, Pennatula cynomorium, Pennatula reniformis, Pennatula argentea, Pennatula encrinus. See: Cornelius & Wells (1988)]

Erasmi, F. 1668. Ost- und West-Indischer wie auch Sinesischer Lust- und Stats-Garten, mit einem Vorgesprach von mancherlei lustigen Discursen; In drei Haupt=
Theile unterschieden. Der erste Theil Begrifft in sich die edelsten Blumen, Krauter, Baume...in Ost-Indien, Sina und America:...aus den furnemsten, alten und neuen, indianischen Geschicht- Land- und Reisbeschreibungen, mit Fleiss zusammengezogen, und aus annehmliche Unterredungs-Art eingerichtet, 1762 pp. Nurnberg: Johann Andreae Endters, und Wolfgang dess Jugern Sel. Erben.

Erhardt, H.S. and H. Moosleitner. 1995. Meerwasser Atlas Band 2. Wirbellose Tiere. Mergus Verlag, Melle, Germany. 736 pp. [Sarcoptilus sp., Pennatula sp., Pteroeides sp. Cavernularia obesa, Veretillum cynomorium, Virgularia sp.; color photographs of living animals]

Esper, E.J.C. 1791. Die Pflanzenthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Farben erleuchtet nebst Beschreibungen, Theil 2: 1-96.



Fager, E.W. 1968. A sand-bottom epifaunal community of invertebrates in shallow water. Limnology and Oceanography 13: 448-64. [Stylatula elongata]

Faulkner, D. and R. Chesher. 1979. Living corals. Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., New York. 310 pp. [pennatulaceans: plate 62 is a large-format color photograph of Ptilosarcus gurneyi, text on p. 276]

Fautin, D.G. and R.N. Mariscal. 1991. Cnidaria: Anthozoa. In: W. Harrison & J.A. Westfall (eds.). Microscopic Anatomy of Inveretebrates, Vol. 2: Placozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria and Ctenophora; 267-358. Wiley-Liss, New York.

Fautin, D.G., A.E. Siebert, and E.N. Kozloff. 1987. Class Anthozoa. In: Kozloff, E. N., ed., Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle & London. [taxonomic listing, pp. 68-71 on Anthozoa: Kophobelemnon affine, Kophobelemnon biflorum, Kophobelemnon hispidum, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Funiculina parkeri, Helicoptilum rigidum, Scleroptilum sp., Umbellula lindahli, Umbellula loma, Umbellula encrinus, Umbellula carpenteri, Umbellula magniflora, Balticina californica, Balticina septentrionalis, Verrillia blakei, Stylatula elongata, Stylatula columbiana, Virgularis spp., Pennatula phosphorea, Ptilosarcus gurneyi]

Fedonkin, M.A. 1992. Vendian faunas and the early evolution of Metazoa. In: Lipps, J.H. and P.W. Signor (eds.), Origin and early evolution of the Metazoa. Topics in Geobiology, vol. 10, 570 pp. New York: Plenum Press. [Interpretation of Vendian fossils]

Fedonkin, M.A. 1996. The oldest fossil animals in ecological perspective. In: Ghiselin, M.T. and Pinna, G. (eds.), Biology as history No. 2 - new perspectives on the history of life: essays on systematic biology as historical narrative. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 20: 1-107. [Interpretation of Vendian fossils]

Field, L. R. 1949. Sea anemones and corals of Beaufort, North Carolina. Bulletin of the Duke University Marine Station, Durham, North Carolina, No. 5: 1-39. [Renilla reniformis]

Fischer. P. 1889. Note sur le Pavonaria quadranularis et sur les Pennatulides des côtes de France. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 14: 34-38. [presumably refers to Funiculina quadrangularis from France]

Fisher, W.J. 1874. On a new species of alcyoniid polyp. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 5: 418. [Virgularia ornata from Japan]

Flora, C.J. and E. Fairbanks. 1966. The Sound and the Sea. Bellingham, Washington, Pioneer: 1-455. [Ptilosarcus gurneyi listed as Leioptilus guerneyi]

Forbes, E. 1847. [In: Johnson (1847); a published letter from Edward Forbes regarding observations on bioluminescence in Pennatula phosphorea]

Forbes, E. and J. Goodsir. 1851. On some remarkable marine Invertebrata new to the British Seas. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 20(2): 307-315. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Forest, J. 1996. Henri Milne Edwards (23 October 1800 - 29 July 1885). Journal of Crustacean Biology 16(1): 208-213. [biographical sketch of Henri Milne Edwards]

Fosså, S.A., and A.J. Nilsen. 1995. Korallenriff-Aquarium - Band 4 - Nesseltiere im Korallenriff und für das Korallenriff-Aquarium. Bornheim: Birgit Schmettkamp. 448 pp. [pp. 228-229, color photographs of Cavernularia sp., possibly Veretillum sp., and Pteroeides sp.]

Fowler, G.H. 1888. On a new Pennatula from the Bahamas. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888: 135-140. [Pennatula bellissima]

Fowler, G.H. 1894. On two sea-pens of the family Veretillidae from the Madras Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1894: 376-379. [abstract in: Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society 1894: 576; Cavernularia malabarica, Lituaria phalloides]

Fowler, H.W. 1911. A description fo the fossil fish remains of the Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene formations of New Jersey. New Jersey Geological Survey Bulletin 4: 1-192. [specimens of the extinct sea pen Graphularia ambigua, thought to be spines of a batoid fish by Fowler; see Shapiro & Ramsdell (1965)]

Franc, J.-M. 1979. Collagène intracellulaire chez un invertébré marin (cnidaire). Biologie cellulaire 35(2): 6a. [abstract in French; Veretillum cynomorium; protein metabolism; collagen fibrils synthesis & intracellular localization]

Franc, S. 1970. Les évolutions cellularies au cours de la régénération du pédoncle de Veretillum cynomorium Pall. Vie et Milieu 21(l-A): 49-93.

Franc, S. 1973. Essai de culture in vitro de cellules de Veretillum cynomorium Pall. (Cnidaire anthozoaire). Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Academie des sciences, Paris (Série D) Sciences Naturelles 276(4): 559-562.

Franc, S. 1979. Genèse de la matrice conjonctive de Veretillum cynomorium Pall. (cnidaires-anthozoaires). Étude ultrastructuale et autoradiographique. Archives D' Anatomie Microscopique et de Morphologie Experimentale 68(4): 237-256. [tissues; ultrastructural & autoradiographic study; genesis of connective matrix]

Franc, S., R. Garrone and A. Huc. 1971. Observations ultrastructurales sur la mésoglée de Veretillum cynomorium Pall. (Cnidaire, anthozoaire). Journal de microscopie, Paris 11: 57 [abstract only]

Franc, S., A. Huc, and G. Chassagne. 1974. Étude ultrastructurale et physico-chemique de l'axe squelettique de Veretillum cynomorium Pall. (cnidaire, anthozoaire): cellules, calcite, collagène. Journal de microscopie, Paris 21(1): 93-110.

Franc, S., P.W. Ledger, and R. Garrone. 1985. Structural variability of collagen fibres in the calcareous axial rod of a sea pen. Journal of Morphology 184(1): 75-84. [skeletal rod collagen compared with mesoglea fibrils]

Fransen, C.H.J.M., L.B. Holthuis and J.P.H.M. Adema. 1997. Type-catalogue of the Decapod Crustacea in the collections of the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, with appendices of pre-1900 collectors and material. Zoologische Verhandelingen
311: 1-344. [Appendix 2 contains biographical sketches of several authors of pennatulacean research --- Pieter Bleeker, Jan Adrianus Herklots, Sydney John Hickson, Ambrosius Arnold Willem Hubrecht, Willy Kukenthal, and Henri Milne Edwards, including portraits of all except Hickson]

Franzén, Å. 1967. Remarks on spermiogenesis and morphology of the spermatozoon among the lower Metazoa. Arkiv för zoologi 19: 335-342. [Funiculina quadrangularis]

Frech. F. 1890. Die Korallenfauna der Trias. Palaeontographica 37(1-4): 1-116. [Prographularia triadica from the Triassic]

Frische, J. 1991. Seefedern. Eine Randgruppe in der Meerwasser-Aquaristik. Aquarium (Minden) No. 267 1991: 49-50.

Fu, X., F.J. Schmitz, and G.C. Williams (in press). Malayenolides A-D, novel diterpenes from the Indonesian sea pen Veretillum malayense. Journal of Natural Products. [new diterpenes found to be toxic to brine shrimp; includes a brief assessment of systematics in the genus Veretillum]

Fujita, T. and S. Ohta. 1988. Photographic observations of the life style of a deep-sea ophiuroid Asteronyx loveni (Echinodermata). Deep-Sea Research, Part A, Oceanographic Research Papers 35(12): 2029-2043. [Anthoptilum, Funiculina quadrangularis, ecological associations with Asteronyx loveni in the western Pacific]



Gabb, W.M. 1859. Catalogue of the invertebrate fossils of the Cretaceous formation of the United States, with references. Issued with: Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 11: 1-20. [the extinct sea pen Graphularia ambigua listed by Gabb as Belemnites ambiguus; see Shapiro & Ramsdell
(1965: 2)]

Gabb, W.M. 1861. Synopsis of the Mollusca of the Cretaceous formations, including the geographical and stratigraphical range and synonymy. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 8: 57-257. [the extinct sea pen Graphularia ambigua listed by Gabb as Belemnites ambiguus; see Shapiro & Ramsdell
(1965: 2)]

Gabb, W.M. 1862. Description of Two New Species of Pennatulidae from the Pacific Coast of the United States. Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences 2: 166-167. [Pennatula tenua, Virgularia elongata]

Gabb, W.M. 1864. Description of new a species of Virgularia from the coast of California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Natural Sciences 3(2): 120. [Virgularia gracilis]

Gage, J.D. and P.A. Tyler. 1991. Deep-sea biology, a natural history of organisms at the deep-sea floor. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 504 pp. [Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pennatula aculeata, Umbellula]

Gardiner, J.S. 1940. Prof. Sydney J. Hickson, F.R.S. Nature, London 145(3670):
338-339. [biographical sketch of Sydney Hickson]

Geldiay, R. and A. Kocatas. 1972. Note préliminaire sue les peuplements benthiques du golfe d'Ismir. Scientific Monographs of the Faculty of Science, Ege University.
12: 1-34.

Germain, G. and M. Anctil. 1988. Luminescent activity and ultrastructural characterization of photocytes dissociated from the coelenterate Renilla kollikeri. Tissue and Cell 20(5): 701-720. [Renilla kollikeri, luminous organs, photocyte luminescent activity & ultrastructural characterization]

Gesner, C. 1555. De raris & admirandis herbis: quae, sive quod noctu luceant, sive alias ob causas, lunariae nominantur & obiter de aliis etiam rebus quae in tenebris lucent, commentariolus. Cum iconibus quibusdam Herbarum novis. Editione hac secunda emendatior. Hafniae: Typis Matthiae Godicchenii, Impensis Petri Hauboldi. 82 pp. [subsequent printing dated 1669; Penna marina bioluminescence]

Gesner, C. 1558. Historiae animalium liber IIII. quae est de piscium & aquatilium animantium natura. Cum iconibus singulorum ad vivum expressis. Continentur in hoc volumine, Gulielmi Rondeletii & Petri Bellonii Cenomani de aquatilium singulis scripta. 20 lvs. + 1-1297 pp. Tiguri: apud C. Froschoverum. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Gesner, C. 1565. De rerum fossilium, lapidum et gemmarum maxime, figuris & similitudinibus Liber: non solum Medicis, sed omnibus rerum Naturae ac Philologiae studiosis, vtilis & iucundus futurus, 7 + 169 lvs. Tiguri: Jac. Gesner.

Gili, J.M. 1986. Estudio systemático y faunístico de los cnidarios de la costa catalana. Doctoral Thesis, Universidad Autónoma de Baracelona, España: 565 pp.

Gili, J.M., and F. Pagès. 1987. Pennatuláceos (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) recolectados en la plataforma continental Catalana (Mediterráneo occidental). Miscel.lània Zoològica (Barcelona) 11: 25-39. [taxonomic descriptions: Cavernularia pusilla, Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pennatula phosphorea, Pennatula rubra, Pteroeides spinosum, Veretillum cynomorium, and Virgularia mirabilis]

Gili, J.M., J.D. Ros, and F. Pagès. 1987. Types of bottoms and benthic Cnidaria from the trawling grounds (littoral and bathyal) off Catalonia (NE Spain). Vie et Milieu 37(2): 85-98. [ecology: Cavernularia pusilla, Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pennatula phosphorea, Pteroeides griseum, Veretillum cynomorium, Virgularia mirabilis]

Gilluly, R.H. 1970. Umbellula in its deep-sea habitat. Science News 97(24): 586-587. [deep-sea ecology of Umbellula]

Glaessner, M.F. 1958a. The oldest Fossil Faunas of South Australia. Geologische rundschau 47(2): 522-531 [precambrian fossils Pteridinium and Rangea, resembling sea pens]

Glaessner, M.F. 1958b. Precambrian Coelenterata from Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Australia 81: 185-188. [precambrian fossils resembling sea pens]

Glaessner, M.F. 1959. Precambrian Coelenterata from Australia, Africa and England. Nature, London 183(4673): 1472-1473. [precambrian fossils Charnia masoni, Charniodiscus, Rangea, and Pteridinium, resembling sea pens]

Glaessner, M. F. 1961. Pre-Cambrian animals, pp. 63-69. In: The fossil record and evolution - readings from Scientic American. W. H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco. 225 pp. [sea pens, Pennatula rubra, Pennatula aculeata; and fossil organisms resembling sea pens, Rangea arborea and Charnia]

Glaessner, M.F. 1984. The dawn of animal life - a biohistorical study. Cambridge University Press, London. 244 pp. [precambrian colonial cnidarians, some of which resemble pennatulaceans, pp. 52, 56-57]

Glaessner, M.F. and B. Daily. 1959. The geology and late Precambrian fauna of the Ediacara Fossil Reserve. Records of the South Australian Museum 13(3): 369-401. [precambrian fossils that resemble pennatulaceans]

Glaessner, M.F. and M. Wade. 1966. The Late Precambrian fossils from Ediacara, South Australia. Palaeontology 9: 599-628. [Vendian fossils resembling sea pens: Rangea longa, Rangea grandis, Arborea arborea, Pteridium cf. simplex]

Godfrey, F. K. 1943. Sea-Pens. The South Australian Naturalist, Adelaide 21(2): 13-15. [Sarcophyllum grande]

Goll, R.M. 1980. Pliocene-Pleistocene radiolarians from the East Pacific Rise and the Galapagos Spreading Center, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 54. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project 54: 425-453.

Gosliner, T.M., D.W. Behrens, and G.C. Williams. 1996. Coral Reef Animals of the Indo-Pacific, animal life from Africa to Hawai'i exlusive of the vertebrates. Monterey: Sea Challengers, 314 pp. [underwater color photographs of living animals; sea pens, pp. 56-60: Cavernularia cf. obesa, Cavernularia sp., Pteroeides spp., Sclerobelemnon burgeri, Sclerobelemnon sp., Scytalium cf. sarsii, Veretillum spp., Virgularia gustaviana, Virgularia spp.; p. 93 (no. 307) shows a color photograph of an ecological interaction between an attached jellyfish (cf. Lipkea sp.) and the sea pen Pteroeides sp., taken underwater in Indonesia; and on page 227 (no. 826) shows commensal procelain crabs Porcellanella picta on the sea pens, Veretillum sp. and Pteroeides sp., underwater photographs taken in the Philippines and Indonesia]

Goswami, A., S. Saha, S. Mukhopadhyay, and S.C. Pakrashi. 1995. Marine products from Bay of Bengal - 3: Sterol composition of four molluscs and a sea pen. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 24(4): 238-239.

Gotshall, D. W. 1987. Marine animals of Baja California - a guide to the common fishes and invertebrates, second edition. Sea Challengers, Monterey. 113 pp. [octocorals, pp. 86-91; color photograph of Ptilosarcus undulatus]

Gotshall, D.W. 1994. Guide to marine invertebrates Alaska to Baja California. Monterey: Sea Challengers, 105 pp. [octocorals, pp. 31-36; color photographs of Renillia koellikeri, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Stylatula elongata]

Gotshall, D. W. and L.L. Laurent. 1979. Pacific coast subtidal marine invertebrates - a fishwatcher's guide. Sea Challengers, Los Osos. 112 pp. [octocorals, pp. 35-39; color photographs of Renillia koellikeri, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, and Stylatula elongata]

Grant, R.E. 1827. Notice regarding the structure and mode of generation of the Virgularia and the Pennatula phosphorea. Edinburgh Journal of Science 7: 330-335 [also published in Frorieps Notizen 19: 337-341; pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Grant, R.E. 1929. Further observations on the generation of the Virgularia mirabilis. Edinburgh Journal of Science 10: 350-351. [also published in Frorieps Notizen 24: 247]

Grasshoff, M. 1972. Eine Seefeder mit einem einzigen Polypen: Umbellula thieli n. sp. Die von F.S. `Meteor' 1967-1970 im östlichen Nordatlantik gedredschten Pennatularia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Meteor Forschungsergebnisse (D)12: 1-11.

Grasshoff, M. 1973. Schopf-Seefedern - Erforschungsgeschichte und Evolution einer Tiefseetiergruppe. Natur und Museum 103(2): 58-64. [Umbellula; evolutionary trends; deep-sea benthos]

Grasshoff, M. 1981. Gorgonaria und Pennatularia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) vom Mittelatlantischen Rücken SW der Azoren. Steenstrupia 7(9): 213-230. [Funiculina quadrangularis, distribution patterns in the Atlantic Ocean]

Grasshoff, M. 1982a. Die Gorgonaria, Pennatularia und Antipatharia des Tiefwassers der Biskaya (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Ergebnisse der französischen Expeditionen Biogas, Polygas, Geomanche, Incal, Noratlante und Fahrten der `Thalassa'. I. Allgemeiner Teil. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Section A: Zoologie, Biologie, et Ecologie Animales 3(3): 731-766. [Pennatulacea, bathyal zone, geographic and bathymetric distribution, world marine zones: Kophobelemnon macrospinosum, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Anthoptilum murrayi, Funiculina quadrangularis, Protoptilum carpenteri, Distichoptilum gracile, Scleroptilum grandiflorum, Umbellula monocephalus, Umbellula durissima, Umbellula thomsoni, Umbellula lindahli, Pennatula grandis, Pennatula aculeata]

Grasshoff, M. 1982b. Die Gorgonaria, Pennatularia und Antipatharia des Tiefwassers der Biskaya (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Ergebnisse der französischen Expeditionen Biogas, Polygas, Geomanche, Incal, Nortatlante und Fahrten der `Thalassa'. II. Taxonomischer Teil. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Section A: Zoologie, Biologie, et Ecologie Animales (4)3(A)4: 941-978. [taxonomic descriptions: Kophobelemnon macrospinosum, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Anthoptilum murrayi, Protoptilum carpenteri, Distichoptilum gracile, Scleroptilum grandiflorum, Umbellula monocephalus, Umbellula durissima, Umbellula thomsoni, Umbellula lindahli, Pennatula grandis]

Grasshoff, M. 1989. Die Meerenge von Gibraltar als Faunen-Barriere: Die Gorgonaria, Pennatularia und Antipatharia der BALGIM-Expedition (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Senckenbergiana maritima 20(5-6): 201-223. [listing of sea pens with distributional and bathymetric data: Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Funiculina quadrangularis, Protoptilum thomsoni, Stylatula elegans, Umblelula thomsoni, Umbellula pallida, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia gracilis, Pennatula aculeata, Pennatula phosphorea, Gyrophyllum hirondellei]

Grasshoff, M. 1991a. Die Evolution der Cnidaria. I. Die Entwicklung zur Anthozoen-Konstruktion. Natur und Museum 121(8): 225-236. [anthozoan evolution]

Grasshoff, M. 1991b. Die von E.J.C. Esper 1788-1809 beschriebenen Anthozoa (Cnidaria). Senckenbergiana Biologica 71: 325-368.

Graveley, F.H. 1941. Shells and other animal remains found on the Madras Beach. I. - Groups other than snails, etc. (Mollusca Gastropoda). Madras Government Museum Bulletin, N.S. Natural History Section 5(1): 1-112. [coelenterates, pp. 6-18; Cavernularia sp.]

Gravenhorst, J.L.C. 1821. De natura vegetabili-Gorgoniarum. Memorie della Accademia della scienze di Torino 26: 411-432. [Scytaliopsis ghardagensis]

Gravier, C. 1906a. Sur un type nouveau de Virgulaire. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle 12(5): 291-293. [Scytaliopsis djiboutiensis]

Gravier, C. 1906b. Sur la biologie des virgulaires. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle 12: 391-395.

Gravier, C. 1906c. Sur un type nouveau d'Alcyonaire de la famille des Virgularidae. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des sciences, Paris (Série D) Sciences Naturelles 142: 1290-1291. [Scytaliopsis gen. nov.]

Gravier, C. 1907a. Sur un genre nouveau de Pennatulidés (Mesobelemnon nov. g. gracile nov. sp.). Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle 13(2): 159-161 [also published as: Sur un genre nouveau de Pennatulidés. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des sciences, Paris (Série D) Sciences Naturelles 144: 439-440; Mesobelemnon gracile]

Gravier, C. 1907b. Sur les pennatulidés de la famille des Kophobelemnonidae Kölliker. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris 13: 161-164. [Kophobelemnidae: the genera composing the family]

Gravier, C. 1908. Recherches sur quelques Alcyonaires du Golfe de Tadjourah. Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale (4)8(2): 179-266. [Mesobelemnon gracile, Scytaliopsis djiboutiensis]

Gravier, C. 1912a. Sur une nouvelle famille des Pennatulidés (Scytaliopsidae). Proceedings of the Seventh International Zoological Congress. Cambridge Mass. 1912: 819-821.

Gravier, C. 1912b. Sur la biologie des Pennatulidés. Proceedings fo the Seventh International Zoological Congress. Cambridge Mass. 1912: 822-825.

Gray, J.E. 1840. The third room (radiated animals), pp. 66-77 in: Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum (Ed. 42), 273 pp. London.

Gray, J.E. 1848. Description of Sarcoptilus, a new genus of Pennatulidae. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1848(16): 45. [also published in 1849 in Annals and Magazine of Natural History (2)3: 76-77]

Gray, J.E. 1859. On the arrangement of zoophytes with pinnated tentacles. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 3, 4: 439-444.

Gray, J.E. 1860. Revision of the family Pennatulidae, with some descriptions of some new species in the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 3, 5: 20-25.

Gray, J.E. 1862. Notes on some specimens of claviform Pennatulidae (Veretillidae) in the collection of the British Museum. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 3, 10: 73-76.

Gray, J.E. 1870. Catalogue of sea-pens or Pennatulariidae in the collection of the British Museum. London: British Museum: 1-40. [Funiculina quadrangularis, Funiculina forbesii, Funiculina philippinensis, Balticina finmarchica, Norticina christii, Scytalium sarsii, Virgularia juncea, Virgularia reinwardtii, Virgularia elegans, Virgularia philippinensis, Virgularia pusilla, Virgularia gracilis, Virgularia elongata, Virgularia patachonica, Lygus mirabilis, Lygus vanbenedenii , Lygus ellisii, Lygus brasiliensis, Stylatula gracilis, Stylatula elongata, Pennatula rubra, Phosphorella phosphorea, Ptilella borealis Leioptilus fimbriatus, Leioptilus undulatus, Argentella elegans, Argentella grandis, Argentella jukesii, Pteromorpha dringii, Pteromorpha grisea, Pteromorpha expansa, Pteroeides latipinnarum, Pteroeides spinosum, Pteroeides esperi, Pteroeides japonicum, Crispella sieboldii, Sarcoptilus grandis, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Ptilosarcus sinuosus, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Kophobelemnon burgeri, Kophobelemnon clavatum, Veretillum cynomorium, Veretillum obesa, Veretillum australasiae, Veretillum cantoriae, Veretillum stimpsonii, Veretillum baculatus, Veretillum valenciennesii, Veretillum luteum, Veretillum pusillum, Lituaria phalloides, Policella australis, Clavella australasia, Renilla reniformis, Renilla amethystina, Renilla danae, Renilla peltata, Renilla patula, Renilla australasica, Herklotsia edwardsii, Renillina sinuata, Umbellula groenlandica, Crinillum siedenburgii, Osteocella cliftoni]

Gray, J.E. 1872a. On the genus Osteocella. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 4, 9: 405-406. [refers to the genus Halipteris]

Gray, J.E. 1872b. Additional note on Osteocella. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 4, 10: 76, 406. [refers to the genus Halipteris]

Gray, J.E. 1872c. The clustered sea-polype (Umbellula groenlandica). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 4, 10: 151, 469.

Gray, J.E. 1873. On the stick-fish (Osteocella septentrionalis) and on the habits of sea-pens. Nature 9: 13-14. [probably correctly identified as Halipteris willemoesi]

Gregorio, A. de. 1890. Monographie de la faune Eocenique de l'Alabama. Annales de geologie et de paleontologie 7/8: 1-346. [Shapiro & Ramsdell (1965: 2) state, 'In 1890, de Gregorio described a pennatulid from the Eocene of Alabama, which he named Corallium perplexum. To judge from his figures, de Gregoroio's species appears to be the same as Graphularia ambigua (Morton) and probably is a synonym of the latter. De Gregorio gave no formation other than "Eocene" or locality other than "Alabama" for his specimens. Unfortunately, de Gregorio's specimens were unavailable for study at the time of this writing...Yabe and Sugiyama, in 1937, in a listing of the known species of Graphularia, placed Corallium perplexum de Gregorio in that genus."]

Grieg, J.A. 1887. Bidrag til de norske Alcyonarier. Bergens Museums Aarsberetning for 1886: 1-26. [Protoptilum tortum, Stichoptilum arcticum]

Grieg, J.A. 1892. Ovsersigt over Norges pennatulider. Bergens Museums Aarsberetning for 1891(1): 1-22.

Grieg, J.A. 1893. Bidrag til kjendskaben om de nordishke alcyonarier. Bergens Museums Aarbog 1893(2): 1-21.

Grieg, J.A. 1896. On Funiculina and Kophobelemnon. Bergens Museum Aarbog 1896(3): 1-11. [Abstracts in Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society 1897: 132, and Zoologisches Centralblatt 4: 448-449; Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum]

Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P., D. Graff, A. Groeger, and I.D. McFarlane. 1987. Structure, action and location of coelenterate arg-phe-amide peptides. Bulletin de L' Academie Serbe des Sciences et des Arts Classe des Sciences Mathematiques et Naturelles Sciences Naturelles 96 (29): 13-24. [Renilla kollikeri, protein content, Arg-phe-amide characteristics & possible neurological function]

Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P. and A. Groeger. 1987. Isolation of the neuropeptide pGlu-Gly-Arg-Phe-amide from the pennatulid Renilla kollikeri. Federation of European Biochemical Societies, Letters 211(1): 105-108.

Grober, M.S. 1990a. Luminescent flash avoidance in the nocturnal crab Portunus xanthusii. 1. The effects of luminescence and mechanical stimulation on heart rate. Journal of Experimental Biology 148: 415-426. [Renilla kollikeri, luminescence, flashes effect on crustacean heart rate]

Grober, M.S. 1990b. Luminescent flash avoidance in the nocturnal crab Portunus xantusii. 2. Cardiac and visual responses to variations in simulated luminescent flashes. The Journal of Experimental Biology 148: 427-428. [Renilla kollikeri]