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Haeckel, E. 1904. Kunstformen der Nature. Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, Leipzig and Vienna. [also published by Dover Publications, New York, 1974 as "Art Forms In Nature", 100 plates; pennatulaceans, plate 19: Stylatula, Virgularia, Umbellula, Renilla, Pteroeides, and Scleroptilum]

Hagiwata, S., S. Yoshida, and M. Yoshii. 1981. Transient and delayed potassium currents in the egg cell membrane of the coelenterate, Renilla koellikeri. Journal of Physiology (Cambridge) 318: 123-141. [physical properties of tissues and oocyte cell membrane]

Hamid, A. 1931. On Virgularia gracillima (Kölliker) from the Chilka Lake. Records Indian Museum Calcutta 33: 483-487. [Virgularia gracillima]

Hamilton, D. 1958. An Eocene Sea-pen from Dunedin, New Zealand. Palaeontology 1(3): 226-230. [an extinct sea pen: Bensonularia spatulata from the Eocene of New Zealand]

Häntzschel, W. 1958. Oktokoralle oder Lebensspur? Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontogischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 27: 77-87. [exinct sea pens: Pennatulites longespicata?, Protovirgularia dichotoma?, Virgularia presbytes?]

Hardy, A. 1965. The Open Sea: Its Natural History, Part 2: Fish and Fisheries. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 322 pp. [Pennatula phosphorea]

Hardy, A. 1967. Great Waters. Collins. [Antarctic octocorals, pp. 372-373; Umbellula]

Harmon, A.C., H.W. Jarrett, and M.J. Cormier. 1984. An enzymatic assay for calmodulin based on plant NAD kinase activity. Analytical Biochemistry 141(1): 168-178. [Renilla reniformis, biochemical techniques]

Hart, R.C., J.C. Matthews, K. Hori, and M.J. Cormier. 1979. Renilla reniformis bioluminescence: luciferase - catalysed production of nonradiating excited states from luciferin analogues and elucidation of the excited state species involved in energy transfer to Renilla green fluorescent protein. Biochemistry 18(11): 2204-2210.

Harting, P.M. and J. van der Hoeven. 1861. Organisch Voorwerp (Crinillum). Verslagen van de gewone vergaderingen der Afdeeling Natuurkunde, Amsterdam 11: 286.

Hartman, O. 1960. Systematic Account of Some Marine Invertebrate Animals from the Deep Basins off Southern California. Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 22(2): 69-215. [coelenterates, beginning on page 76: includes Distichoptilum verrillii]

Harvey, E.N. 1917. Studies on bioluminescence. 6. Light production by a Japanese pennatulid Cavernularia habereri. American Journal of Physiology 42: 349-358.

Harvey, E.N. 1920. The nature of animal light. Monographs of Experimental Biology. Philadelphia & London, J.B. Lippincott Company, 182 pp. [bioluminescence in Cavernularia & Pennatula, pp. 74 & 103]

Harvey, E. N. 1940. Living light. Princeton University Press: 1-328 [pennatulaceans, pp. 48-53; Renilla sp. and Pennatula sp., pp. 274-275; Pennatula, Veretillum, Cavernularia, Funiculina, Umbellula, Leioptilus (=Ptylosarcus), and Pteroeides contain luminescent species; p. 50]

Harvey, E.N. 1952. Bioluminescence. Academic Press, New York. 649 pp. [pp. 168-180; a detailed history of the literature pertaining to bioluminescence research in the Octocorallia including the following pennatulacean taxa: Renilla amethystina - considered a synonym of R. muelleri by Zamponi & Pérez (1995: 23); Cavernularia, Veretillum, Funiculina, Umbellula, Virgularia, Stylatula, Pennatula, Ptilosarcus, and Pteroeides; a quoted passage from this book appears above in Historical Account --- Pre-Linnean Period]

Hasama, B. 1943. Über die Biolumineszenz des Plocamophorus tilesii Bergh sowie der Cavernularia habereri Moroff im Aktionsstrombild sowie im histologischen Bild. Cytologia 13: 146-154.

Hastings, J.W. 1968. Bioluminescence. Annual Review of Biochemistry 37: 597-630.

Hastings, J.W. 1983. Chemistry and control of luminescence in marine organisms. Bulletin of Marine Science 33(4): 818-828. [Renilla; protein metabolism; luciferin oxidation to produce luminescence, ionic control]

Hastings, J.W. and J.G. Morin. 1969. Calcium-triggered light emission in Renilla. A unitary biochemical scheme for coelenterate bioluminescence. Biochemical and biophysical Research Communiations 37: 493-498. [Renilla koellikeri]

Heezen, B.C. and C.D. Hollister. 1971. The face of the deep. London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press. 659 pp. [Umbellula]

Herdman, W.A. 1913. Spolia Runiana, I. (Funiculina). Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 32: 163.

Herdman, W.A. 1913a. "Phosphorescence" of Pennatulida. Nature London 91: 582. [Pennatula phosphorea and Funiculina quadrangularis]

Herdman, W. A. 1913b. Spolia Runiana. - I. Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas) and the Hebridean Diazona violacea, Savigny. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 32: 163-172. [Funiculina quadrangularis]

Herdman, W.A. 1914. Spolia Runiana, II. Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas); variation in Ascidia; and records of various rare invertebrata. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 32: 269-285. [Funiculina quadrangularis, Virgularia mirabilis, Pennatula phosphorea]

Herklots, J.A. 1858. Notices pour servir à l'étude des polypiers nageurs ou pennatulides. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 7: 1-31. [original descriptions of the genera Scytalium and Pteroeides]

Herklots, J.A. 1863. Descriptions de deux expèces nouvelles de pennatulides des Mers de la Chine. Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor de Dierkunde 1: 31-34.

Herring, P.J. (ed.). 1978. Bioluminescence in action. Academic Press, London. 570 pp. [Stylatula, Pennatula, Pteroeides, Renilla, Acanthoptilum, Ptilosarcus, Cavernularia, Virgularia, and Veretillum]

Herring, P.J. 1991. Observations on bioluminescence in some deep-water anthozoans. Hydrobiologia 216-217: 573-579. [Distichoptilum gracile, Funiculina quadrangularis, Umbellula huxleyi]

Hickson, S.J. 1883. On the ciliated groove (siphonoglyphe) in the stomodaeum of the Alcyonarians. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 174(3): 693-705.

Hickson, S.J. 1890. Preliminary report on a collection of Alcyonaria from Port Philip. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria, Melbourne (new series) 2(2): 136-140.

Hickson, S.J. 1894. A revision of the genera of the Alcyonaria Stolonifera, with a description of one new genus and several new species. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 13(9): 325-347.

Hickson, S.J. 1900. The Alcyonaria and Hydrocorallinae of the Cape of Good Hope. Marine Investigations in South Africa 1: 67-96. [Virgularia schultzei as Virgularia reinwardti, Actinoptilum molle as Cavernularia elegans and Cavernularia obesa]

Hickson, S.J. 1903a. Presidential Address to Zoological Section of the British Association. Report of the seventy-third meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Southport 1903: 672.

Hickson, S.J. 1903b. Polymorphism in the Pennatulida. Report of the seventy-third meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Sciences, Southport 1903: 688.

Hickson, S.J. 1903c. Report of the Southport meeting of the British Association. (Polymorphism in Pennatula murrayi). Science 68: 614. [Pennatula murrayi]

Hickson, S.J. 1904. The Alcyonaria of the Cape of Good Hope. Part II. Marine Investigations in South Africa 3: 211-239. [Anthoptilum grandiflorum]

Hickson, S.J. 1905. The Alcyonaria of the Maldives. Part III. The families Muriceidae, Gorgonellidae, Melitodidae, and the genera Pennatula, Eunephthya. In: Gardiner, J. Stanley (Ed.), The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes 2(4): 807-826. [Pennatula murrayi; Suvadiva p. 823]]

Hickson, S.J. 1906. Coelenterata: Anthozoa & Actinozoa - general characters - Alcyonaria. In: Harmer, S.F. & Shipley, A.E. (eds.) The Cambridge Natural History 1, chapter 13: 326-364. London: Macmillan & Co.

Hickson, S.J. 1907. Coelenterata I. - Alcyonaria. National Antarctic (Discovery) Expedition, Natural History 3: 1-15. British Museum.

Hickson, S.J. 1909. Coelenterata: Anthozoa. In: Harmer, S.F. & Shiple, A.E. (eds). The Cambridge Natural History 1: 326-411. Macmillan & Co., London.

Hickson, S.J. 1911. On a specimen of Osteocella septentrionalis (Gray). Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 55(3)(No. 23): 1-15. [Osteocella septentrionalis]

Hickson, S.J. 1914. On the Sagitta marina of Rumphius. Zoologischer Anzeiger 44(10): 471.

Hickson, S.J. 1916. The Pennatulacea of the Siboga Expedition, with a general survey of the order. Siboga Expeditie Monographs 14, Livr. 77: 1-265. [Anthoptilum malayense, Chunella biflora, Echinoptilum roseum, Echinoptilum elongatum, Echinoptilum asperum, Echinoptilum minimum, Gyrophyllum sibogae, Kophobelemnon pauciflorum, Protoptilum celebense, Pteroeides timorense, Pteroeides malayense, Sclerobelemnon gravieri, Scleroptilum elongatum, Sclerobelemnon magniflorum, Scytalium balssii, Umbellula weberi, Veretillum malayense, Virgularia rubra, Virgularia roulei nom. nov. for V. elegans]

Hickson, S.J. 1921. On some Alcyonaria in the Cambridge Museum. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 20(3): 366-373. [Cavernularia darwinii]

Hickson, S.J. 1922. On two sea-pens from West Australia. The Percy Sladen Trust Expedition to the Abrolhos Islands (Indian Ocean). Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 35: 21-23. [Veretillum malayense, Pteroeides sp. ? juv.]

Hickson, S.J. 1930a. Some alcyonarians from the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1930 (14): 209-227. [Virgularia galapagensis]

Hickson, S.J. 1930b. On the classification of the Alcyonaria. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1930(1): 229-252.

Hickson, S.J. 1936. Darwin's Cavernularia. Nature London 137(3474): 909.
[Veretillum binghami synonynous with Cavernularia darwinii var. binghami]

Hickson, S.J. 1937. The Pennatulacea. Scientific Reports. Scientific Reports of the John Murray Expedition, 1933-1934 4(5): 109-130. [Cavernularia orientalis, Cavernularia darwinii, Cavernularia chuni, Cavernularia malabarica, Chunella gracillima, Funiculina quadrangularis, Pennatula inflata, Protoptilum cyaneum, Pteroeides sp. ? juv., Scytalium spendens, Scytalium martensii var. magnifolia, Scytalium sarsii, Umbellula huxleyi, Umbellula spicata, Umbellula validiviae, Umbellula kollikeri, Umbellula pellucida, Umbellula rigida, Umbellula purpurea, Umbellula elongata, Umbellula radiata, Umbellulid pendula, Umbellula indica, Umbellula jordani, unidentified pennatulid]

Hickson, S.J. 1940. The Gorgonacea with notes on two species of Pennatulacea. Scientific Reports of the John Murray Expedition, 1933-1934 6: 267-317. [Anthoptilum inermis, Kophobelemnon pauciflorum]

Hoare, R. and E.H. Wilson. 1977. Observations on the behaviour and distribution of Virgularia mirabilis O.F. Muller (Coelenterata: Pennatulacea) in Holyhead Harbour, Anglesey. European Marine Biology Symposium (No. 11): 329-337.

Hochberg, F.G. and J.C. Ljubenkov. 1998. Class Anthozoa: Subclass Octocorallia - Orders Stolonifera and Pennatulacea. In: Scott, P.V. and Blake, J.A. (eds.), Taxonomic atlas of the benthic fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and the western Santa Barbara Channel, Vol. 3, The Cnidaria. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California. 150 pp. [taxonomy and distribution of sea pens of southern California, pp. 67-112: Kophobelemnon affine, Distichoptilum gracile, Funiculina parkeri, Stachyptilum superbum, Umbellula magniflora, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Halipterus californca, Pennatula californica, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Virgularia agassizii, Virgularia californica, Acanthoptilum album, Acanthoptilum gracile, Stylatula elongata, Stylatula gracilis]

Holthuis, L.B. 1993. History of the carcinological collections of the Rihksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, Netherlands (1820-1950). Crustacean Issues, Rotterdam 8: 225-242. [biographical notes on Jan Adrianus Herklots]

Holthuis, L.B. 1995. 1820-1958 Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie: 1-172. Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum, Leiden. [biographical notes on Jan Adrianus Herklots]

Hondt, M.-J. d'. 1984a. Pteroeides (Octocorallia, Pennatulacea) de Nouvelle-Caledonie. Bulletin du Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Section A, Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animales 6(1): 3-29.

Hondt, M.-J. d'. 1984b Contribution a la connaissance de certains genres de la famille Veretillidae. (Pennatulacea). Description de Cavernulina grandiflora n. sp. et de Lituaria valenciennesi nom. nov. Bulletin du Museum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Section A, Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animales 6(3): 625-640.

Honjo, I. 1940. Beiträge zur nervenmuskelphysiologie der kolonienbildenden tiere. I. Die Peristaltik von Cavernularia. Annotationes zoologicae Japonenses 19(4): 301-308.

Hori, K. and M.J. Cormier. 1973. Structure and chemical synthesis of a biologically active form of Renilla (sea pansy) luciferin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 70(1): 120-123.

Hori, K., Y. Nakano, and M.J. Cormier. 1972. Studies on the bioluminescence of Renilla reniformis. II. Location of the sulfate group in luciferyl sulfate. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 256(3): 638-644.

Hori, K., J.E. Wampler, J.C. Matthews, and M.J. Cormier. 1973. Identification of the product exited states during the chemiluminescent and bioluminescent oxidation of Renilla (Sea pansy) luciferin and certain of its analogs. Biochemistry 12(22): 4463-4468.

Hornell, J. 1922. Some commensals of Indian Alcyonarians and crabs. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 28(4): 926-936. [Cavernularia, Pennatula, Virgularia]

Howell, B.J. 1947. Eocene Alcyonaria in New Jersey. Abstract in: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 58: 1195. [two unnamed species of Graphularia, both considered by Shapiro & Ramsdell (1965: 3) as synonyms of Graphularia ambigua]

Howson, C.M. and L.M. Davies. 1991. Marine nature conservation review surveys of Scottish sea lochs. A towed video survey of Loch Fyne. Vol. 1 - report. Nature Conservancy Council CSD Report 1189. [Virgularia mirabilis]

Huang, C.L. and Mir, G.N. 1972. Toxicological and pharmacological properties of sea pansy Renilla mulleri. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 60: 1620-22.

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Human, V.L. 1973. Albinism in three species of marine invertebrates from southern California. California Fish & Game 59: 89-92. [Renilla koellikeri]

Humes, A.G. 1978. Lichomolgid copepods (Cyclopoida), with two new species of Doridicola, from sea pens (Pennatulacea) in Madagascar. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 97(4): 524-539. [Virgularia juncea & Pteroeides oblongum; associations with crustaceans, Malagasy Republic]

Hutton, F.W. (ed.). 1904. Index faunae Novae Zealandiae. London, Dulau & Co. 372 pp. [Virgularia gracillima, Protocaulon molle, Leptoptilum gracile]

Huxley, T. H. 1907. A manual of the anatomy of invertebrated animals. D. Appleton and Company, New York. 596 pp. [octocorals, pp. 143-145; Veretillum, Pennatula, Virgularia]

Hyman, L.H. 1940. The Invertebrates. Vol. 1. Protozoa through Ctenophora. New York: McGraw-Hill. 726 pp. [pennatulacean biology, pp. 557-565; quoted passage in Historical Account --- The Early to Mid-Twentieth Century, above]



Imafuku, M. 1973. On some physiological aspects in the daily rhythmic activity of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 20: 431-454.

Imafuku, M. 1975. Peristalsis in the monopolypid stage of the sea-pen Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 22(1-4): 195-216.

Imafuku, M. 1976. On the mechnism of the activity rhythm of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 23(1-2): 1-17.

Imafuku, M. 1980. Activity rhythm of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes, under temperature and light cycles. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 25(1-4): 119-130.

Imahara, Y. 1991. Report on the Octocorallia from the Ryukyu Islands of Japan. Bull. Inst. Oceanic Research & Development, Tokai Univ. (1991)11/12: 59-94. [Cavernulina orientalis, Sclerobelemnon burgeri, Virgularia rumphii, Struthiopteron caledonicum]

Imahara, Y. 2006. Preliminary report on the alcyonacean and pennatulacean octocorals collected by the natural history research of the Sagami Sea. Memoirs of the National Science Museum, Tokyo 40: 91-101.

Imahara, Y. and K. Ogawa. 2006. Rediscovery of Virgularia juncea (Octocorallia, Pennatulacea) from a tidal marsh in Okinawa, with a short note on its peculiear behavior. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, 9-13.

Imperato, F. 1599. Dell' historia natvrale, di Ferrante Imperato...libri XXVIII, nella qvale ordinatamente se tratta della diuersa condition di miniero, e pietre. Con alcune historie di piante, & animali; sin 'hora non date in luce...791 pp. Napoli: C. Vitale [also published in 1672, Venetia: Presso Combi & La Nou, 696 pp.; pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Innocenti, G., C. Volpi, and D. Benvenuti. 2007. Pennatulacea described by Sebastiano Richiardi present in the Cnidaria collection of the Zoological Museum "La Specola" in Florence (Italy). Atti Soc. it. Sci. nat. Museo civ. Stor. nat. Milano, 148(2): 273-280.

Ivester, M.S. 1977. Nematocyst differentiation in the anthozoan Renilla reniformis (Pallas). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 96(2): 238-247.

Ivester, S. and D. Dunkelberger. 1971. Ultrastructure of the autozooid of the sea pansy, Renilla reniformia (Pallas). American Zoologist 11: 695-696.



Jahn, W. 1970. Umbellulidae distribution in the Atlantic. Nature, London 225: 1068-1069. [Umbellula]

Jaworski, E. 1939. Geographische Rassen und Standortsmodifikationen bei Seefedern. Thalassia 3(7): 1-24. [Pennatula phosphorea var. rubella, Pennatula phosphorea var. variegata forma typica, Pennatula phosphorea var. candida, Pennatula phosphorea var. californica, Pennatula phosphorea var. longispinosa]

Jenkins, R.J.F. 1985. The enigmatic Ediacaran (Precambrian) genus Rangea and related forms. Paleobiology 11(3): 336-355. [taxonomic position of Precambrian fossils that resemble sea pens, placed in order Rangeomorpha]

Jenkins, R.J.F. 1992. Functional and ecological aspects of Ediacaran assemblages. In: Lipps, J.H. and P.W. Signor (eds.), Origin and early evolution of the Metazoa. Topics in Geobiology, vol. 10, 570 pp. New York: Plenum Press. [Precambrian Vendian fossils resembling pennatulaceans]

Jenkins, R.J.F. and J.G. Gehling. 1978. A review of the frond-like fossils of the Ediacara assemblage. Records of the South Australian Museum 17: 347-359. . [Precambrain Vendian fossils resembling pennatulaceans]

Johnson, M.E. and H.J. Snook. 1935. Seashore animals of the Pacific Coast. MacMillan Co., New York, 659 pp. [Pennatulacea, pp. 89-94; Ptilosarcus quadrangularis, Renilla amethystina, Stylatula elongata, Stylatula gracile]

Johnston, G. 1847. A history of the British zoophytes (2nd edition). 2 vols. London, John van Voorst, Paternoster Row. 488 pp. [Virgularia mirabilis, Pavonaria quadrangularis, Pennatula phosphorea, Virgularia mirabilis, Pavonaria quadrangularis]

Jones, S. 1960. Note on animal associations. I. A porcellanid crab on the sea pen, Pteroeides esperi Herklots. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 1(2): (for 1959): 178-179. [ecological interaction: decapod crustacean and sea pen]

Jones, H.P., J.C. Matthews, and M.J. Cormier. 1979. Isolation and characterization of Ca++ -dependent modulator protein from the marine invertebrate Renilla reniformis. Biochemistry 18(1): 55-60. [Renilla; enzymes; activator; modulator protein]

Jungersen, H.F.E. 1888a. Om Bygningen og Udviklingen af Kolonien hos Pennatula phosphorea. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den Naturhistoriske forening i Kjøbenhavn for Aaret 1888, 40: 154-181.

Jungersen, H.F.E. 1888b. Über Bau und Entwicklung der Kolonie von Pennatula phosphorea L. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie 47: 626-649.

Jungersen, H.F.E. 1904. Pennatulida. Danish Ingolf-Expedition 5(1): 1-95. [taxonomic descriptions: Halipteris christii p45 Faroe Islands, Pavonaria finmarchica p. 39 Iceland, Protoptilum denticulatum p59, Protoptilum carpenteri p51, Protoptilum thomsoni p55, Pennatula aculeata p11, Pennatula prolifera p18, Virgularia cladiscus p79, Virgularia tuberculata p33, Umbellula lindahlii p75, Umbellula encrinus p79]

Jungersen, H.F.E. 1905. Some results from the Ingolf Expeditions. Oversigt over det Kongeligh Danske videnskabernes Selskab forhandlinger 2: 127-135. [Pennatula aculeata]

Jungersen, H.F.E. 1907. Pennatulida. Expedition Antarctique Belge, Rapports Scientifiques: Zoologie. pp. 1-12. [Umbellula carpenteri]

Jungersen, H.F.E. 1915. Alcyonaria, Antipatharia og Madreporaria. Conspectus Faunae Groenlandicae. Meddelelser om Grönland 23: 1156-1212.

Jungersen, H.F.E. 1917. The Alcyonaria of East Greenland. Medd. Grfnl. 43(18): 485-503. (also published separately as Danmark Exp. til Grönlands Nordöstkyst 1906-1908 3(18): 487-503). [Umbellula encrinus, Virgularia affinis]



Kaplan, E. N. 1982. A field guide to coral reefs, Caribbean and Florida - Peterson field guide series. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 289 pp. [octocorals, pp. 86-95 including Renilla]

Kaplan, E. N. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores - Cape Hatteras to the Gulf Coast, Florida, and the Caribbean - Peterson field guide series. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 425 pp. [octocorals, pp. 210-211 including Renilla reniformis and Renilla muelleri]

Karkhanis, Y.D. and M.J. Cormier. 1971. Isolation and properties of Renilla reniformis luciferase, a low molecular weight energy conversion enzyme. Biochemistry 10: 317-326.

Kastendiek, J. 1975a. The behavior, distribution, and predatory-prey interactions of Renilla köllikeri. Doctoral thesis, Zoology, University of California, Los Angeles, 235 pp.

Kastendiek, J. 1975b. The role of behaviour and interspecific interactons in determining the distribution and abundance of Renilla kollikeri Pfeffer, a member of a subtidal sand bottom community. Dissertation Abstracts international (B)36(6): 2604-2605 [abstract only]

Kastendiek, J. 1976. Behavior of the sea pansy Renilla kollikeri Pfeffer (Coelenterata: Pennatulacea) and its influence on the distribution and biological interactions of the species. Biological Bulletin of the Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole 151(3): 518-537.

Kastendiek, J. 1982. Factors determining the distribution of the sea pansy Renilla kollikeri, in a subtidal sand-bottom habitat. Oecologia 52(3): 340-347. [population density & vertical distribution; influencing biological & physical factors, northern Pacific]

Keifer, P.A., K.L. Rinehart Jr., and I.R. Hooper. 1986. Renillafoulins, antifouling diterpenes from the sea pansy Renilla reniformis (Octocorallia). Journal of Organic Chemistry 51(23): 4450-4454.

Keller, N.B., F.A. Pasternak, and D.V. Naumov. 1975. Bottom deep-sea Coelenterata from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (from material from the 14th expedition of the `Akademik Kurchatov'). In: Scientific studies Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and adjacent waters. Transactions of the P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology (Trudy Instituta okeanologii im. P.P. Shirshova) 100: 147-159. [in Russian with English summary]

Kerstitch, A. 1989. Sea of Cortez marine invertebrates - a guide for the Pacific Coast, Mexico to Ecuador. Sea Challengers, Monterey. 114 pp. [octocorals, pp. 29-30; Ptilosarcus undulatus, Stylatula elongata]

Kilias, R. 1993. Stamm Cnidaria - Nesseltiere, pp. 115-219, in: Urania Tierreich. Wirbellose 1 (Protozoa bis Echiurida), 666 pp. Urania, Leipzig. [Umbellula]

Kinoshita, K. 1912. Hasshasango-rui no keitohassei oyobi sono bunrui (Phylogeny and classification of Alcyonaria). Dobutsugaku zasshi, Tokyo 24: 433-441. [Alcyonaria - phylogeny & classification]

Kittredge, J.S., D.G. Simonson, E. Roberts, and B. Jelinek. 1962. Free amino acids of marine invertebrates, pp. 176-186, in: Holden, J.T. ed., Amino acid pools: distribution, formation and function of free amino acids. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 815 pp. [Renilla]

Kner, R. 1858. Über Virgularia multiflora, n. sp. aus der Familie der Seefedern, Pennatulina. Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft 1858: 295-298.

Koch, G. von. 1878. Notiz über die Zooide von Pennatula. Zoologischer Anzeiger 1: 103-104.

Koch, G. von 1889. Kleinere Mittheilungen über Anthozoen. 1. Zwei Entwicklungsstadien von Pteroides spinulosus. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 15: 646-649.

Koch, G. von 1890. Kleinere Mittheilungen über Anthozoen. 2. Terminalpolyp und zooid bei Pennatula und Pteroides. -3. Einstülpung der Tentakel bei Rhizoxenia rosea und Asteroides calycularis. Morphologisches Jahrbuch 16: 396-400.

Kölliker, R.A. von. 1865. Icones histiologicae oder Atlas der vergleichenden Gewebelehre. Zweite Abtheilung. Der feinere Bau der hoheren Thiere. Erstes Heft. Die Bindesubstanz der Coelenteraten. Leipzig, Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann: 87-181. [Reviewed by Verrill, 1866]

Kölliker, R.A. von. 1869-72. Anatomisch-Systematische Beschreibung der Alcyonararien. Erste Abtheilung. Die Pennatuliden. Abhandlungen von der Senckenbergischen naturforschenden Gesellschaft 7: 111-255; 487-602; 8: 85-275 [Also issued in 1872 with consecutive pagination, 1-485; Acanthoptilum pourtalesi, Acanthoptilum agassizi, Argentella, Bathyptilum carpenteri, Cavernularia obesa, Cavernularia defilippii, Cavernularia elegans, Cavernularia glans, Cavernularia haimii, Cavernularia luetkeni, Cavernularia valenciennesi, Clavella australasiae, Crinillum siedenburgi, Crispella, Godeffroyia gen. nov. elegans sp. nov., p. 116 Siam; Kophobelemnon burgeri, Kophobelemnon clavatum, Kophobelmnon leuckarti, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Leioptilum Gray, char. emend., p. 139; Lioptilum undulatum = Ptilosarcus sinuosus, Lituaria phalloides, Pennatula phosphorea var. lancifolia, Pennatula mollis, Pennatula targionii, Policella manillensis, Policella australis, Protoptilum carpenteri, Protoptilum smithi, Protoptilum thomsoni, Lioptilum grayi, Pteroeides speciosum, p. 54 locality unknown; Pteroeides nigrum,p. 56 locality unknown; Pteroiedes hartingii, p. 58 locality unknown; Pteroeides lacazii spinosum; p. 60 Australia; Pteroeides lacazii molle, p. 60 Sumatra; Pteroeides multiradiatum, p. 63 Penang; Pteroeides schlegelii, p. 65 Japan; Pteroeides hystrix, p. 72 locality unknown; Pteroeides longepinnatum, p. 74 locality unknown; Pteroeides caledonicum, p. 75 New Caledonia; Pteroeides dübenii, p. 77 Mozambique; Pteroeides gracile, p. 77 Philippines; Pteroeides brachycaulon, p.78 Philippines; Pteroeides breve, p. 78 Philippines; Pteroeides pellucidum, p. 80 Philippines; Pteroeides manillense, p. 81 Philippines; Pteroeides breviradiatum, p. 82 Indian Ocean; Pteroeides tenerum, p. 84 locality unknown; Pteroeides flavidum, p. 85 Java; Pteroeides ferrugineum, p. 86 Java; Pteroeides herklotsii, p. 87 locality unknown; Pteroeides sparmannii, p. 89 locality unknown; Pteroeides imbricatum, p. 89 Singapore; Pteroeides acuminatum, p. 91 Turan?; Pteroeides lugubre, p. 94 New Holland; Pteroeides crassum, p. 95 Singapore; Pteroeides westermannii, p. 96 locality unknown; Pteroeides bleekerii, p. 96 locality unknown; Pteroeides fusco-notatum, p. 99 Chinese Sea; Pteroeides latissimum, p. 102 China; Pteroeides macandrewi, Pteroeides durum, Pteroeides grayi, Pteroeides vogti, Pteroeides cornaliae, Pteroeides clausi, Pteroeides griseum, Pteroeides steenstrupi, Pteroeides jukesi, Pteroeides oblongum, Pteroeides lacazii, Pteroeides pancerii, Pteroeides schlegeli, Pteroeides crispum, Pteroeides spinosum, Pteromorpha, Ptilosarcus Gray, char. emend. p. 144; Renilla edwardsi, Renilla deshayesi, Renilla muelleri, Renilla amethystina, Renilla patula, Reniila peltata, Renilla sinuata, Renilla australasiae, Renilla africana, Renilla reniformis, Renilla mollis, Sarcophyllum gen. nov., p. 116 australe sp. nov., p. 121 Australia; Sarcoptilus grandis, Sclerobelemnon schmeltzi, Scytalium mertensi, Stylatula lecazii, Stylatula kinbergi, Stylatula darwini = Virgularia patachonica, Stylatula antillarum, Stylobellemnon pusillum, Veretillum cynomorium var. astyla, Veretillum stimpsoni, Veretillum baculatum, Virgularia lyungmanii, Virgularia strupi, Virgularia loveni, Virgularia rumphii]

Kölliker, R.A. von. 1871b. Ueber den Bau der Renillen. Verhandlungen der Physikalisch-medicinischen Gesellschaft in Würzburg 2: 108-111. [also printed in Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)7: 307-309; Renilla]

Kölliker, R.A. von. 1872. Morphologie und Entwickelungsgeschichte des Pennatulidenstammes nebst allgemeinen Betrachtungen zu Descendenzlehre, 87 pp. Frankfurt a.M.: Christian Winter. [a separate printing from Kölliker, 1869-72]

Kölliker, R.A. von. 1874. Über den Bau und die systematische Stellung der Gattung Umbellularia; eine vorläufige Mittheilung. Verhandlungen der Physikalisch-medizinischen Gesellschaft zu Würzburg 8: 13-18 (or 92-95?).

Kölliker, R.A. von. 1875. Die Pennatulide Umbellula und zwei neue Typen der Alcyonarien. In: Festschrift zur Feier des fünfundzwanzigjährigen Bestehens der Physikalisch-medizinischen Gesellschaft in Würzburg. pp. 1-23. [Umbellula thomsoni, Umbellula encrinus & Umbellula lindahli]

Kölliker, R.A. von. 1880. Report on the Pennatulida dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Zoology 1(2): 1-41. [taxonomic descriptions: Pteroeides esperi, Pteroeides breviradiatum, Pennatula naresi, Pennatula pearceyi, Pennatula murrayi, Virgularia bromleyi, Scytalium sarsi, Stachyptilum gen. nov. macleari sp. nov., Anthoptilum gen. nov. thomsoni sp. nov., Anthoptilum murrayi, Kophobelemnon ferrugineum, Umbellula durissima, Umbellula güntheri, Umbellula thomsoni, Umbellula leptocaulis, Umbellula simplex, Umbellula huxleyi, Umbellula carpenteri, Umbellula magniflora, Protocaulon gen. nov. molle sp. nov., Microptilum gen nov. willemöesi sp. nov., Leptoptilum gen. nov. gracile, Protoptilum aberrans, Protoptilum sp., Trichoptilum gen. nov. brunneum sp. nov., Scleroptilum gen. nov. grandiflorum sp. nov., Scleroptilum durissimum, Renilla mülleri, Cavernularia obesa, Lituaria pohalloides, Clavella australasiae]

Kolosvary, G. 1949. The Eocene corals of the Hungarian transdanubian province. Bulletin of the Hungarian Geological Society 79(5-8): 141-242. (In Hungarian with English summary) [extinct sea pen Graphularia sp. from the Eocene of Hungary]

Koo, S.Y. 1935. On a new pennatulid (Lituaria) from Amoy. Natural Science Bulletin of the University of Amoy 1(2): 157-164. [original description of Lituaria amoyensis]

Koo, S.Y. 1940. Some sea pens (Pennatulacea) from Amoy Island. China Journal 32(3): 113-118. [taxonomic descriptions: Cavernularia habereri, Lituaria amoyensis, Pteroeides chinense, Pteroeides dofleini, Virgularia gustaviana, Virgularia reinwardti]

Koren, J. and D.C. Danielssen. 1847. Virgularia christii, n. sp. Nyt Magazin for naturvidenskabernes 5(3): 269-271 [also published in Oken's Isis 1848: 208-209]

Koren, J. and D.C. Danielssen. 1856. Virgularia Christii K. & D. In: Sars, M., Koren, J. and Danielssen, D.C. (Eds.), Fauna Littoralis Norvegiae 2; 91-93.

Koren, J. and D.C. Danielssen. 1874. Bidrag til de ved den norske Kyst levende Pennatuliders Naturhistorie. Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskabernes 12: 422-427. [taxonomic descriptions: Cladiscus gracilis, Lygomorpha sarsi, Batea abyssicola var. smaragdina, Batea (Stylatula) elegans, Virgularia affinis=Virgularia glacialis and Virgularia steenstrupi Köll., Pennatula aculeata var. rosea, Pennatula distorta, Ptilella grandis (Ehrbg)=Pennatula borealis Sars]

Koren, J. and D.C. Danielssen. 1877. Contribution to the natural history of the Pennatulidae living on the Norwegian coast. In: Sars, M., Koren, J. & Danielssen, D.C. eds. Fauna Littoralis Norvegiae 3: 82-102. [Ptilella grandis, Pennatula aculeata var. rosea, Pennatula distorta, Pennatula phosphorea var. variegata,
Virgularia affinis, Dubenia (=Batea olim) abyssicola var. smaragdina, Dubenia elegans, Lygomorpha sarsi, Cladiscus gracilis, Umbellularia groenlandica]

Koren, J. and D.C. Danielssen. 1883. Nye Alcyonider, Gorgonider og Pennatulider tilhørende Norges Fauna. Bergens Museum. Bergen, John Griegs Bogtrykkeri. pp. 1-38. New Alcyonarians, Gorgonids and Pennatulids of the Norwegian Seas. Bergen: 1-38. [Abstract in Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (2)4: 239; Goendul new genus, Goenduleae new family]

Koren, J. and D.C. Danielssen. 1884. Pennatulida. The Norwegian North-Atlantic Expedition, 1876-1878 4:

Korotneff, A. 1887. Zur Anatomie und Histologie des Veretillum. Zoologischer Anzeiger 10: 387-390. [anatomy, physiology, cell biology: Veretillum - differentiated nervous system, special cell elements causing phosphorescence, sexual and sexless polyps]

Korschelt, E. 1936. Vergleichende Entwicklungs-geschichte der Tiere, volume I: 158-220. Jena. [Renilla sp.]

Kozloff, E.N. 1974. Keys to the marine invertebrates of Puget Sound, the San Juan Archipelago, and adjacent regions. University of Washington Press, Seattle & London: 1-226.

Kozloff, E.N. 1983. Seashore life of the northern Pacific Coast - An illustrated guide to northern California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. University of Washington Press, Seattle & London: 1-370. [Ptilosarcus gurneyi]

Kozloff, E.N. 1987. Marine invertebrates of the Pacific northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle & London. [Pennatulacea, key to the species from B.C., Wash., & Ore., pp. 70-71 of 511 total pages]

Kozloff, E. N. 1990. Invertebrates. Saunders College Publishing. 866 pp. [pennatulaceans, pp. 145-149; Veretillum cynomorium, Renilla, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Virgularia]

Kramp, P.L. 1932. The Godthaab Expedition, 1928. Alcyonaria, Antipatharia, and Madreporaria. Meddelelser om Grönland 79(1): 1-20. [Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Pennatula grandis, Umbellula encrinus, Virgularia tuberculata]

Kramp, P.L. 1933. The Scoresby Sound Committee's 2nd East Greenland Expedition in 1932 to King Chrstian IX's Land. Coelenterata, Ctenophora and Chaetognatha. Meddelelser om Grönland 104(11): 1-20. [Virgularia tuberculata]

Kramp, P. L. 1950. Polydyr. Braestrup, F.W. Vort Lands Dyreliv 2: 500-517. Kobenhavn, Gyldendalske Boghandel [Pennatula phosphorea]

Kreiss, P. and M.J. Cormier. 1967. Inhibition of Renilla reniformis bioluminescence by light: Effect on luciferase and its substrates. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 141: 181-183.

Krukenberg, C.F.W. 1887. Die physiologischen Eigenthumlichkeiten des Leuchtvermogens bei Pteroides griseum L. In: Vergleichend-Physiologische Studien (2 Reihe) 4: 83-105. Carl Winter's Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Heidelberg. [bioluminescence in Pteroeides]

Krukenberg, C.F.W. 1888. Das Leuchten des Rotes Meeres. In: Vergleichend-Physiologische Studien (2 Reihe) 4: 117-142, frontispiece. Carl Winter's Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Heidelberg.

Kuhn, O. 1949. Lehrbuch der Paläozoologie. Stuttgart: 1-326. [Coelenterata, pp. 25-50; extinct sea pen Graphularia desertorum]

Kükenthal, W. 1902a. Diagnosen neuer Alcyonarien aus der Ausbeute der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. 2. Eine neue Familie der Penatuliden. Zoologischer Anzeiger 25(668): 299-303. [Amphianthus abyssorum, Chunella gracillima, Chunellidae, p. 302]

Kükenthal, W. 1902b. Diagnosen neuer Umbelluliden aus der Ausbeuter der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. Zoologischer Anzeiger 25(679): 593-597. [Umbellula encrinus var. antarctica (Bovet Island), Umbellula pellucida, Umbellula spicata, Umbellula valdiviae, Umbellula rigida, Umbellula köllikeri (East Africa)]

Kükenthal, W. 1903. Über eine neue Nephthyidengattung aus dem südatlantischen Ocean. Zoologischer Anzeiger 26: 272-275. [Amphiacme]

Kükenthal, W. 1910. Pennatuliden der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. Zoologischer Anzeiger 36(2/3): 51-58. [Actinoptilon, Kophobelemnon heterospinosum, Pennatula inflata, Pennatula phosphorea var. antarcticum, Protoptilum cyaneum, Virgularia schultzei]

Kükenthal, W. 1911. Alcyonarien von der Aru- und Kei-Inseln nach den Sammlungen von Dr. H. Merton. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 33; 307-346.

Kükenthal, W. 1912a. Die Alcyonaria der deutschen Südpolar-Expedition 1901-1903. In: Drygalski, Erich von (Ed.), Deutsche Südpolar Expedition 1901-1903, 13 Zoologie 5 (3): 289-349.

Kükenthal, W. 1912b. Der Stammbaum der Seefedern. Verhandlungen der international Zoologischen Kongress Jena 8: 563-570.

Kükenthal, W. 1913a. Über die Alcyonarienfauna Californiens und ihre tiergeographischen Beziehungen. Zoologische Jahrbucher (Systematik) 35(2): 219-270. [Funiculina parkeri, Pennatula phosphorea var. californica, Leioptilum quadrangulare, Virgularia bromelyi, Stylatula elongata, ?Acanthoptilum gracile, ?Acanthoptilum pourtalesii, Acanthoptilum album, Acanthoptilum scalpellifolium, Acanthoptilum annulatum, Pavonaria californica, Pavonaria willemoesi, Pavonaria sp. juv., Pavonaria sp. juv.,Stachyptilum superbum, Stachyptilum dofleini, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Umbellula magniflora, Umbellula huxleyi, Umbellula loma, Renilla amethystina]

Kükenthal, W. 1913b. Alcyonaria des Roten Meeres. In: Expeditionen S.M. Schiff "Pola" in das Rote Meer. Zoologische Ergebnisse 29. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 89: 1-31.

Kükenthal, W. 1914. Zur systematik der Umbelluliden. Zoologischer Anzeiger 43(13): 630-632. [Umbellula spp. tabulated]

Kükenthal, W. 1915a. Das System der Seefedern. Zoologischer Anzeiger 45(6): 284-287.

Kükenthal, W. 1915b. Pennatularia. Das Tierreich 43: 1-132. Verlag von R. Friedländer und Sohn, Berlin.

Kükenthal, W. 1921. Versuch eines natürlichen Systems der Octokorallen. Sitzungberichte der preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 1921(4): 82-102.

Kükenthal, W. 1923-25. Octocorallia. In: Krumbach, Thilo (ed.) Handbuch der Zoologie 1: 690-769.

Kükenthal, W. and H. Broch. 1910. System und Stammesgeschichte der Seefedern. Zoologischer Anzeiger 36: 222-230. [classification and phylogeny of Pennatulacea]

Kükenthal, W. and H. Broch. 1911. Pennatulacea. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition "Valdivia" 13(1) Lieferung 2: 113-576. [Actinoptilum molle, Amphiacme abyssorum, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Cavernularia chuni, Cavernularia clavata, Cavernularia elegans, Cavernularia glans, Cavernularia habereri, Cavernularia Lütkeni, Cavernularia obesa, Cavernularia pusilla, Cavernulina cylindrica, Chunella gracillima, Chunella quadriflora, Echinoptilum echinatum, Funiculina armata, Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon affine, Kophobelemnon heterospinosum, Leioptilum sinuosum, Leioptilum Verrilli, Pavonaria finmarchica, Pennatula aculeata, Pennatula fimbriata, Pennatula inflata, Pennatula Murrayi, Pennatula Naresi, Pennatula Pearceyi, Pennatula phosphorea, Pennatula phosphorea forma candida, Pennatula phosphorea forma variegata, Pennatula phosphorea forma rebella, Pennatula phosphorea forma antarctica, Pennatula rubra, Pennatula sp., Protoptilum cyaneum, Pteroeides bankanense, Pteroeides breviradiatum, Pteroeides durum, Pteroeides Esperi, Pteroeides griseum, Pteroeides Jungerseni, Pteroeides Lacazei, Pteroeides latissimum, Pteroeides lusitanicum, Pteroeides sagamiense, Pteroeides Sparmanni, Pteroeides sp. aff. Dübeni, Pteroeides tenerum, Renilla amethystina, Renilla Edwardsi, Renilla Mülleri, Renilla reniformis, Sarcophyllum grande, Sclerobelemnon Schmeltzi, Scleroptilum grandiflorum, Scytalium Martensi, Scytalium Sarsi, Stachyptilum superbum, Struthiopteron caledonicum, Stylatula elegans, Stylatula elongata, Stylatula sp. aff. Darwini, Umbellula Huxleyi, Umbellula antarctica, Umbellula pellucida, Umbellula rigida, Umbellula spec., Umbellula spicata, Umbellula valdiviae, Umbellula Köllikeri, Veretillum cynomorium, Virgularia affinis, Virgularia gustaviana, Virgularia halisceptrum, Virgularia juncea, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia Reinwardti, Virgularia Rumphii, Virgularia Scultzei, Virgularia sp. aff. Bromleyi; plates 13-17 are perhaps the most accurate, beautifully detailed, and realistic of any published color renderings of sea pens ever produced]

Kumano, M. 1937. Japanische Pennatuliden. Hakubutsugakuzasshi 35: 246.
[in Japanese]

Kumar, S., M. Harrylock, K.A. Walsh, M.J. Cormier, and H. Charbonneau. 1990. Amino acid sequence of the Ca2+ - triggered luciferan binding protein of Renilla reniformis. FEBS (Federation of European Biochemical Societies) Letters 268(1): 287-290.