Lacaze-Duthiers, H. de. 1865. Des sexes chez les Alcyonaires. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des sciences 60: 840-843. [sexual reproduction in Pennatula]

Lacaze-Duthiers, H. de. 1887. Sur le développement des Pennatules (Pennatula grisea) et les bonnes conditions biologiques que présente le laboratoire Arago pour les études zoologiques. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des sciences, Paris 104(8): 463-469.

Lacaze-Duthiers, H. de. 1891. Note sur la présence du Kophobelemnon dans les eaux de Banyuls. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des sciences, Paris 112(23): 1294-1297.

Lamarck, J.B.P.A. 1801. Système des animaux sans vertèbres 432 pp. Author, Paris.

Lamarck, J.B.P.A. 1816. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Paris: Verdière. Pp. 1-568.

Lamarck, J.B.P.A. 1836. Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertebres...Deuxième édition. Revue et augmentée...par MM. G.P. Deshayes et H. Milne Edwards. Tome deuxième. Histoire des polypes. Paris, J.B. Baillière. Pp. 1-684.

Lancaster, Capt. 1601. In: Kerr, R. (ed.). 1824. A general history and collection of voyages and travels arranged in systematic order, forming a complete history of the origin and progress of navigation, discovery, and commerce, by sea and land, form the earliest ages to the present time, 18 volumes. W. Blackwood, Edinburgh. [In volume 8, p. 119, is a description of behavior in intertidal sea pens at Sombrero Island, Indonesia --- probably a species of the genus Virgularia; Darwin (1860: 101) quotes Lancaster (in: Kerr) as follows, "found a small twig growing up like a young tree, and on offering to pluck it up it shrinks down to the ground, and sinks, unless held very hard. On being plucked up, a great worm is found to be its root, and as the tree groweth in greatness, so doth the worm diminish; and as soon as the worm is entirely turned into a tree it rooteth in the earth, and so becomes great. This transformation is one of the strangest wonders that I saw in all my travels: for if this tree is plucked up, while young, and the leaves and bark stripped off, it becomes a hard stone when dry, much like white coral: thus is this worm twice transformed into different natures. Of these we gathered and brought home many."]

Langton, R. W., E.W. Langton, R.B. Theroux, and J.R. Uzmann. 1990. Distribution, behavior and abundance of sea pens, Pennatula aculeata, in the Gulf of Maine. Marine Biology 107(3): 463-469. [Pennatula aculeata]

Laubier, L. 1972. Lamippe (Lamippe) bouligandi sp. nov., copépode parasite d'octocoralliaire de la mer du Labrador. Crustaceana 22(3): 285-293. [Anthoptilum grandiflorum]

Ledger, P.W. and S. Franc. 1978. Calcification of the collagenous axial skeleton of Veretillum cynomorium Pall (Cnidaria: Pennatulacea). Cell and Tissue Research 192(2): 249-266.

Lenhoff, H. M., L. Muscatine, and L.V. Davis. 1971. Experimental Coelenterate Biology. University of Hawaii Press. [Pennatulacea: calcite skeleton of spicules with an axial skeleton in some species, p. 228]

Lepechin, I. 1781. Novae Pennatulae et Sertulariae species descriptae. Acta Academiae scientiarum imperialis petropolitanae, pro Anno 1778, Pars posterior 2: 236-238.

Leuckart, F.S. 1841. Einige Bemerkungen über die Familie der Halopteriden oder Seefedern, insbesondere über des genus Veretillum, und eine von mir Veretillum calvatum benannte Art. In: Zoologische Bruchstücke, part 2. Stuttgart, Rieger. 130 pp.

Leunis, J. 1886. Synopsis der Thierkunde (Zweiter Band). Hannover. [pennatulaceans, pp. 1057-1060]

Lewin, R. 1984. Alien beings here on Earth. Science (6 Jan. 1984): 39. [the taxonomic status of Precambrian pennatulacean-like fossils]

Light, S.F. 1921. Notes on Philippine Alcyonaria. Part VI. New Philippine Pennatularia (sea pens) of the genus Lituaria. Philippine Journal of Science 19(2): 247-255. [Lituaria kukenthali, Lituaria philippinensis, Lituaria molle, Lituaria breve]

Lightbown, C.M. 1918. The dorsal mesenteric filaments in the siphonozooids of Pennatulacea. Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 62(1): (No.4): 1-20.

Lindahl, J. 1874a. Om Pennatulid-Slägtet Umbellula Cuv. Kungliga Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar 13(3): 1-22. (Preliminary accounts are given in Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)13: 258, and Skandinaviske Naturforskeres Moede, Forhandlingar 11: 377-379). [Crinillum siedenburgi, Umbellula miniacea pallida]

Lindahl, J. 1874b. Om twänne polypstockar af slägtet Umbellula Cuv. Skandinaviske Naturforskeres Moede, Forhandlingar 11: 377-379.

Lindahl, J. 1874c. Umbellula from Greenland. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)13: 258.

Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturae. Editio decima, reformata 1: 1-824. Salvii, Holmiae.

Linnaeus, C. 1767. Systema naturae. Editio duodecima, reformata 1(2): 533-1327. Holmiae.

Liu, X. 1981. Metazoa fossils from Mashan group near Jixi, Heilongjiang. Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences 3(1): 71-83. [in Chinese with English summary; Mashania new genus of pennatulacean-like fossil from the Proterozoic of China]

Liu, X. 1983. Some new materials of metazoan fossils from Mashan Group, Heilongjang Province. Bulletin of the Shenyang Institite of Geology and Mineral Resources (No. 7): 1-8. [Precambrian fossils resembling sea pens]

Lopez-Gonzalez, P.J., J.-M. Gili, and V. Fuentes. 2009. A new species of shallow-water sea pen (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea: Kophobelemnidae) from Antarctica. Polar Biology 27 February 2009 (published online).

Lopez-Gonzalez, P.J., J.-M. Gili, and G.C. Williams. 2000. On some veretillid pennatulaceans from the eastern Atlantic and western Pacific Oceans (Anthozoa: Octocorallia), with a review of the genus Cavernularia Valenciennes and descriptions of the new taxa. Journal of Zoology 250: 201-216.

Lopez-Gonzalez, P.J., J.-M. Gili, and G.C. Williams. 2001. New records of Pennatulacea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the African Atlantic coast, with description of a new species and a zoogeographic analysis. Scientia Marina 65(1): 59-74.

Lopez-Gonzalez, P.J. and G.C. Williams. 2002. A new genus and species of sea pen (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea: Stachyptilidae) from the Antarctic Peninsula. Invertebrate Systematics 16: 919-929.

Lopez-Gonzalez, P.J. and G.C. Williams. (in prep.). A new deep-sea pennatulacean (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) from the Porcupine abyssal plain (NE Atlantic). ******.

Lorenz, W.W., R.O. McCann, M. Longiaru, and M.J. Cormier. 1991. Isolation and expression of a cDNA encoding Renilla reniformis luciferase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88(10): 4438-4442.

Luther, W. and K. Fiedler. 1961. Die Unterwasser fauna der Mittelmeerkösten. Ein Taschen buch für Biologen und Naturfreunde: 1-251. Hamburg & Berlin, Verlag Paul Parey . [Coelenterata, pp. 203-222; Pteroeides griseum (a synonym of Pteroeides spinosum), and Veretillum cynomorium]

Lutz, P. E. 1986. Invertebrate Zoology. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, 734 pp. [Ptilosarcus, p. 137]

Lydekker, R. (no date). The new natural history, part 6. New York: Merrill & Baker. [octocorals, pp. 511-517; Umbellula]

Lyke, E.B. 1965. The histology of the sea pansies, Renilla reniformis (Pallas) and Renilla köllikeri (Pfeffer), with a note on the fine structure of the latter species. Doctoral thesis, Zoology, University of Wisconson, Madison. 247 pp.



MacGinitie, G.E. 1938. Notes on the natural history of some marine animals. The American Midland Naturalist 19: 207-219 [Stylatula elongata, Renilla koellikeri]

MacGinitie, G.E. and N. MacGinitie. 1968. Natural history of marine animals (second edition). New York: McGraw-Hill. 523. pp. [Leioptilus guerneyi, Leioptilus quadrangularis, Leoioptilus undulatus, Renilla köllikeri, Stylatula elongata, Pteroeides sp.]

Mackie, A.M. 1987. Preliminary studies on the chemical defenses of the British octocorals Alcyonium digitatum and Pennatula phosphorea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (A) 86(4): 629-632.

Madsen, F. J. 1948. The zoology of East Greenland. Octocorallia. Meddelelser om Grønland 122(2): 1-22. [Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Umbellula encrinus, Virgularia glacialis, Virgularia tuberculata]

Magnus, D.B.D. 1966. Zur Ökologie einer nachtaktiven FlachwasserSeefeder (Octocorallia, Pennatularia) im Roten Meer. Veröffentlichungen Instituts für Meeresforschung in Bremerhaven, Sonderband 2: 369-380.

Malaroda, R. 1951. Il Lattorfiano del Monteccio di Costozza (Colli Berici). Parte Prima: I macrofossili. Memorie del Museo civico di Storia naturale di Verona 2 (for 1949-50): 147-210. [extinct sea pens: Pavonaria ? singularis, Graphularia incerta, Graphularia nigra from the Oligocene of Italy]

Malecki, J. 1982 (1983). Bases of Upper Cretaceous octocorals from Poland. Acta palaeontologica polonica 27(1-4): 65-75. [Octobasis; new genus of extinct Virgulariidae from the Upper Cretaceous of Poland]

Mangold, E. 1910. Die Produktion von Licht. In: Winterstein, H. (ed) Handbuch der vergleichende Physiologie 3 (2nd half). Jena. Pp. 225-392. [bioluminescence]

Manuel, R.L. 1981. British Anthozoa. Synopses of the British fauna (new series) 18: 1-241. [Pennatulacea; key to species from British Isles]

Marion, A. F. 1906. Étude des Coelentérés atlantiques recueillis par la Commission des dragages de l'aviso LeTravailleur druant les campagnes 1880-1881. Expédition scientifique du Travailleur et du Talisman. Paris, Marson: 103-151. [Bathypenna elegans, Umbellula ambigua]

Mariscal, R.N. 1974. Nematocysts. In: Muscatine, L. & H.M. Lenhoff, (eds.) Coelenterate Biology, Reviews and new perspectives: 129-178. Academic Press, New York.

Mariscal, R.N. 1979. The spined nematocysts of octocorals. American Zoologist 19(3): 784.

Mariscal, R. N. and C.H. Bigger. 1977. Possible ecological significance of octocoral epithelial ultrastructure. Preceedings Third International Coral Reef Symposium, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmopheric Science, University of Miami 1977: 127-133. [Renilla mulleri]

Marks, M. H., R.S. Bear, and C.H. Blake. 1949. X-ray diffraction evidence of collagen-type protein fibers in the Echinodermata, Coelenterata and Porifera. Journal of Experimental Zoology, Philadelphia 3(1): 55-78. [Balticina: protein fibres]

Marshall, A.M. 1883a. On the polymorphism of the Alcyonaria. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 1883: 529. [Abstract in the Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (2)3(6): 855 and Nature 29: 580; Pennatula phosphorea and Umbellula gracilis: zooids bearing one tentacle]

Marshall, A.M. 1883b. Report on the Pennatulida dredged by H.M.S. Triton. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 32(1): 119-152. [Virgularia tuberculata p. 129; Umbellula gracilis p. 142; listed as Marshall, 1887 by Bayer (1981a,1996) and Williams (1990, 1993b, 1997c); pp. 148-150, a discussion of the phylogeny and affinities of deep-water sea pens]

Marshall, A.M. and G.H. Fowler. 1887. Report on the Pennatulida dredged by H.M.S. `Porcupine'. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 33(2): 453-464. [Pennatula phosphorea var. candida from the Faeroe Channel, p. 456; Deutocaulon hystricis, from the Faeroe Channel, p. 461]

Marshall, A.M. and G.H. Fowler. 1888. Report on the Pennatulida of the Mergui Archipelago, collected for the Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, by Dr. John Anderson, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Museum. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 21(132): 267-286. [abstract in J.R. Microscopical Society 1889(4): 529; Virgularia prolifera, Policella tenuis, Pteroeides elegans, Pteroeides lacazii, Pteroeides chinense, Pteroeides esperi, Virgularia rumphii, Virgularia prolifera, Cavernularia obesa, Lituaria phalloides, Policella manillensis]

Marshall, A.M. and W.P. Marshall. 1882. Report on the Pennatulida collected in the Oban dredging excursion of the Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society, July 1881. Birmingham, The Herald Press: 1-81.

Marshall, N.B. 1979. Developments in Deep-Sea Biology. Poole & Dorset: Blandford Press: 1-566. [octocorals, pp. 179-183; Umbellula, Chunella, Kophobelemnon, Pavonaria, Funiculina; the following passage is worthy of quotation, "Umbellula is one of the classic animal types of the deep-sea floor, and so are the stalked sea-lilies (crinoids), both converging in their palm-like forms---forms that look well designed for passive suspension feeding. Bent over by currents, they look like palms in a breeze, though...the sea-lilies are not altogerther pliant...Sea-pens luminesce when stimulated, the light (blue-green, yellowish or violet) spreading over the colony from the site of the stimulus."]

Marshall, W.P. 1895. Virgularia mirabilis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom (new series) 3(4):335-336.

Marsigli, L.F. 1725. Histoire physique de la Mer (French translation by Leclerc of the 1711 work first published in Italian). Amsterdam.

Matern, U. 1984. Geschichte und Mechanismus der Biolumineszenz. Biologie in unserer Zeit 14(5): 140-149. [Renilla reniformis, history & mechanisms of bioluminescence]

Mather, P. and I. Bennet (eds.). 1993. A coral reef handbook - a guide to the geology, flora and fauna of the Great Barrier Reef, Third Edition. New South Wales: Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Limited, 264 pp. [octocorals, pp. 74-79; Cavernularia]

Matthews, J.C., K. Hori, and M.J. Cormier. 1977. Purification and properties of Renilla reniformis luciferase. Biochemistry (American Chemical Society) 16(1): 85-91. [bioluminescence]

May, W. 1899. Alcyonarien. In: Hamburger Magalhaensische Sammelreise 4: 1-22. [Virgularia kophameli]

May, W. 1900. Die arktische, subarktische und subantarktische Alcyonaceen-fauna. Fauna Artica 1: 381-408.

McCoy, F. 1890. Prodromus of the Zoology of Victoria, Zoophites. Publication of the Government of Victoria, Melbourne. [Sarcoptilus grandis]

McDonald, G.R. and J.W. Nybakken. 1978. Additional notes on the food of some California nudibranchs with a summary of known food habits of California species. The Veliger 21(1): 110-119. [ecological associations, prey/predator interactions: Virgularia, Leioptilus, and Renilla - as food of the nudibranchs Armina, Tritonia, Tochuina, and Hermissenda]

Meglitsch, P. A. 1972. Invertebrate Zoology (Second Edition). Oxford University Press, New York. 834 pp. [octocorals, pp. 129-140; Renilla, Renilla reniformis]

Milne, L. and M. Milne. (no publication date). Invertebrates of North America. A Chanticleer Press Edition, Doubleday and Co., New York. 249 pp. [Anthozoa pp. 49-61; Stylatula, Renilla kollikeri, Leioptilus guerneyi]

Milne Edwards, H. and J. Haime. 1850. A monograph of the British fossil corals. Part 1. Introduction; corals from the Tertiary and Cretaceous formations. London: Palaeontographical Society. [new genus and species Graphularia wetherelli]

Milne Edwards, H. and J. Haime. 1857. Histoire naturelle des coralliaires ou polypes proprement dits 1: 1-326. Paris, a la Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret.

Ming, C. L. 1993. A Guide to the Dangerous Marine Animals of Singapore. Singapore: Singapore Science Center, 160 pp. [pp. 61-63, color photographs of Virgularia sp. and Pteroeides sp.]

Miyajima, K. 1897. Umi shaboten (Veretillum) no seitaiteki kansatsu (Ecological observations on Veretillum). Dobutsugaku zasshi 9(107): 367-371.

Miyajima, K. 1900. Umi shaboten (Cavernularia obesa Val.). Dobutsugaku zasshi 12(142): 280-287.

Modeer, A. 1786. Slägtet Sjöpenna (Pennatula). Kongl. Vetenskaps Academiens nya handlingar, Stockholm 7: 267.

Molander, A.R. 1929. South and West African Octactiniae in the Gothenburg Natural History Museum. Göteborgs Kungliga vetenskaps- och vitterhetssämhalles handlingar (B)1(7): 1-16.

Moore, A.R. 1926. On the nature of inhibition in Pennatula. American Journal of Physiology 76: 112-115.

Moore, H.B. 1937. Marine fauna of the Isle of Man. Proceedings and Transactions of the Liverpool Biological Society 50: 38-57. [Virgularia mirabilis]

Moore, R.C. (ed.). 1956. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part F. Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and Unversity of Kansas Press. 498 pp. [Pennatulacea by F.M. Bayer, pp. 224-230]

Mori, S. 1943a. Daily rhythmic activity of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 1. Observations in nature. Dobutsugaku zasshi 55: 285-291. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1943b. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 2. Activities under constant darkness and constant illumination. Dobutsugaku zasshi 55: 247-253. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1944a. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 3. Controlling of the activity by light. Dobutsugaku zasshi 56: 81-85. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1944b. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 4. Obvervations of the activity in winter. Dobutsugaku zasshi 56: 86-90. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1944c. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 5. Activities under constant illumination and constant darkness in winter and influence of water temperature. Dobutsugaku zasshi 56: 91-95. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1944d. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 6. Analysis of te endogenous rhythm. Dobutsugaku zasshi 56: 96-100. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1944e. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 7. Overnight change of reaction to light. Dobutsugaku zasshi 56: 21-24. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1945. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 8. Endogenous daily rhythmic activity. Kyodai Seiri Seitai 19 [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1947. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa. 9. Activities when kept long under constant darkness. Physiology and Ecology, University of Kyoto 1: 8-14. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1948. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa. 10. Two kinds of stimulus which control the activities. Physiology and Ecology, University of Kyoto 2: 34-38. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1949. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa. 11. Controlling of the activity by light (2). Physiology and Ecology, University of Kyoto 3: 32-37 [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1950. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa. 12. Conclusions-problems on relations among environments, behaviors and internal physiological conditions. Physiology and Ecology, University of Kyoto 4: 14-20. [in Japanese]

Mori, S. 1960. Influence of environmental and physiological factors on the daily rhythmic activity of a sea-pen. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 25: 333-344.

Mori, S. and Y. Ondo. 1957. Daily rhythmic activity of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 15. Controlling the activity by light (3). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 6: 79-98.

Mori, S. and H. Tanase. 1973. Studies on the daily rhythmic activity of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. XVIII. Ontogenetic development of the daily rhythmic activitiy. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 20: 455-467.

Morin, J.G. 1974. Coelenterate bioluminescence, pp. 397-438, In: Muscatine, L. & Lenhoff, H.M. eds, Coelenterate biology: reviews and new perspectives. New York: Academic Press. 501 pp. [bioluminescence in Renilla]

Morin, J.G. 1976. Probable functions of bioluminescence in the Pennatulacea (Cnidaria, Anthozoa), pp. 629-638, In: Mackie, G.O. (ed.), Coelenterate ecology and behavior. New York: Plenum. 744 pp. [Stylatula elongata, Renilla kollikeri, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Acanthoptilum gracile; pennatulaceans; bioluminescence; function & kinetics]

Morin, J.G. 1998. Living light from cnidarians. Wings 21(2): 14-17.

Moroff, T. 1902a. Aus der Münchener Sammlung. 3. Einige neue Pennatuliden aus der Münchener Sammlung. Zoologische Anzeiger 25(678): 579-582. [Pteroeides sagamiense, Pteroeides rhomboidale, Pennatula phosphorea var. longispinosa, Pennatula murrayi var. japonica, Pennatula americana, Ptilosarcus quadrangularis, Cavernularia habereri, Virgularia rigida Philippines]

Moroff, T. 1902b. Studien über Octocorallien. I. Ueber die Pennatulaceen des Münchener Museums; II. Ueber einige neue Gorgonaceen aus Japan. Zoologische Jahrbucher (Abteilung für Systematik) 17: 363-410. [Pteroeides sagamiense, Pteroeides rhomboidale, Pteroeides griseum, Pteroeides manillense, Pteroeides breviradiatum, Pennatula phosphorea, Pennatula phosphorea var. longispinosa, Pennatula americana, Pennatula murrayi var. japonica, Pennatula fimbriata, Ptilosarcus quadrangularis, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia rigida, Pavonaria dofleini, Pavonaria finmarchica, Pavonaria californica, Acanthoptilum scalpelli- folium, Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Kophobelemnon leucharti, Renilla reniformis, Veretillum cynomorium, Cavernularia habereri]

Morton, S.G. 1830. Synopsis of the organic remains of the ferruginous sand formation of the United States; with geological remarks. American Journal of Sciences, First Series 17: 274-295. [brief and unfigured original description of Belemnites ambiguus, considered by Roemer (1880) to be a member of the extinct sea pen genus Graphularia; see Shapiro & Ramsdell (1965)]

Morton, S.G. 1834. Synopsis of the organic remains of the Cretaceous group of the United States. Illustrated by nineteen plates. To which is added an appendix, containing a tabular view of the Tertiary fossils hitherto discovered in North America. Key and Biddle, Philadelphia. 88 pp. [a more complete and illustrated description of Belemnites ? ambiguus, so designated by Morton since he was at that time uncertain of its generic placement; Roemer (1880) considered this taxon to be a
member of the extinct sea pen genus Graphularia; see Shapiro & Ramsdell (1965)]

Moseley, H.N. 1872. On the substance exhibited at the British Association, Brighton, by Mr. P.L. Sclater, and stated to be the ossified notochord of a fish. Nature 6: 432. [axis of Halipteris willemoesi]

Moseley, H.N. 1877. On the coloring matter of various animals and especially of deep-sea forms dredged by H.M.S. Challenger. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 17: 1-23. [alcyonarian bioluminescence; a quote from this work is as follows: "All of the Alcyonarians dredged by the Challenger in deep water were found to be brilliantly phosphorescent when brought to the surface and their phosphorescence was found to agree in the manner of exhibition with the same conditions as are observed in the case of shallow water relatives."]

Moss, E.L. 1873. Description of a virgularian actinozoon, from Burrard's Inlet, British Columbia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1873: 730-732. [Pavonaria blakei]

Moss, E.L. 1878. On specimens of Osteocella septentrionalis. Journal of the Royal Dublin Society 1875: 241.

Müller, F. 1866. Ein Wort über die Gattung Herklotsia, J.E. Gray. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 30: 352-358. [Herklotsia, Renilla edwardsii]

Müller, O.F. 1776. Zoologiae Danicae Prodromus, seu animalium Daniae et Norvegiae indigenarum characteres, nomina, et synonyma imprimis popularium. Havniae-Vermes, Cellulana.

Musgrave, E. M. 1909. Experimental observations on the organs of circulation and the powers of locomotion in Pennatulids. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, London 54: 443-481. [Pteroeides, Anthoptilum, circulation, experimental observations]

Mylius, C. 1753. Beschreibung einer neuen Gronlandischen Thierpflanze. In einem Sendschreiben an...Hrn, Albrecht von Haller...London: Andreas Linde, 27 pp. [an early account of Umbellula]

Mylius, C. 1755. An account of a new zoophyte, or animal plant, from Groenland. In a letter to Dr. Albert Haller, President of the Royal Society of Sciences at Gottingen... now translated into English. London: Andreas Linde, 27 pp. [an early account of Umbellula]



Nakasone, Y. and H.-P. Yu. 1987. Note on the Porcellanella triloba White (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae) from Taiwan. Bulletin of the Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica 26(1): 107-111. [Pteroeides esperi, commensalism with the crab Porcellanella triloba, commensal description, Taiwan]

Naumov, D.V. 1955. Tip Kishetsnopolostnie - Coelenterata, Ushakov, P.V. & others, in: Atlas Bespozvonotsnix dal' nevostotsnix morei S.S.S.R. Academiia Nauk SSSR, Zoologicheskii Institut, Trudy, Leningrad 1955: 51-68. [Pavonaria finmarchica]

Nealson, K.H., A.C. Arneson, and M.E. Huber. 1986. Identification of marine organisms using kinetic and spectral properties of their bioluminescence. Marine Biology (Berlin) 91(1): 77-83. [Renilla myriaster, Stylatula elongata, luminescence, kinetic & spectal properties use in identification]

Nelli, B. 1903. Fossili miocenici del Macigno di Porretta. Bollettino della Società geologica Italiana 22: 181-252. [exinct sea pen Pennatulites manzonii from the Miocene of Italy]

Nicol, J.A.C. 1955a. Observations on luminescence in Renilla (Pennatulacea). Journal of Experimental Biology 32: 299-320.

Nicol, J.A.C. 1955b. Nervous regulation of luminescence in the sea pansy Renilla köllikeri. Journal of Experimental Biology 32: 619-635.

Nicol, J.A.C. 1955c. Physiological control of luminescence in animals. In: Johnson, F.H. (ed.), The luminescence of biological systems. Washington, D.C., American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Nicol, J.A.C. 1958. Observations on the luminescence of Pennatula phosphorea, with a note on the luminescence of Virgularia mirabilis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 37: 551-563.

Niedermeyer, A. 1911. Studien über den Bau von Pteroides griseum (Bohadsch). Arbeiten aus den zoologischen Institut der Universität Wien und der zoologischen Station in Triest 19(1): 99-164. [Pteroeides griseum]

Niedermeyer, A. 1912. Über den Verschlussmechanismus der Stielporen bei Pennatula und Pteroeides. Zoologischer Anzeiger 39: 190.

Niedermeyer, A. 1913. Über einige histologische Befunde an Veretillum cynomorium. Zoologischer Anzeiger 43: 263-270. [Veretillum cynomorium]

Niedermeyer, A. 1914. Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Histologischen Baues von Veretillum cynomorium (Pall.). Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie 109: 531-590. [Veretillum cynomorium]

Nielsen, K. 1914. Moltkia isis, Steenstrup og andre Octocorallia fra Danmarks Kridttidsaflejringer. (Moltkia isis and some other Octocorallia in the Danish Cretaceous deposits). Mindeskrift i anledning af hundredaaret for Japetus Steenstrups fodsel, København 18: 1-20. [extinct sea pens, Graphularia groenwalli, Graphularia sulcata, Graphularia irregularis, from the Cretaceous of Denmark]

Nishimura, S. 1992. Guide to seashore animals of Japan with color pictures and keys, vol. 7. Hoikusha Publishing, Osaka, Japan. 424 pp. [color photographs of living animals: Cavernularia obesa, Cavernulina orientalis, Echinoptilum macintoshi, Sclerobelemnon burgeri, Scytalium martensii, Virgularia gustaviana, Virgularia halisceptrum, Virgularia rumphii, Virgularia brochi, Struthiopteron caledonicum, Pteroeides sagamiense, Pteroeides sparmannii]

Nobre, A. 1931. Contribuïçoes para o estudo dos Coelenterados de Portugal. Instituto de Zoologia da Universidade do Pôrto 1931: 1-82. [Funiculina quadrangularis, Pennatula phosphorea, Veretillum cynomorium, Stylobelemnon pusillum, Pennatula granulosa, Pteroeides griseum, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Umbellula thomsoni, Umbellula ambigua]

Nordgaard, O. 1905. Hydrographical and biological investigations in Norwegian Fiords. Bergens Museums aarbog 156-159, 240-244. [Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pennatula aculeata]

Norman, A.M. 1867. Report of the committee appointed for the purpose of exploring the coasts of the Hebrides by means of the dredge. Part II. On the Crustacea, Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Actinozoa, and Hydrozoa. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (Nottingham, 1866) Part 1: 193-206. [report of Pennatula mollis Alder, 1867, from Scotland; considered a junior synonym of Pennatula phosphorea by Cornelius & Garfath, 1980: 274]

Nutting, C.C. 1908. Descriptions of the Alcyonaria collected by the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Islands in 1902. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 34(1624): 543-601. [Calibelemnon symmetricum, Cladiscu studeri, Pennatula sanguinea, Pennatula flava, Pennatula pallida, Protoptilum wrighti, Trichoptilum attenuatum, Umbellula jordani, Umbellula gilberti]

Nutting, C.C. 1909. Alcyonaria of the California Coast. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 35: 681-727. [Acanthoptilum album, Acanthoptilum annulatum, Balticina pacifica, Halipteris contorta, Halisceptrum cystiferum, Ptilosarcus quadrangularis, Stachyptilum quadridentatum, Umbellula loma]

Nutting, C.C. 1912. Descriptions of the Alcyonaria collected by the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer "Albatross", mainly in Japanese waters, during 1906. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 43(1923): 1-104. [Halisceptrum album, Helicoptilum rigidum, Kophobelemnon hispidum, Pennatula longistyla, Pennatula rubescens, Pennatula brevipenna, Pennatula inermis, Protoptilum orientale, Ptilosarcus brevicaulis, Trichoptilum spinosum, Umbellula eloisa


Okutani, T. 1969. Synopsis of bathyal and abyssal megalo-invertebrates from Sagami Bay and the south off Boso Peninsula trawled by the R/V Soyo-Maru. Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory No. 57: 1-61. [Umbellula]

Omori, M. 1991. Studies on some relict animals. 6 - Pennatula. Aquabiology (Tokyo) 13(5): 345-347. [in Japanese]


Pallas, P.S. 1766. Elenchus zoophytorum sistens generum adumbrationes generaliores et specierum cognitarum succinctas descriptiones cum selectis auctorum synonymis. Hagae Comitum.

Pallas, P.S. 1787. Charakteristik der Thierpflanzen...aus dem Lateinischen übersetzt, und mit Anmerkungen versehen, von C.F. Wilkens, und nach seinem Tode herausgegeben von Johann Wilhelm Herbst. Nünberg, Verlegt von der Raspischen Buchhandlung. Zweiter Theil.

Panceri, P. 1870. Intorno ad una forma non per anco notata negli zooidi delle pennatule. Rendiconto dell' Accademia della scienze, Napoli 2: 1-5.

Panceri, P. 1871a. Intorno a due pennatularii, l'uno non per anco trovato nel Mediterraneo, l'altro nuovo nel nostro Golfo. Rendiconto dell' Accademia della scienze, Napoli 10(6): 113-115.

Panceri, P. 1871b. Gli organi luminosi e la luce delle pennatule. Rendiconto dell' Accademia della scienze, Napoli 10(10): 204-211. [Also published in Archives de zoologie expérimentale et générale 1: xxv-xxvi; and below as Panceri, 1872a]

Panceri, P. 1871c. Gli organi luminosi e la luce delle pennatule. Atti dell' Accademia della scienze, Napoli 5(10): 1-46. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Panceri, P. 1872a. The luminous organs and light of the Pennatulae. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, London (new series) 12: 248-254. [English translation of Panceri, 1871b]

Panceri, P. 1872b. Études sur la Phosphorescence des Animaux Marins. II. Du siège du mouvement lumineux dans les Méduses; III. Organes lumineux et lumière des Pennatules; VI. Sur un Pennatulaire phosphorescent encore inconnu dans les environs de Naples (Cavernularia pusilla); IX. Des organes lumineux et de la lumière des Béroidiens. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, sér. 5 (Zoologie)16 (8): 1-66. [bioluminescence in Pennatula phosphorea and Cavernularia pusilla]

Panceri, P. 1872c. Intorno ad un pennatulario fosforescente non per anco rinvenuto presso Napoli. Rendiconto dell' Accademia della scienze, Napoli 11(4): 88-90. [pennatulacean biluminescence]

Pani, A.K. and M. Anctil. 1994. Evidence for biosynthesis and catabolism of monoamines in the sea pansy Renilla koellikeri (Cnidaria). Neurochemistry International 25(5): 465-474.

Pantin, C.F.A. 1950. Behaviour patterns in lower invertebrates. Symposia of the Society for experimental Biology 4: 175-195.

Parker, G.H. 1919. The organization of Renilla. Journal of Experimental Zoology 27: 499-507.

Parker, G.H. 1920a. Activities of colonial animals. 1. Circulation of water in Renilla. Journal of Experimental Zoology 31: 343-367.

Parker, G.H. 1920b. Activities of colonial animals. 2. Neuromuscular movements and phosphorescence of Renilla. Journal of Experimental Zoology 31: 475-515.

Parker, G.H. 1920c. The phosphorescence of Renilla. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 19: 171-175.

Pasternak, F.A. 1960. The deep-sea Pennatularia from the Bering Sea and Kuril-Kamtschatka Trench. Trudy Instituta okeanologii, Akademiya nauk SSSR 34: 329-335. [in Russian]

Pasternak, F.A. 1961a. Some new data on the specific composition and the distribution of deep-sea Pennatularia, genus Kophobelemnon, in Northern-Pacific. Trudy Instituta okeanologii, Akademiya nauk SSSR 45: 240-258. [in Russian with English summary]

Pasternak, F.A. 1961b. Pennatularia (Octocorallia) and Antipatharia (Hexacorallia) obtained by the Soviet Antarctic Expedition in 1955-1958. Trudy Instituta okeanologii, Akademiya nauk SSSR 46: 217-230. [in Russian]

Pasternak, F.A. 1962. Pennatularia of the genus Umbellula Cuvier (Coelenterata, Octocorallia) from Antarctic and Subantarctic Waters. Issledovaniya Fauny Morei 1: 105-128 (In Russian). Translated into English in: Andriyashev, A.P. & Ushakov, P.V. (eds.), Biological reports of the Soviet Antarctic Expedition (1955-1958) Vol. 1: 107-130. Published for the National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C. by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations. [Umbellula thomsoni, Umbellula lindahli, Umbellula magniflora]

Pasternak, F.A. 1964. The deep-sea pennatularians and antipatharians obtained by R/S `Vitjaz' in the Indian Ocean and the resemblance between the faunas of the pennatularians of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. Trudy Instituta okeanologii, Akademiya nauk SSSR 69: 183-215. [in Russian with English summary]

Pasternak, F.A. 1966. On the finding of Kophobelemnon (Eucophobelemnon) stelliferum (O.F. Müller) in the waters of south-eastern Australia. Trudy Instituta okeanologii, Akademiya nauk SSSR 81: 176-178. [in Russian with English summary]

Pasternak, F.A. 1970. Sea pens (Octocorallia, Pennatularia) of the hadal zone of the Kurile-Kamtaschatka Trench. Trudy Instituta okeanologii. Akademiya nauk SSSR 86: 236-248. (In Russian). Also in: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem No. 600496: 250-263; translated from: Bogorov, V.G. ed., Fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka trench and its environment. Akademiya Nauk SSSr. Trudy Instituta Okeanologii, P.P. Shirshova, Izdatel'stvo `Nauka', Moskva, 1970.

Pasternak, F.A. 1975a. Deep-sea pennatularian genus Umbellula from the Caribbean Sea and Puerto-Rican Trench. In: Scientific studies Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and adjacent waters. Transactions of the P.P. Shirsov Institute of Oceanology 100: 160-173. [in Russian with English summary; Umbellula]

Pasternak, F.A. 1975b. New data on the specific composition and distribution of the deep-sea pennatularians (Octocorallia, Pennatularia) of the Peru-Chile region and South Atlantic. Trudy Instituta okeanologii, Akademiya nauk SSSR 103: 101-118. [in Russian with English summary]

Pasternak, F.A. 1980. Pennatularia Umbellula encrinus (L.) from the Canadian Basin of the northern Arctic Ocean.) 236-239. In: Vinogradov, M.E. & Mel'nikov, I.A. eds. The biology of the Central Arctic Basin. Moscow: Nauka. 1-251.

Pasternak, F.A. 1989. On the variability of sea-pens (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) connected with the transition to the deep-water existence. Trudy Instituta Okeanologii, Akademii Nauk SSSR 124: 165-173. [in Russian with English Summary]

Pasternak, F.A. 1993. Pennatularians, gorgonians and antipatharians collected in 43 cruises of R/V "Dimitri Mendelev" in Argentine Basin, Orkney Trench and in the western part of African-Antarctic Basin. Trudy Instituta Okeanologii, Akademii Nauk SSSR 127: 82-88.

Patterson, G.L.J. 1986. Aspects of the zoogeography of some benthic animals in the Rockall Trough. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (B) 88: 316-318. [Umbellula lindahli, distribution and habitat, ocean trough benthic zone, northeastern Atlantic Ocean]

Pavans de Ceccatty, M. and B. Buisson. 1964a. Le système nerveux intra-mésogléen dans les colonies de Veretillum cynomorium Pall. (Cnidaire, Pennatulidae). Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences, Paris 259(20): 3611-3613.

Pavans de Ceccatty, M. and B. Buisson. 1964b. Quelques structures de type nerveux du sarcosome des octocoralliaires: Alcyonium digitatum L. et Veretillum cynomorium Pall. Vie et Milieu 14(4): 659-667.

Pavans de Ceccatty, M. and B. Buisson. 1965. Reciprocal behavior of the rachis and peduncle in colonies of Veretillum cynomorium Pall. American Zoologist 5: 531-535.

Pavans de Ceccatty, M., B. Buisson, and Y.M. Gargouil. 1963. Rythmes naturels et réactions motrices chez Alcyonium digitatum Linn. et Veretillum cynomorium Cuv. Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de biologie, Paris 157(3): 616-618.

Pax, F. 1936. Anthozoa (Teil II: Actiniaria, Octocorallia). Grimpe und Wagler. Die Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee 30(3e): 81-317. Leipzig. [Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pavonaria christii, Pavonaria finmarchica, Pennatula grandis, Pennatula phosphorea subsp. variegata, Pennatula phosphorea subsp. candida, Pennatula aculeata, Protoptilum thomsoni, Stylatula elegans var. carnea, Stylatula elegans var. smaragdina, Virgularia tuberculata, Virgularia mirabilis]

Pax, F. and I. Müller. 1953. Die Anthozoen fauna von der Bucht von Kastela bei Split. Acta adriatica 5(1): 1-35 [in German with Serbian summary; Pteroeides spinosum]

Pax, F. and I. Müller. 1954. Veretillum cynomorium an der Küste von Angola. Annales du Musée du Congo belge, Zoologie 1: 231-237.

Pax, F. and I. Müller. 1955a. Gli antozoi del Golfo di Trieste. I. Lo Stato attuale della Ricerca e il Materiale di indagine Esistente. Atti del Museo civico di storia naturelle di Trieste 20,2(6): 49-102. [Veretillum cynomorium]

Pax, F. and I. Müller. 1955b. Gli Antozoi del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Trieste. I. Parte: Antipatharia, Ceriantheria, Zoantharia, Actiniaria, Alcyonaria e Pennatularia. Atti del Museo civico di storia naturelle di Trieste 20,3(7-8): 103-129. [Cavernularia pusilla, Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pennatula phosphorea variegata, Pennatula phosphorea rubella, Pteroeides spinosum, Virgularia mirabilis mirabilis]

Pax, F. and I. Müller. 1955c. Die Korallentiere der Adria. Die Aquarien- und Terrarien Zeitschrift 8: 10-12. 39-40, 67-69. [Funiculina quadrangularis, Pteroeides spinosum var. brevispinosa, Pteroeides spinosum var. longespinosa]

Pax, F. and I. Müller. 1959. The role of the Wroclaw Zoological Institute and Museum in the study of the fauna of Anthozoa in the Adriatic Sea. Przeglad zoologiczny 3(1): 44-53 [in Polish with English summary; Pteroeides spinosum]

Pax, F. and I. Müller. 1962. Die Anthozoen fauna der Adria. Fauna et Flora Adriatica 3: 1-343. [In German with Serbian resume]

Pearse, V., J. Pearse, M. Buchsbaum, and R. Buchsbaum. 1987. Living Invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Palo Alto. 848 pp. [pennatulaceans, pp. 184, 186; Ptilosarcus, Renilla]

Pérès, J.M. and J. Picard. 1958. Recherches sur les peuplements benthiques de la Méditerranée nord-orientale. Bulletin de Institut Océanographie, Monaco 34: 213-291.

Pérez, C.D. 1996. Presencia de Renilla octodentata Zamponi y Pérez, 1995 (Cnidaria, Pennatulacea, Renillidae) en la Bahía de Valparaíso (33°S - 72°W). Investigaciones Marinas, Valparaiso 24: 145-147.

Péron, M. 1804. Précis, D'un Mémoire lu à l'Institut national, sur à température de la mer soit à sa surface, soit à diverse profondeurs. Annales du Muséum D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 5: 123-148. [contains a brief description of octocoral bioluminescence; the following passage is quoted from p. 133, "Eh bien ! chaque fois que nous retirions notre drague de la profondeur de 90 à 100 brasses, par laquelle nous naviguions alors, elle étoit encombrée de zoophites de diverse espèces, particulièrement de rétipores, de sertulaires, d'isis, de gorgones, d'alcyons et d'éponges, mêlés tous ensemble avec des fucus et des ulvas en grand nombre. Presque tous ces objets étoient phosphoriques, et ce spectacle fut d'autant plus agréable, que notre pêche se faisoit au milieu des ténèbres;"]

Perrier, R. 1936. La Fauna de la France 1A: 8-64 & 118, 229. Paris. [Pennatula phosphorea, Pennatula rubra, Pteroeides griseum, Veretillum cynomorium]

Peyssonnel, J.A. 1753. Traité du Corail. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London 47: 445.

Pfeffer, G. 1886. Neue Pennatuliden des Hamburger Naturhistorischen Museums. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 3: 53-61.

Pham, N.B., M.S. Butler, P.C. Healy, R.J. Quinn. 2000. Anthoptilides A-E, new briarane diterpenes from the Australian sea pen Anthoptilum cf. kukenthali. Journal of Natural Products 63(3): 318-321.
[briarane diterpenoids have been isolated from gorgonians and sea pens and their predators; they are bioactive substances (cytotoxic, anti-inflamatory, antiviral, insecticidal, and immunomodulatory]

Philippi, R.A. 1835. Ueber Veretillum pusillum. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 1: 277-280.

Pimentel, R. A. 1967. Invertebrate identification manual. D. van Nostrand Company, New York. 151 pp. [octocorals, pp. 43-46; Pennatulidae, Umbellulidae, Renillidae]

Plinius Secundus, Caius (Pliny the Elder). 1469. Historia naturalis.
Venice: Johannes de Spira, 356 lvs.

Poche, F. 1914. Das System der Coelenterata. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (A) 80 (5): 47-128.

Poche, F. 1915a. Zur terminologie der systematischen Kategorien und zur Benennung der suupergenerischen Gruppen im allgemeinen und jener der Pennatulinea im besonderen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 45(11): 510-516. ["Pennatulinea" - nomenclatural discussion: Stephanoptilidae]

Poche, F. 1915b. Über das System der Anthozoa und einige allgemeine Fragen der zoologischen Systematik. Zoologischer Anzeiger 46(1): 6-26.

Powell, A.W.B. 1947. Native animals of New Zealand. Auckland. [coelenterates, pp. 4-9; Sarcophyllum bollonsi]

Pratje, A. 1923. Das Leuchten der Organismen. Eine Übersicht über die neuere Literatur. Ergebnisse der Physiologie 21: 1-108. [bioluminescence]

Pratt, E.M. 1909. Experimental observations on the organs of circulation and the powers of locomotion in Pennatulids. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science 54: 443.


Quoy, J,R.C. and P. Gaimard. 1827. Observations zoologiques faites à bord de l'Astrolabe, en Mai 1826, dans le Détroit de Gibraltar. Annaes de Sciencias Naturais (1) 10: 5-22, 172-193, 225-239. [also published in Oken's Isis 21: col. 330-350,year 1927]


Ramesh, A., B. Loganathan, and V.K. Venugopalan. 1985. Commensal luminous bacteria of the coelenterate, Pteroeides sp. Current Science 54(12): 582-583. [ecological interaction: Vibrio harveyi, bacteria commensal in Pteroeides sp., Bay of Bengal]

Rapp, M.W. 1827. Untersuchungen uber den Bau einiger Polypen des mittellandiscehn Meeres. Nova Acta Physico-Medico Acad. Caesareae Leopoldino-Carolinae nat. curiosorum 14 (2): 643-658. [bioluminescence]

Rho, B.-O. and J.-I. Song. 1976. A study on the classification of the Korean Anthozoa 1. Gorgonacea and Pennatulacea. Journal of the Korean Research Institute for Better Living 17: 71-92.

Rho, B.-O. and J.-I Song. 1977. A study on the classification of the Korean Anthozoa 3. Alcyonacea and Pennatulacea. Journal of the Korean Research Institute for Better Living 19: 81-100.

Rice, A.L., P.A. Tyler, and G.J.L. Paterson. 1992. The pennatulid Kophobelemnon stelliferum (Cnidaria, Octocorallia) in the Porcupine Seabight (North-East Atlantic Ocean). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 72(2): 417-434.

Richiardi, S. 1869. Monografia della famiglia dei Pennatularii. Archivio per la zoologia, l'anatomia e la fisiologia (Turin) (2)1: 1-150. [reviewed by A.E. Verrill, American Journal of Science (2)49: 426-427; Pennatula targonii, p.34 unknown locality; Pteroeides grayi, p. 54; Pteroeides vogtii, p. 55 Mediterranean; Pteroeides cornaliae, p.57 Adriatic; Pteroeides clausii, p. 58 Mediterranean; Pteroeides pancerii, p. 59 locality unknown; Virgularia leuckartii, p. 82 North Sea; Virgularia koellikeri, p.83 Mozambique; Cavernularia haimeii, p. 119 unknown locality; Cavernularia defilippii, p. 121 Mediterranean; Sceptonidium new genus, p. 63; mozambicanum sp. nov., p.63 Mozambique]

Ricketts, E.F., J. Calvin, J.W. Hedgpeth, and D.W. Phillips. 1985. Between Pacific Tides (Fifth Edition). Stanford: Stanford University Press. 652 pp. [sea pens: pp. 320-321; 324; 365-366; 513-514; 529; Acanthoptilum gracile, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Renilla amethystina, Renilla kollikeri, Stylatula elongata]

Richmond, M.D. (ed.). 1997. A guide to the seashores of eastern Africa and the western Indian Ocean islands. Sida/Department for Research Cooperation, SARE, Stockholm, Sweden. 448 pp. [water color illustration of Pteroeides sp. mislabeled as Virgularia gustaviana, p. 133]

Richter, R. 1955. Die ältesten Fossilien Süd-Afrikas. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 36(3-4): 243-289. [precambrian fossils that resemble sea pens: Pteridinium simplex and Rangea schneiderhoehni]

Ridley, S.O. 1883. The coral fauna of Ceylon, with descriptions of new species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (5)11: 250. [Pavonaria percarinata from Galle, p.258]

Riedl, R. 1963. Fauna und Flora der Adria. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg und Berlin. 640 pp. [sea pens, pp.166-168]

Riedl, R. 1983. Fauna und Flora des Mittelmeeres: ein systematischer Meeresführer für Biologen und Naturfreunde. Third Edition. P. Parey, Hamburg. 836 pp.

Rittschof, D., I.R. Hooper, and J.D. Costlow. 1986. Barnacle settlement inhibitors from sea pansies, Renilla reniformis. Bulletin of Marine Science 39(2): 376-382. [ecological interaction: Balanus amphitrite, larval settlement and inhibitors characterization]

Rittschof, D., I.R. Hooper, and J.D. Costlow. 1988. Settlement inhibition of marine invertebrate larvae: comparison of sensitivities of bryozoan and barnacle larvae: 599-608. In: Thompson, M.-F., Sarojini, R. & Nagabhushanam, R. (Eds.) Marine biodeterioration. Advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. [Renilla reniformis, chemical composition, inhibitors of bryozoan & crustacean larval settlement, characteristics]

Riveros Zunica, F. 1948. Nuevos datos y redescripción de Renilla chilensis Philippi. Revista de biologia marine, Valparaiso 1(1): 32-45.

Robertson, D. 1887. Jottings from my notebook. On the local distribution of Pennatula phosphorea, Lin., Virgularia mirabilis, Lam., and Pavonaria quadrangularis, Pall. Proceedings and Transactions of the Natural History Society of Glasgow 2: 211-212.

Roemer, F. 1880. Notiz über Belemnites ambiguus Morton aus der Kreide von New Jersey. Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie, Geologie und Palaeontologie, jahrgang 1880, 2: 115-117. [Belemnites ambiguus is recognized by Roemer as a member of the extinct sea pen genus Graphularia; see Shapiro & Ramsdell (1965: 2)]

Rondelet, G. 1554-1555. Libri de piscibus marinis, in quibus verae piscium effigies expressae sunt. Lugduni, apud Matthiam Bonhomme. [translated from the Latin of 1554 - Lugduni, apud Matthiam Bonhomme (1558) in two volumes]

Rossi, L. 1971. Guida a cnidari e ctenofori della fauna italiana. Quaderni della civica stazione idrobiologica di Milano (No. 2): 1-101. [Pennatula; key to the species; key to genera of Pennatulacea of Italy]

Roule, L. 1905. Notice préliminaire sur les pennatulides recueillis par le "Travailleur" et le "Talisman", dans l'Océan Atlantique, au large du Maroc. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris 11: 454-458. [Kophobelemnon bathyptiloides, Pteroeides echinatum, Stephanoptilum gen. nov. intermedium sp. nov., Umbellula crassiflora]

Roule, L. 1906. Une nouvelle famlie d'Anthozoaires. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris 12: 120. [Stephanoptilidae fam. nov.]

Roule, L. 1907. Sur la morphologie comparée des colonies d'Alcyonaires. Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l'Académie des sciences, Paris 145: 946-947 . [Svavopsis gen. nov., S. elegans, morphology of colonies]

Roule, L. 1908. Alcyonaires d'Amboine. Revue suisse de zoologie 16(2): 161-194. [Halisceptrum tenue, Svavopsis elegans]

Roule, L. 1932. Observations sur l'ontigenèse du Vérétille (Veretillum cynomorium Pall.). Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et génerale, Paris 74: 233-247. [development in Veretillum]

Rowe, G.T. 1971. Observations on bottom currents and epibenthic populations in Hatteras submarine canyon. Deep-Sea Research 18: 569-581.

Royal Society (Great Britain). 1870. Preliminary report of the scientific exploration of the deep sea in H.M. surveying-vessel 'Porcupine', during the summer of 1869, conducted by Dr. Carpenter...J. Gwyn Jeffreys...and Prof. Wyville Thomson. Proceedings of the Royal Society 121: 492. [observations regarding sea pen bioluminescence]

Rumphius, G.E. 1705 (recorded as 1740 or 1741 by most authors). D'Amboinsche Rariteitkamer, behelzende eene Beschryvinge van allerhande zoo weeke als harde schaalvisschen, te weete raare Krabben, Kreeften, en diergelyke Zeedieren, als mede allerhande Hoorntjes en Schulpen, die men in d'Amboinsche Zee vindt: Daar benevens zommige Mineraalen, Gesteenten, en soorten van Aarde, die in d'Amboinsche, en zommige omleggende Eilanden gevonden worden. T'Amsterdam, by Jan Roman de Jonge. Pp. 1-340.

Runnegar, B. 1992. Evolution of the earliest animals. In: Schopf, J.W. (ed.), Major events in the history of life, 190 pp. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. [A review of Vendian pennatulacean-like organisms]