Sachs, E. 1913. Zur Kenntniss des feineren Baues von Echinoptilum. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft 50: 839-847. [the genus Echinoptilum]

Sanchez, M.J.A. 1994. Presencia de los octocorales Stylatula diadema Bayer (Pennatulacea) y Carijoa riisei (Duchassaing y Michelotti) (Telestacea) en la costa Caribe Colombiana. Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas de Punta de Betin 23: 137-147.

Sankolli, K.N. and B. Neelakantan. 1971. Animal associations along the west coast of India: 2. A porcellanid crab (Decapoda, Anomura) on the coelenterate, Pennatula sp. Records of the Zoological Survery of India 2: 51-55. [ecological interaction: decapod and sea pen]

Sars, M. 1846. Beschreibung der Pennatula borealis, einer neuen Seefeder. In: Fauna littoralis Norvegiae oder Beschreibung und Abbildungen neuer oder wenig bekannten Seethiere, nebst Beobachtungen über die Organisation. Lebensweise und Entwickelung derselben 1: 17-19. Christiana, Druck und Verlag von Johann Dahl. [Pennatula grandis]

Sars, M. 1851. Beretning on en i sommeren 1849 foretagen zoologisk reise i Lofoten og Finmarken. Nytt magasin for naturvidenskapene 6: 121-211.

Satterlie, R.A., P.A.V. Anderson, and J.F. Case. 1976. Morphology and electrophysiology of the through-conducting systems in penntulid coelenterates, pp. 619-627. In: Mackie, G.O. ed., Coelenterate ecology and behaviour. New York & London: Plenum Press: 1-744. [nerve nets, conduction & colonial organisation in pennatulaceans: Acanthoptilum, Ptilosarcus, Renilla, Stylatula, Virgularia]

Satterlie, R.A., P.A.V. Anderson, and J.F. Case. 1980. Colonial coordination in anthozoans: Pennatulacea. Marine Behaviour and Physiology 7(1): 25-46. [Pennatulacea: nerve nets, colonial coordination functions & electrophysiology]

Satterlie, R.A. and J.F. Case. 1979. Development of bioluminescence and other effector responses in the pennatulid coelenterate Renilla koellikeri. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole, Mass., Marine Biological Laboratory) Boston 157(3): 506-523. [larval development of effector responses; metamorphosis & settlement]

Schaefer, W. 1985. Phylum: Cnidaria. Nesseltiere, pp. 162-1195 in: Siewing, R. (Ed.), Lehrbuch der Zoologie, Teil 2: Systematick (ed. 3), 1107 pp. Fischer, Stuttgart. [Umbellula]

Schechter, V. 1959. Invertebrate Zoology. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 530 pp. [pennatulaceans, pp. 164-169; Pennatula, Renilla]

Schömann, R. 1949. Die Welt der Tiere. Wien: 1-654. (Coelenterates, pp. 366-385) [Pennatula phosphorea]

Schuhmacher, H. and J. Hinterkircher. 1996. Niedere Meerestiere - Schwämme, Korallen, Krebse, Schnecken, Seesterne und andere - Rotes Meer, Indischer Ozean, Pazifik. Munchen: Bestimmungsbuch für Taucher und Schnorchler, 320 pp. [octocorals pp. 48-65; color photographs of Scytaliopsis djiboutiensis (more probably Virgularia sp.), and Pteroeides sp.]

Schultze, M. 1871. Ueber eine neue Species von Renilla: R. Mülleri. Sitzungsberichte der Niederrheinischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde zu Bonn 28: 36-37. [Renilla muelleri from Brazil]

Schulze, F.E. 1875. Coelenteraten. Jahresbericht der Commission zur wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung der deutschen Meere für die Jahre 1872-73: 12-142. [Kophobelemnon leuckarti, Kophobelemnon stelliferum?]

Sclater, P.L. 1872. Notice of a supposed new marine animal from Washington Territory north-west America. Nature 6: 436. [probably represents the axis of Halipteris willemoesi]

Sclater, P.L. 1873. The new marine animal from Washington Territory. Nature 8: 487-488. [probably represents the axis of Halipteris willemoesi]

Seilacher, A. 1989. Vendozoa: organismic construction in the Proterozoic biosphere. Lethaia 22(3): 229-239. [Precambrian "sea pens" not recognized as pennatulaceans]

Senut, B. and J.-M. Franc. 1985. The collagenous component of Veretillum cynomorium (Cnidaria). NATO ASI (Advanced Science Institutes) Series A (Life Sciences) 93: 211-216. [protein content, mesogleal collagen and evidence for heterochain composition]

Shapeero, W.A. 1969. A positive chitosan test for spicules in the anthozoan order Pennatulacea. Pacific Science 23: 261-163. [Ptilosarcus gurneyi referred to as Leioptilus guerneyi]

Shapiro, E.A. and R.C. Ramsdell. 1965. The pennatulid species, Graphularia ambigua (Morton), from the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary sediments of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain. Notulae Naturae of The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, no. 373: 1-7. [extinct sea pen Graphularia ambigua from the Cretaceous/Tertiary of southeastern North America; a brief history of the literature pertaining to this taxon is included]
Shaw, T. 1738-46. Travels, or observations relating to several parts of Barbary and the Levant, (1738). Oxford. 442 pp. A supplement to the book entitled Travels, or observations, & etc., (1746). Oxford. 112 pp. [sea pen bioluminescence]

Shepherd, S.A. 1983. The epifauna of megaripples: species adaptations and population responses to disturbance. Australian Journal of Ecology 8(1): 3-8. [Virgularia mirabilis from South Australia]

Shimek, R.L. 1998. Subtidal splender in the northeastern Pacific. Wings 21(2): 18-21.

Shimomura, O. and F.H. Johnson. 1975. Chemical nature of bioluminescence systems in coelenterates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72(4): 1546-1549. [Renilla]

Shimomura, O. and F.H. Johnson. 1979. Comparison of the amounts of key components in the bioluminescence systems of various coelenterates. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (B) Comparative Biochemistry 64(1): 105-107. [Renilla & Cavernularia; luminescence; key chemical components; species comparison]

Short, J.W. and F.P. Trower. 1986. Accumulation of butyltins in muscle tissue of chinook salmon reared in sea pens treated with tri-n-butyltin. Marine Pollution Bulletin 17(12): 542-545.

Simonetta, A. M. and S.Conway Morris (eds.). 1991. The early evolution of Metazoa and the significance of problematic taxa. Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the University of Camerino 27-31 March 1989. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 296 pp.

Simpson, J.J. 1905. A new cavernularid from Ceylon. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7)15(90): 561-565.

Sloane, H. 1707. A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica, with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four footed beasts, fishes, birds, insects, reptiles of the last of those islands;...Vol. 1, 1-264 + 156 pls. London.

Smit, P. 1979. Hubrecht, Ambrosius Arnold Willem. In: J. Charité, Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland 1: 256-258. Martinus Nijhoff, Gravenhage. [biographical sketch of A.A.W. Hubrecht]

Smith, R. I. (ed.). 1964. Keys to marine invertebrates of the Woods Hole region - a manual for the identification of the more common marine invertebrates, compiled by Ralph I. Smith with the assistance of many other contributors. Contribution No. 11 Systematics-Ecology Program, Marine Biological Laboratory Woods Hole, Massachusetts. 208 pp. [octocorals, pp. 25-28; Pennatula aculeata]

Smith, R. I. and J.T. Carlton. 1975. Light's Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates of the Central California Coast. University of California Press, Berkeley. 716 pp. [pennatulaceans, pp. 91 & 93; Acanthoptilum gracile, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Stylatula elongata]

Soares, A.M.V. and P. Sawaia. 1975. Bioluminescênce de Renilla amethystina Verrill (Coelenterata - Anthozoa). Influência do ion Mg. Ciências Cult., S. Paulo 23 (suppl.): 392.

Spallanzani, L. 1784. Dissertazioni di fisica animale e vegetabile. English: Dissertaions relative to the natural history of animals and vegetables, tranlated from the Italian of the Abbe Spallanzani; to which are added two letters from Mr. Bonnet to the author, two volumes. John Murray, London.

Spallanzani, L. 1796. Chimico esame degli esperimenti del sig. Gottling: professore a Jena, sopra la luce del fosforo di Kunkel osservata nell'aria commune, ed in diversi fluidi aeriformi permanenti, nella qual occasione si esaminano altri fosfori posti dentro ai medesimi fluidi, e si cerca se la luce solare guasti il gaz ossigeno, siccome pretende questo chimco /, del cittadino Lazzaro Spallanzani. Presso la Societá tipografica, In Modena. 171 pp. [Pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Sphon, G. 1964. Sea pansies. Museum Talk, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History 39(1): 1-3. [Renilla köllikeri]

Sprung, J. and J.C. Delbeek. 1997. The reef aquarium - volume 2 - a comprehensive guide to the identification and care of tropical marine invertebrates. Florida: Ricordea Publishing, 546 pp. [p. 15, color photograph of Virgularia sp.; p. 256, color photograph of a zooxanthellate veretillid identified as Cavernularia obesa]

Spurlock, B.O. and M.J. Cormier. 1975. A fine structure study of the anthocodium in Renilla muelleri. Evidence for the existence of a bioluminescent organelle, the luminelle. Journal of Cell Biology 64(1): 15-28.

Squires, D.F. 1958. The Cretaceous and Tertiary corals of New Zealand. Paleontological Bulletin, New Zealand 29: 1-107. [extinct sea pen Graphularia longissima from New Zealand]

Standing, J.D., I.R. Hooper, and J.D. Costlow. 1984. Inhibition and induction of barnacle settlement by natural products present in octocorals. Journal of chemical ecology 10(6): 823-834. [Renilla reniformis, chemical composition, inhibitors & induces of crustacean larval settlement]

Stearns, R.E.C. 1873a. Remarks on a new alcyonoid polyp, from Burrard's Inlet. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 5: 7-12. [abstract in American Naturalist 7: 488, 633; pennatulacean axis]

Stearns, R.E.C. 1873b. Description of a new species of alcyonoid polyp. Mining and Scientific Press, San Francisco 27(6): 88. [Pavonaria blakei]

Stearns, R.E.C. 1873c. Description of a new genus and species of alcyonoid polyp. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 5: 147-149. [Verrillia blakei new genus and species]

Stearns, R.E.C. 1874. Remarks suggested by Dr. J.E. Gray's paper on the "Stick Fish," in "Nature," Nov. 6th, 1873. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 5: 283-285. [probably axis of Halipteris willemoesi]

Stearns, R.E.C. 1882. Verrillia blakei or Halipteris blakei. American Naturalist 16: 55-56.

Stearns, R.E.C. 1883. Description of a new genus and species of alcyonid polyp from Japanese waters, with remarks on the structure and habits of related forms, etc. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 6: 96. [abstract in American Naturalist 17: 1292; Verrillia]

Stephens, J. 1909. Alcyonarian and madreporarian corals of the Irish coasts, by..., with description of a new species of Stachyodes by Professor S.J. Hickson, F.R.S. Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ireland; Fisheries Branch. Scientific Investigations 1907(5): 1-28. [Benthoptilum sertum]

Stiasny, G. 1937. Catalogue raisonné des alcyonides, gorgonides, zoanthides et pennatulides. Révision des Collections H. Michelin. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris (2)9: 391-397.

Stiasny, G. 1938. Catalogue raisonné des alcyonides, gorgonides, zoanthides et pennatulides. Révision des Collections H. Michelin. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris (2)10: 93-108. [Pennatula rubra, Pennatula phosphorea candida]

Stimpson, W. 1855. Descriptions of some of the new marine invertebrata from the Chinese and Japanese Seas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 7: 375-384. [Veretillum clavatum]

Strand, E. 1928. Miscellanea nomenclatorica zoologica et palaeontologica. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin 92 A.8: 31-36. [extinct sea pen Graphularia badenia]

Strathmann, M.F. 1988. Reproduction and development of marine invertebrates of the northern Pacific Coast - Data and methods of the study of eggs, embryos, and larvae. University of Washington Press, Seattle. [Ptilosarcus gurneyi, reproduction & larval development, pp. 87, 90-91]

Strychar, K.B., L.C. Hamilton, E.L. Kenchington, D.B. Scott. 2005. Genetic cicumscription of deep-water coral species in Canada using 18S rRNA, (pp. 679-690), In: Freiwald, A. and J.M. Roberts (eds.), Cold-water Corals and Ecosystems. Berlin Heidelber, Springer-Verlag.

Studer, T. 1878. Über die mit dem Schleppnetz angestellten Untersuchungen an der Westküste von Afrika während der Reise S.M.S. Gazelle. Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 1878: 135-139.

Studer, T. 1879. Übersicht der Anthozoa Alcyonaria, welche während der Reise S.M.S. Gazelle um die Erde gesammelt wurden. Monatsbericht der Königlichen Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1878: 632-688. [Pavonaria africana, Veretillum cynomorium, Cavernularia madeirensis, Renilla muelleri]

Studer, T. 1887a. Versuch eines Systemes der Alcyonarien. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, Berlin 53: 1-74. [classification of octocorals; the subordinal name Pennatulacea of Verrill (1865) is here corrected to ordinal status by Studer]

Studer, T. 1887b. Système des Alcyonaires. Archives des Sciences physiques et naturelles, Genève 18(11): 431-432.

Studer, T. 1887c. Ueber das System der Alcyonarien. Verhandlungen der schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft Actes de la Société helvetique des sciences naturelles. Atti della Societa elvetiva di scienze naturali: 51-53.

Studer, T. 1887d. Ueber Bau und System der achtstrahligen Korallen. Mitteilungen naturforschenden Gesellschaft, Bern 1886: xiii-xiv.

Studer, T. 1891. Note préliminaire sur les Alcyonaires provenant des campagnes du yacht l'Hirondelle 1886, 1887, 1888. Part 2. Alcyonacea and Pennatulacea. Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France 4(2): 86-95. [Gyropohyllum hirondelli new genus & species, p. 94; at 1266 m depth between Pico & Sao Jorges, Azores]

Studer, T. 1894. Reports on the dredging operations off the west coast of Central America to the Galapagos, to the west coast of Mexico, and the Gulf of California, in charge of Alexander Agassiz, carried on by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer 'Albatross', during 1891. Lieut. Commaner Z.L. Tanner, U.S.N., commanding. X. Note préliminaire sur les alcyonaires. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 25(5): 53-69. [abstracts in Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society 1894: 350, 351; and Zoologisches Centralblatt i: 314; Cladiscus agassizii, Distichoptilum verrillii, Kophobelemnon affine, Pennatula alata, Pennatula koellikeri, Stachyptilum superbum, Umbellula geniculata]

Studer, T. 1901. Alcyonaires provenant de campagnes de l'Hirondelle (1886-1888). Résultats des Campagnes scientifiques du Prince de Monaco 20: 1-64.


Takada, N. and S. Mori. 1956. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 13. Rhythmic change of ammonium content in body fluid (1). Dobutsugaku zasshi 65: 359-361. [in Japanese]

Takada, N. and S. Mori. 1957. Daily rhythmic activities of the sea-pen, Cavernularia obesa Valenciennes. 14. Rhythmic change of ammonium content in body fluid (2). Dobutsugaku zasshi 66: 284-288. [in Japanese]

Tardent, P. and R. Tardent. 1980. Developmental and cellular biology of coelenterates - Proceedings of the 4th International Coelenterate Conference held in Interlaken, Switzerland, 4-8 September, 1979. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam. 499 pp. [pennatulacaeans, pp. 43, 47; Pennatula rubra, Veretillum cynomorium]

Thompson, D'Arcy W. 1885. A bibliography of Protozoa, sponges, Coelenterata, and worms, including also the Polyzoa, Brachiopoda and Tunicata, for the years 1861-1883, 284 pp. Cambridge: at the University Press.

Thompson, M.-F., R. Sarojini, and R. Nagabhushanam (Eds.). 1988. Marine biodeterioration. Advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. [Renilla reniformis: chemical composition, inhibitors of bryozoan and crustacean larval settlement, characteristics]

Thomson, C.W. 1874. The depths of the sea - an account of the general results of the dredging cruises of H.M.SS. "Porcupine" and "Lightning" during the summers of 1868, 1869, and 1870, under the sicentific direction of Dr. Carpenter, F.R.S., J. Gwyn Jeffreys, F.R.S., and Dr. Wyville Thomson, F.R.S. (second edition). Macmillan and Company, London. 527 pp. [Kophobelemnon mülleri (considered a synonym of K. stelliferum by Kükenthal , 1915: 29); Pavonaria quadrangularis (correctly referred to as Funiculina quadrangularis, according to Kükenthal, 1915). Two quotes are worthy of noting here; from p. 98, "In these dredgings we got one or two very interesting alcyonarian zoophytes...Many of the animals were most brilliantly phophorescent...In some places nearly everything brought up seemed full of luminous sparks. The alcyonarians, the brittle-stars, and some annelids were the most brilliant. The Pennatulae, the Virgulariae, and the Gorgoniae shone with a lambient white light, so bright that it showed quite distinctly the hour on a watch;" - and from p. 149, "We had another gorgeous display of luminosity during this cruise...the dredge came up tangled with the long pink stems of the singular sea-pen Pavonaria quadrangularis. The Pavonariae were resplendent with a pale lilac phosphorescence like the flame of cyanogen gas; not scintillating..., but almost constant, sometimes flashing out at one point more brightly and then dying gradually into comparative dimness, but always sufficiently bright to make every portion of a stem caught in the tangles or sticking to the ropes distinctly visible. From the number of specimens of Pavonaria brought up at one haul we had evidently passed over a forest of them. The stems were a metre long, fringed with hundreds of polyps."]

Thomson, J.A. 1905. Appendix to the report on the Alcyonaria collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. In: Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar. Part 4, supplementary report 28: 167-186. [Virgularia loveni, Virgularia elegans, Virgularia calycina, Virgularia indica]

Thomson, J.A. 1927. Alcyonaires provenant des campagnes scientifiques du Prince Albert Ier de Monaceo. Résultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies par le Prince Albert I 73: 1-77. [Funiculina quadrangularis, Kophobelemnon macrospinosum, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pennatula aculeata, Protoptilum carpenteri, Pteroeides griseum, Veretillum cynomorium, Virgularia cladiscus]

Thomson, J.A. and G. Crane. 1909a. Alcyonarians of the Gulf of Cutch. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8)3: 362-366.

Thomson, J.A. and G. Crane. 1909b. The Alcyonarians of Okhamandal. In: Hornell, J. (Ed.), Report Government Baroda Marine Zoology of Okhamandal in Kattiawar, part 1, London: 125-135. [Virgularia rumphii from India]

Thomson, J.A. and W.D. Henderson. 1905a. Report on the Alcyonaria collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. In: Report to the Government of Ceylon on the Pearl Oyster Fisheries of the Gulf of Manaar. Part 3, supplementary report 20: 269-328. [Halisceptrum periyense, Halisceptrum gustavianum, Pteroeides lacazei var. spinosum, Cavernularia obesa, Stylobelemnoides herdmani, Virgularia multiflora, Virgularia tuberculata]

Thomson, J.A. and W.D. Henderson. 1905b. Preliminary notice of the deep-sea Alcyonaria collected in the Indian Ocean. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (7)15(90): 547-557. [Junceoptilum alcocki p. 555, Kophobelemnon burgeri, Microptilum willemoesi Andaman Sea p. 555, Pennatula murrayi p. 557, Protocaulon indicum, p.554, Protoptilum medium p. 555, Stachyptilum fuocum p. 557]

Thomson, J.A. and W.D. Henderson. 1906a. The marine fauna of Zanzibar British East Africa, from collections made by Cyril Crossland, M.A., V.Sc., F.Z.S., in the years 1901 and 1902. Alcyonaria. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1906(1): 393-443. [Pteroeides brachycaulon, Pteroeides rigidum, Pteroeides pulchellum, Virgularia mirabilis var. pedunculata, Virgularia multicalycina]

Thomson, J.A. and W.D. Henderson. 1906b. An account of the alcyonarians collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator in the Indian Ocean. Part I. The alcyonarians of the deep sea. Calcutta: Trustees of the Indian Museum., 132 pp. [Anthoptilum decipiens, Bathyptilum indicum, Distichoptilum gracile, Funiculina gracilis, Kophobelemnon burgeri var. indica, Pennatula indica, Pennatula veneris, Pennatula splendens, Pennatula pendula, Protocaulon indicum, Protoptilum medium, Pteroëides triradiata, Sclerobelemnon köllikeri, Stachyptilum maculatum, Thesioides inermis, Umbellula dura, Umbellula intermedia, Umbellula rosea, Umbellula purpurea, Umbellula elongata, Umbellula köllikeri, Umbellula radiata, Umbellula pendula, Umbellula indica]

Thomson, J.A. and D.L. Mackinnon. 1911. The alcyonarians of the "Thetis" Expedition. Australian Museum Memoirs 4: 661-695.

Thomson, J.A. and N.I. Rennet. 1927. Report on Japanese pennatulids. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo 182(4, Zoology)1(2): 115-143. [Pennatula phosphorea constricta, Virgularia kukenthali]

Thomson, J.A. and N.I. Rennet. 1931. Alcyonaria, Madreporaria and Antipatharia. Scientific Reports, Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914, Series C (Zoology and Botany) 9(3): 1-46. [Umbellula carpenteri]

Thomson, J.A. and J. Ritchie. 1906. The Alcyonarians of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 41(3): 851-860.

Thomson, J.A. and J.J. Simpson. 1909. An account of the alcyonarians collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator in the Indian Ocean. II. The alcyonarians of the littoral area. Calcutta: Trustees of the Indian Museum: 1-319. [Cavernularia orientalis, Cavernularia andamanensis, Kophobelemnon intermedium, Lituaria hicksoni, Lituaria phalloides, Parabelemnon indicum, Pteroeides ilicifolium, Pteroeides intermedium, Pteroeides robustum, Pteroeides andamanense, Pteroeides indicum, Pteroeides punctatum, Virgularia ornata, Virgularia fusca]

Thomson, J.S. 1915. The Pennatulaceae of the Cape of Good Hope and Natal. Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 59(1): 1-26. [Actinoptilum molle, Pteroeides iscosceles, Umbellula aciculifera]

Thomson, J.S. 1917. The occurrence of Cavernularia Lütkenii Köll. in the Seas of Natal. Memoirs and Proceedings of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society 62(7): 1-5. [Cavernularia luetkenii]

Thomson, J.S. 1924. Charts and comparisons of the distribution of South African Alcyonaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 11(1): 45-84.

Thurston, E., 1890. (Remarks as to the mode of life of the pennatulids, in a letter from...). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1890: 462-463.

Tilesius, A. von. 1826. Naturhistorische abhandlungen und erlauterungen besonders die ptetrefactenkunde, betreffend von Dr. A. von Tilesius. Bei Johann Christian Krieger und Compagnie, Cassel. 154 pp. [page 85, a reference to "Seechampagnon" as a possible synonym of Renilla muelleri, according to Zamponi & Perez, 1995b: 23, cited as Tilesius, 1812]

Tilesius von Tilenau, W.G. 1819. Leuchten des Meers. Gilbert's Ann. d. Phys. 61: 36-44, 142-160, 161-176. [pennatulacean bioluminescence]

Tillet-Barret, E., J.-M. Franc, S. Franc, and R. Garrone. 1992. Characterization of heterotrimeric collagen molecules in a sea-pen (Cnidaria, Octocorallia). European Journal of Biochemistry 203(1-2): 179-184. [Veretillum cynomorium]

Titschack, H. 1965. Untersuchungen uber das Leuchten der Seefeder Veretillum cynomorium (Pallas). Vie et Milieu 15: 547-563.

Titschack, H. 1966. Über die Lumineszenz und ihre Lokalisation bei Seefedern. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Supplementband 29, 1965(1966): 120-131. [Pteroeides griseum, distribution of luminescent cells; Pennatula rubra and Pennatula phosphorea, cytology of luminescent cells]

Titschack, H. 1968. Über das Nervensystem der Seefeder Veretillum cynomorium (Pallas). Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie 90: 347-371.

Titschack, H. 1970. Histologische Untersuchung des Mesogloealen Nervenplexus der seefedern Pennatula rubra (Ellis) und Pteroides griseum (Bohadsch). Vie et Milieu (A)21: 95-102.

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1954. Les octocoralliaires d'Afrique du sud (II-Gorgonacea; III-Pennatulacea). Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris (2)26(5): 624-631. [Actinoptilum molle, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Funiculina armata, Virgularia schultzei, Virgularia gustaviana, Pennatula phosphorea, Pteroeides sp., plus the original description of Cavernularia dayi]

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1960. Les octocoralliaires de I'lle Inhaca. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris (2)32(4): 359-367. [Veretillum cynomorium, Veretillum leloupi, Actinoptilum molle, Virgularia gustaviana]

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1961a. Crassophyllum cristatum n.gen. et n. sp., type d'un genre de Pteroeididae (Pennatulacea). Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris (2)33(4): 428-433. [original descriptions of a new genus and species in the family Pteroeididae]

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1961b. Les octocoralliaires du Golfe de Guinée et des Iles du Cap-Vert (Alcyonacea, Pennatulacea). Campagne de la `Calypso': Golfe de Guinée. Annales de l'Institut Océanographique, Monaco 39(5): 237-262. [Veretillum cynomorium, Cavernularia elegans, Cavernularia pusilla, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia tuberculata, Pennatula rubra, plus the original description of Pteroeides morbosus]

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1963. Alcyonacea et Pennatulacea de l'Afrique occidentale. Atlantide Report. Scientific Results of the Danish Expedition to the Coasts of Tropical West Africa, 1945-1946 7: 63-76. [Veretillum cynomorium, Cavernularia pusilla, Funiculina quadrangularis, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia tuberculata, Pennatula rubra, Crassophyllum cristatum, plus the original descriptions of Cavernularia mirifica and Pteroeides hirsutus]

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1965. Quelques octocoralliaires australiens. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris (2)37(4): 705-716. [Veretillum australe, Lituaria australasiae, Cavernularia obesa, Sclerobelemnon schmeltzi, Virgularia gracillima, Virgularia gustaviana, Virgularia rumphi, Pteroedies bankanense, Pteroeides oblongum, Sarcoptilus grandis, plus the original description of a new genus and species in the family Kophobelemnidae - Malacobelemnon stephenson]

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1966. Octocoralliaires de Madagascar et des Iles avoisinantes. Faune de Madagascar 21: 1-456. [original descriptions of Virgularia densa, Pennatula delicata, Pteroeides crosnieri, Pteroeides acutum, Pteroeides humesi, Pteroeides densum, and Pteroeides flexuosum]

Tixier- Durivault, A. 1970a. Octocoralliaires. Campagne de la "Calypso" au large des côtes atlantiques de l'Amérique du Sud (1961-1962). Annales de l'Institut océanographique, Monaco 47: 145-169. [Renilla muelleri, Renilla reniformis, Stylatula diadema]

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1970b. Les octocoralliaires de Nouvelle-Calédonie. L'Expédition française sur les récifs coralliens de la Nouvelle-Calédonie 4: 171-350.

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1972. Nouvel rapport d'octocoralliaires de Madagascar et des Iles avoisinantes. Téthys, supplément 3: 11-68. [Amphiacme abyssorum, Scytalium martensii, Virgularia densa, Virgularia helisceptrum, and Virgularia juncea, plus the original descriptions of Pteroeides carnosum, Pteroeides spicatum, and Pteroeides triangulum]

Tixier-Durivault, A. 1987. Sous-Classe des Octocoralliaires, pp. 3-185. In: Grassé, P.-P. ed.,Traité de Zoologie, Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie 3(3): 1-859. Paris: Masson. [Pennatula phosphorea, Umbellula antarctica, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Veretillum cynomorium, Cavernuliaria subtilis, Echinoptilum echinatum, Renilla reniformis, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Chunella gracillima, Funiculina quadrangularis, Virgularia mirabilis, Pennatula rubra, Pteroeides morbosus, Distichoptilum gracile]

Tixier-Durivault, A. and M.-J. D'Hondt. 1974a. Nouvelles récoltes d'octocoralliaires à Madagascar. Téthys 5(2-3): 251-266. [Actinoptilon molle, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Funiculina quadrangularis, Amphiacme abyssorum, Umbellula pellucida, Virgularia densa, Virgularia halisceptrum, Virgularia juncea, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia multicalycina, Scytalium martensii, Pennatula indica, Pennatual moseleyi, Pennatula pearceyi, Pteroeides sp., and Gyrophyllum sibogae]

Tixier-Durivault, A. and M.-J. D'Hondt. 1974b. Les octocoralliaires de la campagne Biaçores. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Bulletin, Paris (Zool.) no. 174: 1361-1433. [Anthoptilum murrayi, Funiculina quadrangularis, Protoptilum carpenteri, Umbellula guentheri, Umbellula lindhali, Pennatula aculeata, Pennatula grandis, Pennatula phosphorea, and Gyrophyllum hirondellei]

Tixier-Durivault, A. and F. Lafargue. 1968. Quelques octocoralliaires des côtes françaises. Bulletin du Muséum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (2)40: 621-629. [original description of Cavernularia subtilis]

Tizard, T.H., H.N. Moseley, H.Y. Buchanan, and J. Marray. 1885. Narrative of the cruise of H.M.S. Challenger with a general account of the scientific results of the expedition. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76, Narrative, Vol. 1, (first part): 1-509. [pp. 49-51 on pennatulaceans, including an illustration of Umbellula thomsoni. The following passage is worthy of quotation, "Many of the Pennatulida are known to be phosphorescent, and in this specimen of Umbellula, when taken from the trawl, the polyps and the membrane covering the axis of the stem exhibited a most brilliant phosphorescence. A like phenomenon was observed in the case of many other Alcyonarians obtained from the deep sea,... Umbellula was long one of the rarest of zoological curiosities. The first specimens ever described were obtained on the coast of Greenland, early in the last century, by Captain Adriaanz, commander of the 'Britannia,' while on a whale-fishing expedition; on this occasion two specimens were found adhering to the sounding line at a depth of 236 fathoms. These were described by M. Christlob Mylius, and one of them was again described int he Philosophical Transactions for 1754, in a letter from Mr. John Ellis to Mr. Peter Collinson, 'Concerning a cluster-polyp found in the sea near the coast of Greenland.' Mr. Ellis compared it to the 'Encrinos or Lilium lapideum...', and indeed the resemblance to a Crinoid is not a little striking. For more than a century the animal was not seen again, and it is only a few years since two specimens were dredged in deep water during the cruise of the Swedish ships 'Ingegerd' and 'Gladan', in the Arctic Ocean. These were described in 1874 by J. Lindahl as two new species,---Umbellula minacea and Umbellula pallida.]

Tommasi, L.R., M.R. Bio, and M. Fueta. 1972. Sôbre a distribuiçao de Renilla muelleri Kolliker, 1872 na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul (Anthozoa, Pennatulacea). Revista Brasileira de Biologia 32(1): 55-58.

Torrey, H.B. 1901. Some facts concerning regeneration and regulation in Renilla. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole, Mass., Marine Biological Laboratory), Boston 2(6): 355-356. [Renilla: regeneration of colonies]

Traub, F. 1938. Geologische und paläontologische Bearbeitung der Kreide und des Tertiärs im östlichen Rupertuwinkel, nördlich von Salzburg. Palaeontographica Stuttgart 88A(1-3): 1-114. [extinct sea pen Graphularia salisburgensis from the Paleocene of Austria]

Trembley, A. 1744. Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire d'un genre de Polypes d'eau douce, à bras en forme de cornes. Leiden: Abbé Trembley.

Trembley, P. 1941. Morphologie externe d'un fossile nouveau. Le Naturaliste canadien, Québec 68(12): 272. [possible fossil pennatulacean from Quebec]

Trembley, P. 1942. Morphologie externe d'un fossile nouveau. Ann. Acfas, Montreal 8: 85-86. [possible fossil pennatulacean from the Devonian of Canada]

Tyler, P.A., S.K. Bronsdon, C.M. Young, and A.L. Rice. 1995. Ecology and gametogenic biology of the genus Umbellula (Pennatulacea) in the north Atlantic Ocean. Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 80(2): 187-199.

Tyler, P.A. and H. Zibrowius. 1992. Submersible observations of the invertebrate fauna on the continental slope southwest of Ireland (NE Atlantic Ocean). Oceanologica Acta 15(2): 211-226. [Anthoptilum grandiflorum]


Umbriaco, D., M. Anctil, and L. Descarries. 1990. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the cnidarian Renilla koellikeri. Journal of Comparative Neurology 291(2): 167-178. [Renillia koellikeri]

Utinomi, H. 1956a. Coloured illustrations of sea-shore animals of Japan. Fauna and Flora of Japan, No. 8 (2): 1-67. [In Japanese; coelenterates, pp. 3-28; Cavernularia obesa, Echinoptilum macintoshi, Pennatula fimbriata, Pteroeides breviradiatum, Pteroeides esperi, Sclerobelemnon burgeri, Scytalium splendens, Virgularia gustaviana]

Utinomi, H. 1956b. On some alcyonarians from the West- Pacific islands (Palau, Panape and Bonins). Publications of the Seto marine biological Laboratory 5(2): 221-242. [Pennatula fimbriata]

Utinomi, H. 1958. On some octocorals from deep waters of Prov. Tosa, Sikoku. Publications of the Seto marine biological Laboratory 7(1): 89-110. [Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Pennatula murrayi, Scytalium splendens]

Utinomi, H. 1961. Noteworthy octocorals collected off the southwest coast of Kii Peninsula, Middle Japan. Part 2. Telestacea, Gorgonacea and Pennatulacea. Publications of the Seto Marine Laboratory 9(1): 197-228.

Utinomi, H. 1964. Coloured illustrations of seashore animals of Japan. Hoikusha, Osaka. 168 pp. [Pteroeides sparmanni, Pteroeides esperi, Scytalium splendens, Virgularia gustaviana, Sclerobelmnon burgeri, Echinoptilum macintoshi, Cavernularia obesa, Leioptilus fimbriatus, Stachyptilum dofleini]

Utinomi, H. 1971. Port Phillip Bay Survey 2. Octocorallia. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 32: 7-18. [original description of Virgularia loveni]

Utinomi, H. and S.A. Shepherd. 1982. Seapens (order Pennatulacea). 207-211. In: Shepherd, S.A. & Thomas, I.M. (Eds.). Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia. Marine invertebrates of southern Australia. Part 1. HandbooksCommittee, South Australian Government, Adelaide: 1-491.


Vafidis, D. and A. Koukouras. 1991. Crassophyllum thessalonicae sp. n. (Octocorallia, Pennatulacea), from the Aegean Sea. Zoologica Scripta 20 (3): 201-205.

Valenciennes, A. 1850. In: Milne Edwards, H. & Haime, J. A monograph of the British fossil corals. Part I. Introduction; corals from the Tertiary and Cretaceous formations. London: Palaeontographical Society.

Vanderah, D.J. and C. Djerassi. 1977. Novel marine sterols with modified bile acid chain from the sea pen Ptilosarcus gurneyi. Tetrahedron Letters 1977(8): 683-686. [steroid content; novel sterols, isolation & structural determination]

Van Soest, R.W.M. 1977. A catalogue of the coelenterate type specimens of the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam. III. Antipatharia, Pennatulacaea, Stolonifera, Telestacea, Alcyonacea. Beaufortia 26(332): 77-98. [Veretillum malayense, Echinoptilum asperum, Echinoptilum elongatum, Echnioptilum minimum, Echinoptilum roseum, Kophobelemnon pauciflorum, Sclerobelemnon elongatum, Sclerobelemnon gravieri, Sclerobelemnon magniflorum, Anthoptilum malayense, Protoptilum celebense, Chunella biflora, Umbellula weberi, Halisceptrum gustavianum var. parviflora, Halisceptrum gustavianum var. magnifolia, Virgularia rubra, Scytalium balssi, Pteroeides argenteum var. typicum, Pteroeides argenteum var. durissimum, Pteroeides flavidum, Pteroeides griseum var. longespinosum, Pteroeides hystrix var. angustifolium, Pteroeides hystrix var. latifolium, Pteroeides lacazii var. spinosum, Pteroeides malayense, Pteroeides timorense, Pteroeides speciosum, Pteroeides tenerum, Pteroeides westermanni, Gyrophyllum sibogae]

Verne, J. 1869 (first year of publication). Twenty thousand leagues under the sea. In chapter ten of Verne's classic work of science fiction, is found this delightful account: "Under elegant glass cases, fixed by copper rivets, were classed and labeled the most precious productions of the sea which had ever been presented to the eye of a naturalist. My delight as a professor may be conceived .... The division containing the zoophytes presented the most courious specimens of the two groups of polypi and echinoderms. In the first group, the tubipores, were gorgones arranged like a fan, soft sponges of Syria, isis of the Moluccas, pennatules, and admirable virgularia of the Norwegion seas, variegated umbellulariae, alcyonariae, a whole series of madrepores, which my master Milne-Edwards has so cleverly classified, amongst which I remarked some wonderful flabellina, oculinae of the Island of Bourbon, the Neptune's car of the Antilles, superb varieties of corals - in short, every species of those curious polypi of which entire islands are formed, which will one day become continents. Of the echinoderms, remarkable for their coating of spines, asteri, sea-stars, pantacrinae, comatules, asterophons, echini, holothuri, etc., represented individually a complete collection of this group."

Verrill, A.E. 1864. List of the polyps and corals sent by the Museum of Comparative Zoology to other institutions in exchange, with annotations. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College 1(3): 29-60.

Verrill, A.E. 1865. Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Captain John Rogers, U.S.N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. W. Stimpson, naturalist of the Expedition. With descriptions of some additional species from the west coast of North America. Proceedings of the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., Parts 2 & 3, Vol. 4: 181-196, Vol. 5: 17-50; Part 4, Vol. 5: 315-333. [Pteroeides putnami, Funiculina forbesii=Pavonaria quadrangularis, Renilla danae=Renilla americana, Renilla peltata, Renilla patula, Renilla amethystina, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Veretillum stimpsoni, Kophobelemnon clavatum, Veretillum baculatum, Stylatula gracilis, Pteromorpha expansa, Leioptilum undulatum, Virgularia pusilla, Virgularia gracilis, Virgularia elongata Gabb; introduction of the name Pennatulacea as a suborder, with subsequent correction by Studer (1887a) as the ordinal name]

Verrill, A.E. 1866. Review: Icones histiologicae, oder Atlas der vergleichenden Gewebelehre; zweite Abtheilung. Der feinere Bau der hoheren Thiere. Erstes Heft. Die Bindesubstanz der Coelenteraten...American Journal of Science and Arts (2)42: 283-284.

Verrill, A.E. 1868-1870. Notes on Radiata in the Museum of Yale College. No. 6. Review of the corals and polyps of the west coast of America. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 1: 377-422 (April 1868: 377-390; June 1868: 391-398; July 1868: 399-414; December 1868: 415-422); 423-502 (1869); 503-558 (1870). [Renilla amethystina, Stylatula gracilis; Bayer (1996) remarks under his citation of Verrill (1868-1870): "The regular edition up to p. 502 was destroyed by fire after distribution of the author's edition of 150 copies; the reprinted edition issued in 1869 contains nomenclatural changes marked 'Reprint' and thus constitutes a separate publication."]

Verrill, A.E. 1878. Notice of recent additions to the marine fauna of the eastern coast of North America, No. 2. American Journal of Science and Arts (3)16: 371-378.

Verrill, A.E. 1879. Notice of recent additions to the marine fauna of the eastern coast of North America, No. 3 & 5. American Journal of Science and Arts (3)17: 239-243, 474. (Virgularia (?) grandiflora p239, Funiculina armata p240).

Verrill, A.E. 1882a. Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the outer banks off the southern coast of New England, No. 5. Brief contributions to zoology from the Musuem of Yale College: No. 51. American Journal of Science and Arts (3)23: 222-225, 309-316. [Pennatula aculeata var. alba, p. 310]

Verrill, A.E. 1882b. Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the outer banks off the southern coast of New England, No. 7, and of some additions of the fauna of Vineyard Sound. American Journal of Science and Arts (3)24: 360-364. [Distichoptilum gracile, p. 362]

Verrill, A.E. 1883. Report on the Anthozoa, and on some additional species dredged by the "Blake" in 1877-1879, and by the U.S. Fish Commission steamer "Fish Hawk" in 1880-82. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 11: 1-72.

Verrill, A.E. 1884a. Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the outer banks off the southern coast of New England, and of some additions to the fauna of Vineyard Sound. Annual Report of the United States Commisioner of Fisheries for 1882: 641-669. [Distichoptilum gracile]

Verrill, A.E. 1884b. Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the outer banks off the southern coast of New England, No. 9. Brief contributions to zoology from the Museum of Yale College, No. 55. American Journal of Science and Arts (3)28: 213-220. [Umbellula bairdii, Kophobelemnon tenue, Scleroptilum gracile]

Verrill, A.E. 1885a. Notice of the remarkable marine fauna occupying the outer banks of the southern coast of New England, No. 11. Brief contributions to zoology from the Museum of Yale College, 57. American Journal of Science and Arts (3)29: 149-157. [Benthoptilum sertum, Stylatula sp.]

Verrill, A.E. 1885b. Results of the explorations made by the steamer Albatross off the northern coast of the United States in 1883. Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for 1883: 503-699.

Verrill, A.E. 1922. The Alcyonaria of the Canadian Arctic expedition, 1913-1918, with a revision of some other Canadian genera and species. Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition, Ottawa 8G: 1-87. [Pennatula aculeata, Ptilosarcus gurneyi, Stylatula columbiana, Verrillia blakei]

Vidal, J.P., R. Escale, J.P. Girard, J.C. Rossi, J.M. Chantraine, and A. Aumelas. 1992. Lituarines A,B, and C: a new class of macrocyclic lactones from the New Caledonian sea pen Lituaria australasiae. Journal of Organic Chemistry 57(22): 5857-5860.

Vincent, E. 1893. Sur la présence de Pennatuliens dans l'Éocène belge. Annales de la Société malacologique de Belgique 27: lvii-lix. [extinct sea pen Graphularia belgica from the Eocene of Belgium]

Voigt, E. 1958. Untersuchungen an Oktokorallen aus der oberen Kreide. Mitteilungen aus dem Geologisch-Paläontologischen Institut der Universität Hamburg 27: 5-49. [extinct sea pens Graphularia quadrata and G. meijeri]

Voss, G. L. 1976. Seashore life of Florida and the Caribbean - a guide to the common marine invertebrates and plants of the Atlantic from Bermuda and the Bahamas to the West Indies and the Gulf of Mexico. Banyan Books, Inc., Miami. 199 pp. [octocorals, pp. 36-42; Renilla muelleri, Renilla reniformis]


Waele, J.-P. de, M. Anctil, and M. Carlberg. 1987. Biogenic catecholamines in the cnidarian Renilla kollikeri: radioenzymatic and chromatographic detection. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65(10): 2458-2465. [Renilla kollikeri, nervous transmitter substances]

Wampler, J. E., K. Hori, J.W. Lee, and M.J. Cormier. 1971. Structured bioluminescence. Two emitters during both the in vitro and the in vivo bioluminescence of the sea pansy Renilla. Biochemistry (American Chemical Society)10: 2903-2909.

Wampler, J.E., Y.D. Karkhanis, J.G. Morin, and M.J. Cormier. 1973. Similarities in the bioluminescence from the Pennatulacea. Biochimica et biophysica acta 314(1): 104-109. [Pennatulacea: bioluminescence, comparative study]

Ward, W.W. 1979. Energy transfer processes in bioluminescence. Photochemical and photobiological reviews 4: 1-57. [Renilla]

Ward, W.W. & Cormier, M.J. 1978a. Energy transfer via protein protein interaction in Renilla bioluminescence. Photochemistry and Photobiology 27(4): 389-396. [Renilla reniformis: luminescence; bioluminescence, energy transfer via protein protein interactions]

Ward, W.W. & Cormier, M.J. 1978b. Protein - protein interactions as measured by bioluminescence energy transfer in Renilla. Methods in Enzymology. 57: 257-267. [Renilla reniformis; luminescence; energy transfer; protein interactions]

Watabe, N. & Dunkelberger, D.G. 1979. Ultrastructural studies on calcification in various organisms. Scanning Electron Microscopy. 1979(2): 403-416. [Veretillum cynomorium; mineral content; calcification ultrastructure of axial skeleton]

Waterman, T.H. 1950. Renilla köllikeri, In: Brown, F.A. (ed.), Selected Invertebrate Types: 131-136. John Wiley, New York. [Renilla reniformis]

Weiguo, S. 1986. Late Precambrian pennatulids (sea pens) from the eastern Yangtze Gorge, China: Paracharnia gen. nov. Precambrain Research 31(4): 361-375. [precambrian fossils that resemble sea pens: Charnia dengyingensis Ding & Chen, 1981; designated type species for new genus Paracharnia of Charniidae, Proterozoic]

Weinberg, S. 1996. Dé couvrir La Mer Rouge et l'océan Indien. Nathan, Paris. 415 pp. [color photographs of living animals: Veretillum sp., Virgularia/Pennatula sp., Pteroeides spp.]

Wekell, J.C. 1974. Isolation and purification of a toxic component from the sea pen (Ptilosarcus quadrangularis). Food-Drugs from the Sea Conference, Proceedings 1974: 324-330.

Wekell, J.C. 1978. The isolation and characterization of a toxic diterpenoid compound from the sea pen, Ptilosarcus gurneyi (Gray). Dissertation Abstracts International (B)39(5): 2210. [lipid & fatty acid content]

Werner, B. 1984. Stamm Cnidaria. Nesseltiere, pp. 11-305, in: Gruner, H.-E. (ed.), Lehrbuch der speziellen Zoologie. Band 1: Werbellose Tiere, 2 Teil (Ed. 4), 621 pp. Fischer, Jena. [Umbellula]

Wiedemann, C.R.W. 1800. Cuvier's Elementarischer Entwurf der Naturgeschichte der Thiere aus dem Französischen übersetzt und mit Anmerkungen versehen von C.R.W. Wiedemann, vol. 2, 599 Pauli, Berlin. [Umbellula]

Wiktor, J. 1974. Type-specimens of Anthozoa in the Zoological Museum of the Wroclaw University. Annales Zoologici, Warszawa 32(3): 29-37.
[p. 35: Echinoptilum echinatum (two syntypes, Somalia); Actinoptilum molle (one syntype, South Africa); Funiculina parkeri (fragment of the holotype or a syntype, California); Pennatula inflata (one syntype, East Africa)]

Wilbur, K.M. 1976. Recent studies of invertebrate mineralization. Belle W. Baruch Library in marine sciences. 5: 79-108. [Renilla reniformis; skeleton; mineralization of sclerites, histochemical and ultrastructural study]

Wilkins, P. and Birkholz, J. 1986. Invertebrates - organ pipe, leather, and horny corals. Germany: Engelbert Pfriem Publishing, 134 pp. [color photograph of a specimen identified as Cavernularia obesa]

Willemoes-Suhm, R. Von. 1875a. Notes on some young stages of Umbellularia, and on its geographical distribution. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (4)15: 312-316. [Umbellula]

Willemoes-Suhm, R. Von. 1875b. Distribution of the alcyonoid polyps of the Umbellularia group. American Journal of Sciences and Arts (3)10: 397-398. [Umbellula]

Williams, G. C. 1986. What are corals? Sagittarius (Natural History Magazine of the South African Museum) 1(2): 11-15. [Reprinted in: Underwater, Ihlane Publications, Natal, South Africa 6: 26-27; illustrated general account of corals including sea pens: Cavernularia sp., Actinoptilum molle; includes water color illustration of color variation in A. molle]

Williams, G.C. 1987. Systematics and zoogeography of southern African octocoral cnidarians. Doctoral Thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
469 pp. [Pennatulacea of southern Africa, including Namibia, South Africa, and southern Mozambique]

Williams, G.C. 1989a. A provisional annotated list of octocorallian coelenterates occurring on the sublittoral coral reefs at Sodwana Bay and Kosi Bay, northern Natal, with a key to the genera. South African Journal of Science 85(3): 141-144.
[brief description: Cavernularia dayi]

Williams, G.C. 1989b. The pennatulacean genus Cavernularia Valenciennes (Octocorallia: Veretillidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 95(4): 285-310 [synopsis of the genus, key to the species, original descriptions of Cavernularia capitata and Cavernularia dedeckeri]

Williams, G.C. 1990. The Pennatulacea of southern Africa (Coelenterata, Anthozoa). Annals of the South African Museum 99(4): 31-119 [regional fauna, synonymy, descriptions, key to the families and species, includes illustrated descriptions of Cavernularia dayi, Cavernularia elegans, Echinoptilum macintoshii, Echinoptilum echinatum, Actinoptilum molle, Kophobelemnon stelliferum, Anthoptilum grandiflorum, Distichoptilum gracile, Halipteris africana, Chunella gracillima, Amphiacme abyssorum, Umbellula thomsoni, Umbellula lindahli, Virgularia schultzei, Virgularia mirabilis, Virgularia gustaviana, Scytaliopsis djiboutiensis, Pennatula inflata, and Pteroeides isosceles; included are color photographs of living animals: Actinoptilum molle, Virgularia schultzei, Echinoptilum echinatum, and Ecinoptilum macintoshii; first record of bioluminescence in Actinoptilum molle, p. 63]

Williams, G.C. 1992. Biogeography of the octocorallian coelenterate fauna of southern Africa. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 46(4): 351-401. [biogeographic affinities and bathymetry of southern African octocorals including pennatulaceans]

Williams, G.C. 1993a. Coral reef octocorals - an illustrated guide to the soft corals, sea fans and sea pens inhabiting the coral reefs of northern Natal. Durban Natural Science Museum, 64 pp. [illustrated taxonomic description: Cavernularia dayi]

Williams, G.C. 1993b. Biotic diversity, biogeography, and phylogeny of pennatulacean octocorals associated with coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Proceedings of the Seventh International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 729-735. [biogeograpic affinities of all pennatulacean genera and Indo-Pacific taxa in particular; phylogeny and cladistics. The following passage from p. 734 on pennatulacean evolution is quoted here: "The Veretillidae and the Echinoptilidae are the least derived of the extant sea pens. They are...concentrated in the relatively shallow waters of the Info-Pacific, while a variety of more derived forms are present worldwide and show vast bathymetric ranges...It is therefore postulated that the sea pens as a group initially differentiated in the shallow waters of tropical oceans and have subsequently diversified and dispersed to all depths of the temperate and polar regions, as well as the tropics."]

Williams, G.C. 1993c. [see Branch & Williams (1993)]

Williams, G.C. 1995a. Living genera of sea pens (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea): illustrated key and synopses. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 93-140. [generic monograph, synonymy, diagnoses, distributions, key to the families and genera, discussion of classification and phylogeny; illustrated generic diagnoses include Lituaria, Cavernulina, Cavernularia, Veretillum, Actinoptilum, Echinoptilum, Renilla, Kophobelemnon, Sclerobelemnon, Malacabelemnon, Funiculina, Distichoptilum, Protoptilum, Stchyptilum, Scleroptilum, Calibelemnon, Amphiacme, Chunella, Umbellula, Anthoptilum, Halipteris, Stylatula, Acanthoptilum, Scytalium, Virgularia, Scytaliopsis, Pennatula, Ptilosarcus, Gyrophyllum, Sarcoptilus, Crassophyllum, and Pteroeides]

Williams, G.C. 1995b. Preliminary assessment of the origin and phylogenetics of pennatulacean octocorals. Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology - Programme and Abstracts: 102. [phylogenetic aspects of the Pennatulacea and reevaluation of the Vendian frond-like fossils]

Williams, G.C. 1995c. Revision of the pennatulacean genus Sarcoptilus (Coelenterata: Octocorallia) from southern Australia and New Zealand, with descriptions of three new species. Records of the South Australian Museum 28(1): 13-32 [taxonomic revision including three original descriptions; four species are considered valid: Sarcoptilus grandis, Sarcoptilus shaneparkeri, Sarcoptilus nullispiculatus, and Sarcoptilus rigidus; with a discussion of the status of Sarcoptilus roseum and Sarcoptilus bollonsi]

Williams, G.C. 1995d. The enigmatic sea pen genus Gyrophyllum - a phylogenetic reassessment and description of G. sibogae from Tasmanian waters (Coelenterata: Octocorallia). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 48 (15) (1-13) [description, classification, cladistics: Gyrophyllum sibogae; family Pteroeididae considered synonymous with Pennatulidae]

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Williams, G.C. 1997a. A new genus and species of nepththeid soft coral (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea) from the western Pacific Ocean, and a discussion of convergence with several deep-sea benthic organisms. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 49(12): 423-437. [Umbellula: morphological convergence with three other unrelated deep sea organisms]

Williams, G.C. 1997b. Diversity and evolution of deep-sea pennatulacean octocorals. Eighth Deep-Sea Biology Symposium, Abstracts: 138. [evolutionary aspects of deep-sea pennatulaceans]

Williams, G.C. 1997c. Preliminary assessment of the phylogeny of Penntulacaea (Anthozoa: Octocorallia), with a reevalutation of Ediacaran frond-like fossils, and a synopsis of the history of evolutionary thought regarding the sea pens. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Coelenterate Biology: 497-509. [preliminary phylogeny of the Pennatulacea, assessment of the Vendian fossils that resemble sea pens, and historical aspects of phylogeny]

Williams, G.C. 1997d. Octocoral systematics and the Precambrian Vendian biota. Western Society of Naturalists (78th annual meeting), Program and Abstracts: 57. [comparison and contrast of morphology, living sea pens vs. the Vendian frond-like fossils]

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