Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 November 2018

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Catalog of Fishes
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Carapus Rafinesque [C. S.] 1810:37, 57 Masc. Gymnotus acus BrĂ¼nnich 1768. Type established in ICZN Opinion 42, with authorship of type credited to Linnaeus but without date. •Valid as Carapus Rafinesque 1810 -- (Arnold 1956:260 [ref. 5315], Wheeler 1973:557 [ref. 7190], Trott 1981:625 [ref. 14205], Williams 1984:388 [ref. 5314], Machida in Masuda et al. 1984:99 [ref. 6441], Olney & Markle 1986:351 [ref. 5701], Trott & Olney in Whitehead et al. 1986:1173 [ref. 13677], Shen & Yeh 1987:47 [ref. 6418], Paxton et al. 1989:319 [ref. 12442], Markle & Olney 1990:373 [ref. 18996], Heemstra in Smith & Heemstra 1995:351 [ref. 21953], Markle in Nielsen et al. 1999:10, 11 [ref. 24448], Nielsen 1999:1978 [ref. 24753], Parmentier et al. 2000:293 [ref. 26179], Olney 2003:964 [ref. 27007], Parmentier et al. 2006:122 [ref. 28668], Hoese et al. 2006:552 [ref. 29051], Glynn et al. 2008:593 [ref. 29778], Fricke et al. 2018:82 [ref. 35805]). Current status: Valid as Carapus Rafinesque 1810. Carapidae: Carapinae.