Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 1 July 2016

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Catalog of Fishes
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Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:11 [ref. 4868]. Masc. Epinephelus marginalis Bloch 1793. Type designated by ICZN under plenary powers; on Official List (Opinion 93). Epinelephus Rafinesque 1815:85 [ref. 3584] is an incorrect subsequent spelling. •Valid as Epinephelus Bloch 1793 -- (Smith 1971:90 [ref. 14102], Tortonese 1973:358 [ref. 7192], Kendall 1984:500 [ref. 13663], Katayama in Masuda et al. 1984:128 [ref. 6441], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:782 [ref. 13676], Heemstra & Randall 1986:520 [ref. 5667], Daget & Smith 1986:301 [ref. 6204], Randall & Allen 1987 [ref. 6249], Paxton et al. 1989:493 [ref. 12442], Heemstra 1991:14 [ref. 19323], Randall & Heemstra 1991:77 [ref. 19601], Bauchot in Lévêque et al. 1992:665 [ref. 21590], Heemstra & Randall 1993:69 [ref. 21042], Baldwin & Johnson 1993:251 [ref. 27443], Gomon et al. 1994:534 [ref. 22532], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:263 [ref. 24550], Heemstra & Randall 1999:2447 [ref. 24815], Craig et al. 2001:127 [ref. 26133], Heemstra et al. 2003:1314 [ref. 27060], Craig & Hastings 2007:16 [ref. 29046], Hoese et al. 2006:1007 [ref. 28999], Roberts & Gomon 2008:541 [ref. 30641], Motomura & Satapoomin 2009:86 [ref. 30492], Craig et al. 2008:167 [ref. 29773], Shinohara et al. 2011:48 [ref. 31715], Craig et al. 2011:71 [ref. 31786], Ho et al. 2013:77 [ref. 33261], Randall et al. 2013:524 [ref. 32685], Lie et al. 2013:1684 [ref. 32709], Kottelat 2013:326 [ref. 32989], Roberts 2015:1185 [ref. 34193], Rothman et al. 2016:479 [ref. 34171]). Current status: Valid as Epinephelus Bloch 1793. Serranidae: Epinephelinae.