Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 4 November 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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canadus, Gasterosteus Linnaeus [C.] (ex Garden) 1766:491 [Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae v. 1 (pt 1); ref. 2786] Carolina [South Carolina, U.S.A.]. Holotype (unique): LSL 85 (right half-skin). Type information: Goode & Bean 1885:203 [ref. 1841], Wheeler 1985:53 [ref. 20705]. Based on manuscript description and 1 specimen sent by A. Garden [South Carolina]. •Valid as Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus 1766) -- (Monod 1973:371 [ref. 7193], Kyushin et al. 1977:248 [ref. 19756], Matsuura in Uyeno et al. 1983:325 [ref. 14275], Sheiko 1983:18 [ref. 37041], Dor 1984:121 [ref. 29757], Nakamura in Masuda et al. 1984:153 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:422 [ref. 22186], Robins & Ray 1986:156 [ref. 23100], Smith 1986:662 [ref. 5712], Allen & Swainston 1988:76 [ref. 25477], Scott & Scott 1988:371 [ref. 25518], Shaffer & Nakamura 1989 [ref. 13517], Pequeño 1989:60 [ref. 14125], Winterbottom et al. 1989:33 [ref. 13251], McAllister 1990:145 [ref. 14674], Quéro 1990:723 [ref. 18537], Boschung 1992:128 [ref. 23239], Cervigón 1992:390 [ref. 23827], Cervigón 1993:45 [ref. 24474], Kuiter 1993:169 [ref. 23929], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:157 [ref. 25472], Goren & Dor 1994:32 [ref. 25356], Randall 1995:170 [ref. 22896], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:460 [ref. 27969], Allen 1997:118 [ref. 23977], Chen et al. 1997:70 [ref. 26476], Cheng & Zhou 1997:280 [ref. 26385] with genus as Rachycentrum, Murdy et al. 1997:176 [ref. 23144], Larson & Williams 1997:358 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:154 [ref. 23922], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:11 [ref. 24670], Golani 1998:97 [ref. 27567], Fricke 1999:241 [ref. 24106], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:273 [ref. 24550], Collette 1999:2655 [ref. 24785], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:233 [ref. 25013], Johnson 1999:735 [ref. 25471] as canadus, Nakabo 2000:789 [ref. 25086], Collette in Randall & Lim 2000:615 [ref. 25122], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:99 [ref. 26368], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:159 [ref. 27754], Hutchins 2001:32 [ref. 25847], Rocha & Rosa 2001:990 [ref. 25909], Camargo & Isaac 2001:142 [ref. 27639], Nakabo 2002:789 [ref. 26001], Youn 2002:325, 602 [ref. 26218], O'Toole 2002:617 [ref. 26411], Allen & Adrim 2003:37 [ref. 26830], Collette 2003:1420 [ref. 27087], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S106 [ref. 27377], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:79 [ref. 27192], Peristiwady et al. in Kimura & Matsuura 2003:72 [ref. 27510], Parin 2003:S5 [ref. 28536], Nelson et al. 2004:139 [ref. 27807], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:317 [ref. 28072], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:264 [ref. 28815], Hoese & Paxton 2006:1144 [ref. 29087], Gomon 2008:572 [ref. 30616], Springer & Smith-Vaniz 2008:29 [ref. 31826], Fricke et al. 2009:51 [ref. 30213], Motomura 2009:113 [ref. 30446], Motomura et al. 2010:114 [ref. 31256], Allen & Erdmann 2012:424 [ref. 31980], Smith-Vaniz & Collette 2013:173 [ref. 32953], Larson et al. 2013:118 [ref. 32988] as canadus, Yoshida et al. 2013:112 [ref. 34464], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:49 [ref. 33341], Parin et al. 2014:358 [ref. 33547], Sajeevan & Kurup 2014:40 [ref. 35466], Psomadakis et al. 2015:213 [ref. 34104], Collette in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2448 [ref. 34618], Robertson et al. 2016:145 [ref. 34961], Koeda et al. 2016:36 [ref. 35333], Nión et al. 2016:47 [ref. 35565], Marceniuk et al. 2017:40 [ref. 35324], Motomura et al. 2017:102 [ref. 35490], Ali et al. 2018:321 [ref. 36183], Freitas et al. 2018:75 [ref. 36259], Fricke et al. 2018:178 [ref. 35805], Golani & Fricke 2018:81 [ref. 36273], Motomura in Kimura et al. 2018:123 [ref. 36460], Spier et al. 2018:10 [ref. 36103], Suresh et al. 2018:195 [ref. 36495], Hoschke et al. 2019:156 [ref. 36626], Zajonz et al. 2019:75 [ref. 36871]). Current status: Valid as Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus 1766). Rachycentridae. Distribution: Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical seas (including Red Sea, Persian Gulf), strays to Mediterranean Sea. Now an invasive species released from eastern Ecuador in Aug. 2015 and known from Colombia and Panama coast if established -- see ref. 34333, Habitat: marine.