Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 6 April 2020

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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afer, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:12, Pl. 327 [Naturgeschichte der ausländischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] Guinea, West Africa. Holotype (unique): ZMB 143. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:135 [ref. 24282]. On p. 10 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. Treated as Plectropoma afrum by Günther 1868:411 [ref. 1994]. See Craig et al. 2006:327 [ref. 29772] for locality information. •Valid as Epinephelus afer Bloch 1793 -- (Robins & Ray 1986:131 [ref. 23100], Cervigón 1991:321 [ref. 24472]). •Valid as Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793) -- (Heemstra & Randall 1993:20 [ref. 21042], Cervigón 1992:425 [ref. 23827], Grace et al. 1994:11 [ref. 25512], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:314 [ref. 24023], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:203 [ref. 25013], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:156 [ref. 27754], Heemstra et al. 2003:1329 [ref. 27060], Moura & Menezes in Menezes et al. 2003:75 [ref. 27192], Nelson et al. 2004:126 [ref. 27807], McEachran & Fechhelm 2005:128 [ref. 28815], Craig et al. 2006:328 [ref. 29772], Wirtz et al. 2007:8, 29 [ref. 30263], Craig et al. 2011:4 [ref. 31786], Page et al. 2013:130 [ref. 32708], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:38 [ref. 33341], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2378 [ref. 34618], Nión et al. 2016:46 [ref. 35565], Ma & Craig 2018:454 [ref. 36100], Padovani-Ferreira et al. 2018:4 [ref. 37309]). Current status: Valid as Alphestes afer (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Western Atlantic: Bermuda and North Carolina (U.S.A.) south to Uruguay, including southern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea; eastern Atlantic: Guinea; São Tome and Principe. Habitat: marine.