Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 4 December 2019

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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ruber, Epinephelus Bloch [M. E.] 1793:22, Pl. 331 [Naturgeschichte der ausl√§ndischen Fische v. 7; ref. 4868] "Japan" (probably eastern Atlantic or Mediterranean Sea). Holotype (unique): ZMB 161. Type catalog: Paepke 1999:136 [ref. 24282]. On p. 19 of Bloch's Ichthyologie, v. 10 [ref. 21381]. •Valid as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793) -- (Tortonese 1973:360 [ref. 7192], Tortonese in Whitehead et al. 1986:787 [ref. 13676], Robins & Ray 1986:136 [ref. 23100], Smith 1990:701 [ref. 18227], Cervigón 1991:349 [ref. 24472], Heemstra 1991:53 [ref. 19323], Cervigón 1992:432 [ref. 23827], Heemstra & Randall 1993:275 [ref. 21042], Aguilera 1998:48 [ref. 24221], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:213 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:84 [ref. 25466], Parenti & Bressi 2001:281 [ref. 25708], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:79 [ref. 26753], Glamuzina et al. 2002:156 [ref. 28416], Golani 2005:36 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:80 [ref. 29533], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:42 [ref. 36649], Craig et al. 2011:318 [ref. 31786], Heemstra & Anderson in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2400 [ref. 34618], Ma & Craig 2018:456 [ref. 36100], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:96 [ref. 36864]). Current status: Valid as Mycteroperca rubra (Bloch 1793). Serranidae: Epinephelinae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea, eastern Atlantic: Portugal south to southern Angola. Habitat: marine.