Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 5 November 2018

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Catalog of Fishes
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cephalus, Mugil Linnaeus [C.] 1758:316 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] European sea, Europe. Possible syntypes: NRM 43 (1), 44 (2), 143 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:257-258 [ref. 20707]. May be replaced in the western Atlantic by Mugil liza', see ref. 30860 but this is not so [ref. 34431]. Probably an apparent species complex [ref. 32710]. •Valid as Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758, subspecies cephalus -- (Kawanabe & Mizuno 1989:458 [ref. 25598], Cheng & Zhou 1997:241 [ref. 26385], Nakabo 2000:538 [ref. 25086], Pietsch et al. 2001:143 [ref. 25688], Sakai et al. 2001:104 [ref. 25693], Shimizu 2001:33 [ref. 25799], Shimizu 2001:34 [ref. 25799], Keith et al. 2002:110 [ref. 31473], Nakabo 2002:538 [ref. 26001], Hagiwara 2003:37 [ref. 27188], Ataur Rahman 2003:301 [ref. 31338], Motomura et al. 2010:80 [ref. 31256], Koeda et al. 2016:13 [ref. 35333]). •Valid as Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758 -- (Berg 1949:992 [ref. 20662], Okada 1961:627 [ref. 6363], Trewavas 1973:567 [ref. 7201], Lee et al. 1980:779 [ref. 22416], Eschmeyer & Herald 1983:234 [ref. 9277], Cadwallader & Backhouse 1983:129 [ref. 25473], Dor 1984:192 [ref. 29757], Yoshino & Senou in Masuda et al. 1984:119 [ref. 6441], Smith 1986:437 [ref. 22186], Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:1202 [ref. 13677], Robins & Ray 1986:212 [ref. 23100], Thomson 1986:348 [ref. 6215], Ortega & Vari 1986:19 [ref. 9708], Smith & Smith 1986:718 [ref. 5717], Wu & Lu in Kuang et al. 1986:203 [ref. 26639], Allen & Swainston 1988:110 [ref. 25477], Robison & Buchanan 1988:472 [ref. 23393], Scott & Scott 1988:400 [ref. 25518], Pequeño 1989:63 [ref. 14125], Paulin et al. 1989:205 [ref. 24556], Winterbottom et al. 1989:50 [ref. 13251], McAllister 1990:154 [ref. 14674], Thomson 1990:859 [ref. 19180], Allen 1991:147 [ref. 21090], Coad 1991:26 [ref. 15702], Liu & Shen 1991:275 [ref. 19215], Talwar & Jhingran 1991:896 [ref. 20764], Liang in Pan et al. 1991:345 [ref. 23876], Cervigón 1992:361 [ref. 23827], Albaret in Lévêque et al. 1992:783 [ref. 21590], Boschung 1992:153 [ref. 23239], Indra 1993:189 [ref. 24009], Krishnan & Mishra 1993:230 [ref. 24016], Etnier & Starnes 1993:379 [ref. 22809], Kuiter 1993:263 [ref. 23929], Kottelat et al. 1993:125 [ref. 23448], Swift et al. 1993:132 [ref. 22379], Bianchi & Carpenter in Bianchi et al. 1993:167 [ref. 25472], Francis 1993:164 [ref. 25479], Gomon et al. 1994:662 [ref. 22532], Poll & Gosse 1995:107 [ref. 24781], Allen & Robertson 1994:194 [ref. 22193], Goren & Dor 1994:51 [ref. 25356], Knight & Hastings 1994:150 [ref. 25560], Harrison in Fischer et al. 1995:1297 [ref. 22830], Coad 1995:29 [ref. 23608], Zhu 1995:166 [ref. 25213], Mohsin & Ambak 1996:202 [ref. 27969], Thomson in McDowall 1996:193 [ref. 22909], Coad 1996:86 [ref. 25304], Mettee et al. 1996:745 [ref. 25836], Chen et al. 1997:37 [ref. 26476], Grove & Lavenberg 1997:460 [ref. 24023], Kottelat 1997:158 [ref. 22952], Murdy et al. 1997:186 [ref. 23144], Allen 1997:176 [ref. 23977], Thomson 1997:483 [ref. 23428], Larson & Williams 1997:364 [ref. 23967], Carpenter et al. 1997:204 [ref. 23922], Kim 1997:372 [ref. 24032], Arruda 1997:114 [ref. 24952], Takahashi et al. 1997:46 [ref. 24971], Reshetnikov et al. 1997:748 [ref. 24702], Sokolov 1998:115 [ref. 23571], Coad 1998:103 [ref. 23869], McEachran & Fechhelm 1998:875 [ref. 23897], Castro et al. 1998:79 [ref. 24271], Chirichigno F. & Vélez D. 1998:198 [ref. 24555], Sokolovskaya et al. 1998:12 [ref. 24670], Sato et al. 1998:40 [ref. 24972], Marquet et al. 1999:43 [ref. 23934], Chang et al. 1999:39 [ref. 24091], Fricke 1999:360 [ref. 24106], Keith et al. 1999:82 [ref. 24548], Castro-Aguirre et al. 1999:181 [ref. 24550], Harrison & Senou 1999:2096 [ref. 24780], Mizuno et al. 1999:10 [ref. 25311], Mishra et al. 1999:87 [ref. 25315], Afonso et al. 1999:83 [ref. 25466], Johnson 1999:742 [ref. 25471], Fuller et al. 1999:277 [ref. 25838], Dyer 2000:85 [ref. 26678], Keith et al. 2000:20 [ref. 24547], Ruiz-Campos et al. 2000:72 [ref. 24940], Koutrakis & Economidis 2000:299 [ref. 25056], Senou in Randall & Lim 2000:625 [ref. 25122], Rafique 2000:327 [ref. 25220], Azeroual et al. 2000:20 [ref. 25366], Sadovy & Cornish 2000:48 [ref. 25480], Thomson et al. 2000:288 [ref. 25640], Bijukumar & Sushama 2000:187 [ref. 25703], Iwatsuki et al. 2000:103 [ref. 26368], Schmitter-Soto et al. 2000:153 [ref. 27754], Chereshnev & Shestakov 2001:382 [ref. 25410], Hutchins 2001:38 [ref. 25847], Ross et al. 2001:345 [ref. 25978], Wang et al. 2001:204 [ref. 26566], Skelton 2001:351 [ref. 27406], Camargo & Isaac 2001:141 [ref. 27639], Kim & Park 2002:294 [ref. 25913], Allen et al. 2002:255 [ref. 25930], Bilecenoglu et al. 2002:107 [ref. 26753], Moyle 2002:441 [ref. 26449], Thompson in Collette & Klein-MacPhee 2002:277 [ref. 26158], Youn 2002:362, 630 [ref. 26218], López et al. 2002:64 [ref. 26808], Harrison 2003:1079 [ref. 27016], Mirza 2003:21 [ref. 27265], Harrison 2003:7 [ref. 27341], Manilo & Bogorodsky 2003:S113 [ref. 27377], Fedorov et al. 2003:131 [ref. 27579], Jang et al. 2003:119 [ref. 27681], Parin 2003:S16 [ref. 28536], Ghasemzadeh et al. 2004:9 [ref. 28614], Randall et al. 2004:8 [ref. 27624], Khan 2003:10 [ref. 27710], Nelson et al. 2004:97 [ref. 27807], Heemstra et al. 2004:3327 [ref. 27945], Miller & Robison 2004:279 [ref. 27931], Boschung & Mayden 2004:368 [ref. 27995], Heemstra & Heemstra 2004:367 [ref. 28072], Bogutskaya & Naseka 2004:174 [ref. 28183], Randall 2005:77 [ref. 28239], Vassilev & Pehlivanov 2005:176 [ref. 28369], Ibáñez & Gallardo-Cabello 2005:305 [ref. 28373], Mundy 2005:278 [ref. 28379], Miller 2006:183 [ref. 28615], Hoese & Bray 2006:680 [ref. 29000], Scharpf 2006:37 [ref. 30386], Harrison et al. 2007:91 [ref. 29185], Fricke et al. 2007:67 [ref. 29533], Kottelat & Freyhof 2007:468 [ref. 29996], Vasil'eva 2007:63 [ref. 30517], Randall 2007:135 [ref. 30952], González Castro et al. 2008:319 [ref. 29811], Harrison 2007:459 [ref. 30081], Bogutskaya et al. 2008:347 [ref. 30085], Wirtz et al. 2007:27 [ref. 30263], Gomon 2008:393 [ref. 30616], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Fricke et al. 2009:30 [ref. 30213], Minckley & Marsh 2009:272 [ref. 31114], Menezes et al. 2010:59 [ref. 30860], McCosker & Rosenblatt 2010:190 [ref. 30957], Matsunuma et al. 2010:82 [ref. 31558], Esmaeili et al. 2010:374 [ref. 33391], Fricke et al. 2011:369 [ref. 31242], Page & Burr 2011:607 [ref. 31215], Trape et al. 2012:126 [ref. 31792], Whitfield et al. 2012:xx [ref. 32710], Durand et al. 2012:692 [ref. 32366], Barriga S. 2012:118 [ref. 35745], McMahan et al. 2013:446 [ref. 32422], Page et al. 2013:99 [ref. 32708], Wirtz et al. 2013:120 [ref. 32972] needs confirmation, Kottelat 2013:281 [ref. 32989], Angulo et al. 2013:1003 [ref. 33194], Fricke et al. 2014:36 [ref. 33932], Smith-Vaniz & Jelks 2014:30 [ref. 33341], Parin et al. 2014:191 [ref. 33547], Jouladeh-Roudbar et al. 2015:892 [ref. 34062], Psomadakis et al. 2015:297 [ref. 34104], Trnski 2015:944 [ref. 34273], Jiménez-Prado et al. 2015:406 [ref. 34894], Barbieri et al. 2015:87 [ref. 35029], Esmaeili et al. 2015:122 [ref. 35030], Çiçek et al. 2015:151 [ref. 35151], Kramer et al. 2016:unnumbered p. [ref. 34331], Pacheco-Almanzar et al. 2016:385 [ref. 34431], Miesen et al. 2016:83 [ref. 34492], Harrison 2016:2105 [ref. 34599], Durand 2016:32 [ref. 35589], Shen & Durand 2016:80 [ref. 35591], Durand & Whitfield 2016:107 [ref. 35590], Kells et al. 2016:116 [ref. 35888], Dyldin & Orlov 2017:73 [ref. 35138], Labatos 2017:4 [ref. 36239], Pusey et al. 2017:48 [ ref. 35250], Esmaeili et al. 2017:87 [ref. 35254], Ali et al. 2018:341 [ref. 36183], Esmaeili et al. 2018:69 [ref. 36089], Freitas et al. 2018:77 [ref. 36259], Fricke et al. 2018:95 [ref. 35805], Robins et al. 2018:181 [ref. 35886], Romero-Berny et al. 2018:89 [ref. 35859]). Current status: Valid as Mugil cephalus Linnaeus 1758. Mugilidae. Distribution: Nearly circumglobal in temperate and tropical seas and estuaries (including Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf); apparently not in the western Atlantic [ref. 30860] but it is [ref. 34431]: Gulf of Mexico; introduced elsewhere. Habitat: freshwater, brackish, marine.