Institute for Biodiversity Science and Sustainability
Online Version, Updated 3 August 2020

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Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes
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sphyraena, Esox Linnaeus [C.] 1758:313 [Systema Naturae, Ed. X v. 1; ref. 2787] Mediterranean Sea. Syntypes: NRM 3541 (1). Type catalog: Fernholm & Wheeler 1983:259 [ref. 20707]. Misspelled sphiraena in Cabrera y Corro, Pérez & Hänseler 1817:9 [ref. 17319], see Graells 1887:183 [ref. 30438]. •Valid as Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758) -- (Tortonese 1973:566 [ref. 7192], Ben-Tuvia in Whitehead et al. 1986:1195 [ref. 13677], de Sylva 1990:863 [ref. 19190], Relini & Orsi Relini 1997:216 [ref. 23099], Matsuura & Suzuki 1997:369 [ref. 23360], Arruda 1997:113 [ref. 24952], Smith-Vaniz et al. 1999:324 [ref. 25013], Afonso et al. 1999:79 [ref. 25466], Massutí et al. 2001:98 [ref. 26220], Bilecenoğlu et al. 2002:138 [ref. 26753], Feitoza et al. 2003:69 [ref. 26943], Kara & Bourehail 2003:59 [ref. 27026], Menezes & Figueiredo in Menezes et al. 2003:101 [ref. 27192], Parin 2003:S25 [ref. 28536], Golani 2005:59 [ref. 37112], Fricke et al. 2007:109 [ref. 29533], Vasil'eva 2007:176 [ref. 30517], Ninua & Japoshvili 2008:169 [ref. 31251], Pastore 2009:1299 [ref. 30405], Lipej & Dulčić 2010:68 [ref. 36649], Parin et al. 2014:508 [ref. 33547], Russell in Carpenter & De Angelis 2016:2871 [ref. 34618], Martins & Carneiro 2018:174 [ref. 36550], Almeida & Alves 2019:273 [ref. 37509], Artüz & Fricke 2019:560 [ref. 36612], Ballen 2019:402 [ref. 37027], Carneiro et al. 2019:295 [ref. 37250], Elbaraasi et al. 2019:100 [ref. 36864], Bariche & Fricke 2020:95 [ref. 37515], Kovačić et al. 2020:43 [ref. 37519]). Current status: Valid as Sphyraena sphyraena (Linnaeus 1758). Sphyraenidae. Distribution: Mediterranean Sea; Sea of Marmara; Black Sea; eastern Atlantic: Bay of Biscay south to Angola, including Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, São Tomé and Principe; central Atlantic: Saint Paul's Rocks; western Atlantic: Bermuda and Brazil. Habitat: marine.